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History of Khairpur Mir's

Basic Information

The contents of this page reveals the hidden history of KhairpurSindh (Khairpur State). As history is often rewritten by conquerors, the history of khairpur suffered firstly from imperial expansion of the British East India Company and secondly from the take over of the state by the Pakistan Military Establishment. It is to correct historical inaccuracies about KhairpurSindh that this material has been placed here. The owners & contributors of this site permit the free use of information and contents of the first three chapters to all especially for articles about Khairpur which may be published or broadcast without any obligation.




Summarized History

Khairpur State was ruled by Talpur Mirs (ameers) of the Talpur dynasty from 1783 to 1955. In 1947, when Pakistan gained independence, Khairpur Mir's was one of the princely states that opted to join Pakistan. In 1955, the Government of Pakistan announced the abolition of all the princely states and Khairpur Mir's was annexed into the then province of West Pakistan.

· 6 June 1963 on 2:00 pm: about 600 Shia's were killed by the students of a religious Maderassa at Theri village during a religious procession (Ashura, the tenth day of the Muslim month of Muharram).

Complete History

The history of the state of Khairpur is bound up with the history of the Talpur clan and its rule over Sind. The origins of the state date back to the disputes over the succession to the leadership of the clan, following the murder of its chief, Mir Bahram Khan in 1775. The clan then revolted against the Kalhoras of Sind, taking control of various parts of the kingdom and eventually replacing them as rulers.

Mir Sohrab Khan Talpur established his control over Upper Sind by 1783, established his capital at Burahan, which he renamed Khairpur in 1786. He extended his territories over a vast area, eventually helping his kinsmen from Hyderabad, in expelling the Afghans from the province by 1823. As early as 1811, he had divided his territories into three emirates, each ruled by one of his sons, but with his eldest invested as principal Amir. To them he left the day to day affairs of administration and retired to the Fort of Ahmadabad, in Diji. There, he took a new wife and raised a family, to whom he intended to bequeath a portion of his realm. This incurred the jealousy of his adult grandsons, especially those of his second son, Mubarak 'Ali.

The death of Sohrab in 1830, left his eldest son Mir Rustam 'Ali Khan, in full though precarious control over Upper Sind. His position had been little more than that of a regent during his father's lifetime, and this was to remain unchanged until his youngest half brother, 'Ali Murad, came of age. Unwilling to surrender power to him, Rustam sought to strengthen his position by entering into treaty relations with the British in 1832. He secured their recognition as independent ruler, but surrendered control over external relations to them in April 1838, followed by full British protection later that year. Nevertheless, this did not save him from internal family disputes, with which the British initially refused to treat or take sides. However, the contest between 'Ali Murad, the youngest brother and the sons of Mir Mubarak 'Ali, culminated in victory for the latter. Peace was finally established in 1842 through a negotiated settlement, resulting in Rustam abdicating in favour of his youngest brother.

Mir 'Ali Murad was a forceful personality, who mistrusted the British for siding with his eldest half-brother in 1832. Nevertheless, he imbued himself with a sense of realism and attempted to co-operate whenever his interests or inclinations did not supervene. He honoured the alliance by assisting the HEIC during the Turki Campaign in 1847, but blotted his copybook by intriguing against them in 1851-1852. Accused of deception and fraud, he was stripped of most of his territories in Upper Sind in 1852, being left with little more than his original emirate including Khairpur and surrounding lands. Despite this setback, he co-operated faithfully during the Indian Mutiny five years later. At his death in 1894, after a long reign of fifty-two years, he was an honoured and respected ruler of the empire.

The eldest son of 'Ali Murad having predeceased him, he was succeeded by his second son, Mir Faiz Muhammad Khan. His reign and those of his son and grandson were relatively short and uneventful. The last died in 1935 leaving an only son, Mir Faiz Muhammad Khan II, who had suffered from an unstable and nervous affliction for many years. So much so that he could not be trusted with the management of state affairs. The government instituted a council of regency under local ministers and ordered the Mir to live outside the state. After a period of twelve-years, and shortly before the transfer of power, he abdicated in favour of his minor son in July 1947. The state acceded to the Dominion of Pakistan in October that year, and merged into West Punjab in 1955. The young Mir having reached his majority and received full ruling powers, just four years earlier. The state had been the first place on the sub-continent to introduce full adult suffrage. His subjects enjoyed free education up to matriculation standard and free healthcare, there were no customs duties, property, income or wealth taxes, the crime rate negligible, and light industries flourished.

Mir 'Ali Murad Khan II remains one of the few surviving first class rulers of the old Indian Empire, still holding a public Majlis every Muharram at his sprawling palace, Faiz Mahal. He has long taken a keen interest in animal welfare and conservation, having established one of the largest private wildlife sanctuaries on the sub-continent. His younger son, Prince Mehdi Raza Khan, continues his father's passion and oversees his conservation interests since retirement.

Ali Murad Talpur

Mir Ali Murad Talpur, known as the Aadil-i-Jang, was the second ruler of the Mankani Talpurs state of Mirpurkhas. He founded Mirpurkhas town in 1806 and made it the capital of his state which was founded by his father, Mir Tharo Khan Talpur at Keti Mir Tharo. His state included territories of the present day southeastern Sindh. His son, Mir Sher Muhammad Talpur pioneered the freedom struggle of Sindh after the fall of Hyderabad in February 1843 at the hands of British invaders.

Fort of Kot Diji

Faiz Mahal Khairpur Mir's


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The form of government was traditional monarchy. However, in 1950 the Mir Ali Murad II introduced democracy with universal adult franchise. The rulers of Khayrpur were styled as Amir - thus the correct title of the state was the Emirate of Khayrpur. The royal privileges of the Amir were abolished in 1972 in violation of the merger agreement, along with those of most of the other sovereign princes that had acceded to Pakistan.

Government Tenure wise

1775–1830 Sohrab Khan

1830 - 20 December 1842 Rustam Ali Khan

20 December 1842 - 2 April 1894 Ali Murad Khan

2 April 1894 - 6 March 1909 Faiz Mohammad Khan I

6 March 1909 - 8 February 1921 Imam Bakhsh Khan

8 February 1921 - 25 June 1921 Interregnum

25 June 1921 - 25 December 1935 Ali Nawaz Khan

25 December 1935 - 19 July 1947 Faiz Mohammad Khan II

19 July 1947 - 14 October 1955 George Ali Murad Khan

14 October 1955 State of Khairpur annexed by Pakistan


Sites of interest

Khairpur is dotted with historical sites. The Kot Diji Fort, said to be built by the Talpurs, stands on a high hill with massive walls surrounding an elaborate complex of exquisite homes, ornate canopies, marbled courtyards, promenades and long corridors with arched entryways. The corridors run along deep rooms which now lay dark and can get infested with bats. Another architectural classic is the Faiz Mahal, built in 1798 as the palace of the Talpur family in Khairpur Mirs. Besides, there are other palaces, tomb sites in Kot Diji and the surrounding areas. The present successor of the Talpur Dynasty, Mir Ali Murad Khan Talpur, who acceded to the Pakistani state in 1956, is a conservationist and has to his credit an impressive wildlife sanctuary called the Mehrano, known for its black buck, and hog deer, both of which have become rare in Sindh.

The north-western part of Thar Desert lies in Khairpur district. Rohri Hills are a tourist attraction for the tombs of Pir Ubhan Shah near Kotdiji, Shadi Shaheed near Layari, Tehsil Kotdiji and Pir Baqir Shah near Choondko. Mehrano, Nara, Kalmi Quran, Thar Dhani, shah jee machine at solangi and many other sites also draw tourist traffic.

Tomb of Jamal Shah is located on the bank of Jamal Shah lake. Water of this lake is popular for the treatment of skin diseases. Many people come to take bath from this lake and they get healthy.

Bachal Shah Jo Pawrho, the neighbourhood of Bachal Shah, is one of the oldest settlements of the town of Khairpur. It is named after the Sufi Saint Bachchal Shah whose shrine is located in the neighbourhood. A three-day festival is celebrated every year at the shrine. The neighbourhood sits by Khairpur's main irrigation artery, Mirwah, meaning the Mir canal.


Khairpur is noted for its bountiful harvest of dates. However, the soil is suitable for many cash crops including cotton and wheat. The dry, hot climate makes the fruit very sweet, supple and juicy. It is very hot and sunny during the summer and cold in winter. Humidity is low. Khairpur gets its water through a web of canals coming out of River Indus. Mir Wah is the main source of irrigation and drinking water.


The main institution of higher education in Khairpur district is Shah Abdul Latif Bhitai University, which has several affiliated colleges. There is also the Superior Science College.

Naz High School in Khairpur city was established by the then ruler of Khairpur State in the early 20th century. In the 1950s a concrete, metal and glass building with sprawling lawns, playgrounds and fountains replaced the earlier buildings. Opposite the school building was built Colonel Shah Hostel with its own lawns and football field with an outdoor movie screen.

St. Theresa convent {Then called "Baby School").The Govt. College of Technology is an one of the old technical institution which played a role in enhancing industrial development. In 2010 Khairpur Mir’s have round about 150 private schools.


Khairpur trades in wheat, cotton, and dates and is linked by road and rail to Karachi. Manufactures include refined sugar. Prior to the annexation of the state in to Pakistan in 1955, Khairpur was an industrially much more advanced than Pakistan producing leather goods, carpets, silk clothing, matches, soap, shoes, cigarettes to name a few. It also had the largest factories in textiles, tobacco redrying, and silk weaving in the sub-continent.

It has some fine historic buildings notably the Faiz Mahal.


saleemullah kashif tanwari on October 22, 2015:

in few words i love khairpur i like khairpur

ar larik on October 21, 2014:

fb, ar larik

Halar kahn qureshi on April 22, 2014:

Nice information. Keep it up

I.B.Shaikh Pano Akil,Sukkur on March 04, 2014:

Dear ur work regarding history of historical city KHP is able to praise but u r suggessted to go deeply about his sarrounding aspects.

Yaseen Vistro on February 21, 2014:

Dear we have proud our district they keep good and beautiful history

Faiz Muhammad on January 30, 2014:

brother really you are appreciable for this work .

Zulfiqar Aali on November 01, 2013:

Such an excellent work about khair pur mirs.Sindh salamt Dost salamt.

Mir Hashmat on August 02, 2013:

Sallam dost

Ayaz Ali Maitlo on May 24, 2013:

Adnan brother really you are appreciable for this work. keep it up yar.

zawar mehtab ali mashadi on April 16, 2013:


such a nice infromation about the khairpur state


Mahkumuddin on March 23, 2013:

Dear i read your colom history of khairpur Mirs but you not written of history kotdaji . where year which build but you written khairpur history i think it is not complete many main things sourding you not written if any city history write first you must suffer city and after meet you older man who tell many new things of history .as you not write khairpur ramiang a mony karachi and enough industries history of khairpur but i think you write only famous buliding khairpur plz improve your history date wise and cultural and living style of people to write.

nisar on February 13, 2013:


syed shamim raza on February 03, 2013:

i did my matriculation from naz high school i spend my chilhood there my father died there and his soul is resting in one of the oldest graveyard there

Abdul waheed kalhoro on December 15, 2012:

khairpur district is the very good history in the world

(mulla kalhora larkana) on December 11, 2012:

mer mahde raza sub zandabad.

Imtiaz Memon on November 24, 2012:

Nice and informative material about khairpur.Our family came to khairpur in 1958, still live there at Staff Colony near Faiz Mahal.A very peaceful city.Now a days in very poor condition.

Haider Rizvi on November 16, 2012:

Nice collection of historical information and pictures about Khairpur. I grew up there until I was 14, and miss the nice times I had. I lived in the KTM Colony and went to the St. Theresa's school until 9th grade.

Muhammad Ashraf bhayo on June 22, 2012:

I like khairpur its too anciant there are some beatiful places in my khairpur like kot.dijjikilo .faiz mahal etc and i also invite to everybody to visit the khairpur mir's

Muhammad Ashraf bhayo on June 22, 2012:

I like khairpur its too anciant there are some beatiful places in my khairpur like kot.dijjikilo .faiz mahal etc and i also invite to everybody to visit the khairpur mir's

Ron on June 10, 2012:

Very interesting hub, regards for posting.

Ron from Fitness


Thanks for reminding again of khairpur , my dream city, where I spend my childhood & youth.I studied in Sant Theresa's High School, please print some pictures on it, thanks

almas hashmi on April 04, 2012:

Beautiful pictures ,I was born in Khairpur Mirs ,it is always in my mind ,I wish I can visit Khairpur again some day.

Rafique ahmed kandhro on March 17, 2012:

I salam dost I Like this khairpur mir's

anees ansari on March 08, 2012:

Salam !

i have chanced to visit this wonderful site which throws light on the history of our princely state Khairpur.i found it very beneficial and reveals the secrets of the by gone days and unfolds all the event which are usually not known by our youth.i congratulate all the admins of this site and would suggest them to update the knowledge frequently and also add more latent knowledge of literature and art that of previous and modern sons of this glorious soil.

anees ansari on March 08, 2012:

its been wonder site for the person who takes interest in the history of this princely state.this is a wonderful n very informative site for all.i really appreciate the efforts of the the admis of this site and also suggesting them to update it and ad more knowledge regarding to the literary and artistic background of this district.thnx

Asghar sayed on February 08, 2012:

Bhut achi mehnat hay. Aap ki khidmat sarhaney k laaik hay.

zameer Hussain khaskheli on January 25, 2012:

i also like khairpur mir,s now adys i live in khairpur , khairpur is stat of talpur family most of talpurs resedency of khairpur that was khairpur stat khairpur educational distract here is most colleges and most of schools the famous in over city some students are others cities to study here larkna , ghotki , shikarpur , panoakil , etc

adnan malik on December 29, 2011:

i like khairpur

ZAWAR MEHTAB ALI on November 25, 2011:


mir zain abbas on November 16, 2011:

ya ali madad

syed sajid shah on November 14, 2011:

very informative & help for information students. you are deserve. mubarak bad. thnx

Mir kamran hyder talpur on October 04, 2011:

Nice job koi to hai jo isko aagey lekar chala hai or ap bohut acha kaam kar rahe hain good of luck

Mir lutuf hussain talpur on October 04, 2011:

Great and good work.;-

acha kaam kar rahe ho very good and nice

Mir Hashmat Raza Talpur on October 04, 2011:


Mera naam Mir Hashmat Raza Talpur me bht khush hun ke koi to he jo hamari history ko sambhale hue he. NICE.

abdolasaleem on September 07, 2011:

good job done by mradnan ahmed

SAM on August 15, 2011:

This is very useful information but there should be UC wise information of private and public health facilities available for the residents of the area so that if any NGO wants to start any project for them can easily determine the facts and initiate the project


Muneer Banbhan on April 27, 2011:

This is historic fact that khairpur state was welfare state in south Asia , as the state works a lot on education and social wafer of the area. We are proud to introduce ourselves as a khairpurian.

Mohammad Riaz malik on March 09, 2011:

Asalam u Alikum ,

I haved passed my matric exams from naz pilot higher secondry school.

No doubt was the best school of its time ..can somebody please send me pictures of My school because it has been along time about couple of years i haven't seen my school.peace out

sSyed Samar Abbas Jaffri on March 02, 2011:

Salam and Ya Ali Madad

I feel very proud to read and see about my eldes city presently i am in karachi but time to time i visit khairpur and also in muharram.

This is a huge and good effort for a beautifull city,

Abdul Waheed Khoso on February 17, 2011:

Woh! its good to see the videos of old khairpur mirs city and the monarch of the then Rulers of the khairpur mirs. But i m not glad to see the present position of the earstwhile State of Sindh.

GHULAM MUJTABA BHUTTO on February 03, 2011:


Ghulam Mujtaba on February 03, 2011:

NICE & INFORMATIVE on January 23, 2011:

Dear Adnan,

I am Research Scholar registered @ Shah Abdul Latif University Khairpur Department of Pak-Studies, I visited many cities of Pakistan but Khairpur is beautiful, historical city which known as in history the land of datepalms "Khajean waro Des" dear I am realy very happy to see such hard work, i hope you will keep continuing to hard work on publishing the history of khairpur mir's, because still most of the people dont know about khairpur..

Farooq Hussain Larik on December 15, 2010:

it is nice history of distt khaipur. but village bahar larik also the historical place in pir jo goth.

Irfan Shah on June 29, 2010:

Good Work.

I am ex student of Saint Thresas High School. I passed out in 1998.



Irfan Shah

London, UK

Ibrar Hussain on June 13, 2010:

nice quote about khaipur i like this one, info for free is Free Online Study

Abdul Hameed Larik on May 16, 2010:

It is very nice history of Distt khairpur.But no any informatin about pir jo goth.pir jo goth is also historical city of taluka kingri dist khairpur.

Muhammad Salman on April 30, 2010:

aoa,,sorry dear i was late in giving my views on your beautifull city and specially on your fantastic effort...keep it up dear,,ALl da >>FEEAMANALLAH

Adn@n @hm3d (author) from Karachi,Pakistan on April 30, 2010:

thanx sir Hafeez

for commenting on my wonderful city

Adn@n @hm3d (author) from Karachi,Pakistan on April 29, 2010:

Thanx beenish,sana baloch and asif i try my level best to provide lattest condition of this city

hafeezrm from Pakistan on April 29, 2010:

nice and informative.

ASIF JAMAL from Islamabad on April 29, 2010:

dear its nice to read the history of KHAIAR PUR STATE. and plz also work on present condition.

sana baloch on April 29, 2010:

great work adnan really u have just open mind of youngone who have just forget such a histories this would be help ful for competative exams as well

bravo youngt man

Beenish Khan on April 29, 2010:

Nice work and nice place of KHAIRPUR MIR'S KEEP IT UP ADNAN :)

Adn@n @hm3d (author) from Karachi,Pakistan on April 28, 2010:


Kamran Ahmed on April 28, 2010:

Great site for Khairpur, I appreciate the work.

FAISAL SHEHZAD on April 27, 2010:


Sanam Javed on April 27, 2010:

Great dear adnan i am proud on you, i am realy very happy to see such hard work, i hope you will keep continuing to hard work on publishing the history of khairpur mir's, because still most of the people dont know about khairpur..

i hope you will continue this struggle in promoting khairpur mir's. I am with you dear, if you need any stuff i will help you.

Adn@n @hm3d (author) from Karachi,Pakistan on April 27, 2010:

thanx jAVED ,

V r taking initiative to spend more time n save our culture as well as traditional places,bcoz that represent our people who fought 4 their right and give us beatiful city...Inshahllah me n my friends from all over the Pakistan visit Khairpur and arrange seminar for our traditional places (Save culture) and v will do something 4 youngster.....Proud 2 b a part of This city

Adn@n @hm3d (author) from Karachi,Pakistan on April 27, 2010:

Dear Shahid,

i'm glad to see ur interest in Naz High School Khairpur,v knw it's very old school of Khairpur Mir's Inshallah i'll publish some more information of Naz High School Khairpur very soon

thanx 4 ur participation n interest

JAVED AHMED on April 27, 2010:


shahid Iqbal Qureshi on April 27, 2010:


I am a ex-student of Naz Poilt High School, from 1982 to 1988.

very use full history, no any information about Government Naz poilt Secondary high school, Naz school is a back boon of Khairpur's student and in education in sindh.

Shahid Iqbal Qureshi


Planning & Development Department,

Government of Sindh, Karachi

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