# How is Electricity Produced Commercially?

Dave has completed 44 years in the Broadcast industry, working in operations, engineering, training and project management.

## What is Electricity?

Essentially, there are two kinds of Electricity: Static Electricity and Current Electricity. Both depend on electrons, the tiny charged particles that orbit the nucleus of an atom.

Static Electricity has been known about since earliest times, though it was not properly understood until the discovery of subatomic particles a little over a hundred years ago.

Static Electricity on a large scale causes lightning and on a much smaller scale can give you an annoying shock when you step out of a car. You can generate it simply by combing your hair with a nylon comb. The electrical charge transferred to the comb will cause it to attract the hair, or, if you like, to pick up little scraps of paper to entertain the kids.

Though interesting, static electricity is of limited practical use. For the remainder of this hub, we'll concentrate on current electricity which is a flow of electrons through a conductor (usually a copper cable).

## A Little Science

First, we need to talk a bit about Energy. In Physics, Energy is defined as the ability to do Work. (Everyday examples of Work are: climbing stairs, loading a truck. anything that involves moving mass).

Some of the common types of energy are: heat, light, kinetic energy (movement), chemical energy, gravitational energy and of course. electrical energy.

In Physics, the Law of Conservation of Energy says that energy cannot be created or destroyed. It can only be transformed from one type to another. This means that to generate electricity, we have to use another kind of energy to fuel the process - in this World you don't get something for nothing!

In the 19th Century, Michael Faraday carried out the pioneering work that linked Electricity and Magnetism. In particular, he showed that an electrical current is generated in a conductor moving in a magnetic field.

The effect is greatly magnified if the conductor is replaced with a coil or coils of copper wire. If these coils are mounted on a rotating shaft or armature, continuous rotation will produce a continuous alternating electrical current. This is how nearly all electricity is generated today.

Now that we have a device (the generator, or alternator) that converts mechanical energy (rotation) into electrical energy, the next problem is how to obtain the mechanical energy to keep the alternator spinning. Here is a brief summary of some of the viable ways of generating electricity on a commercial scale.

## The Modern Alternator

Faraday's electrical machines were laboratory experiments. Technology has developed his ideas dramatically. The modern alternator does not use permanent magnets but an energised coil instead, to produce the magnetic field. Also, his invention has been turned inside out, with the field coils mounted on the armature (now called the rotor) and the electrical current induced on the stationary coils (the stator). There are normally three stationary windings in the stator, spaced 120° apart, to produce 3-phase alternating current, the modern standard for distribution.

## The Commercial Options

### Fossil Fuels

In a coal or oil fired power station, the fuel is burned (converting its chemical energy into heat) and the heat used to convert water into steam at very high temperature and pressure. This then drives a steam turbine, a device which harnesses the energy in the steam (heat and pressure) to produce rotational movement (mechanical energy). The rotating shaft of the steam turbine is coupled to the armature of the alternator, so the final result is electricity.

### Wind Power

Windmills have been around for centuries and all have harnessed the energy of moving air (wind!) through rotating sails or fan blades. Traditionally, the mechanical energy was used directly, to turn a mill wheel. A modern wind turbine simply couples the rotating shaft to an alternator armature. The last link in the chain is always the same - electricity from mechanical rotation.

### Hydro Electric Power

Here, the source energy (there always has to be one!) is gravitational potential energy. A mountain stream is dammed in a high place, to create an artificial lake or reservoir. Farther down the mountain, the power station is equipped with water turbines. These are simply highly efficient versions of the old fashioned water-wheel; effectively they harness the kinetic energy of a carefully channelled waterfall to produce mechanical rotation. The rest you know.

### Tidal Power and Wave Power

These new technologies extract energy from the long-term bulk movement of water in a tidal estuary and from the short-term wave motion of the surface. The principle remains the same, to harness the 'free' natural energy in moving water to drive a mechanical turbine.

### Solar Power - local

In a sense. all energy on Earth is solar energy, as even fossil fuels are chemical 'memories' of ancient sunshine. But we're talking here about generating electricity from solar energy, and strangely enough, it's not very easy. The problem is that you can't easily convert sunshine into mechanical rotation to drive alternators on a commercial scale. Solar panels have no moving parts, and so the electricity they produce is 'DC' or direct current. This is like the electricity from a battery. It's great for local use, e.g. running a small irrigation pump, but the big problem with DC is that it is hard to distribute. (No time to explain that now - maybe another hub!)

### Solar Power - commercial

Photovoltaic units, as described above, are best suited to localised applications like space or water heating. However, commercial-scale solar power plants, though still expensive to build, are becoming viable, the more so as the price of fossil fuels increases.

Scroll to Continue

No single design for commercial solar power has yet won through, but all are based on the same idea - a large array of reflectors to collect the sun's rays and focus them onto a receiver which is effectively pipe-work containing a heat-absorbing fluid. Technologies are already well developed to store the collected energy as heat and to convert it to electricity using steam or gas turbines at a steady rate, night and day. The biggest problem is that the sun moves (OK, the Earth rotates!) and so ingenious tracking mechanisms are needed to make the reflectors follow the sun through the daylight hours.

Ironically, the part of the world best suited for deploying this technology is the part that least needs it - the oil rich deserts of the Middle East.

### Geothermal Energy

This is another underdeveloped source. If you drill down into the Earth's crust, at first the temperature drops, because the sun's warmth can't penetrate. But deeper, the temperature rises. Volcanoes are evidence of this - molten lava is pretty hot! That well of energy is there to be tapped. As always, the final conversion process is the familiar steam turbine. And, like solar energy, it is environmentally friendly, provided you don't accidentally trigger a local volcano! But it is not as simple as it seems. The process of taking heat from a hot rock cools the rock locally. There's plenty more heat surrounding it, but can it flow quickly enough to your collectors? Again, it's another technology whose time will come, but not a panacaea.

### Nuclear Energy

This is the controversial one. Nuclear fission is a process in which unstable (radioactive) atomic nuclei break down, releasing energy in the form of radiation (escaping particles). By concentrating these nuclei together, a controlled chain recation is produced releasing huge amounts of energy which is used to convert water into steam. The process of generating electricity in a nuclear power plant is simply by steam turbine, exactly the same as in a fossil fuel plant. The public fear of nuclear power is twofold: the risk of meltdown - an uncontrolled nuclear reactor is not very different from an 'atomic' bomb; also the by-product, radioactive nuclear waste, is none too pleasant.

As an aside - Nuclear energy does not obey the classical Physics law of conservation of Energy. It does however obey the Modern Physics law of conservation of Mass-Energy which allows for interconversion of matter and energy according to Einstein's famous equation E=mc² This fundamental difference means that Nuclear Energy is potentially the most fruitful source of all. It is important that proper scientific research & development into nuclear energy, and Nuclear Fusion in particular, should be allowed to continue.

## A Wind Farm in UK

Dave McClure (author) from Worcester, UK on July 20, 2013:

How about making a scale model wind generator using a bicycle 'dynamo' and anything else you can find to make the blades, axle etc.

ujwala on July 20, 2013:

can u suggest me a project please..

Dave McClure (author) from Worcester, UK on October 31, 2012:

Sorry but it's exactly the same answer. The car doesn't generate wind. It turns stored chemical energy into kinetic energy. To increase efficiency, you streamline the vehicle (minimising air resistance). If you want to extract energy from the movement through the air, you will inevitably increase the drag by more than you gain.

Eddyramor on October 31, 2012:

I was thinking along the line of perhaps a car that is using a battery to start like the abandoned Joule concept in south Africa. But instead of plugging it in you just have to use the same mechanism used to charge the battery using smaller efficient wind turbines. I dont know much again but I do know that if you are to carry a huge turbine you will subsequently need more fuel for the extra load. I just feel if enough resaerch is made people can generate electricity using moving vehicles, but whether or not it will be enough ELECTRICITY to move the vehicle I am not sure. THE IDEA IS TO USE WIND TO GENERATE ENOUGH ELECTRICITY USING WIND AGAINST THE MOVING VEHICLE. DOES THE WIND TURBINE USED IN ELECTRICITY GENERATION USE FUEL? MY POINT EXACTLY.

Dave McClure (author) from Worcester, UK on October 30, 2012:

Because that would be a perpetual motion machine which is impossible. The car uses fuel to move through the air. If you attached a wind turbine to the roof to generate electricity, you'd have to use more fuel to overcome the extra drag. You can't get something for nothing in this game!

Eddyramor on October 29, 2012:

Hi Paraglider

I dont know much about electricity, but I do have a question to ask if you can help. If electricity can be generated using wind energy, then why are we not having cars that can use the wind generated by the car in motion to generate electricity? How much electricity can the wind generate?

Dave McClure (author) from Worcester, UK on October 25, 2012:

You want a comic strip version?

Anonymous on October 25, 2012:

Its so boring! Make it more interesting

yogesh on August 31, 2012:

It's nice to understand but give new idea to generate electricity,for my satisfaction.

ms bitchiynes on June 06, 2012:

hello wake up meel the rose and give me my dam answer ............ im still waiting after 2 year please man im writing a test about this how am i surpose to learn with nothing about how t generate electricity

MIXER on April 04, 2012:

Can you write some information about the conversation of lightning into usable currenet electricity?

dkjfiaersj on March 24, 2012:

thanx that helped me

Dave McClure (author) from Worcester, UK on March 06, 2012:

Fine mind you have there ;)

Anonymous on March 05, 2012:

Couldn't understand a word. I tried reading but my mind just went BLAH BLAH BLAH!

Abdulbasit Abubakar on March 03, 2012:

I Dr. Abdulgt i apreaciate your activity but what are the steps and the engeine that will be use in the process of generating electricity through biomass. Thanks alot

Dave McClure (author) from Worcester, UK on February 21, 2012:

In theory, if you can burn the waste, you can use the heat to create steam to drive a turbine. In practice, it might not be efficient enough to be worth doing.

Annomous on February 21, 2012:

Can we generate electricity from waste materials

Dave McClure (author) from Worcester, UK on February 19, 2012:

The hub discusses eight well established methods of doing just that.

s.p.prathap sobhan on February 19, 2012:

Sir, how we produce an electricity without using electricity?

Dave McClure (author) from Worcester, UK on February 07, 2012:

It is, but being a gas it's less convenient that liquid fuels.

manoj on February 07, 2012:

why the hydrogen is not used as a fuel

Dave McClure (author) from Worcester, UK on February 04, 2012:

Steam pressure, to drive turbine coupled to alternator.

Ashok shrestha on February 04, 2012:

Sir can we produce electricity by the help of pressure?

Dave McClure (author) from Worcester, UK on February 02, 2012:

That's the principle of the galvanic cell, but there's no way you get 10 volts from a single cell. You'd need a stack of cells for that.

Surendra Subedi on February 02, 2012:

if i connect two electrodes of different ionisation potential on the collected mass of rotten potatoes,then i got a dc of about 10 volts.then i got a lead of about 4 volts,which lit easily with the obtained voltage.

sridhar on January 16, 2012:

useful information

thanks to all

Saurav Singh on January 09, 2012:

now thats what i call a information which i never get from any whear else ... thanks for it ....

Dave McClure (author) from Worcester, UK on January 09, 2012:

Tesla & Nandan - glad it was useful.

Nandan on January 08, 2012:

it was awesome.... really a gud information about energy..actually im a civil engg student. somehow i got intrust in electrics... and now ua hub made it much more intrusting.. thanks a lot.

tesla follower on January 08, 2012:

this gives me so much info that i need. it really helps me understand something i love sooooo much better! thank you sooo much paraglider!!!!!!!!!!! :)

p.s.- i love energy science:)

Dave McClure (author) from Worcester, UK on January 06, 2012:

We won't run out of energy as long as the sun keeps shining and the winds and tides keep moving. We will run out of oil, but that's a completely different discussion, more political than anything else.

Future-generation on January 05, 2012:

That is a question I would like to know ! How can you conserve energy for in the future from when their might not be anymore energy ?

Dave McClure (author) from Worcester, UK on December 27, 2011:

markus - we won't run out of electrons. When you generate electricity, you cause the electrons to move in a circuit. They don't leave the circuit and are not created or destroyed.

markus on December 26, 2011:

could anyone explain me , suppose i have 1 light bulb , dissipates 1A/H. this current density is a flow of electrons of the resistor because of Voltage difference at its ends???(a)or is a flow of electrons also coming by powerhead lines?(b)if (a) or (b) is correct,will come a day that no more free electrons will exist to produce current, no matter if i have an endless water flow to move a generator continiously in the future??i would appreciate your comments

Jerrico Usher from Bend, Oregon on December 19, 2011:

Hi Paraglider, yea I never left, just stopped posting in the forum and got to writing (up to 724 woot woot). Thanks for bringing me up to date- the movie was a while ago and to be honest I remember some but not all of what was said- likely I jumbled that up lol... your a brilliant man- I love your explanations, very lucid. I think I understand it now.

Dave McClure (author) from Worcester, UK on December 18, 2011:

Hi Jerrico - I didn't realise you were still on HubPages. We used to chat quite a lot in the forums, 3 or 4 years ago. Now, I have to correct you on the AC/DC thing. Both AC and DC travel in copper cable at the same speed: two-thirds of the speed of light. The advantages of AC for distribution are: it is easy to step up (using a transformer) to very high voltages like 110,000 volts. At high voltages the same amount of power requires less current, and less current = less loss in the resistance of the cable. Also by generating and distributing 3-phase AC (and balancing the loads on each phase) the neutral return currents balance out, almost to zero in an ideal case.

DC distribution comes into its own only for extremely long distribution lines from power station to the users. I'm talking extremely long, like the Sahara or the Australian outback. In normal circumstances, AC is the better choice.

Jerrico Usher from Bend, Oregon on December 17, 2011:

Brilliant Hub, Very lucid explanation of electricity! Now where is that DC current hub you promised :) You peaked my curiosity- although I know how DC differs from AC I'm curious as to why one is fundamentally better than the other.

My current understanding is based on how electricity is distributed to homes i.e. DC would come in too fast and thus would be drained AND fry our electronics if not slowed or controlled- AC being essentially electricity flowing in then when not in use being directed back to the source for re-implementation (no loss or little loss).

I've not looked deeper into this than that (saw it on a movie about tesla and Einstein), I'd be very interrested in your hub about DC current as described in this hub (rather peaked at)...

Your writing is very lucid and interresting. You are amazing at taking a complex subject and turning it into a layman explanation- KUDOS- voted up

Dave McClure (author) from Worcester, UK on December 17, 2011:

Thanks for the Sliver Cell reference. It looks an interesting development. You know that when nuclear energy first appeared, people were predicting it would be free within a decade. It didn't happen though!

Dean on December 17, 2011:

Thank you for a wealth of knowledge that few have been able to provide.

I look forward to seeing what the green electric movement has to offer over the next few years, I'm especially keen to see what SLIVER cells by Origen energy have to offer.

I hope one day electricity can be free for all.

Dean.

Dave McClure (author) from Worcester, UK on December 14, 2011:

OK, then back to the original question, no, I don't know of any source for such a device. Sounds an interesting project you're involved in.

James on December 14, 2011:

No not really, only due to the nature of fur covering and the possible damage due to fighting.

Dave McClure (author) from Worcester, UK on December 14, 2011:

Assuming the drain on the battery is low, I'm wondering if a small photovoltaic device might be an easier approach than a mechanical generator. Any good?

James on December 14, 2011:

Hi Paraglider, I am looking for someone that might produce the type of generator that would recharge a battery that would be on an animal so would be a type of pendulum. Do you happen to know of anyone that can produce this?

I should have stated the generated electricity is to heat water for space heating. I appreciate your hub and as my thoughts on this project progress may have some further questions. Thanks again

Dave McClure (author) from Worcester, UK on December 04, 2011:

Interesting project. Most water wheel systems don't sit directly on a river, but in a special channel like a traditional mill race. This gives control of flow and depth and helps the design of the wheel. If you used the electricity you generate for direct heating of water or space heating you could make some savings. But if you are thinking of sychronising the AC to the mains (50 or 60 Hz, depending where you live) with a view to returning power to the grid, you could be involved in some expensive technology.

I just moved next to a small river which flows @4 to 6 mph depending on river heights I would like to investigate using the current to operate a generator providing electricity for my property the depth of the river is @ 4 ft to 8 ft My thoughts have been a water wheel but I am very interested in hearing your thoughts on this and if it is a worth while endeavor,

Dave McClure (author) from Worcester, UK on December 02, 2011:

Beau - I had a very quiet day at work a few years ago and wrote this to pass the time. Glad you found it helpful.

Beau andrews on December 02, 2011:

who in spierd u to write this i mean u didn't do this for fun did uim in 8th grade and fore scince and i cant relly find a thing on the internet this is the most helpful thing i found yet

Paydmac on November 08, 2011:

That's interesting info thank you for your help and advice; I appreciate it!

Dave McClure (author) from Worcester, UK on November 07, 2011:

There are some projects where the water is cooled by using it to heat public buildings before pumping it back to the source.

Paydmac on November 07, 2011:

I've had a first hand experience at a coal-fired power plant. They ,the power plant I went to, cooled the water and sent it back to the lake where they get their water to recycle it. I saw an old comment where you told someone how they could create steam for the same project I'm doing so that's really why i asked. Thanks for the advice too.

Dave McClure (author) from Worcester, UK on November 06, 2011:

Manoj - Classical law of conservation of energy is good enough for normal conditions. It only breaks down in extreme conditions such as in thermonuclear reactions.

Manoj dhakal on November 06, 2011:

Now I agree to believe with owner because he/she describe classical law of conservation of energy is not applicable in all cases.

Dave McClure (author) from Worcester, UK on November 05, 2011:

Paydmac - I can't give you the answers, but you might like to research the efficiency of a steam turbine and also try to find out what use is made of the exhausted but still hot (i.e. high energy) steam.

Paydmac on November 05, 2011:

Very interesting article of info.I am I student in high school writing a project for science fair and used your info in a respectable way. I am trying to show how a coal fired power plant though data analysis from showing how a steam turbine works. I wondered if you had some advice on how to go about this project in a easy, science fair appropriate way?

Dave McClure (author) from Worcester, UK on October 27, 2011:

Lee - I'd not heard of the Stiffler passive SEC device before. Interesting, but I can't comment further as I've never seen it.

Lee on October 26, 2011:

What do you think about the Dr Stiffler passive SEC circuit? Viable option at some stage?

Dave McClure (author) from Worcester, UK on October 23, 2011:

Kk Pandey - that's a good question. The windings on the rotor are closed on themselves in the form of a loop. There is always a slight residual magnetic field present at start up. This induces a current in the rotor coils which in turn produces the field that reacts with the stator windings. It sounds magic, but it's just a clever use of self induction and all explained by the laws of induction (or ultimately by Maxwell's equations).

Kk Pandey on October 22, 2011:

It was THE BEST SITE i could ever get to clear my concept about electricity.

But can u expln me one thin abt armature. As u said the coil must move around Magnet. So,from where does the armature gets this magnetic field ?

Dave McClure (author) from Worcester, UK on October 02, 2011:

kemie - electricians, electrical engineers, mechanics, civil engineers, house services, safety officers, catering staff, general management, accountants, air conditioning technicians, etc, etc

kemie on October 02, 2011:

what are different working specialists needed in a hydroelectric plant including skilled labour,semi-skilled labour and unskilled labour?

Dave McClure (author) from Worcester, UK on September 30, 2011:

Thanks Asim :)

Asim Jofa on September 29, 2011:

Your post really helped me to understand the generate Electricity. It has great details and yet it is easy to understand.That's what i was looking for. I will definitely share it with others.

Thanks for sharing.

Asim Jofa

Dave McClure (author) from Worcester, UK on September 27, 2011:

Thanks Ajay :)

Ajay on September 27, 2011:

Thank you paraglider for this informative-interesting-educating site i too will make some efforts to give some inputs thus making this reach every passionate electrical

Dave McClure (author) from Worcester, UK on August 24, 2011:

Static electricity is a build up of charge. When you discharge it, it becomes current electricity for an instant, e.g. when lightning discharges to the ground. But you can't convert it to continuous current because then you'd need an equivalent continuous charging current to replenish your source.

Steve on August 24, 2011:

Paraglider, I had a few ideas about Tidal Power and Wave Power. I want to do my homework on what already exists but I am having trouble. Most alt energy sites talk about wind, geothermal and sun. Do you have a link that discusses creating electricity from the ocean?

Specifically, I have a question about static electricity. Can it be converted into current electricity? Or can it be used to power an alternator?

Dave McClure (author) from Worcester, UK on August 20, 2011:

Qasim - that's a huge capital investment project. I'd have thought studies are already well underway.

Qasim on August 19, 2011:

we are from pakistan , facing huge shortfall about 5000MW , suggest us to overcome shortfall

Dave McClure (author) from Worcester, UK on August 01, 2011:

It's true that energy cannot be created or destroyed (in classical physics). But the kinetic energy of a moving car can't be reharnessed and reused. There's a subtle difference between 'lost' and 'unavailable'.

anirudhsinghthakur on August 01, 2011:

energy can neighther be created nor be distroy it can only be change from one form to another.(by law of thermodynamic) so if science can able to convert it in a same form their will be no energy lossess

Dave McClure (author) from Worcester, UK on March 25, 2011:

Karen - There is a unit of Energy called the Joule. The Watt is a unit of Power. One Watt = One Joule per second. An 80 Watt solar panel can deliver 80 Joules of energy every second, for as long as the sun is shining on it. Less on an overcast day, none at all in the dark.

80 Watts is not a lot. It's enough to power a single conventional light bulb. It's not enough to run your television and not nearly enough to run your heating or air conditioning.

To save on electricity, before even thinking about solar panels, think about insulating the loft, using less hot water, turning down thermostats, etc.

And for your own safety, please don't plug anything into the wall except proper domestic appliances!

KarenSue Nader on March 23, 2011:

I'm very new at this. I want to set up some kind of Solar energy saving device that does not cost an "arm and a leg"

First I believe I must understand what a "Watt" is. So, what is a "Watt"? Some kind of measurement of power, but I don't know what it is. So, what's a watt? Next, I need to know more about solar panels. In my search for info. I have found things like 80 Watt solar panels...so how much power it that, really? Do I get 80 watts an hour with this panel, or is it more like 80 watts a month? Or a minute? I really don't know. I told you I am new at this...And my biggest question is, can I plug this panel into the wall and save on my electric bill? This past month's bill was \$270.00...for one month...got to cut this bill down, way down!!! Can you please answer these questions and give me some advice on how to proceed?

Dave McClure (author) from Worcester, UK on January 25, 2011:

For a small science fair, use a bicycle 'dynamo' to demonstrate the principle of converting mechanical energy into electricity.

I want to prepare free electricity for a small science fair.

Dave McClure (author) from Worcester, UK on January 24, 2011:

I'm pretty sure you could find second hand solar panels on eBay, but really all I can say is follow the instructions.

paraglider how can I prepare a small solar panel with the simplest equipment I can get which have been already used.

Dave McClure (author) from Worcester, UK on November 25, 2010:

Tom. several comment ago, suggested using a Stirling engine instead of a steam turbine, and providing the heat with captured sunlight. This is a good idea. A Stirling Engine is a type of heat engine where the heat source is external and the (non-combustible) fluid is never used up as it is completely sealed inside the compression cylinder system. So it requires less attention and maintenance, and no source of fuel or steam. Only captured sun energy.

There's a good Wiki description of the principle.

Dave McClure (author) from Worcester, UK on November 25, 2010:

Most welcome, writer83, and previous commentators too.

writer83 from Cyber Space on November 25, 2010:

Never think of learning about generating electricity and now i just did. Well, sounds cool information paraglider.

Popoola Solomon on November 11, 2010:

Hello Paraglider ,i am from nigeria,a country in west africa,Electrical power is really a major problem in my country,i am a trained mechanical engineer,but with little practical knowledge because of poor infrastructure ,can you please give me a way out ,i looking out for something like solar powered electricity.and i really don't mind starting from a small way on my own....please its there any way u cam help....we have high concentration of sunlight here in my country....and i know that's a good source of solar energy...please how do we convert it to electrical energy to as to light up our homes,power our elecrical device and do other things..

Looking forward to ur response

Thanks.

Himani on November 08, 2010:

basic yet holistic and precise information about "electricity" subject...good to get a grasp of the subject in short time :)

Ask Bill on October 21, 2010:

I've always been intrigued by electricity. With living in Arizona I'm surprised more people don't take advantage of the 300+ days of sunshine with solar power.

kbabe on October 10, 2010:

from Namibia I'd like to know how to produce electrical energy,but by using natural products not brought from shops

tom on September 14, 2010:

you could use a stirling engine

Dave McClure (author) from Worcester, UK on September 05, 2010:

Boil water in a closed vessel. Create steam pressure to drive a steam turbine.

Goo on September 05, 2010:

OK how do you convert that heat into work or(force) to turn the generator while still using a simple heat source?

Dave McClure (author) from Worcester, UK on September 02, 2010:

Goo - No, that won't work. A generator is turned by a force, e.g. steam pressure. A hot metal plate is just a hot metal plate!

Goo on September 02, 2010:

This is great information.

Could someone have a metal plate connected to a generator, and apply a heat source like build a fire on it or under it and use that heat to produce electricity on a small scale.

Dave McClure (author) from Worcester, UK on July 17, 2010:

I'll bear it in, like, mind.

Aidden A on July 17, 2010:

i liked it, but i think u should have done it in, like, modern english.

Dave McClure (author) from Worcester, UK on June 08, 2010:

Hi Peter - I mean that there exist several different technologies for capturing and converting solar energy on a commercial scale. The experimentation is healthy of course, but more standardisation would start to bring the price down.

Peter Enmore on June 08, 2010:

What do you mean when you say that no single design for a commercial solar power has yet won?

Dave McClure (author) from Worcester, UK on May 29, 2010:

Thanks BT - it's something a lot of us take for granted these days.

BT on May 29, 2010:

This is awesome! I've always wondered just how electricity is generated, and this has helped immensely with my understanding.

Dave McClure (author) from Worcester, UK on May 26, 2010:

Thanks Ryan :)

ryan hayden on May 26, 2010:

very very very impressive. merit point too you! give yourself a pat on the back!!!! :):):)

debs on May 25, 2010:

thanks for the hub. it really helps me in my revision for exams.. i also appreciated the little piece of information on history of electricity.

Reni on April 25, 2010:

Paraglider thanks for the great info, im using it for my science project, it's really helping! :)

Dave McClure (author) from Worcester, UK on January 25, 2010:

Hi David - I agree with that. Thanks for the suggestion. Sadly, nuclear energy is plagued by almost as much non-science as climate change, so that it's all but impossible to have a sensible discussion on it.