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Where Are The Shetland Islands? (And Other Questions Answered)

Yvonne Spence grew up on the Shetland Isles and still visits family there several times a year.

Lamba Ness, Skaw, where the RAF base was in World War II

Lamba Ness, Skaw, where the RAF base was in World War II

What’s missing from this map of Scotland?

The French get it wrong too!

Questions about Shetland

Several years ago, an Englishman was running a motel on the island of Yell in the Shetland Isles. He decided to sell up. Instead of hiring a boring old estate agent, he ran a competition in an English magazine. £9 (around $14) bought the chance to own the motel, so long as you knew the answers to a few simple questions about Shetland.

Too few people answered the competition to make it viable, and motel owner dropped the sale. The story made the local paper, not just because of the unusual sales technique, but also because of the wildly wrong competition answers.

One of the questions was, “What is Shetland’s national animal?”

Now, Shetland isn’t a nation, so in a way that question wasn’t fair, but it does have an animal that’s famous around the world. Try the quiz at the end of this article to see if you know what it is. You will learn several fun facts along the way, including why people from outside of Shetland are known to Shetlanders as: “Soothmoothers.” And do read the article first because you will get clues to some of the questions!

So where are the Shetland Islands?

It is maybe not entirely surprising that many people get confused about where the Shetland Isles are. First, there’s the problem of maps. Until recently television weather forecasts used to show a map of the UK with Shetland in a white box somewhere to the east of northern Scotland. Many atlases and maps still show Shetland in variations of this position as you can see in the lower of the two maps above right. The top map shows another common variation, with Shetland nowhere to be seen.

Some Shetlanders decided to get their own back and created maps of Shetland with the rest of the United Kingdom in a box to the side!

Shetland is considerably further north than the French map shows. Its capital, Lerwick, is on roughly the same latitude as Helsinki in Finland, the southern tip of Greenland, and the border of the northern territories of Canada. The northernmost tip of Shetland is just a teensy bit south of Anchorage in Alaska. But unlike Anchorage, it is not under snow for six months of the year. The Gulf Stream, or North Atlantic Drift, a sea current that originates in the Gulf of Mexico and flows north-eastwards is generally given the credit for Shetland’s relatively mild climate. I say relatively mild, because when the north wind is howling with a force nine gale it does not always feel mild! Because Shetland is so far north it has dark winters and very light summers. Around mid-summer it never gets darker than twilight at any time throughout the night.

Map showing Shetland’s true location

Viking artifact

Vikings came from Norway to Shetland, stopping in their way to Iceland or Britain

Vikings in Shetland

With a population of around 22,000, the islanders are not likely to achieve world domination any time soon. However, because of their strategic position close to Norway, the United Kingdom and the Faroe Isles, the Shetland Islands have played an important part in enabling North Atlantic domination by one aggressive group of warriors and in helping to prevent world domination by another.

The Vikings arrived in Shetland around 800 AD. They used Shetland as a stopover on their way south to raid and pillage in Britain. They also used it to rest on journeys west to Iceland and Greenland. (Well they needed a rest after all that raiding and pillaging!)

Some Vikings remained in Shetland, conquering its native inhabitants, the Picts (Celtic people.) Mousa island in Shetland has the best preserved Pictish brooch (sometimes spelled brough) in the world. A broch is a round building with thick walls - so thick that small chambers exist within them. Brochs may have been used as castles or may have been places for people and animals to live. Historians can’t agree, and with no Picts around to tell us we may never know their purpose! Since the brochs have low doorways we do know that, like many of Shetland’s native species, the Picts were a very small race.

Shetland also has many important Viking sites, and every summer archaeologists flock to the islands. Unst, the northernmost island has around 30 Norse sites. Television crews from Channel 4’s Time Team have made the trip north several times.

Mousa Broch

Mousa, a fine example of a Pictish broch

Mousa, a fine example of a Pictish broch

Map of Unst

Google maps does not recognise Skaw, so I can’t pin it on this map. Look to the north of Norwick (c) and you will see a landmass jutting out into the sea. That’s Lamba Ness, which is in the photo at the top of this article, and where the RAF station was based.

Skaw, and Shetland’s role in World War II

In World War Two Shetland’s position as a gateway between the North Sea and the Atlantic meant that it was the first line of defence for the UK. The Royal Air Force built a base at Skaw on the northeast tip of Unst, just about as far north as you can get in the UK, and from Skaw radars watched the North Sea for German planes. The base was built mainly by civilians, some elderly and some as young as 17. Often construction had to stop for a while when German planes flew overhead, dropping bombs. The first German bomb to land on British soil in World War II landed at Sullom Voe in Shetland. It killed a rabbit.

From 1941 till World War Two ended in 1945, the Norwegian resistance movement and the British Army ran a covert operation taking agents in and out of Norway and evacuating British or Norwegians from Norway. This operated through Shetland and was known as the “Shetland Bus”. At first fishing boats were used, though in 1943 the US Navy assigned three submarine chasers to the Shetland Bus.

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In the 1950s with the Cold War in full swing, Shetland was once again in a strategic position and since the RAF station at Skaw had been abandoned a new one was built, with radars on Unst’s highest hill, Saxavord. The RAF station remained until 2006, and the radar still remains, although it is now remotely controlled from the UK mainland.

A Trivial Fact About Unst

Many people believe Robert Louis Stevenson based his map of Treasure Island on Unst. (The island of Fidra in the Firth of Forth also lays a claim, but since nobody lives there Unst’s claim is louder and more persuasive!)

The Solitaire


Sullom Voe Oil Terminal

Sullom Voe is famous for more than just a dead rabbit. During the 1970s Shetland’s position once again made it the target of an invasion. This time the invasion was relatively friendly, with planes dropping off construction workers instead of bombs. When the North Sea Oil boom was at its height Shetland’s position was considered perfect for piping oil ashore. Sullom Voe is home to one of the largest oil terminals in Europe. Sullom Voe also handles gas from the Atlantic waters to west of Shetland. In April 2012 the world’s largest pipelaying barge, the Solitaire, arrived in Shetland to lay pipelines taking natural gas to the Scottish Mainland.

Traditional Fair Isle Patterns


The Spanish Armada and Fair Isle Patterns

One group of invaders who were perhaps not quite so happy to see Shetland were the men of the Spanish Armada. Legend has it that Spanish ships ran aground on several rocky shores, including Fair Isle, the tiny island that is Shetland’s southernmost tip. The traditional Fair Isle patterns that are known throughout the world do indeed originate on this island, and survivors of a wrecked Spanish Armada ship are believed to have brought the patterns with them. They are also believed to be responsible for the dark hair and eyes of many Shetlanders.

A Dowry for a Princess

Although Shetland has been part of Scotland and of the United Kingdom for several centuries, it used to belong to a different county. In 1468 a princess from that country was pledged to marry James III of Scotland. In those days the bride’s family had to pay a dowry and the king of this country had run out of money. He used Shetland and Orkney as a pawn, and in 1472 they became part of Scotland. To find out which country had run out of money just answer question number 8 of the quiz.

Only one of these birds is a native of Shetland. Take the quiz to find out which one.



For each question, choose the best answer. The answer key is below.

  1. Which of the birds in the photos above is a native of Shetland
    • penguin
    • puffin
    • parakeet
  2. Is Shetland’s “national” animal
    • a polar bear
    • a penguin
    • a pony
  3. People who come from the UK mainland are known in Shetland as “Soothmoothers” because
    • Traditionally they arrived by boat through the south mouth of Lerwick's harbour.
    • Because Shetlanders confused them with soothsayers.
    • Because they needed soothing after being seasick on high seas.
  4. Are the Shetland Islands situated:
    • In a box off the coast of North East Scotland
    • Nowhere to be seen
    • Approximately 100 miles off the north coast of Scotland and 200 miles west of Bergen in Norway.
  5. Shetland’s animals tend to be different to other breeds in what way?
    • They baa, neigh and bark with a Shetland accent.
    • They are bigger than their non-Shetland counterparts.
    • They are smaller than their non-Shetland counterparts.
  6. Which famous film director claims to have Shetland ancestry?
    • Steven Spielberg
    • Martin Scorsese
    • Woody Allen
  7. Some Shetlanders are descendants of:
    • Vikings
    • Picts
    • The Spanish Armada
    • All of the above
  8. Which country gave Shetland to James III of Scotland in a wedding present?
    • Norway
    • Sweden
    • Denmark
  9. Shetand is not the hottest place in the world. What do you think is the highest temperature ever recorded here?
    • 14.2 °C (57.6 °F)
    • 23.4 °C (74.1 °F)
    • 25.2 °C (77.4°F)
  10. This question is easy if you have been paying attention. Who died when the first bomb of World War II fell on Shetland?
    • The Prime Minister of Great Britain
    • A Minister of the Church of Scotland
    • A relative of Peter Rabbit's

Answer Key

  1. puffin
  2. a pony
  3. Traditionally they arrived by boat through the south mouth of Lerwick's harbour.
  4. Approximately 100 miles off the north coast of Scotland and 200 miles west of Bergen in Norway.
  5. They are smaller than their non-Shetland counterparts.
  6. Martin Scorsese
  7. All of the above
  8. Norway
  9. 23.4 °C (74.1 °F)
  10. A relative of Peter Rabbit's

How did you score? Are you a Shetlander or a Soothmoother?

  • All correct. You must be a Shetlander. Or a famous film director. (Can't say who or that would give the answer to question 6 away.)
  • 8 - 9 correct. You can visit any time.
  • 5 - 7 correct. You’re are definitely not a famous film director.
  • 2 - 4 Correct. You’re not a Viking either.
  • 1 correct. Hmm… Did you even read this article?
  • None correct, a big round zero. Definitely a soothmoother. (And if you want to know what that means you’ll have to take the quiz if you haven’t already done so.)
  • Remember to use the comments section to say how you did in the quiz!

More about the Shetland Bus is available on Amazon



Yvonne Spence (author) from UK on May 04, 2018:

Hi DredCuan, glad you enjoyed Shetland and didn't mind the weather. If you were there in January I guess you have seen Up Helly Aa.

Yes, Fort Charlotte is well preserved - and even more amazing to me is Mousa Broch, which I think is the best preserved Pictish building.

Yvonne Spence (author) from UK on May 04, 2018:

MJFenn, thanks for reading. Glad you found it interesting. I"m not sure if Norn lasted longer in Shetland, but it's possible because it was still used in in the late 19th century I think. The Shetland dialect also has roots in old English. I was fascinated a few years ago to read Bill Bryon's book Mother Tongue and to learn that many American English words are old English - and many are also still used in Shetland.

Travel Chef from Manila on May 01, 2018:

I visited Shetland last January and I enjoyed the place. The weather is totally fine for me. What amazed me is how they were able to preserve those old structures, like Fort Charlotte. I can't see any marks of destruction during old times.

MJFenn on March 03, 2018:

Very interesting hub; and the Scandinavian connections are striking; I believe that the Shetland variety of the Norn language - based on Old Norse - survived longer in Shetland than in Orkney and Caithness.

Chuck tabano on August 23, 2017:

Interesting article and quiz(90) . Saw a detective show that takes place in the Shetland Islands. Very beautiful place. That got me interested.

Tammy Locke on August 12, 2017:

I guess I knew more than I thought I did..I got 100%!! Just another pro for my desire to move to Scotland. I am also a member of 2 clans (McKinnon and Watson-Buchanan)

Yvonne Spence (author) from UK on April 14, 2017:

Thanks for your comment Dolores and glad you found it interesting.

Dolores Yerka on April 12, 2017:

I really enjoyed the artical. It was interisting and I finally learned just where the Shetland Islands really are.

Yvonne Spence (author) from UK on June 01, 2012:

Audra, so glad you got 100%! Well done, you are a Shetlander now! And yes, it’s cold up there.

Thanks for your comment.

iamaudraleigh on May 30, 2012:

This is the first quiz I have taken nd got a perfect excited!!! Great hub my dear! I learnes so much!! I thought where I lived got! Great work!

Yvonne Spence (author) from UK on May 24, 2012:

Hi Amy,

I had never thought about the map issue with Hawaii and Alaska, but of course it would be the same. (And Alaska is past 60 North just like Shetland too!) Glad you enjoyed this, and thanks for your comment.

Amy Gillie from Indiana on May 24, 2012:

This is so interesting to read! I didn't know much about Shetland, and you included a variety of information. I also loved the part about the maps and placement of Shetland - in the US we have the same map issues with Hawaii and Alaska.

Yvonne Spence (author) from UK on May 23, 2012:

Les Trois Chenes,

Thanks very much for your comment and I am glad you enjoyed this hub. Surprisingly, given that I originally come from Shetland, I have only ever spent a few hours in Orkney - when a plane diverted due to fog. It’s on my list to visit some day. Hope you get to Shetland.

Yvonne Spence (author) from UK on May 23, 2012:

Hi vespawoolf,

With an attitude like that you can have 100% now and be an honorary Shetlander. Thanks very much for your very kind comment!

Les Trois Chenes from Videix, Limousin, South West France on May 23, 2012:

Lovely article. I'd like to visit the Shetlands. Went to Orkney and that was beautiful.

Vespa Woolf from Peru, South America on May 23, 2012:

Thanks to your informative hub, I didn't score too badly on the quiz. I'll have to re-read and retake until I can get 100%. : ) I loved this hub! Thanks! Voted up and shared.

Yvonne Spence (author) from UK on May 22, 2012:

Hi tillsontitan,

Thanks for your comment - it was full of interesting words!! :-) Seriously, I am glad you enjoyed the hub!

Mary Craig from New York on May 22, 2012:

If geography lessons in school were this interesting I'd know a lot more about geography and the rest of the world. You really followed the history of this little island making it fun to read and actually (if I may use the word again) interesting! Voted up and interesting.

Yvonne Spence (author) from UK on May 21, 2012:

Hi Maria,

"Ponies and sweaters" probably sums up most people’s knowledge of the Shetland Isles. And quite a few people seem to know about the collies, judging by the number of articles written on them here on HubPages.

I’m glad you enjoyed this, I had fun writing it. And with 80% you can visit Shetland any time!

Thanks for your comment.

Maria Jordan from Jeffersonville PA on May 21, 2012:

Wow, this was fun! I went in only knowing of ponies and sweaters (what the heck else is there...LOL)-- now, 80% later... thank you for teaching me A lot of cool information that was very new to me...!

Loved the quiz and the 80% was super fluky as I guessed quite a bit! Voted UP & UABI. Hugs, Maria

Yvonne Spence (author) from UK on May 19, 2012:

Margie, thank you so much for your very kind comment!

I’m noticing a pattern of people getting 90%, so I wonder if it’s the same question that stumps everyone.

Thank you again.

Mmargie1966 from Gainesville, GA on May 19, 2012:

I scored 90%! I'm packing now! Seriously, this was such an impressive hub, I think you should contact History Channel or Discovery Channel, maybe Nat Geo Channel to make a story out of it, and put it on TV!

Yvonne Spence (author) from UK on May 19, 2012:

Hi habee,

I guessed you might know some about Shetland because of the pony connection. Glad you enjoyed it and that quiz. With 90% you can visit any time and see the ponies in their natural habitat. Thanks for dropping by and for the vote up!

Holle Abee from Georgia on May 18, 2012:

Fun hub! I knew a little already about Shetland because of the ponies. Enjoyed the quiz - I scored 90! Voted up.

Yvonne Spence (author) from UK on May 18, 2012:

Hi homesteadbound, Glad you enjoyed this and that you learned some things. (Most people know about the ponies, but not much else.)

Thanks for your comment.

Cindy Murdoch from Texas on May 17, 2012:

This was really an awesome hub!I learned so many neat and interesting things. And the pictures were awesome!

Yvonne Spence (author) from UK on May 17, 2012:

Hi Kitty,

You can visit anytime then! Thanks for your comment and glad to hear you enjoyed the hub. Thanks for sharing it too.

Ann Leung from San Jose, California on May 17, 2012:

I took the quiz and I got 9 out 10 correct, missed the last question. Great hub, very informative. Voted up and shared.

Yvonne Spence (author) from UK on May 17, 2012:

Hi JamaGenee,

Good to see you here. I am delighted to hear you are receiving monthly emails from sunny Shetland. Your mail carrier probably thinks you are a royal with all that mail!

Glad to hear you did so well on the quiz. I was also amazed when I read about that film director!

Thanks for your comment.

Joanna McKenna from Central Oklahoma on May 17, 2012:

haha! I discovered the Shetlands six months ago and have been receiving the "Promote Shetland" e-letter every month since, in addition to two gorgeous brochures in the mail. (Between those and mail from other parts of the UK, my mail carrier is a bit smitten - nobody else in this part of central Oklahoma gets "Royal Mail". lol!) Anyhoo, I already knew where the Shetlands are, as well as all of the answers to the quiz except *that film director*. Who woulda guessed HE was a Shetlander!

GREAT hub! Voted up, funnnnny AND awesome! ;D

Yvonne Spence (author) from UK on May 17, 2012:

Hi Allie,

I didn’t know it was possible to study Shetlandic language and literature at university! So if I’d been asked that I wouldn’t have got 100% in the quiz. I’m glad to hear you love Shetland. I still go back twice a year, and my kids love it too.

Thanks for your comment and for sharing.

Yvonne Spence (author) from UK on May 17, 2012:

Hi Horatio,

So you didn’t get 100% then? Glad you enjoyed it anyway. I had fun writing it, particularly the quiz.

Thanks for your comment and thanks for the share.

Yvonne Spence (author) from UK on May 17, 2012:

Hi Tracy,

Glad you enjoyed it, and thanks for your comment.

Yvonne Spence (author) from UK on May 17, 2012:

Well done Nettelmere! You are now an honorary Shetlander or else a famous film director!

Glad you enjoyed this and thanks for your comment.

alliemacb from Scotland on May 17, 2012:

I love Shetland. When I was at university we studied Shetlandic language and literature and visited the Lerwick a couple of times. Great hub. Voted up and shared.

Horatio Plot from Bedfordshire, England. on May 17, 2012:

OK, OK. So I'm not a famous film director!

This was fun. Really enjoyed the quiz. I can almost hear you speak when you write, "just a teensy bit south".

Voted up and shared.

Tracy Lynn Conway from Virginia, USA on May 16, 2012:

Really enjoyed this one, quiz was great too!

Nettlemere from Burnley, Lancashire, UK on May 16, 2012:

very tickled by this article and also smug having scored 100% in the quiz by total fluke!

Yvonne Spence (author) from UK on May 16, 2012:

Thanks Robie, glad you enjoyed it.

Robie Benve from Ohio on May 16, 2012:

Great hub on the Shetlands, and gorgeous pictures. :)

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