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Exploring the Caverns and Caves in Texas

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There are at least 9500 known caves, sinkholes and springs in Texas covering about 20% of the state. The majority of the Texas caves occur in the limestone of the Edwards Group, Glen Rose, and Austin Chalk, distributed in the Balcones Fault zone, the Edwards Plateau , the Stockton Plateau, and the Cibolo Creek and the Guadalupe River Basins.

Texas has at least 129 caves that are 984 ft. long or longer. Honey Creek Cave in Comal and Kendall Counties is the state's longest at 20 miles. Powell's Cave System, a complex of three caves in Menard County , is at least 13 miles long. Both caves are still being actively explored and we could learn that they are bigger than that.

Texas has at least 118 caves are 99 feet deep or deeper. Sorcerer's Cave in Terrell County is the deepest at 558 feet. The largest cave in terms of volume may be Fern Cave in Val Verde County , estimated at about 10 million cubic feet.

Hundreds of ancient species, specially adapted to an energy-efficient life in permanent darkness, are scattered through the caves of Central Texas . Cave-adapted salamanders, catfishes, shrimps, isopods, amphipods, snails, spiders, harvestmen, pseudoscorpions, beetles, millipedes, centipedes, and other types have been described. Most of these eyeless "troglobites" occur in the Balcones Fault Zone. Some of these species are endangered by land development, overuse of groundwater, pollution, and pests such as the red imported fire ant.

About two dozen Texas caverns harbor a total of about 100 million Mexican free-tailed bats from April to November every year. These migratory bats consume 6,000 to 18,000 metric tons of insects annually in Texas . The largest known mammal colony in the world is the colony of 20 million or more Mexican freetails in Bracken Bat Cave , Comal County .

About 25 Texas caves have yielded important fossils of extinct vertebrate animals such as the scimitar cat, dire wolf, Columbian mammoth, ground sloth, glyptodon, spectacled bear, and flat-headed peccary. Radiocarbon dates up to 23,000 years before present have been recorded. Bats have utilized Texas caves for many millennia. The remains of small mammals found in cave soil and flowstone strata have chronicled the climatic shifts in Texas since the ice ages ended about 11,000 years ago. Central Texas was a cool, moist environment until about 3,000 years ago.

Early scientific work in Texas caves began in 1896 with the description of the Texas blind salamander from an artesian well at San Marcos . Important bat guano caves were documented in 1901; the caves had been sources of nitrates for gunpowder but became fertilizer mines for citrus and vegetable farms.

The following seven show caves are open to the public. Of the seven listed below, I have personally been to three of them, Inner Space Cavern, Longhorn Cavern and Natural Bridge Cavern.

Longhorn Cavern Entrance Photo Credit Larry D. Moore via Wikipedia Commons

Longhorn Cavern Entrance Photo Credit Larry D. Moore via Wikipedia Commons

Natural Bridge Caverns

Natural Bridge Caverns is the largest Texas show cave and one of the most impressive because of its size and beauty. Some of the things you'll see include totem poles, fried eggs, and massive formations.

The name of the cave comes from the natural stone bridge at the entrance of the cave. It is all that remains of a huge collapsed room. The cave is unusual because most of it is formed in the upper member of the Glen Rose Formation (Cretaceous age), which is not usually cavernous.

Before the cave was commercialized in 1964, it was popular among cavers.

Rooms you'll see include Castle of the White Giants, named for its massive speleothems, Grendel's Canyon, which leads down to the deepest point in the cave some 250 feet below the entrance and Hall of the Mountain Kings, a huge dome where the floor is covered with flowstone, stalagmites, columns, and fried eggs.

Fishtail Helictites in Caverns of Sonora Photo Credit: Wikipedia Commons

Fishtail Helictites in Caverns of Sonora Photo Credit: Wikipedia Commons

Wonder Cave at Wonder World near San Marcos, Texas

Wonder Cave is unusual in that it is formed along a fault in the Balcones Fault Zone.

Wonder Cave is the smallest and oldest, continuously operating of the seven show caves in Texas, Wonder Cave was originally called Bevers Cave after Mark Bevers, who discovered it in 1896. A.B. Rogers bought it and opened it to the public some time prior to 1915. It is now part of the Wonder World theme park.

Stalagtite Photo Credit: Wikipedia Commons

Stalagtite Photo Credit: Wikipedia Commons

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Inner Space Cavern near Georgetown, Texas

Inner Space Cavern is a large cave with many beautiful formations and interesting displays of Pleistocene-age mammal bones. Inner Space was discovered in 1963 by the highway department when they were building a highway overpass on Interstate 35. A cavity was found when drilling a hole and a highway engineer was lowered on the drill stem into what is now called the "Outer Cathedral."

The cave was opened to the public as a show cave in 1966. Visitors enter the cave on a cable car ride. The large Outer Cathedral is part of the tour where visitors can see the corehole where the first highway department explorer entered.

A beautiful white flowstone, The Flowing Stone of Time, can be seen with water flowing over its flanks. The tour then passes under a high ceiling with large scallops and pendants, past the talus cone of Bone Sink, where a crumbling mammoth tusk is visible, to the Inner Cathedral. The tour then stops at the Lake of the Moon for a dreamy sound-and-light show, then moves on to the Lunar Landscape, which examines another side of the bone sink. The tour then retraces its route to the entrance.

Inner Space is one of the leading Pleistocene paleontological sites in Texas . Several sinkhole entrances were open to the surface about 13,000 to 25,000 years ago, as evidenced by dated remains of extinct mammoth, saber-toothed cat, glyptodont (a Volkswagen-sized armadillo, yikes!), camel, horse, ground sloth, short-faced bear, peccary, bat, and other species. The oldest radiocarbon-dated bone from a Texas cave came from Inner Space over 22,000 years ago. The cave contained several complete skeletons of Platygonus compressus, an extinct peccary. This species had a habit of crawling into remote passageways to die.

The cave contains a diverse invertebrate fauna, including two endangered species, Texella reyesi (Bone Cave harvestman) and Batrisodes texanus (Coffin Cave mold beetle).

Fried Eggs Formations photo credit: Wikipedia Commons

Fried Eggs Formations photo credit: Wikipedia Commons

Cascade Cavern

  • Website:
  • Location: Boerne, Kendall County near San Antonio
  • Length: 1,700 ft.
  • Depth: 132 ft.
  • Length of Tour: 0:45 to 1:00

Cascade Caverns' main entrance is a pit known as the "Peep in the Deep." The Diamond Ceiling features hundreds of sparkling stalactites. The cavern also features the Cathedral Room which is the largest in Kendall County . A large waterfall crashes down the wall into a lake at the far end of the Cathedral Room.

In the 1800s, a ledge located inside the entrance pit was the 20 year home/hideout of a German man who sought solace after being scorned by his lover.

By 1932 the cave was opened to the public.

Cascade Cavern has a large number of species living there, but is best known for a type of salamander called Eurycea latitans, that is a hybrid between the spring salamander E. neotenes and the blind Honey Creek Cave salamander E. tridentifera. Bones of Pleistocene-age mammals also have been found in the cave.

Caverns of Sonora

Caverns of Sonora is internationally recognized as one of the most beautiful caves in the world with sections being compared to the crystal-lining of a geode. Many speleothems are intricately layered; stalactites hang from calcite wall crusts, with off-shooting straight and branching helictites covered with coral, and soda straws dripping from the multiple coral and helictite tips onto flowstone, stalagmites and coral trees below. Onion ring, saw-tooth, and ricocheting helictites, dog tooth spar, angel wings, and other speleothems occur in great abundance throughout the cave.

In 1960, Caverns of Sonora opened to the public.

Cave Without a Name

  • Website:
  • Location: near Boerne, Kendall County (near San Antonio )
  • Length: 14,211 ft.
  • Depth: 89 ft.
  • Discovered: Early 1900s

Cave Without A Name is probably Texas ' best kept secret among show caves. This cave isn't widely advertised. The entrance pit has been enlarged to accommodate a spiraling staircase leading down to an area containing large columns, stalactites, stalagmites, and draperies. The speleothems include some of best rimstone dams and cave bacon in Texas .

The cave was discovered in the early 1900s when steam was seen rising from the pit entrance one cold winter morning. A rock that partially covered the pit was moved, but no one went into the cave until the 1920s when it was necessary to rescue a goat. In 1927, a group of boys dug open a short crawlway at the base of the entrance pit and found the main part of the cave. Between this discovery and its commercialization, the cave's entrance area hid a moonshine still during prohibition years. Significant exploration of the stream passage was not accomplished until the 1970s.

Cave Without A Name has operated as a show cave since 1939, when a contest to name the cave was won by a local youth who felt the cave was too pretty to have a name. For a few years in the 1970s the cave was called Century Caverns before reverting to its original name.

Back Illuninated Cave Bacon photo credit: Wikipedia Commons

Back Illuninated Cave Bacon photo credit: Wikipedia Commons

Longhorn Caverns

Longhorn Cavern has few formations but lovely wall sculpting and large calcite crystals. In the past, this cavern has been a Comanche Indian hideout, a black powder factory, a dance hall, a restaurant, and a church.

Longhorn Cavern is formed in a fault block of the Ordovician-age Ellenburger Limestone on a plateau called Backbone Mountain.

Comanches are said to have kidnapped a young woman named Mariel King and brought her to the cave. They were followed by three Texas Rangers, who fired on them, grabbed Mariel, and made for the entrance. The Comanches counterattacked, and a hand-to-hand battle ensued. The Rangers escaped with Mariel, who later married one of her rescuers, Logan Van Deveer.

Later, during the Civil War, Confederate Soldiers used the cave's main room as a gunpowder factory. Bat guano from the cave was used to make saltpeter for the black powder. Several other Texas bat caves were used to make black powder during that era. Additional small rooms in the back of the cave were used as gunpowder storerooms.

Legend holds that Sam Bass, a notorious bandit, used the cave for his hideout in the 1870s. The current main entrance is named for him.

In the 1920s a local businessman opened a dance hall in the largest room and built a wooden dance floor. He also opened a restaurant in the next room, lowering food through one of the pit entrances.

A preacher built bleachers in the cave to accommodate his congregation for Sunday services. After the Depression struck, the owners sold the cave to the State Parks Board in 1931. The cave opened to the public in 1932.

Wild Caves Tour

The distinction between wild cave and show caves is that the wild caves have no trails or electric lights. However, one of the attractions is the native cave fauna. Links to all of these caves with map, directions, and information can be found here.

  • Kickapoo Cavern SNA & Kickapoo Cavern near Brackettville, Kinney County
  • Stuart Bat Cave
  • Devil's Sinkhole
  • Colorado Bend State Park, San Saba County
  • Cicurina Cave
  • Dynamite Cave
  • Gorman Cave
  • Lemons Ranch Cave
  • Turtle Shell Cave

Caverns & Caves Resources


Laurel Johnson from Washington KS on February 01, 2015:

I had no idea Texas had so many beautiful caves!! Loved the pictures. Fascinating hub, well written.

Sisterwalker on June 18, 2012:

We just visited the natural bridge caverns yesterday, absolutely worth it! But unwed to be in moderate shape!

eLightSpot from Enid on June 10, 2011:

These caves look amazing! We just wrote a hub on Cave Exploring essentials. Can anyone give us some feedback?

Virginia Kearney from United States on May 25, 2011:

Great Hub--I'm also from Central Texas and just visited InnerSpace with my kid's class yesterday. I wondered if anyone had written about the caves. This is one of the most complete Hubs I've seen yet. Great job!

Peggy Woods from Houston, Texas on November 06, 2009:

Thanks! Will do it now.

KRC (author) from Central Texas on November 06, 2009:

I don't mind at all, Peggy! I'll link yours here as well!

Peggy Woods from Houston, Texas on November 06, 2009:

What a great article about Texas caves! If you don't mind I would like to link this hub to mine about the Caverns of Sonora. Will provide some nice additional information for anyone interested. Let me know...

KRC (author) from Central Texas on August 26, 2009:

I agree, Dame! Thanks for stopping by!

Gin G from Canada on August 26, 2009:

Now that would be a fun date! :)

KRC (author) from Central Texas on August 10, 2009:

Wow, ninglie, thanks...I don't think Maggs could have said that better herself....oh wait..Maggs did say that...(scroll up folks) :)

ninglie on August 10, 2009:

I never cease to be amazed at the strange place names you have in the USA one trip I thought we were in the Holy Lands with place names like Corinth then England with many English town names like Plymouth then France with Paris lol

KRC (author) from Central Texas on August 05, 2009:

We have a Paris, Texas too, with its own Eiffel tower with a big red Cowboy hat on top! LOL You go through Italy, Texas to get there too. :) Tokio (instead of Tokyo) is not too far from me. My husband loves all the town names.

maggs224 from Sunny Spain on August 05, 2009:

I never cease to be amazed at the strange place names you have in the USA one trip I thought we were in the Holy Lands with place names like Corinth then England with many English town names like Plymouth then France with Paris lol

KRC (author) from Central Texas on August 05, 2009:, that's what was confusing me because you said you weren't coming to Texas, but you were coming to Fredericksburg. Fredericksburg Texas is another place I was thinking about doing a hub on. So, I felt like you were talking about another one, but I didn't know where. LOL Fredericksburg, VA was probably around many moons before ours (Texas) .....LOL And all named after places in Europe.

maggs224 from Sunny Spain on August 05, 2009:

We are going to Fredericksburg in Virgina not far from Washington is that your Fredericksburg?

KRC (author) from Central Texas on August 05, 2009:

But not OUR Fredericksburg, right? We have a quaint German town called Fredericksburg. I have kinfolks there. :)

maggs224 from Sunny Spain on August 05, 2009:

Don't know about Texas but will be spending Christmas and New Year in Fredericksburg

KRC (author) from Central Texas on August 05, 2009:

And I wish I written them before you came so that maybe by now I'd have 1000 hubs making me some money....LOL I need to take my husband to see them. He hasn't seen any of them since he's been here. Thanks for stopping by Maggs. When you coming back to Texas???

maggs224 from Sunny Spain on August 05, 2009:

I wish I had read your hubs before I visited America we have been to Texas a few times but I had not heard of these caves.

KRC (author) from Central Texas on August 04, 2009:

Thanks John! I think what amazes me the most about the bat population is how many tons of insects they eat. We have an abundance of insects to keep that many bats happy.

John Chancellor from Tennessee on August 04, 2009:

I had no idea that Texas had so many caves ... or that there were that many bats in the world, let alone living part of the year in Texas.

Great job of letting people know about the caves of Texas.

KRC (author) from Central Texas on August 03, 2009:

You're welcome, emohealer! I really want to see the other four that I haven't seen. Each of them hold a special memory for me.

Sioux Ramos from South Carolina on August 03, 2009:

Wow, what a tour! Complete details of how to get there, but mostly a well written description of why we would want to. In my younger years I toured many of the caves there and in the West, it has been so many years, thanks for reminding me of their beauty and history.

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