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What Is the Robot and How It Works: What Is the Future of Robot Technology


In modern times, a robot is a mechanical or non-mechanical, artificial agent. A robot is generally defined as a mechanical and electrical system whose movements and dispositions appear to have the power of will or the power to change. Non-specific robots are software ware agents, for which the term "boot" is used. It is important to note that not every automated system or device is called a robot. To understand the difference between an automated tool and a robot, one has to consider the following features of a robot.

The robot is artificially created, it does not exist naturally. He can not only feel his environment but also change it. He must have some kind of intelligence, which he can use to choose a strategy to change his environment and then put this strategy into practice through his actions. In addition, it can be programmed, that is, its intelligence and choice can be changed according to the capacity. It has the ability of motion like a human so it can move.

Reason for naming

The word robot was first used by Karel Capek and dates back to 1920, when a term that first entered science first appeared in the English language. In fact, the derivation of this word has a very complex and long journey and it is thought that the word originally came from the Czech word robota which means worker, slave, maker and worker etc. Then, in 1941, Isaac Isimov coined the word, which today is not only based on the extremes of technology, but has become a complete science, namely robotics.

Description of the robot

Although it is debatable what properties or attributes are such that a device can be called a robot. In general, a robot should have many of the following attributes, not necessarily all of the attributes on this list.

  • What is called a robot is not natural but artificially created.
  • The device can feel its environment to some extent.
  • It can work on objects in its environment.
  • It has some degree of intelligence. ) It should be. If not, at least it has the ability to make choices according to the environment (which may be due to automatic control or a pre-programmed sequence).
  • The device can move on one or more axes of rotation or translation.
  • The device can perform interdependent dexterous movements.
  • It has an expression of intent and agency.
  • Advocacy can include the following three attributes. (See more details of these three attributes on their special pages.)
  • Reification: That is, to bring the abstraction of any idea or thing closer to materiality.
  • Anthropomorphisation: To attribute human qualities to a non-human character.
  • Pathetic fallacy: That is, comparing human emotions (oneness) to an inanimate being.

Features of the robot

One of the most important features that a device must have in order to be called a robot (according to the current concept) is agency, and the more a device, the stronger the advocacy with the three features mentioned above. The concept of being a robot will be clear and prominent.

Mental Agency


Mental agency (Rational advocacy) refers to the intelligence and intellectual capacity of a robot, and it is a fact that for a robotics engineer and a robotic engineer, it is more important than the physical advocacy of a robot that it How and by what means can actions and movements be controlled? The more a control system is advocated or agency, the more likely an engineer is to see the device as a real robot. Another important feature that is found in rational advocacy is the existing options for this advocacy, the more a tool has the ability to make different choices or choices, the more its rational advocacy is considered.

For example

  • A car with a clockwork system is not considered a robot.
  • Robotics engineers do not usually call a car with a radio control a robot. The term telerobot is sometimes used for this.
  • A car that has an onboard computer lineage and can drive in a programmable way. (Eg Bigtrak) so it can probably be considered a robot.
  • A self controlled car that can sense its environment and make decisions for its own drive based on information from the environment. If possible, it could certainly be called a robot, for example, the planet KITT, which is presented in scientific judgments, etc.

Physical Advocacy

Physical agency refers to the structure or expression of a robot's body. From the point of view of robotics experts, the rational advocacy of the above-mentioned robot is important, but for most people, the proximity of a robot to an anthropomorphic or zoomorphic embodiment is more important. For example, if the device has a limb or can move around like a creature, the idea of ​​it being a robot emerges more, such as robots called Asimo and Aibo.

For example

  • An automatic piano is not generally considered a robot because it is far from advocating for living things.
  • A CNC is sometimes called a robot.
  • A factory automation arm is usually called a robot.Only a robot is considered.
  • Any toy that has a human-like structure (such as QRIO) is considered a robot.

Different Definitions


As the statement suggests that there is no single definitive definition of a robot, different experts and different institutions give different definitions of it, but the fact remains that their basic meaning is the same. The description above is presented in the robot field.

Definition of World Standard ISO 8373:

  • Self-regulated, programmable, repeatable, multi-purpose, three or more dimensional consumer modifications; Which can be proven for industrial automation or even dynamic.
  • Joseph Engelberger, one of the founders of industrial robotics, says: "I can't define a robot, I recognize it when I see it."

I can't define a robot, but I know one when I see one. "

  • According to the Cambridge Dictionary online, a tool for automating tasks, which is controlled by a calculator.

" A machine used to perform jobs automatically, which is controlled by a computer. "


The concept of a living being with a mechanical system, and especially of a human being, is very ancient and is found in the myths and legends of different countries of the world. But in the real and scientific sense, the earliest concept of a robot is found in a Muslim scientist named Jaber bin Hayyan, who described the mechanisms by which various species of living things, including humans, were mechanically created (according to the English Wikipedia). It is possible that he must have made some practical effort to develop robots at some level (albeit initially correct) because the nature of a scientist cannot limit it to writing only, but an example of his work is available. No (at least at the time of writing).

The idea of ​​a robot is very old in human history. 450 BC A Greek Archytas mentioned (or imagined) a bird that could move with steam. Alexander of Heron is also said to have made several automata 10 to 70 years after Christ. Al-Jazari, a Muslim scientist, experimented with making many automatons, such as watches, semi-automatic household appliances, and musical instruments (which were powered by water).

Amphlet by Leonardo da Vinci, discovered in 1950, contains a sketch of a mechanical man imagined in 1495 who could automatically get up and sit down (this is just a sketch or an idea of ​​his practical achievement No proof of effort or experience). In 1738, Jacques de Vaucanson created a mechanical duck that could put a grain in its mouth and flutter its wings.

The first robot in modern terms is considered to be a teleoperated boat built by Nikola Telsa in 1898. 1930 Westinghouse develops a humanoid robot named Elektro. Then in 1940, the first electronic and automatic rubella was developed by W. Gray at the University of Bristol in the United Kingdom. The first industrial robot in industrial robots was developed by George Devol.

Robert Williams is said to be the first person to die from a rubella, while Kenji Urada is often said to be the first person to suffer a similar accident. But the documents suggest that the accident happened to William in 1979 and to Kenji in 1981.

Usage per time

Both the complexity and use of robots are increasing (over time) and their role in industries is growing. So far, they have been widely used to create automation in multi-generational factories, where a single set of tasks is repeated, which is repeated over and over again. A common example of such work is found in the field of car production, where robots, painting, welding, and patching are performed repeatedly.

Another important function of robots is in dangerous or invasive situations for human beings. Such as bomb disposal or work in the fields of space, underwater and mining, etc., and working with toxic substances, etc. Robowatch OFRO and Robowatch MOSRO are some of the devices used for this purpose. The removal of improvised explosive devices is one such example. This type of work is also called EOD.

Another use of rubalat is also being made in AGVs. This type of work is found in large warehouses and factories where robots are used to move objects from one place to another, which not only increases efficiency but also human safety. These robots rely on either wires or laser guidance for their control. According to the same theory, robots are also being used in hospitals in some places.

Robots in home use are now limited to tasks that are as simple as regular, such as electric sweeping (for example, scuba and rhomba robots) or mowing the lawn in the garden. In addition, experimental samples of robots that can work in kitchens have been successfully completed and are being further researched.

Another type of home use is robots that can be used as a companion or friend (such as AIBO) or as a rival in a sport (such as ludobots). Such robots fall into the category of economic robots. In addition, some rolabats have been developed with great success for people who are thin and unable to use their body properly, such as Wakamaro and Paro.


  • A Document on the Definition of Robots (PDF file)
  • An Opportunity About How Things Work Online
  • Cambridge Dictionary Opportunity Online: About Robots
  • A Reference to Al Jazeera's Automata Research
  • A page about the first man to die at the hands of Rubella
  • Mention of Kenji on The Economist.com

This content is accurate and true to the best of the author’s knowledge and is not meant to substitute for formal and individualized advice from a qualified professional.

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