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"Daar kom die Alibama" - the CSS Alabama and the New Year Carnival in Cape Town

"There comes the Alabama"

Every New Year the streets of Cape Town ring with this song, sung by the choirs of “Cape Minstrels” in remembrance of the visit to the city of the Confederate Steam Ship Alabama in 1863.

Daar kom die Alibama,

Die Alibama die kom oor die see,

Daar kom die Alibama,

Die Alibama die kom oor die see...

There comes the Alabama,

The Alabama that comes oer the sea,

There comes the Alabama,

The Alabama that comes oer the sea...

The minstrels, known in the local language as “klopse”, grew out of the experience of oppression by the creole descendants of slaves in the Cape, and their performances, in the words of French expert on music and culture, Dr Denis-Constant Martin, in his 1999 book Coon Carnival, provided “a site for the expression of ambivalence, for transgression of moral norms and for social criticism.”

Each year from about the mid-19th Century, at the beginning of each year, troupes of minstrels would parade, especially on the day known as “tweede Nuwe Jaar” (second New Year), the 2nd of January, up and down the streets of Cape Town singing songs, often composed for the specific occasion, dressed in bright costumes and accompanied by instruments such as banjos, clarinets and various forms of drums.

This soon became known as the “Coon Carnival” and was an opportunity for the oppressed local creole population to transgress the mostly unofficial but nonetheless rigid class and racial barriers in the Cape Colony.

The term “coon” is usually, and rightly, viewed as a racial pejorative but, as Martin points out, “Most members and captains of Cape Town’s Coon troupes are not aware of the origin of the word; to them it means just what they are – people playing carnival in a costumed band.”

When the Alabama sailed into Table Bay towing a prize conquered in the Bay, the Sea Bride, on 5 August 1863, a huge crowd of excited spectators on Cape Town’s Signal Hill gathered to watch the fun, and the ever-popular song was immediately created.

The song itself, in Martin’s words, “is definitely a Cape Town song; it shows the impact American minstrelsy had there in the 1860s and illustrates how it was reworked into a true creole production.”

The song has two aspects, the first being the simple relation of “there comes the Alabama”, but the second verse has some element of social commentary, perhaps alluding to cross-racial sexual liaisons, or with the experience of racial oppression of the Cape creole people.

Nooi, nooi, die rietkooi nooi

Die rietkooi is gemaak,

Die rietkooi is vir my gemaak,

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Om daarop the slap.

(Miss, miss, the reed bed miss

The reed bed is made for me

The reed bed is made for me to sleep on.)

As Martin points out, “the lyrics juxtapose an incident involving an external actor with something that hints at the life of the people of Cape Town.”

Another interesting link between South Africa and the United States is provided in an incident just prior to the arrival of the Alabama in Cape Town, when the ship called at Saldanha Bay, just to the North of Cape Town.

On 30 July 1863 the Alabama, under the command of Captain Raphael Semmes, arrived in Saldanha Bay and at 8.00 that morning he landed there, “this being the first time that I ever set foot on the Continent of Africa,” as he related in his memoirs The Cruise of the Alabama and Sumter.

While the ship was in Saldanha Bay some of the officers went “out to stretch their limbs, and enjoy the luxury of shooting,” wrote Semmes. The “luxury of shooting”, however, proved fatal for one of the officers, Third-Assistant Engineer Lieutenant Simeon W. Cummings, who was killed by his own weapon in an accident.

He was buried on 4th August with, as Semmes noted, “the honours due to his grade.” Semmes notes, a little ruefully, perhaps: “This is the first burial we have had from the ship.”

The story of Lieutenant Cummings does not end there, however.

In May 1994 his remains were exhumed from their resting place on Kliprug Farm, Saldanha Bay, and returned to the United States for re-burial in Elm Springs, Columbia, Tennessee.

This was reported in the Cape Town newspaper The Cape Argus on 4 May 1994: “Among the team responsible for his (Lieutenant Cummings’) return home is a descendant of the man who was largely responsible for his arrival here, esteemed Alabama master Admiral Raphael Semmes.

“That descendant, Robert W. Betterton jnr, executive director of the Sons of Confederate Veterans, spoke to The Argus yesterday after landing in Cape Town.”

According to Betterton, Cummings was the only Confederate soldier to have died on duty and been buried abroad.

To return to the carnivals which keeps the memory of the Alabama so alive in the minds of South Africans – and there can be very few South Africans who have not heard the song, though they might not be aware of the song’s origins – the “New Year festivals symbolise the resilience of an independent, uncaptured and non-confrontational feeling of communal belonging, which still assumes the heritage olf a founding creolity, but nowadays carries a pervasive anxiety about the place of coloureds (the South African term for the creole slave descendants) in the New South Africa. If the dream of a rainbow carnival for future New Years materialises, it may well reflect the rainbow halls of slavery times, at long last transcending oppression, prejudices and separations.” (Martin, 1999).

How interesting that a ship of the Confederacy should contribute to such a vision!

The report in the Cape Argus of 4 May 1994

The report in the Cape Argus of 4 May 1994

The Argus photo of Robert Betterton, whose great-grandfather married the sister of Admiral Semmes

The Argus photo of Robert Betterton, whose great-grandfather married the sister of Admiral Semmes

Painting of the Alabama from the collection of Major Jardine of Applegarth, Sir Lowry's Pass

Painting of the Alabama from the collection of Major Jardine of Applegarth, Sir Lowry's Pass

The verve and excitement of the carnival procession is captured by photographer Cloete Breytonbach

The verve and excitement of the carnival procession is captured by photographer Cloete Breytonbach

Another photo from Breytenbach's book "The Spirit of District Six"

Another photo from Breytenbach's book "The Spirit of District Six"

  • One Love, Ghoema Beat!
    One Love, Ghoema Beat is a photographic exploration of the New Year's Carnival in Cape Town, South Africa. One of the world's most colorful, yet little known Carnival's, it's the subject of a new book by writer and photographer John Edwin Mason.


Tony McGregor (author) from South Africa on November 22, 2010:

Chris - dankie vir die besoek! Ek waardeer dit en ek stem saam, ek sal SA nie vir enige plek verruil nie! We are blessed with wonderful people and wonderful scenery and wonderful opportunities!

Love and peace


SAFlights from South Africa on November 21, 2010:

Die liedjie het ons gereeld op skool gesing. Dankie vir die memories. Daar is soveel mooi in ons land en ek sal Suid-Afrika vir niks verruil nie.

Tony McGregor (author) from South Africa on April 12, 2010:

Herman - dankiie vir die kommentaar, maar ek is nie oortuig nie, of te wel, nie heeltemal nie. Die woord "nooi" is wel gebruik presies soos ek hier beskryf het, in die sin van die Engelse woord "miss" of ook "madam". Soos ek die Kaapse taal ken, as die mense "nee" wou se het sou hulle miskien iets soos "nei" gese het, nie "nooi" nie. El glo ook nie dat dit bevooroordeeld is om 'n seksuele betekenis daarin te sien nie. Ek sou dit ook nie oordryf nie. So ek aanvaar nie dat ek enigsins bevooroordeeld is nie. Inteendeel die hele trant van die stuk is wel teen rassisme of rsassistiese uitgangspunte.

I do like you second paragraph, though. It gives another possible interpretation. My friend Denis Martin, though, has done years of research into the culture of the carnival and did not come to this interpretation from any of the people he interacted with in his research. I will definitely pass your comment on to him and see what he says about it, though.

Thanks very much for this comment. Ek waardeer dit opreg dat u die mooite gedoen het om te lees en om kommentaar te lewer.

Love and peace


Herman VandenBroek on April 12, 2010:

About the Alabama Song:

I would like to proof to you, that all the socalled translations of this song are wrong. And I am referring to the second verse; Nooi, nooi de rietkooi nooi. The proof is as follows: The word nooi is based on the Dutch word nooit, which means never. Also the Afrikaans language uses the negative word nie or nooi in front and in back of the subject, both at the same time.Of course for a white translator to give a sexual annotation to a black song is a normal reaction to the prejudice that exists.

I also would like to give my theory of the meaning of the song. The people in Capetown at the time did not know that the Alabama was a war ship. They expected that a ship with a name like that came from Alabama loaded with cotton. The people believed that they could do away with beds of straw and replace them with cotton beds. Thank you for allowing me to put these comments on your website.

Proud Mom from USA on February 10, 2009:

Wow! I had no idea about most of this history. I love stories of history and learning new ones. This is vey interesting!

TKIMWRSVC from United States on February 07, 2009:

Truly a fascinating subject, thank you for sharing wit the world.

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