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History and Generations of Computer

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The computer is a device that is used to process and store data in binary form, according to the commands given to it in a variable program.

Introduction, History, and Generations of Computer.

Introduction to Computer
The computer is a device that is used to process and store data in binary form, according to the commands given to it in a variable program. The word computer is derived from the word compute which means to calculate. People usually thought a computer to be a calculating device that can perform arithmetic procedures at high speed, but today computers are used for communication, administration, research, and drawing. Computers are everywhere, in places of employment, in schools, shopping malls, and so on. Charles Babbage introduces the concept of a programmable computer and is considered the father of the computer. He created the 1st mechanical computer in the initial the 19th century. The word computer was firstly used in 1613. ore Charles Babbage’s invention Tally sticks were the first memory aid device. The abacus also has its role in the history of computers. Many devices were invented by different scientists. Many years ago, Tally sticks, Abacus, Pascaline, Napier’s bones, and Arithmometer were considered the computers but now a day, we are using the most modern computers. Efforts by people to build up a device to multiply data go back as far as 2600 BC when the Chinese thought of the Abacus. The slide ruler was created in 1621 and remained broadly utilized until the rise of electronic adding machines during the 1970s. In 1830 Charles Babbage made an analytical engine, which was modified with punched cards to complete the calculations. It was not the same as its antecedents since it had the option to resolve choices dependent on its calculations. The analytical engine was difficult to such an extent that Babbage was always unable to construct a working model of his plan. It was built after 100 years by the London Science Museum.
History of computers
The history of computers is very vast. It has consisted of the following list.
1. Tally sticks
2. Abacus
3. Napier’s bones
4. Slide rule
5. Pascaline
6. Stepped reckoner
7. Jacquard loom
8. arithmometer

Tally Sticks:
Tally sticks were invented by King Henry. These were the first memory aid device. These were used to record data like quantity, and document numbers and even were used for messages.

Abacus is a mechanical device that is used by a person in mathematical calculations. It was used to achieve basic arithmetic processes. The abacus was invented in Babylonia in 2400 B.C. it was a frame in which rocks are fixed in a moveable way.

Napier’s Bones:
John Napier invented Napier’s bones in 1614. This device allowed a person to operate multiply, divide and calculate square and cube roots by moving the rods around and placing them on specially constructed boards.

Slide Rule:
Slide Rule was invented by William Oughtred in 1622. It was based on Napier's concepts of logarithms. It was first and foremost used for multiplication, division, roots, logarithms, and trigonometry. It was not ordinarily used for addition or subtraction.

Pascaline computer:
Pascaline was invented by Blaise Pascal in 1642. It was restricted to subtraction and addition. It was too expensive. It was a mechanical calculator used for addition and subtraction. It consisted of gears and wheels. It also had a dialer.

Stepped Reckoner:
Stepped Reckoner was Invented by Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz in 1672. It was the machine that can add, subtract, multiply and divide mechanically. It was a digital calculator.

Jacquard Loom:
The Jacquard loom is a mechanical loom, invented by Joseph-Marie Jacquard in 1881. It is a programmed loom organized by punched cards.

Arithmometer was a mechanical calculator designed by Thomas de Colmar in 1820. This machine could carry out the four basic mathematic functions. This machine was the first mass-produced calculating machine. It was the first reliable, useful, and commercially successful calculating machine.

Analytical engine:
It is an instinctive, mechanical calculator planned to organize polynomial functions. It was the first computer invented by Charles Babbage in 1822 and 1834. It was able to perform calculations as well. It was also organized with punched cards to perform the numerical operations. It could do 60 addition per minute The idea of an analytical engine didn’t take physical form but served as a base for modern digital computers.

In 1890 Dr. Herman Hollerith hosted the First electromechanical, punched-card Data-processing machine. It was used to compile information for the 1890 U.S. census. His company would eventually become International Business Machines (IBM) This paper-based machine represents the origin of computer database software.
Z 3:
•1941 Conrad Zeus from Germany, introduced the first programmable computer
• solved complex engineering equations.
• It was also the first to work on the binary system instead of the decimal system.
Many modifications were made and now we are using very modern computers. But there is a gap of generations in the history of computers.

Generation of computers
There are five generations of computer which describes the history of computers.
First-generation (1942-1955)
In manufacturing the first generation of computers, as an electronic switching device, vacuum tubes were used. Vacuum tubes were the basic component for the first generation of computers. Vacuum tubes are like electric bulbs and a large amount of energy is used for the working of these computers. In those days, the vacuum tube computer was the fastest (high speed) machine that was available. It performs its work in milliseconds and was known as the first-generation computer. These computers worked on the principle of storing program instructions. It also worked as a stored program concept, so they could perform a program automatically without human interference. Electromagnetic relays were used by the memory of these computers, users provide all the instructions, as well as all the data to the system by using punched cards. Due to a lack of high-level programming languages, programmers have to assemble the language. It was a difficult task at that time so some experts can understand how to program these computers.

Types of computers:
• Mark I was developed by Aiken in 1944.
• ENIAC was built in 1946 by J. Presper Eckert and William Mauchly.
• IBM-701
• IBM-650
Second generation (1955-1964)
In the second generation, the transistors were used as the switching device instead of vacuum tubes. The transistors are invented by John Bardeen, William Shockley, and Walter Brattain at the Bell laboratories in 1947. Soon, transistors were proved as a stronger switching device than vacuum tubes.
1. They were made up of germanium instead of glass as in first-generation computers. They were easier to handle.
2. They produce less heat as compared to vacuum tubes.
3. They were of less cost as compared to the vacuum tubes.
4. They had no parts like a filament in vacuum tubes, which can burn out, so they were more reliable.
5. They absorb less power as compared to vacuum tubes.

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These computers were more powerful than vacuum tube computers. There were also changes in storage technology. The new one consisted of magnetic cores made up of ferrite. These cores can be magnetized in any direction. In 1957, more faster and reliable programming languages (FORTRAN, COBOL, ALGOL, and SNBOL) were made. This made the second-generation computer easier to program. A Batch operating system was also introduced.

Types of computers:
1. RCA 501
2. IBM 1620
3. IBM 7094
Third-generation computers (1964-1975)
In the third-generation computers, integrated circuits (ICs) were used instead of transistors. Along with the associated circuitry, a single IC has many transistors, resistors, and capacitors. IC was the invention of Jack Kilby. They were introduced in 1958. It made the computers small and efficient. This technology was known as microelectronics. In this development, time-sharing operating systems were used. High-level languages were also used in these computers such as PASCAL and ALGOL-68.

Types of computers:
• Honeywell 200
• IBM system 360
• UNIVAC 9000 series

Fourth-generation computers (1957-1989)
A Very Large Scale Integrated (VLSI) circuit was used in manufacturing the fourth-generation computers. VLSI had almost 5000 transistors and other elementary circuits with their correlated circuits on a chip. These computers were smaller, compact, and more affordable than the other three generations. As a result of the formation of fourth-generation computers personal computer trends arouse. High-level languages were installed on these computers.

Types of computers:
1. IBM system 3090, IBM RISC6000, IBM RT.
3. HP 9000

Fifth-generation computers (1989-present)
In the fifth generation, VLSI technology was converted into ULSI technology. Due to the ULSI technology microprocessor chip technology was created which had almost ten million electronic components. This generation working on artificial intelligence software and parallel processing hardware. The main reason to insert the Al software is to make the computer, think like a computer. Highly programmed languages like C, C++, and Java were installed in this generation.

Types of computers
• Supercomputers
• Laptop
• Chromebook
• Robots
• Facial face detector
• Thumbprint

This content is accurate and true to the best of the author’s knowledge and is not meant to substitute for formal and individualized advice from a qualified professional.

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