Writing is my passion and continuing from 2013 to date on various platforms. I completed my M.Sc. in 1996 in Applied Physics & Electronics.
IoT: The Internet of Things
The Motto Of Technology: Work Done By Less Effort
IoT stands for the Internet of Things. It is such a system where human-to-human or human-to-computer interaction is unavailable. IoT has evolved as a new dimension of technology in the technological arena. Later we shall talk more about IoT.
Now, if we look around, we would find that, all over the world, the backbone of communication is the Internet acting as a connectivity medium between human to human, human to an organization, etc. Now let’s talk about the Internet. The Internet stands for the global system of interconnected computer networks that uses the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to establish links within devices worldwide. The scenario of the Internet is, it connects millions of computers globally by forming a network in which any computer can communicate with any other computer as long as they are both connected to the Internet. The connection between systems (systems could be PC/Laptop/Printer etc.) can be established by wire (UTP, STP cable, etc.). On the other hand, the wireless connection between systems can also be established by using a Router or Accesspoint. Then scenario would be slightly different.
Now, in the case of the Internet, the basic concept differs slightly. That does mean, any system (i.e. PC/Laptop, etc.) of a network communicate globally with the help of connectivity provided by ISP (Internet Service Provider). Local ISPs are connected to other ISPs around the world through fiber optic cable that is kept under the highways and laid on the ocean floor. The ISPs run a protocol called Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) on their routers. BGP (Border Gateway Protocol) decides which path to go to find the particular Internet service we need.
Technology is such a thing that can’t be confined within a periphery. That’s why the new concept of technologies is coming out all the time. IoT (Internet of Things) is such an example. As described above, within the concept of IoT technology, human to human or human to computer scenario would be unavailable. We as human beings would be able to control or interact with things named as IoT system consists of sensors/devices which “talk” to the cloud through some kind of connectivity. Any adjustments or actions that the user makes are then sent in the opposite direction through the system: from the user interface to the cloud, and back to the sensors/devices to make some kind of change.
Table Of Contents
- The Four Basic Things Of IoT
- Softwares that IoT Uses
- Hardware Used Within IoT
- Benefits Of Being Part Of IoT
- IoT Sensors
- Frequently Asked Questions
- The Bottom Line
The Four Basic Things Of IoT
The IoT has basic four parts are,
- Sensors or devices
- Data processing
- User interface
A brief description would be found below:
Sensors are responsible to collect data from the surrounding. All the collected data would have various criterion characteristics. For example, our mobile phone has multiple sensors i.e GPS, accelerometer, camera but it doesn’t only sense things.
The next step is, sensors would send collected through cloud infrastructure. At this point, it needs to have a connectivity medium to pass out the data in the next phase. Next, that collected data is sent to a cloud infrastructure but it needs a medium for transport. The sensors can be connected to the cloud through various mediums of communication such as cellular networks, satellite networks, Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, wide-area networks (WAN), low power wide area network, etc.
Once the data is collected and it gets to the cloud, the software performs processing on the acquired data. Say, temperature reading on devices such as AC or heaters is within an acceptable range. But if it is required to low or high the temperature, then human intervention comes into the picture.
After that, the information reaches to end-user somehow. It could be by triggering alarms on their phones or by text, email, etc. An example might be applicable here and that is, if a user detects some changes in the refrigerator, the user can remotely adjust the temperature via their phone.
Softwares that IoT Uses
Software used in IoT
Very common software is used in IoT technology. As embedded systems require less storage and processing power, operating systems used for such embedded systems are Linux, UNIX like operating systems like Ubuntu Core, or Android. IoT software encompasses general-purpose languages like C & C++, Java, Python to embedded specific choices like Google’s Go language or Parasail.
The key areas of IoT technology include networking and action is taken place through platforms, embedded systems, partner systems, and middleware. These individual and master applications are responsible for,
- Data Collection
- Device Integration
- Real-time Analytics
- Application and Process Extension
within the IoT network. A brief description would be found below:
Here, the used software performs some actions like signal/request sensing, data filtering, data security, and aggregation of data. The used software uses certain protocols to assist sensors to be connected with the real-time, machine-to-machine networks. It collects data from various devices and distributes it accordingly by following a pre-decided setting. It also works in reverse mode by distributing data over devices. After that, the central server receives all the data.
To accommodate anything within a periphery is the meaning of Integration. Necessary cooperation and stable networking between devices happen here. The application software manages various applications, protocols, and limitations of each device to ensure proper communication.
These applications take data from various devices and convert those into a transparent pattern for human analysis. They analyze information based on different kinds of settings and designs to perform an automation-related task or provide those data required by the industrial.
Application and Process Extension
These applications enhance the periphery of existing systems and software to generate an effective system. They do integrate predefined devices for certain purposes. Productivity enhancement and accurate data collection also part of their activities.
Hardware Used Within IOT
IoT hardware modules incorporate four basic elements. Those are,
- Data acquisition module
- Data processing module
- Communication module
It does include objects which we need to control or monitor. The example might be home appliances like light, fan, mobile, doorbell, various electronic pieces of equipment, and so on.
“Data aquisition module”
The data acquisition module is responsible for sensing signals coming from various electrical/electronic and mechanical devices with the help of various sensors. Those sensors are incorporated in IoT platform hardware. Sensors play a vital role. It converts the incoming analog signal and converts it to a digital signal to understand by the computers. Some examples of real-world signals might be temperature, pressure, motion, vibration, etc. Interpretation of signals is another vital activity of the sensor.
“Data processing module”
This module performs various technical processing like analysis of data, data storing, and also performs computing operations.
In a nutshell, this module ensures communication through the cloud platform.
Hardware used in IoT
- IoT (Internet of Things) hardware includes a single board processor like Arduino Uno which increases its performance by performing specific functions i.e. GPS, interactive display, light sensors, heat sensors, etc.
- Raspberry Pi 2 is another well-known IoT platform that can accommodate the entire Web Server. If Python programming language is used, it shows significant performance.
- BeagleBoard is a single-board computer with a Linux-based Operating system that uses an ARM processor, capable of more powerful processing than Raspberry Pi.
As said earlier, sensors play a vital role in entire IoT technology. IoT devices include transducers i.e. sensors and actuators and myriad objects which are often called 'smart', 'intelligent' or plain old 'connected' (smart light bulbs, connected valves, and pumps, smart meters, connected cars, intelligent or smart building components, smart home devices, etc.). These devices consist of various modules such as energy modules, RF modules, power management modules, and sensing modules.
Benefits Of Being Part Of IoT
It was a time when human beings were used to communicate/interact with each other symbolically, travel from one place to another by walking, riding on an animal-like horse, or through manually driven boats, etc. As time passes, different languages were invented and started as a medium of communication/interaction all over the world. New technological inventions started coming ceaselessly. Now we can have interaction all over the world through mobile, exchange our emotion through the Internet, and exchange various criterion themes, thoughts, etc. As a newly invented technological phase, IoT has explored options for the human being to interact with anything/object direct. In the same fashion, IoT takes necessary steps at the time of our needs.
Frequently Asked Questions
What are the 4 main parts of the IoT system?
The four prime components that belong to IoT are sensors/devices, connectivity, data processing, and a user interface.
What is the insight of IoT?
The Internet of Things (IoT) units belong to physical objects that communicate to the virtual world. Intelligent devices and machines are connected and the Internet. They capture, analyze relevant information, and then analyze and link it. The devices perform specific tasks on that basis.
Who invented IoT?
Kevin Ashton is that cool customer who had a hard work to launch the concept of “the Internet of Things”. He showed the pathway, how to connect network objects in the physical world to the virtual world that is the Internet.
The Bottom Line
In this session, we have gone through the basic scenario of IoT and its benefits/utilities for the human being. It is also clear to us that, the pace of flourishment the technology is showing, in near future more surprise is waiting for us.
IOT-A Word That Contains Too Much!!!
This content is accurate and true to the best of the author’s knowledge and is not meant to substitute for formal and individualized advice from a qualified professional.
© 2021 pervez