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Propaganda and Spin: The Manipulation of Mass Actions, Attitudes and Behaviors: Emerging Propaganda Spinternet

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Our Mother Tongue As Propaganda

Two sides of the same face: propaganda and spin

Two sides of the same face: propaganda and spin

Goebbels, Minister of Propaganda under Hitler:  He hid the truth in Plain view

Goebbels, Minister of Propaganda under Hitler: He hid the truth in Plain view

The media catches us by the tail and the head- They control our intake of information-they also control how we disseminate of make an output of that information- Garbage In-Garbage Out

The media catches us by the tail and the head- They control our intake of information-they also control how we disseminate of make an output of that information- Garbage In-Garbage Out

Media as an audio/visual conduit of propaganda

Media as an audio/visual conduit of propaganda

Nature deployed and exploited Symbols and their power to impress and rally the German Volk

Nature deployed and exploited Symbols and their power to impress and rally the German Volk

On Television, many things are reported in the [TV} news, but few are explained

On Television, many things are reported in the [TV} news, but few are explained

The Tube is always in our face; and we face it with a whole lot of belief and awe

The Tube is always in our face; and we face it with a whole lot of belief and awe

Newspapers have sold us propaganda and spin since their inception

Newspapers have sold us propaganda and spin since their inception

No question means no thinking and no freedom for any people anywhere in the world. Propaganda sometimes thrives through coercion and intimidation

No question means no thinking and no freedom for any people anywhere in the world. Propaganda sometimes thrives through coercion and intimidation

Caricaturing of Obama using an old and worn stereotype of African Americans

Caricaturing of Obama using an old and worn stereotype of African Americans

Just because Obama is President, now the  Tea bagger 'want their country back... as their signs depict..

Just because Obama is President, now the Tea bagger 'want their country back... as their signs depict..

The Tea Part's spin, ideology and harangue of Obama equates his policies to Socialism, and Obama is likened to Hitler

The Tea Part's spin, ideology and harangue of Obama equates his policies to Socialism, and Obama is likened to Hitler

The racist depiction of Obama as a feathered medicine of tribesman with horns sticking out of his nose and father and all over him with primitive tools to top it off

The racist depiction of Obama as a feathered medicine of tribesman with horns sticking out of his nose and father and all over him with primitive tools to top it off

Metaphor in picture and the raging debate of the gun violence now gripping the US. is astounding;  there are all sorts of spins pro and against the ban of military-style guns and regulation and tightening of Gun Laws, which the Gun lobby is resisting

Metaphor in picture and the raging debate of the gun violence now gripping the US. is astounding; there are all sorts of spins pro and against the ban of military-style guns and regulation and tightening of Gun Laws, which the Gun lobby is resisting

Truth, Lies, or Confusion: The Puppet Masters

Propaganda, Manipulation Of Consent And Influence - In Sharp Focus

[The] American business community was also very impressed with the propaganda effort. They had a problem at that time. The country was becoming formally more democratic. A lot more people were able to vote and that sort of thing. The country was becoming wealthier and more people could participate and a lot of new immigrants were coming in, and so on. So what do you do? It's going to be harder to run things as a private club. Therefore, obviously, you have to control what people think.

There had been public relation specialists but there was never a public relations industry. There was a guy hired to make Rockefeller's image look prettier and that sort of thing. But this huge public relations industry, which is a US invention and a monstrous industry, came out of the first World War. The leading figures were people in the Creel Commission. In fact, the main one, Edward Bernays, comes right out of the Creel Commission.

He has a book that came out right afterwards called Propaganda. The term "propaganda," incidentally, did not have negative connotations in those days. It was during the second World War that the term became taboo because it was connected with Germany, and all those bad things. But in this period, the term propaganda just meant information or something like that. So he wrote a book called Propaganda around 1925, and it starts off by saying he is applying the lessons of the first World War.

The propaganda system of the first World War and this commission that he was part of showed, he says, it is possible to "regiment the public mind every bit as much as an army regiments their bodies." These new techniques of regimentation of minds, he said, had to be used by the intelligent minorities in order to make sure that the slobs stay on the right course. We can do it now because we have these new techniques.

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This is the main manual of the public relations industry. Bernays is kind of the guru. He was an authentic Roosevelt/Kennedy liberal. He also engineered the public relations effort behind the U.S.-backed coup which overthrew the democratic government of Guatemala.

His major coup, the one that really propelled him into fame in the late 1920s, was getting women to smoke. Women didn't smoke in those days and he ran huge campaigns for Chesterfield. You know all the techniques—models and movie stars with cigarettes coming out of their mouths and that kind of thing. He got enormous praise for that. So he became a leading figure of the industry, and his book was the real manual. (Noam Chomsky)

"The conscious and intelligent manipulation of the organized habits and opinions of the masses is an important element in democratic society. Those who manipulate this unseen mechanism of society constitute an invisible government which is the true ruling power of our country. ... We are governed, our minds are molded, our tastes formed, our ideas suggested, largely by men we have never heard of. This is a logical result of the way in which our democratic society is organized.

"Vast numbers of human beings must cooperate in this manner if they are to live together as a smoothly function society. ... In almost every act of our daily lives, whether in the sphere of politics or business, in our social conduct or our ethical thinking, we are dominated by the relatively small number of persons... who understand the mental processes and social patterns of the masses. It is they who pull the strings which control the public mind, who harness old social forces and contrive new ways to bind and guide the world…"

"Propaganda is the executive arm of the invisible government.

Bernays informs us thus"

"The conscious and intelligent manipulation of the organized habits and opinions of the masses is an important element in democratic society. Those who manipulate this unseen mechanism of society constitute an invisible government which is the true ruling power of our country.

We are governed, our minds are molded, our tastes formed, our ideas suggested, largely by men we have never heard of. This is a logical result of the way in which our democratic society is organized. Vast numbers of human beings must cooperate in this manner if they are to live together as a smoothly functioning society.
Our invisible governors are, in many cases, unaware of the identity of their fellow members in the inner cabinet. They govern us by their qualities of natural leadership, their ability to supply needed ideas and by their key position in the social structure. Whatever attitude one chooses to take toward this condition, it remains a fact that in almost every act of our daily lives, whether in the sphere of politics or business, in our social conduct or our ethical thinking, we are dominated by the relatively small number of persons—a trifling fraction of our hundred and twenty-million—who understand the mental processes and social patterns of the masses.

It is they who pull the wires which control the public mind, who harness old social forces and contrive new ways to bind and guide the world. It is not usually realized how necessary these invisible governors are to the orderly functioning of our group life. In theory, every citizen may vote for whom he pleases. Our Constitution does not envisage political parties as part of the mechanism of government, and its framers seem not to have pictured to themselves the existence in our national politics of anything like the modern political machine.

But the American voters soon found that without organization and direction their individual votes, cast, perhaps, for dozens or hundreds of candidates, would produce nothing but confusion. Invisible government, in the shape of rudimentary political parties, arose almost overnight. Ever since then we have agreed, for the sake of simplicity and practicality, that party machines should narrow down the field of choice to two candidates, or at most three or four.
In theory, every citizen makes up his mind on public questions and matters of private conduct. In practice, if all men had to study for themselves the abstruse economic, political, and ethical data involved in every question, they would find it impossible to come to a conclusion about anything. We have voluntarily agreed to let an invisible government sift the data and high-spot the outstanding issues so that our field of choice shall be narrowed to practical proportions.

From our leaders and the media they use to reach the public, we accept the evidence and the demarcation of issues bearing upon public questions; from some ethical teacher, be it a minister, a favorite essayist, or merely prevailing opinion, we accept a standardized code of social conduct to which we conform most of the time. In theory, everybody buys the best and cheapest commodities offered him on the market. In practice, if every one went around pricing, and chemically testing before purchasing, the dozens of soaps or fabrics or brands of bread which are for sale, economic life would become hopelessly jammed.

To avoid such confusion, society consents to have its choice narrowed to ideas and objects brought to its attention through propaganda of all kinds. There is consequently a vast and continuous effort going on to capture our minds in the interest of some policy or commodity or idea. It might be better to have, instead of propaganda and special pleading, committees of wise men who would choose our rulers, dictate our conduct, private and public, and decide upon the best types of clothes for us to wear and the best kinds of food for us to eat. But we have chosen the opposite method, that of open competition.

We must find a way to make free competition function with reasonable smoothness. To achieve this society has consented to permit free competition to be organized by leadership and propaganda. Some of the phenomena of this process are criticized—the manipulation of news, the inflation of personality, and the general ballyhoo by which politicians and commercial products and social ideas are brought to the consciousness of the masses.

The instruments by which public opinion is organized and focused may be misused. But such organization and focusing are necessary to orderly life. As civilization has become more complex, and as the need for invisible government has been increasingly demonstrated, the technical means have been invented and developed by which opinion may be regimented.

With the printing press and the newspaper, the railroad, the telephone, telegraph, radio and airplanes, ideas can be spread rapidly and even instantaneously over the whole of America.

H. G. Wells senses the vast potentialities of these inventions when he writes in the New York Times:

"Modern means of communication—the power afforded by print, telephone, wireless and so forth, of rapidly putting through directive strategic or technical conceptions to a great number of cooperating centers, of getting quick replies and effective discussion—have opened up a new world of political processes. Ideas and phrases can now be given an effectiveness greater than the effectiveness of any personality and stronger than any sectional interest. The common design can be documented and sustained against perversion and betrayal. It can be elaborated and developed steadily and widely without personal, local and sectional misunderstanding."

A single factory, potentially capable of supplying a whole continent with its particular product, cannot afford to wait until the public asks for its product; it must maintain constant touch, through advertising and propaganda, with the vast public in order to assure itself the continuous demand which alone will make its costly plant profitable. If we understand the mechanism and motives of the group mind, it is now possible to control and regiment the masses according to our will without them knowing it.

"If we understand the mechanism and motives of the group mind, is it not possible to control and regiment the masses according to our will without their knowing about it? The recent practice of propaganda has proved that it is possible, at least up to a certain point and within certain limits.

Engineering Consent And Influence

Bernays defines "engineering consent" as the "art of manipulating people; specifically, the American public, who are described as 'fundamentally irrational people... who could not be trusted. It maintained that entire populations, which were undisciplined or lacking in intellectual or definite moral principles, were vulnerable to unconscious influence and thus susceptible to want things that they do not need. This was achieved by linking those products and ideas to their unconscious desires." Ernest Dichter, who is widely considered to be the "father of motivational research," referred to this as "the secret-self of the American consumer."

In other words, consumer psychologists have already made the choice for people before they buy a certain product. This is achieved by manipulating desires on an unconscious level.

The central idea behind the engineering of consent is that the public or people should not be aware of the manipulation taking place.

The Engineering of Consent also applies to the pioneered application of Freudian psychoanalytic concepts and techniques to business—in particular to the study of consumer behavior in the marketplace. Ideas established strongly influenced the practices of the advertising industry in the twentieth century.

The techniques applied developing the "consumer lifestyle" were also later applied to developing theories in cultural commodification; which has proven successful in the later 20 century (with diffusion of cultures throughout North America) to sell ethnic foods and style in popular mainstream culture by removing them from geography and ethnic histories and sanitizing them for a general public.

Ernest Dichter applied what he dubbed "the strategy of desire" for building a "stable society," by creating for the public a common identity through the products they consumed; again, much like with cultural commodification, where culture has no "identity," "meaning," or "history" inherited from previous generations, but rather, is created by the attitudes which are introduced by consumer behaviors and social patterns of the period. According to Dichter, "To understand a stable citizen, you have to know that modern man quite often tries to work off his frustrations by spending on self-sought gratification. Modern man is internally ready to fulfill his self-image, by purchasing products which compliment it."

"These examples are not given to create the impression that there is anything sinister about propaganda. They are set down rather to illustrate how conscious direction is given to events, and how the men behind these events influence public opinion. As such they are examples of modern propaganda. At this point we may attempt to define propaganda. Modern propaganda is a consistent, enduring effort to create or shape events to influence the relations of the public to an enterprise, idea or group.

"This practice of creating circumstances and of creating pictures in the minds of millions of persons is very common. Virtually no important undertaking is now carried on without it, whether that enterprise be building a cathedral, endowing a university, marketing a moving picture, floating a large bond issue, or electing a president. Sometimes the effect on the public is created by a professional propagandist, sometimes by an amateur deputed for the job. The important thing is that it is universal and continuous; and in its sum total it is regimenting the public mind every bit as much as an army regiments the bodies of its soldiers.

"So vast are the numbers of minds which can be regimented, and so tenacious are they when regimented, that a group at times offers an irresistible pressure before which legislators, editors, and teachers are helpless. The group will cling to its stereotype, as Walter Lippmann calls it, making of those supposedly powerful beings, the leaders of public opinion, mere bits of driftwood in the surf." (Edward Bernays).

Spinning Propaganda

With these views in mind, we look now at how it is broken down and how we are made to understand and see it as it effects and affects individuals. Ellul states: "Modern Propaganda reaches individuals enclosed in the mass and as participants in that mass, yet it also aims at a crowd, but only as a body composed of individuals. Propaganda must be total. The propagandist must utilize all the technical means at his disposal-the press, radio TV, movies, posters, meetings, door to door canvassing, {Internet, e-mail, cell phones, texting Tweeters, Youtube, Internet Radio, TV, Newspapers, Magazine and so forth}-my addition.

Modern Propaganda must utilize all these Media. There is no propaganda as long as one makes use, in sporadic fashion and at random, of a newspaper article here, a poster or radio program there, organizes a few meetings and lectures, writes a few slogans on the wall. That is not propaganda. Propaganda is a matter of reaching and encircling the whole man and all men.

Propaganda tries to surround man by all possible routes, in the realm of feelings as well as ideas, by playing on his will or on his needs, through his conscious and his unconscious, assailing him in both his private and his public-life. It furnishes him with a complete system for explaining the world, and provides immediate incentives to action.

We are in the presence of an organized myth that tries to take hold of the entire person. Through the myth it creates, propaganda imposes a complete range of intuitive knowledge, susceptible of only one interpretation, unique and one sided, and precluding any divergence. It stimulates in the individual a feeling of exclusiveness, and produces a biased attitude. Propaganda cannot be satisfied with partial success, for it does not tolerate discussion; by its very nature, it excludes contradiction and discussion.(Jacques Ellul)

I cited this long excerpt from Edward Bernays[in my opening] and Jacque Ellul to begin to flash-out and understand the going-ons in our society today. The use of media and the now miniaturized technological gadgets,are enabling those who are propagandists to have a field day.

Like Ellul says, "Propaganda, by its very nature excludes contradiction and discussion. Just by mulling over the issues read online or watched on TV, one feels inundated by a barrage of harangue, Mass Actions, attitudes, information, discourse bordering on racism and behaviors without a tinge of civility. What we are seeing is heightened and negative vitriol on both the net and TV. It is becoming belligerent and very negative, intolerant and very aggressive.

Every night now, the same cast of players, Glenn Beck, Rush Limbaugh, Lou Dobbs, Michelle Bachman, Congressman Joe Wilson and other others, work the waves, the net and all other media outlets, like radio, twitter and the rest to misinform, lie and confuse willing adherents. As Pointed above, these people are playing on the 'needs and will,... and assail him in his private and public life'.

It appears like we are now beginning to see what this brouhaha is about from reading Ellul's excerpt. The health care question, the Stimulus Package, and other proposals and efforts are being used to try and discredit the president and various other ways. There's an undercurrent feeling and bubbling race antagonisms about to percolate to the surface or society. The media, as we are using and consuming it, is propelling the negative discourses abound in its memes and within the media ecology, the data sphere and cyber world.

The Way of the Reich

One of the least talked about propagandist was Joseph Goebbels and in this part of the article, we will look at his modus operandi in short to get a sense of how he re-invented and applied the type of propaganda that used the emerging technologies of the day. They used radio, movies, organized rallies and speeches. They adapted their ideology to the Mass media to reach the entire German people.

During the second World War the Nationalist Socialist went about their way to justify and explain the war to the German people. Joseph Goebbels was the architect of this propaganda machinery, and he put into play mass media of the press and especially of the radio on as a tool acting upon the morale of the population engaged in war(Henri Michel)

Around 1944, the German propaganda apparatus and mass media were speaking as much to the Nazi elite as to the masses. It is amazing to note the words of Hitler and Goebbels appealed to normal men and women as a 'trumpet blast of freedom,' a 'beacon light of faith' in the words of some of the popular slogans.

That Goebbels and his operatives had managed to hoodwink the Germans to accept a losing war, says something about his adherents. Goebbels new that he might get some modicum of acceptance if he deluged the German people with great mass media.

He knew that there three type of people in Germany-The Nazis who accepted the message and made stronger form the Movies or rallies; then there were the average types , the non-party members or totally opportunistic" party comrades," those who grumbled about shortages, but did their war duty very well; the third type active and passive opponents of the Third Reich.

These people worried Goebbels greatly, and his propaganda was not directed at winning them over to nazism, but prevent them from spreading what he called 'poisonous attitudes' to the first and second groups mentioned above.

Goebbels went on and treated the jews like they were 'everywhere' and 'nowhere, and according to him, the jews were deadly and subversive, they are the tie which binds the demon like enemy coalition together. His wartime phrase was: "The Jews are to blame for everything". Anti-Jewish feeling permeated every level of the Nazi propaganda apparatus and mass media, even after the Jews were taken to the East.

Around 1943, he stated that the Jews were responsible for German misery and German defeats. Jews as scape-goats and used as excuses does ring familiar in talking about our present state of destabilization taking place today These Nazi architects had a combination of idealism and brutality, of optimism and pessimism, typified by a Nazi world view and propaganda.

They used their own confused yet comprehensible alienation to appeal through Nazi symbols to millions, yet they could still talk to one another as normal, logical, objective men. Joseph Goebbels viewed himself as on of the great propagandists in history. After he became Minister of Propaganda he observed: "In itself propaganda does not possess any set of fundamental methods. It has but one goal, and in politics this goal always revolves around one point: the conquest of the masses".

To him, as a Berlin propagandist, style was his substance: objectivity had nothing to with truth. Some of the objections that have been hurled around against the sitting President are not true, but are treated as true by those who trumpet them. The objective is not truth, but to conquer the masses and manipulate them to whatever end.

By exploring the propaganda principles as espoused by Goebels as described above, is not to make him a hero or good example as how to do propaganda of any kind. The ways and means he applied help us shed the light as to how the propagandist works today. His journalistic mouth-piece, Der Angriff, a short newspaper and an agitational pamphlet, in it we find out that Goebbels had a clear sense of the brilliance of placards and biting satirical cartoons, and he thought that the more outrageous, he thought, the better.

The way they use of the radio, TV, Internet, (rallying the adherents), rallies and demonstration, shed a light on how these are organized and applied as we are witnessing them. The scare tactics, intimidation and rising pulse of race, making Hitler of Obama on Placards, Having Obama as a tribal African decked with feathers and so on, Le Bon, a German elitist during the WWII era after studying crowd motivation wrote:

"The substitution of the unconscious action of the crowd for the conscious activity of individuals is one of the principal characteristics of the present age... Men are ruled by ideas, sentiments and customs... crowds display a singularity inferior mentality... The part played by the unconscious in all our acts is immense, and that played by reason very small."

On the section which will the sub-heading called "Propaganda and Spin" will go much more deeper into the ideas of Le Bon, and how these helped Goebbels to become the Master of Propaganda and Spin. Goebbels was a dangerous and sick, but smart individual in terms of how to manipulate the masses and put them into action.

It is this active manipulation that this article is interrogating in relation to mass media involved with mass action as we are witnessing today, that we are trying to understand and put into some perspective. Hopefully when we cover the section on Propaganda and spin below, we will enable the reader to get a much more deeper and serious understanding of how Spin and Propaganda evolved during the second World War, and how Goebbels the Spinner and Master Propagandist evolved and refined these ideas, mostly churned-out by Le Bon.

Mass Media, Mass target

The Media targets the individual and mass. The Technological gadgets today are for the masses and the individual in converging and connectivity. The memes runs viral in all technological machines and systems and in them, the propagandists morphs effortlessly and effectively. The packaged viral is coughed in terms that are easy and digestible to everyone.

The breakdown of old ways of receiving and sending information have evolved to the point of us being the information conduit and preserver. The nature of the messages in the system are providing the propagandist with mass outreach and connection never seen before in our young techno-life.

What this means is that propaganda thrives even more so in that it is not only local in its applications, but creates and duplicates itself in many context and denotation internationally. The information age has become the age of confusion and less information. Every bit of information has its counterpart, for or against it, or neither, which multiplies in even large scale information, that, in the end, the propagandist thrives amid an audience with limited , disjointed and sparse knowledge, talking points, that, whatever the propagandist says, becomes information, no matter how wrong, and incomplete or untrue.

The way of processing and disseminating of information has affected a lot of people and children, and our processing and applying the information has changed with the manner and rate at which it's coming at us.

We can look at various examples in our mass media world today. The masses use the Internet and TV to communicate and get information. So that, what happens when the mass of people, the whole globe get connected on the web, we have a melding of ideas, cultures and big business collide.

The availability of TV, Internet, Newspapers, Radio, movies, door to door campaigning, speeches, rallies, posters, TV talking heads, news documentaries, cell phones, texting , e-mails, twittering, reading,writing and responding to blogs on comments column, cyber surfing and chatting give the user and the masses an illusion of being technologically advanced, yet inundated with all types of information, that in the final analysis information looses its value, content and context; it becomes regular and tepid and confusing.

The glut of memes choking the web now requires the consumer of that information to sort and ferret if not vet the content and context to simplify and analyze. Within the Technological Empire, the feed and the reception have become one. Those who receive the information become the information bearers and disseminators of material that they either believe or reject, do not know of its origin or they do, but become carriers and imbibe it nonetheless responding, in the process to other meme stimuli and prodding, etc.. This has resulted in a very interesting time in the politics and society.

The mass media machinery has one interest, reaching the individual as an individual and part of the mass targeted, either manipulating or fleecing them. As Ellul says, it works on trying to reach each one of us in the 'realm of feeling and ideas'. The interest groups opportunistically push their agenda and disseminate their ideas, in the process excluding and contradiction through abuse and other unseemly conduct and behavior[shouting at the tea parties], out-talking and out-shouting opposition on TV or radio news programs, discussion on talk shows while business is cashing in.

There are many other programs which promote domestic terrorism, racist blogs and video-sites, religious, music sites and so forth. Propagandist operate on many levels and in many guises and covertly and overtly. By doing this, some magnify our fears and unsettle our feelings.

This is the climate within which media 'propaganda imposes a complete range of intuitive knowledge,susceptible of only one interpretation, unique and one sided, and precluding any divergence'. The Corporations pour in funds and support, promote,orchestrate and sow dissent and destabilization.

Jacques Ellul furthers this point above thus:

"We have just said that action exactly suited to its ends must be obtained.This leads us to state that if the classic but outmoded view of propaganda consists in defining it as an adherence of man to an orthodoxy , true modern propaganda seeks, on the contrary, to obtain orthopraxy- an action that in itself, and not because of the value judgements of the person, who is acting, leads directly to a goal, which for the individual is not a conscious and intentional objective to be attained, but which is considered such by the propagandist. The propagandist knows what objective should be sought and what action should be accomplished, and he maneuvers the instrument that will secure precisely this action".

Ellul further adds: "This is a particular example of a more general problem: the separation of thought and action in our society. We are living in a time when systematically-though without our wanting it so-action and thought are being separated. In our society, he who thinks can no longer act for himself; he must act through the agency of others, and in many cases he cannot act at all.

"He who acts cannot first think out his action, either because of lack of time and the burden of his personal problems, or because society's plan demands that he translate others' thoughts into action". It is instructive what Jacques is saying and we live in a time when the minds has been completely severed from our actions. A lot of people are not thinking or researching issues for themselves; they thrive on hear-say, innuendo and misinformation. Their action of what they do with that information has noting to do with what they thought, themselves. They become a well orchestrated, controlled and contained mass.

"They belong to the second groups that Goebbels, the opportunistic comrades who complain, but deep on going on and fighting for the wrong reasons. Their behavior,actions and attitudes are based on the lies and confusion that they are sold to by the Multi-Corporations, special interest groups, and other agitators and persons and organizations, that, as said, the glut of information become lessened in its value, content and context, they believe what they have been instructed to 'protest and rally against'. The propaganda is spun in way it puts people into action and motion.

The truth is not an issue, it is the confusion sown to sway men into actions, charge-up and change their attitudes and let them loose on questionable behaviors and raving rants, that do not make any sense nor stand or hold up when facts or truth are presented. This is precisely what is happening today in the ether, net and tube.

Propaganda has created an atmosphere filled with putrid racist talk, signs that depict ugly images of Obama as Hitler; graffiti on the walls giving orders to kill Obama; illegal immigrants under incessant attack, both physically or otherwise. The men in Congress talk like normal people, reasonable, amicable, but they got the ball rolling for this year by being the party of 'no', they want to see the President fail; saying that he is putting us in danger; his health care is dangerous; he apologizes too much to other world leaders and bows down to the Saudi's, he's a commie; he is an Arab; he is an illegal alien and other choice words that need not be furthered in this article. Others proclaimed that Obama is showing us as a weak President and anyway, they go on to 'claim' that he is not an American, but Kenyan and so forth.

Technology is used through applying and packaging their messages or memes into the bowels of the connected and converging technologies, which has put us nearer to a culture and race war. The Empire in a piecemeal way showing the war reluctantly to the masses, and this too, is the one straw that is adding to breaking the camel's back. We need to look deeper into the effects and affects of current technological Eco-systems and, their feed and feedback as they are utilized and arrayed against the masses who use them and imbibe their products,content and context, albeit confusing and inane.

The spin that is being added to the cyber-tube-radio melange, is creating lies, confusion, agitation and uncertainty-this is not good for democracy, stability and progress. The aim, as Goebbels observed, is to conquer the masses using a deluge off mass media apparatuses and outlets, and in our case, objectivity, too, has nothing to do with the truth.

Propaganda and Democracy

From the moment that propaganda is used to promulgate democratic ideas,it is good; if it is bad it is only because of its authoritarian content. Such a position is terribly idealistic and neglects the principal condition of the modern world; the primacy of means over ends. But one may say — and this is a matter worthy of reflection — that democracy itself is not a good "propaganda object."

Practically all propaganda efforts to promulgate democracy have failed. In fact, one would have to modify the entire concept of democracy considerably to make it a good propaganda object, which at present it is not.

From the moment that democracy uses this instruments (propaganda), propaganda becomes democratic. This thought is not often expressed quite so simply and aggressively, but it is an implicit notion found in most American writers. Nothing can touch democracy; on the contrary, it impresses its character on everything it touches. This prejudice is important for understanding the American democratic mythology and the tentative adoption of this principle by the popular democracies. (Ellul)

Some will say: "Freedom of expression is democracy; to prevent propaganda is to violate democracy. Certainly, but it must be remembered that the freedom of expression of one or two powerful companies that do not express the thoughts of the individual or small groups, but of the capitalist interests or an entire public, does not exactly correspond to what was called freedom of expression a century ago.

One must remember, further, that the freedom of expression of one who makes a speech to a limited audience is not the same as that of the speaker who has all the radio sets in the country at his disposal, all the more as the science of propaganda gives to these instruments a shock effect that the non-initiated cannot equal.'

Rivero demonstrates the immense difference between the nineteenth and twentieth centuries in this respect:

"In the nineteenth century,the problem of opinion formation through the expression of thought was essentially a problem of contacts between the state and the individual, and a problem of acquisition of a freedom. But today, thanks to the mass media, the individual find himself outside the battle ... the debate is between the State and powerful groups. ... Freedom to express ideas is no longer at stake in this debate. ...

"What we have is a mastery and domination by the State or some powerful groups over the whole of the technical media of opinion formation... the individual has no access to them ... he is no longer a participant in this battle for the free expression of ideas: he is the stake. What matters for him is which voice will be permitted to hear and which words will have the power to obsess him..."

One has to ask then what freedom of expression still means in a democracy. Even if the state held all the instruments of propaganda and spin, what characterizes democracy is that it permits the expression of different propagandas. The other effect of democratic propaganda is that it is subject to certain values. It is not unfettered but fettered, and it is an instrument not of passion but reason.

Therefore, democratic propaganda must be essentially truthful. This can be observed in American propaganda: it is undeniable that American that American information and propaganda are truthful. But that does not seem to be necessarily characteristic of democracy in the American context of the word.

This becomes much more clearer when briefly look into the propaganda modus operandi of Hitler and his Nazis: In a recent anthology on film and propaganda, Grehard Jagschitz noted: "The ultimate question about the effect of National Socialist propaganda cannot yet be definitely answered, since the relevant research has not yet been done.

"Important work remains to be done on the Nazi use of heroic myth, history, and language, particularly in the context of the regime's remarkably successful manipulation of people through symbolic images of German traditions and language." Here we are about to enter w world which demanded self-abnegating heroism, a world which the voices of men like Adolf Hitler and Joseph Goebbels appealed to many normal men and women as a "trumpet blast of freedom, and a beacon light of faith," in the words of a popular slogan."

This was a world in which brutal determination appeared in the guise of martial music and pathos-laden salutes to the fallen heroes of both world wars. This was an epoch when music encouraged men to suffer and die, yet offered solace and made men tougher; there was music sand and heroic. "The Song of the Good Comrade," "raise the Banner," and famous old Prussian marches taken over by the Nazis because of their symbolic unity with a heroic past-the "Hohenfreidberger," the Petersburger," The March from the Time of Frederick the Great."

Goebbels mobilized this spirit, and the German propaganda apparatus and mass media used it to receptive millions as the authentic voice of German greatness, a link with the pre-Nazi German past and culture.In 1934, at Nurnberg, Hitler declared that, "Unlike for other Germans, for us mere proclamation of faith does not suffice, only the oath 'I fight!."(From the film Triumph of the Will 1935.

The propaganda which addressed party members and cadres demanded that they fight as well as believe, for belief was assumed. In the instance of the general population, propagandists felt that a constantly repeated faith in Hitler and Nazi ideology would serve to buttress a German willingness to take orders and do one's duty. People would have to see their fate and that of the Nazis were on and the same, that they too must believe in order to contribute to final victory. The apparatus could speak to Nazis directly and in ideological terms. In addressing the nation, greater caution was in order, but faith and belief were part of the media message, often skillfully disguised or sublimated.

If the Nazi propagandists were successful in inducing the population to wage an increasingly hopeless struggle, what does this say about Goebbels' audience? The Nazis knew their own people and could assume at least a minimal acceptance of the ideological propaganda which inundated the great mass media. The population consisted of three types of people. One type were Nazis who accepted the message and felt stronger when they emerged from a theater after seeing Jud Suss or Ohm Kruger.

These were men and women who were electrified when they heard Goebbels speak in 1943, or when they saw a poster a poster with an idealized portrait or Hitler over the caption"Adolf Hitler is Victory." There were the average types, the nonparty members or totally opportunistic "party comrades," the people who grumbled about shortages but did their duty in war, no matter who governed the nation. Keeping these people committed to victory was Goebbels' major task.

The third group consisted of active and passive opponents of the Third Reich. These people concerned Goebbels greatly, but the abstraction, since his propaganda was not directed toward winning them over to Nazism, but rather at preventing the spread of their poisonous attitudes to the first and second categories of citizens. Himmler, not Goebels, was in charge of dealing with dissidents: people in the Communist and Jewish underground, graffiti writers, composers of anonymous hate letters to Nazi leaders, and anti-regime activists.

The democratic propagandist or democratic State will often have a bad conscience about using propaganda. The old democratic conscience still gets in the way and burdens him; he has a vague feeling that he is engaged in something illegitimate. Thus, for the propagandist in a democracy to throw himself fully into his task it is necessary that he believes-i.e., that he formulates his own convictions when he makes propaganda.

In terms of what has been said above about democratic propaganda, it all adds up to ineffectual propaganda. Precisely to the extent that the propagandist retains his respect for the individual, he denies himself the very penetration that is the ultimate aim of all propaganda: that of provoking action without prior thought. To the extent that he remains partial, he fails to use the mystique. But that mystique is indispensable for well-made propaganda.

Ultimately, even if one tries to maintain confidence and communion between government and the governed, all propaganda and spin ends up as a means by which the prevailing powers manipulate the masses. This schism between the masses and the government is provoked and maintained by all techniques whose practitioners constitute a sort of aristocracy of technicians who make it their business to modify the structures of the state.

What the developments over the past several decades show is that the democracies will abandon their precaution, if they have not yet already done so, and their nuances and throw themselves wholeheartedly into effective propaganda action. But such actions will no longer have a special democratic character, but will be in the service of both propaganda and spin as we are witnessing it in today's technological society.

At this point we should really be looking closely at Public Relations people and their shenanigans. The most successful public relations campaigns aim to change public perception with our awareness of the campaign. They are regularly conducted by governments, institutions and countries that are endeavoring to hang their public image, restore their reputation or manipulate public opinion.When these firms have aided dictatorships, dishonest politicians and corrupt industries, the results have led to environmental catastrophes, human rights violations and war.

Public Relations (PR) is a communications strategy aiming to influence specific publics using writing, marketing,advertising, publicity, promotions, and special events. some public relations specialists work as full-time employees of companies, politicians, nonprofit organizations or governments; while others work for PR agencies that contract their services to clients (usually corporations, wealthy individuals or other special interests) who pay for the expertise at keeping them in or our of the spotlight, whichever is necessary. Corporations are increasingly manipulative in the way that they present information via Front Groups and information media. PRs have often engaged in deliberate deception on their clients' behalf and have developed a deeply unhealthy relationship with the 'free press.'

Furthermore, by giving vested interest the opportunity to deliberately obfuscate, deceive and derail public debate on key issues, the public relations industry reduces society's capacity to respond effectively to key social, environmental and political changes." They achieve all these means and efforts by utilizing i) focus groups; ii) Doublespeak; III)Front Groups; iV) Paid Experts; and, v) PR Consultants. In the final analysis they use 'memetics". To achieve all these feats, they use 'Memetics' , which is the study of how ideas pass from one person to another across culture.

This theory proposes that ideas were like viruses that can be transmitted from person to person and rapidly "infect" large populations. Memes can represent parts of ideas, languages, tunes, designs, moral and esthetic values, skills, and anything else that is commonly learned and passed on to others as a unit. The study of 'memes is called 'memetics'. (

Propagation of Propaganda

Funk and Wagnalls have sought to emphasize the neutrality of the term "propaganda by recalling its original meaning: 'Propaganda' in its proper meaning is a perfectly wholesome word, of honest parentage, and with an honorable history. The fact that it should to-day be carrying a sinister meaning merely shows how much of the child remains in the average adult child. New activities call for a new nomenclature.

The propagandist who specializes n interpreting enterprises and ideas to the public ... has come to be known by the name of 'public relations counsel'. The stage at which many suppose [the public relations counsel] starts his activities may actually be the stage at which he ends them. In other words, public relations enables propaganda without actually engaging it. (Bernays)

Insofar as common parlance today tends to equate public relations with spin and propaganda with lies, Bernays can be said to have won the battle over nomenclature. But Bernay's tortured distancing of himself from the term. Woolf's insight to changing norms of persuasion, and Orwell's sense of modern state's dependence on propaganda begin to get at the more complex understanding that emerges in the following decades, particularly in the work of Jacques Ellul (Wollaeger)

The reality of they type of propaganda we face emanates and is distilled by theories of Jacque Ellul on propaganda. Wollanger writes:

"Ellul's importance in propaganda studies derives from his focus on propaganda as a sociological phenomenon made necessary by the nature of modern society rather than as the political weapon of a particular regime or organization. He draws from Bernay's and his definition of propaganda of "social propaganda as the penetration of an ideology as a means of its sociological context, which echoes Bernay's account of 'the new propaganda,' which sees the individual not only as a cell in the social organism, but as a cell organized into the 'social unit.'

"The concept of sociological or 'integration' propaganda permits Ellul to set aside extreme solutions to problems of definition, namely, the notion that everything is propaganda because ideology permeates all spheres of existence and the rejection of the term altogether in favor of a yet broader term , such as 'persuasion.' Slower and more diffuse than political, economic, and cultural structures, and produces "a progressive adaptation to a certain order of things, a certain concept of human relations, which unconsciously molds individuals and makes them conform to society"(Ellul).

Integration propaganda thus includes not just the usual state-sponsored suspects-political broadcasting, censorship,atrocity stories, and the manipulation of also more diffusely constellated organizations and institutions, such as advertising, public relations, and popular films, whose interactions effectively reinforce official political propaganda without necessarily setting out to do so. Ellul is clearly open to the charge that insofar as nearly everything counts as propaganda, he empties the category of meaning.

But it is equally clear that it makes sense to use "propaganda" as a covering term to articulate the notion that in highly rationalized societies, diverse forms of modern communication function together to ensure the reproduction of the system.(Mark Sollanger)

For Ellul, technique is at the heart of modern society. By "Technique" Ellul means any standardized ensemble of means used to attain a given end, and he understands propaganda a necessary corollary of a society dominated by technique, Ellul argues that while technique began with machine, the progressive extension of technique into all domains of existence produces a civilization committed only to efficiency as an end in itself.

"Propaganda is necessary in such a world, for 'propaganda is called upon to solve problems created by technology, to play on maladjustments, and to integrate the individual into a technological world [Ellul]. Ellul understands modern propaganda as a species of mythopoesis that papers over contradictions opened up by the homologous forces of rationalization, technique and enlightenment.(Wollanger) We will clear-up this excerpt further below.

Propaganda Spinning

To understand the whole spin and the manipulation of the attitudes of men, one has to understand the nature of propaganda and how does it operate in achieving its ends. In this case then, we look into the mind of the Master propagandist, Joseph Goebbels's mind and how he formulated his ideas and applied propaganda. This will in fact give us a better picture of what Propaganda and spin is all about.

Le Bon argued that successful politicians possess "an instinctive and often very sure knowledge of the character of the crows, and it is their accurate knowledge of this character that has enabled them so easily to establish their mastery." Crowds make "normal" people capable of savage actions: Goebbels exploited this insight of Le Bon to the full. Yet crowds are also conducive to great acts of heroism. Goebbels understood this better than Le Bon, and his idealistic appeals to sacrifice and struggle had a tremendous impact upon the German nation up to 1945. Le Bon Stated, "A crowd thinks in images, and the image itself immediately calls up a series of other images, having no connection with the first. ...

A crowd scarcely distinguishes between the subjective and the objective. It accepts as real the images evoked in its mind, though they most often have only a very distant relation with the observed fact." Goebbels believed in these truths and acted upon them throughout his political career. The crowd or even the entire nation-which was just a vast crowd that could ow be reached through radio, the press, and film-would respond to symbols which evoked greatness of the past or hostile conspiracies in the present. As Hitler wrote in the "Mein Kampf" "All propaganda must be popular and its intellectual level must be adjusted to the most limited intelligence among those it is addressed to.

Consequently, the grater the mass it is intended to reach, the lower its purely intellectual level will have to be.... The people in their overwhelming majority are so feminine by nature and attitude that sober reasoning determines their thoughts and actions far less than emotion and feeling. (Adolf Hitler-Mein Kampf) Hitler's dictates were the commands to which Goebbels worked on very well in a myriad ways.

When Goebbels manipulated the symbols of the Germans past, he appreciated the truth of Le Bon's great dictum: "It is not even necessary that heroes should e separated from us by centuries for their legend to be transformed by the imagination of the crowd. The transformation occasionally takes place within a few years." Goebbels helped create the myth of the Nazi Era of Struggle within ten years of the end of that period in German history.

The crowd was endlessly impressionable "like a woman," thought Le Bon, and he believed, "an orator wishing to move a crowd must make an abusive use of violent affirmation." Le Bon Brilliantly analyzed the conservatism of crowds, their fear of change. The uprooted disorientated German masses were putty in Goebbels hands. Crows could be best motivated by an appeal to their collective idealism. Le Bon Stated, Personal interest is very rarely a powerful motive force with crowds, wile it is almost the exclusive motive of the conduct of the isolated individual. Goebbels knew all this, but he possessed a quality which National Socialism rejected, at least in theory-the critical intellect.

This made him a master manipulator of crowds, since, according to Le Bon, show a "complete lack of theoretical spirit." Here, Goebbels' oratorical techniques differed in their effect from the speeches of Adolf Hitler. Hitler left his audiences in a frenzy, but a reading of his speeches confirms Le Bon's comment, "Astonishment is felt at time on reaching certain speeches at their weakness, and yet they had an enormous influence on the crowds which listened to them." Many of the speeches of Goebbels can still be read today with interest because of their intellectual content.

This is What Le Bon had to say about the masses: "...they turn instinctively, as the insect seeks the light, to the rhetoricians who accord them what they want.... Whoever can supply them with illusions is easily their master; whoever attempts to destroy their illusions is always their victim." Le Bon's racialism appealed to Goebbels, and he agreed with the French man's argument that "Every race carries in its mental constitution the law of its destiny ...

This was the reason why Goebbels used so many symbols, showing that he carried forth Le Bon's assumptions, of appealing to the German people's Era of Struggle myth during the last war years: honor, sacrifice , faith, readiness for combat, love of Fatherland. Le Bon states: "It is not by reason, but most often in spite of it, that are created those sentiments that are the mainspring of all civilization-sentiments such as honor, self-sacrifice, religious faith, patriotism, and the love of glory."

Le Bon also provided insights into the masters of crowds in the following manner: The leader has most often started as one of the led. He has himself been hypnotized by the idea whose apostle he has since become." The leaders "are especially recruited from the ranks of those morbidly nervous, excitable, half-deranged persons who are bordering on madness.... Contempt and persecution do not affect them, only serve to excite them more.... To endow a man with faith id to multiply his strength tenfold." When Goebbels read Le Bon, he saw Adolf Hitler, the Hitler who loved to state, "He who has faith in his heart, possess the greatest strength in the world."

Goebbels felt justified by his faith in Hitler after 1926, and he preached this faith to the German people. He was thus the herald of redemption, and in the process he deified Hitler, all the while praising his "human qualities". As he had learned from Le Bon, "The gods and men who have kept their prestige for long have never tolerated discussion. For the crowd to admire, it must be kept at a distance."

In a speech delivered in 1928, titled "Knowledge and Propaganda" Goebbels said: "The aim of propaganda was political success, not intellectual depth. The role of the propagandist was to express in words what his audience felt in their hearts. The propagandist must feel the totality of the National Socialist idea in every aspect of his perceptions. His desire is to transmit tis idea to his listeners.

"Party organization is necessary for the victory of an idea ...In politics power prevails, not moral claims of justice. Being in power give a party or an idea the right to use that power. Propaganda is a pragmatic art, the means to an end, the seizure of total power. Because methods and situations change, the propagandist must be an organizer and writer as well as a speaker. He must be able to appeal to the "broad masses of educated people, as well s to the little man.

"The propagandist of the totalitarian party bears an evangelical message to the masses. No one is willing to die for an eight hour day. But one can die so that Germany might belong to the German people. As long as propaganda did not lead to a Verbot by the jewish police presidium, it was false, because it was not dangerous. That [decree of dissolution] is the best proof that we are dangerous."

It is important to note that Goebbels learnt from Christ, Mohammed, Bhudda, Zarathustra, Robespierre, Danton, Mussolini, Lenin, Napoleon. Caesar and Alexander. They all had in common ability as speakers with a revolutionary idea and brilliant organizational talent. Goebbels was an organizer and speaker, but Hitler alone had created the Idea. He took it up on himself to advance Hitler's revolution, but he was unable to make one of is own.

Albert Krebs, who knew Goebbels during the Weimar era, put it this way: "Goebbels possessed and infinitely acute sense of these forces and an equally vast ability to appeal to them as conscious factors and set them in motion with words. But since he himself, in my estimation, was largely lacking in such vital elementary forces, he was not in a potion to establish courses and goals for himself. On the contrary, he needed the forces of others to be himself."(Krebs, page 205)

This is just a smattering of what Goebbels mind was like an all the forces that capitulated him to the highest echelons of Nazi Pecking order. We need to pay attention to how propaganda was used merging and melding the media and symbols to put the German into action-which precipitated into the second world War. Goebbels was able to spin his way into his wildest fantasies about propagating a course that had paltry existence in the historiography of man. The masses gullibility became The hunting ground for vultures like Goebbels and Hitler to spin their propagandistic yarn.

The Reich's Ideological War and Its Symbols

Ideological War, Words and Symbols in the 2012 American Elections

Despite his superiority, the enemy too is teaching the limits of his strength. This would not be the first time in history in which the stronger will triumphs over the greater battalions of he enemy. You can show your troops no other path than that which leads to victory or death. This was said to Field Marshall Erwin Rommel, November 3, 1942. The war did more than reinforce the basic tenets of Nationalist Socialist ideology. This era proved how an apparatus of totalitarian media control could affect public attitudes and morale during a global conflict. Begun in 1939 as an attempt to explain rapidly changing diplomatic or military situations, wartime Nazi Propaganda ended by projecting the final legacy of Nazi ideology.

These visions reflected Nazi assumptions about symbols to which the German public would respond with a renewed commitment to total victory. Vindictive in victory, filled with fear and loathing in defeat, Nazi ideologists loaded their modes of expression with symbols and words which they believed would appeal to the German public: "heroism," "sacrifice," Jewry," "capitalists," bolsheviks," Frederick the great," "Perfidious Albion," "mass murder," "hatred for Germany." Some symbols dated back to the eighteenth century; others emerged in the troubled years after the First World War.

They formed a structure of word and symbol which was an essential instrument of Nazi propagandists. An infamous campaign of resentment and its result, murder and hatred, could thereby be justified as self-defense in total confrontation with alien doctrines. Victory could appear to the pious as divine grace, defeat, the result of devilish conspiracy. The wartime media thus reflected the cynicism, torments, and faith of Joseph Goebbels. In the end, even Goebbels himself turned into a symbol. He ceased being an agent of control.

Henri Michel has commented with regard to waging total war: "No, in total strategy, there exist many non-military means which can influence decision ... I am thinking first of all of the part played by the mass media, of the press, but also and especially of the radio,which showed itself to be a powerful tool acting upon the morale of the populations engaged in the war… This is true, but in the case of the Reich, the role of the media contained a sequel, unique to the German situation."

If one were to understand the post above, and have been following the American realpolitick scene as it relates to the onslaught against Obama, one is tempted to say that his detractors took a page out of the Goebbels' Playbook One has seen the use of words such as Communist,", "other,' "not one of us," "has no birth certificate,' or was not born in America,' "Obama is a Muslim,'.

And to go with all this were the depiction of Obama as a "bush doctor adorned with feathers," as "Hitler and the mustache to go with it," as a "monkey with large ears-tarred all over," or "as shown as a 'black person with thick red lips and big ears.' Today in the media he is called a 'retard" by Ann Coulter; I cannot even all the names Rush Limbaugh called Obama.

The racial decibel has gone over the red-alert mark in the United States, wherein we see those who dislike Obama spin everything form accusing pollsters of conspiracy trying to put Romney down to praising a lousy performance by Romney on the last debate as being "presidential", as being "ahead in the polls"(even though he is not really leading), and they have some hope that this will in the end become the fact that if "you repeat a lie long enough, it will eventually become the truth(a la Goebbels and hItler propaganda theories)

In the case of the American over-heated political scene, spin is really designed to manipulate mass action, mass mind, attitudes and behavior and this we have see ample evidence for the past two years to date, with the emergence of the Tea Baggers and their minions who were elected into the House, and blocked everything Obama did, indeed vilifying and being racist against him.

It is strange to see this happening today in the United States, where voter purging has become the norm: this mens that all people of color are being dissuaded to vote through many nefarious and devious ways, a la Jim Crow era and the Pol Tax era. It's only a few weeks toward the election here in the United States, and propaganda and spin are at their height, and the propaganda machines are splurging the public with negative adds ad-infinitum.

This story still goes on whereby we will give a full evaluation of propaganda and spin in the United states and how the Germans executed and applied it — and what the similarities and differences(if there are any) , are. For us, this is made much more clearer by Noam Chomsky.

Manipulation of the Population Through The Media

Noam Chomsky has compiled a list of the ten most powerful and efficacious strategies used by "masters of the world" to establish a manipulation of the population through the Media. The strategies are so well-elaborated that even the countries with the educational systems, succumb to the power and terror of those mafias.

Many things are reported in the news but few are reported. The job of the media is not to inform, but to misinform: Divert public attention from important issues and changes decided by the political and economic elites, by the technique of flood continuous flood of distraction and insignificant information.

Journalists who have access to highly placed government and corporate sources have to keep them on their side by not reporting anything adverse about them or their organizations. Otherwise they risk losing them as sources of information. In return for tis loyalty, their sources occasionally give them good stories, leaks and access to special interviews.

Unofficial information, or leaks, give the impression of investigative journalism, but are often strategic maneuvers on the part of those with position or power (Riccci - 1993)'It is a bitter irony of source journalism ... that the most esteemed journalists are precisely the most servile.For it is by making themselves useful to the powerful that they gain access to the "best sources" (Lee and Solomon - 1990)

Noam Chomsky gives us a list on the manipulative effects and affects of med today by listing for us these then following points:

The Top Ten Strategies:

  1. The strategy of distraction:-

The primary element of social control is the strategy of distraction which is to divert public attention from important issues and changes determined by the political and economic elites, by the technique of flood or flooding distractions and insignificant information. Distraction strategy is also essential to prevent public interest in the essential knowledge in the area of the science, economics, psychology, neurobiology and cybernetics. "Maintaining public attention diverted away from the real social problems, captivated by matters of no real importance. Keep the public busy, busy, busy, no time to think, back to farm and other animals" (quoted from text, "Silent Weapons for Quiet Wars')

2. Create problems, then offer solutions:-

This method is also called "problem-reaction-solution." It creates a problem, a "situation" referred to cause some reaction in the audience, so this is the principal of the steps that you want to accept. For example: let it unfold and intensify urban violence, or arrange for bloody attacks in order the public is the applicant's security laws and policies to the detriment of freedom. Or, create an economic crisis to accept as a necessary evil retreat of social rights and the dismantling of public services.

3. The gradual strategy:-

Acceptance to an unacceptable degree, just apply it gradually, dropper, for consecutive years. That is how the radically new socioeconomic conditions (neoliberalism) were imposed during the 1980s and 1990s:

  • the minimal state
  • privatization
  • precariousness
  • flexibility
  • massive unemployment
  • wages
  • do not guarantee a decent income

...So many changes that have brought about a revolution if they had been applied once.

4. Strategy deferring:-

Another way to accept an unpopular decision is to present is as "painful and necessary," gaining public acceptance, at the time for future application. It is easier to accept that a future sacrifice of immediate slaughter:

  • First, because the effort is not used immediately
  • Then, because the public, masses,has always the tendency to expect naively that "everything will be better tomorrow" and that the sacrifice required may be avoided.

This gives the public more time to get used to the idea of change and accept it with resignation when the time comes.

5. Go to the public as a little child:-

Most of the advertising to the general public uses speech, argument, people and particularly children's intonation, often close to the weakness, as if the viewer were a little child or a mentally deficient. The harder one tries to deceive the viewer look, the more it tend to adopt a tone of infantilizing. Why? "If one goes to a person as if she had the age of 12 years of less, then, because of suggestion, she tends with a certain probability that a response or reaction also devoid of a critical sense as a person 12 years or younger." (See "Silent Weapons for Quiet Wars")

6. Use emotional side more than the reflection:-

Making use of the emotional aspect is a classic technique for causing a short circuit on rational analysis, and finally to the critical sense of the individual. Furthermore, the use of emotional register to open the door to the unconscious for implantation or grafting of ideas, desires, fears and anxieties, compulsions, or induce behaviors ...

7. Keep the public [masses] in ignorance and mediocrity:-

Making the public incapable of understanding the technologies and methods used to control [them] and [for their] enslavement. "the quality of education given to the lower social classes must be poor and mediocre as possible so that the gap of ignorance it plans among the lower classes and upper classes is and remains impossible to attain for the lower classes "(See "Silent Weapons for Quiet Wars")

8. To encourage the public(masses) to be complacent with mediocrity

Promote [or convince] the public to believe that the fact it is fashionable to be stupid, vulgar and uneducated...

9. Self-Blame Strengthen:-

To let individual blame[themselves] for their misfortune, because of the failure of their intelligence, their abilities, their efforts. So, instead of rebelling against the economic system, the individual auto-devaluate and find[themselves0 guilty, which creates a depression, one of whose affects is to inhibit its action. And, without action, there is no revolution!

10. Getting to know the individuals better than they know themselves:-

Over the past 50 years, advances of accelerated since has generated a growing gap between the public knowledge and those owned and operated by dominant elites. Thanks to biology, neurobiology and applied psychology, the "system" has enjoyed a sophisticated understanding of human beings, both physically and psychologically. The system has gotten better acquainted with the common man more than he knows himself. This means that, in most cases, the system exerts greater control and great power over individuals, greater than that of individuals about themselves.

It is important to pay attention to the ten point above because they give us a framework from which we can better understand the present-day media and its affects and effect on people; i.e., how these new technology work, operate and embed themselves in our psyches, consciousness, intelligence and our being gullible when it comes to the fast and furiously churned out technological gizmos and the emerging and converging media which is streaming on the web faster than the speed of life and light.

When we want to begin to understand spin and propaganda today, it is good to know how it originated in the past, and what it is like today, and how it thrills and trips and affect us as a collective critical mass media consuming people; and maybe, if we can configure these modern spin techniques and propaganda techniques, we might be able to wrap our heads around what is happening to us in our technological society and milieu, today and for the future.

Propaganda Peddlers And Media Puppet Masters

In our present social organization approval of the public is essential to any large undertaking. Hence a laudable movement may be lost unless it impresses itself on the public mind. Charity, as well as business, and politics and literature, for that matter, have had to adopt propaganda, for the public must be regimented into giving money just as it must be regimented into tuberculosis prophylaxis.

The Near East Relief, the Association for the Improvement of the Condition of the Poor of New York, and all the rest, have to work on public opinion just as though they had tubes of toothpaste to sell. We are proud of our diminishing infant death rate—and that too is the work of propaganda.

Propaganda does exist on all sides of us, and it does change our mental pictures of the world. Even if this be unduly pessimistic—and that remains to be proved—the opinion reflects a tendency that is undoubtedly real. In fact, its use is growing as its efficiency in gaining public support is recognized. This then, evidently indicates the fact that any one with sufficient influence can lead sections of the public at least for a time and for a given purpose.

Formerly the rulers were the leaders. They laid out the course of history, by the simple process of doing what they wanted. And if nowadays the successors of the rulers, those whose position or ability gives them power, can no longer do what they want without the approval of the masses, they find in propaganda a tool which is increasingly powerful in gaining that approval. Therefore, propaganda is here to stay.

It was, of course, the astounding success of propaganda during the war that opened the eyes of the intelligent few in all departments of life to the possibilities of regimenting the public mind. The American government and numerous patriotic agencies developed a technique which, to most persons accustomed to bidding for public acceptance, was new. T

They not only appealed to the individual by means of every approach—visual, graphic, and auditory—to support the national endeavor, but they also secured the cooperation of the key men in every group —persons whose mere word carried authority to hundreds or thousands or hundreds of thousands of followers.

They thus automatically gained the support of fraternal, religious, commercial, patriotic, social and local groups whose members took their opinions from their accustomed leaders and spokesmen, or from the periodical publications which they were accustomed to read and believe.

At the same time, the manipulators of patriotic opinion made use of the mental cliches and the emotional habits of the public to produce mass reactions against the alleged atrocities, the terror and the tyranny of the enemy. It was only natural, after the war ended, that intelligent persons should ask themselves whether it was not possible to apply a similar technique to the problems of peace.

As a matter of fact, the practice of propaganda since the war has assumed very different forms from those prevalent twenty years ago. This new technique may fairly be called the new propaganda.

It takes account not merely of the individual, nor even of the mass mind alone, but also and especially of the anatomy of society, with its interlocking group formations and loyalties. It sees the individual not only as a cell in the social organism but as a cell organized into the social unit. Touch a nerve at a sensitive spot and you get an automatic response from certain specific members of the organism.

Business offers graphic examples of the effect that may be produced upon the public by interested groups, such as textile manufacturers losing their markets. This problem arose, not long ago, when the velvet manufacturers were facing ruin because their product had long been out of fashion.

Analysis showed that it was impossible to revive a velvet fashion within America. Anatomical hunt for the vital spot! Paris! Obviously! But, 'yes' and 'no.' Paris is the home of fashion. Lyons is the home of silk. The attack had to be made at the source. It was determined to substitute purpose for chance and to utilize the regular sources for fashion distribution and to influence the public from these sources.

A velvet fashion service, openly supported by the manufacturers, was organized. Its first function was to establish contact with the Lyons manufactories and the Paris couturiers to discover what they were doing, to encourage them to act on behalf of velvet, and to help in the proper exploitation of their wares.

An intelligent Parisian was enlisted in the work. He visited Lanvin and Worth, Agnes and Patou, and others and induced them to use velvet in their gowns and hats. It was he who arranged for the distinguished Countess This or Duchess That to wear the hat or the gown. And as for the presentation of the idea to the public, the American buyer or the American woman of fashion was simply shown the velvet creations in the atelier of the dressmaker or the milliner. She bought the velvet because she liked it and because it was in fashion.

The editors of the American magazines and fashion reporters of the American newspapers, likewise subjected to the actual (although created) circumstance, reflected it in their news, which, in turn, subjected the buyer and the consumer here to the same influences. The result was that what was at first a trickle of velvet became a flood.

A demand was slowly, but deliberately, created in Paris and America. A big department store, aiming to be a style leader, advertised velvet gowns and hats on the authority of the French couturiers, and quoted original cables received from them. The echo of the new style note was heard from hundreds of department stores throughout the country which wanted to be style leaders too. Bulletins followed dispatches. The mail followed the cables. And the American woman traveler appeared before the ship news photographers in velvet gown and hat.

The created circumstances had their effect. "Fickle fashion has veered to velvet," was one newspaper comment. And the industry in the United States again kept thousands busy.
The new propaganda, having regard to the constitution of society as a whole, not infrequently serves to focus and realize the desires of the masses.

A desire for a specific reform, however widespread, cannot be translated into action until it is made articulate, and until it has exerted sufficient pressure upon the proper law-making bodies. Millions of housewives may feel that manufactured foods deleterious to health should be prohibited.

But there is little chance that their individual desires will be translated into effective legal form unless their half expressed demand can be organized, made vocal, and concentrated upon the state legislature or upon the Federal Congress in some mode which will produce the results they desire. Whether they realize it or not, they call upon propaganda to organize and effectuate their demand.

But clearly it is the intelligent minorities which need to make use of propaganda continuously and systematically. In the active proselytizing minorities in whom selfish interests and public interests coincide lie the progress and development of America. Only through the active energy of the intelligent few can the public at large become aware of and act upon new ideas.

Small groups of persons can, and do, make the rest of us think what they please about a given subject. But there are usually proponents and opponents of every propaganda, both of whom are equally eager to convince the majority.

The New Propagandists

Bernays Informs us about this new breed of Propaganda spinners:

"WHO are the men who, without our realizing it, give us our ideas, tell us whom to admire and whom to despise, what to believe about the ownership of public utilities, about the tariff, about the price of rubber, about the Dawes Plan, about immigration; who tell us how our houses should be designed, what furniture we should put into them, what menus we should serve on our table, what kind of shirts we must wear, what sports we should indulge in, what plays we should see, what charities we should support, what pictures we should admire, what slang we should affect, what jokes we should laugh at?

If we set out to make a list of the men and women who, because of their position in public life, might fairly be called the "molders" of public opinion, we could quickly arrive at an extended list of persons mentioned in "Who's Who." It would obviously include, the President of the United States and the members of his Cabinet; the Senators and Representatives in Congress; the Governors of our forty-eight states; the presidents of the chambers of commerce in our hundred largest cities.

Also, the chairmen of the boards of directors of our hundred or more largest industrial corporations, the president of many of the labor unions affiliated in the American Federation of Labor, the national president of each of the national professional and fraternal organizations, the president of each of the racial or language societies in the country.

The hundred leading newspaper and magazine editors, the fifty most popular authors, the presidents of the fifty leading charitable organizations, the twenty leading theatrical or cinema producers, the hundred recognized leaders of fashion, the most popular and influential clergymen in the hundred leading cities, the presidents of our colleges and universities and the foremost members of their faculties, the most powerful financiers in Wall Street, the most noted amateurs of sport, and so on.

Such a list would comprise several thousand persons. But it is well known that many of these leaders are themselves led, sometimes by persons whose names are known to few. Many a Congressman[Parliamentarian], in framing his platform, follows the suggestions of a district boss whom few persons outside the political machine have ever heard of. Eloquent divines may have great influence in their communities, but often take their doctrines from a higher ecclesiastical authority.

The presidents of chambers of commerce mold the thought of local business men concerning public issues, but the opinions which they promulgate are usually derived from some national authority. A presidential candidate may be "drafted" in response to "overwhelming popular demand," but it is well known that his name may be decided upon by half a dozen men sitting around a table in a hotel room.

In some instances the power of invisible wirepullers is flagrant. The power of the invisible cabinet which deliberated at the poker table in a certain little green house in Washington has become a national legend. There was a period in which the major policies of the national government were dictated by a single man, Mark Hanna. A Simmons may, for a few years, succeed in marshaling millions of men on a platform of intolerance and violence.

Such persons typify in the public mind the type of ruler associated with the phrase invisible government. But we do not often stop to think that there are dictators in other fields whose influence is just as decisive as that of the politicians I have mentioned. An Irene Castle can establish the fashion of short hair which dominates nine-tenths of the women who make any pretense to being fashionable.

Paris fashion leaders set the mode of the short skirt, for wearing which, twenty years ago, any woman would simply have been arrested and thrown into jail by the New York police, and the entire women's clothing industry, capitalized at hundreds of millions of dollars, must be reorganized to conform to their dictum.

There are invisible rulers who control the destinies of millions. It is not generally realized to what extent the words and actions of our most influential public men are dictated by shrewd persons operating behind the scenes. Nor, what is still more important, the extent to which our thoughts and habits are modified by authorities.

In some departments of our daily life, in which we imagine ourselves free agents, we are ruled by dictators exercising great power. A man buying a suit of clothes imagines that he is choosing, according to his taste and his personality, the kind of garment which he prefers. In reality, he may be obeying the orders of an anonymous gentleman tailor in London. This personage is the silent partner in a modest tailoring establishment, which is patronized by gentlemen of fashion and princes of the blood.

He suggests to British noblemen and others a blue cloth instead of gray, two buttons instead of three, or sleeves a quarter of an inch narrower than last season. The distinguished customer approves of the idea. But how does this fact affect John Smith of Topeka?

The gentleman tailor is under contract with a certain large American firm, which manufactures men's suits, to send them instantly the designs of the suits chosen by the leaders of London fashion. Upon receiving the designs, with specifications as to color, weight and texture, the firm immediately places an order with the cloth makers for several hundred thousand dollars' worth of cloth. The suits made up according to the specifications are then advertised as the latest fashion. The fashionable men in New York, Chicago, Boston and Philadelphia wear them. And the Topeka man, recognizing this leadership, does the same.

Women are just as subject to the commands of invisible government as are men. A silk manufacturer, seeking a new market for its product, suggested to a large manufacturer of shoes that women's shoes should be covered with silk to match their dresses. The idea was adopted and systematically propagandized. A popular actress was persuaded to wear the shoes. The fashion spread. The shoe firm was ready with the supply to meet the created demand. And the silk company was ready with the silk for more shoes.

The man who injected this idea into the shoe industry was ruling women in one department of their social lives. Different men rule us in the various departments of our lives. There may be one power behind the throne in politics, another in the manipulation of the Federal discount rate, and still another in the dictation of next season's dances. If there were a national invisible cabinet ruling our destinies (a thing which is not impossible to conceive of) it would work through certain group leaders on Tuesday for one purpose, and through an entirely different set on Wednesday for another.

The idea of invisible government is relative. There may be a handful of men who control the educational methods of the great majority of our schools. Yet from another standpoint, every parent is a group leader with authority over his or her children. The invisible government tends to be concentrated in the hands of the few because of the expense of manipulating the social machinery which controls the opinions and habits of the masses. To advertise on a scale which will reach fifty-million persons is expensive. To reach and persuade the group leaders who dictate the public's thoughts and actions is likewise expensive.

For this reason there is an increasing tendency to concentrate the functions of propaganda in the hands of the propaganda specialist. This specialist is more and more assuming a distinct place and function in our national life. New activities call for new nomenclature. The propagandist who specializes in interpreting enterprises and ideas to the public, and in interpreting the public to promulgators of new enterprises and ideas, has come to be known by the name of "public relations counsel."

The new profession of public relations has grown up because of the increasing complexity of modern life and the consequent necessity for making the actions of one part of the public understandable to other sectors of the public. It is due, too, to the increasing dependence of organized power of all sorts upon public opinion. Governments, whether they are monarchical, constitutional, democratic or communist, depend upon acquiescent public opinion for the success of their efforts and, in fact, government is only government by virtue of public acquiescence.

Industries, public utilities, educational movements, indeed all groups representing any concept or product, whether they are majority or minority ideas, succeed only because of approving public opinion. Public opinion is the unacknowledged partner in all broad efforts.

The public relations counsel, then, is the agent who, working with modern media of communication and the