The Blood Red Moon On September 27 2015, sunday Night...
Realistic World Map
Communication Is Necessary For The Survival Of The Human Race; Love It Or Hate It, Communication Technology Is Here To Stay And Will Only Continue To Expand In
The History Of Communication From Cave Drawings To The Web
Communications in the Inner Sanctum of the Earth
All animal species have perfected a system of communication, but humans are the only species capable of spoken language[as we human communicate/talk with each other]. Effective communication is essential for a variety of reasons. It serves to inform, motivate, establish authority and control, and allows for emotive expression. Fro humans in particular, communication is also vital for creating a sense of social cohesion. Just as mankind had evolved over the centuries, our means of communication have followed suit. What began as primitive cave paintings and signed language has morphed into an endless variety of ways to express oneself to other humans.
Communication has existed in various forms since man appeared on Earth. The methods, however, consisted of a disorganized set of signs that could have different meanings to each human using… It wasn't until three millions years after man's debut, around the year 30,000 BC that communication began to take on an intentional, manufactured format. The most well-known form of primitive communication is cave paintings.
The artistic endeavors were created by a species of man that appeared around 10,000(although this is disputable because I will soon have a Hub published which goes back to 170,000 BC, of civilizations that existed along with their architectural picture of the remains of that civilization spread-out throughout South Africa), the homo sapiens. The methods involved creating pigments made from juice of fruits and berries, colored minerals, or animal blood.
These pigments were then used to create depictions of primitive life on the cave walls. The purpose of the paintings has been questioned by scholars for years, but the most popular theory states that the depictions were used as a manual for instructing other what animals were safe to eat.
Other forms of early communication existed, although they were less popular for a variety of reasons. Story telling was used to pass on important information in the days before the existence of the written word. However, since man still lived in separate groups(clans), the information could not be applied outside one's own clan or community. Drums and smoke signals were also used by early man, but were not the most practical means of communication[but were very effective,indeed].
Both methods could attract unwanted attention from the enemies of the clan and predatory animals. These methods were also difficult to standardize.I would be amiss if I do not touch up on the various modes of communication systems that are now in use. It is important at this juncture to brush-up on a few of these in order to fill in the time-line gaps that will be apparent in this Hub were I to overlook them.
Telecommunication Systems: A Historical Background
Early Handwritten Documents/Books:-
Those with proper education to do so were handwriting books and documents for well over 1,000 years before the invention of the printing press. The word "manuscript" is derived from the latin term "libri manu scripti" which translates to "book written by hand". Most handwritten manuscripts were written on vellum paper was not widely available. The majority of books and documents written were of a religious nature.
This was due to the fact that writing a religious piece was viewed as a form of worship, and also that most books were written by monks in monasteries. Literacy rates were incredibly low during the time of handwritten book, and few citizens had time for pleasure writing. Only the monks and the very wealthy were given the opportunity to become literate. Two important periods stand out when one is investigating early books.
The time between the 7th and 13th centuries were considered the age of the religious manuscript. The 13 century, however, brought about exciting change in the realm of the written word. for the first time, secular books were produced for the sake of spreading knowledge relating to religion(But if the reader were to read my Hub titled "The History And Age Of The Moors in Spain: How The Moors Civilized Europe - The History of Africa", one would get a sense as to how the written way was advanced by the Moors and had fantastic libraries to back up my claim that they are the ones who were better equipped to spread knowledge regarding all contemporary fields of study).
The Age of Telecommunications
Telecommunications is the word we use for human communications, science and Technology of sending messages, using language, images, technology and electricity. These include human natural fauna and flora , language, human and animal behavior, cave painting,photo graphs morse code, telegraph, telephone, radio, television, Computer with the Internet, and satellites . In today's world of telecommunications, these instruments change information into signals that are sent over long distances, through wires, optical fibers, or by Radio Waves or satellite.
The information can be transmitted either through the drums,voices, music, instruments, pictures, words or computer data which has an immediate transmission effect and arrive instantly. Some anthropologists postulate that humans were able to speak about 40,000 years ago. The communicated through grunts, gesturing, imitating sounds from nature and possessed a rudimentary language system.
Early humans were practicing the earliest forms of tele-communicating by drawing pictures of themselves, nature and their spiritual lives. They also painted foreigners and events that affected their lives as a result of this intrusion. And as early writing developed, thousands of years after languages were developed, people throughout the world used all forms of communications methods to document their histories, pass on news and information to one another people living in Africa and the Ancient East started using symbols or pictographs and later developed the alphabet.
Hundreds of years ago, people used doves, horseback, runners or walking on foot to receive their messages. It is also equally important to take note that today we like to say that, 'A picture is worth many words', so do the paintings in the caves, they transmit different messages according to what we will read what they meant. The whole human telecommunication effort was to preserve a record and history of human beings in the days when there was no modern conveniences and efficiencies.
The Ecological Environment of Telecommunications Communications
We can look for example at various modes of human means and ways of communications briefly, here. We should also bear in mind that the transmission of signals over a distance for the purpose of communication began thousands of years ago with the use of smoke signals and drums in Africa, America and parts of Asia. Whenever we consider distance communications, in the mode of visual, auditory and ancillary methods, in this case we start during the prehistoric times, where we know that Fires, Beacons, smoke signals, communication drums and horns we utilized.
Around the 6 century BC, we see mail being a newly developed way of communication in use. From the 5th Century AD to 1877, the means of communications and telecommunication saw the introduction and use of Pigeon posts(5th century B.C), Hydraulic Semaphores(4th century BC); Heliographs(Shield signals) (490 BC): Maritime flag semaphores(15th century AD); the first experimental acoustic (Mechanical phone(1672 AD); Signal Lamps((1867); Acoustic phonograph
The ways and means of communication and telecommunication that were Basic electrical signals: Electrical telegraph (1838); First trans-Atlantic telegraph cable (1858); Telephone(1876); Telephony via Light beam Photo phones(1880).
With the advent of the developed ways of communications that were using basic electricity, we see the emergence and the proliferation of Advanced electrical and electronic signals like Wireless Telegraphy((1893); Radio(1896); First North American Transcontinental telephone calling (1914); Television(1927); First Commercial radio-telephone service, U.S.-Japan(1934); World's First experimental videophone network(1936); Limited capacity Mobile Telephone Service for automobiles((1946); Transatlantic telephone cable((1956); Commercial Telecommunications Satellite(1962); Fiber Optical telecommunications(1964); First North American Public Videophone Network((1965); Computer Networking(1969); The First Modern-Era Mobile (Cellular) Phone(1973); INMARSAT Ship-to-Shore Satellite Communications(1979); First Mobile (Cellular) phone Network(1981); SMTP E-mail((1982); Internet(1983); Mobile Satellite Hand-Held Phones(1998); and, finally, to date, Skype Internet Telephony(2003).
This is a brief historical review of the history of communication. This Hub is more concerned with the History of human Communications, as I have briefly covered the historical timeline, all the way to the Satellite, and will narrowly deal with the history of Cave paintings in-depth, and that of the Satellite, as much as possible, below.
The first cave painting picture in this article is said to have been 40,000 years old and is seen on a white silica sandstone rock shelter which shows that humans existed in this area of Banda district about 800 Kilometers(500 miles) southeast of New Delhi, India. This cave painting shows hunting by cave men in the paleolithic age.
A Paleolithic Embellished Cave found in France(Ardeche) was made public by the French Minister of Culture and French Speaking Language, Mr. Jacques Toubon. These paintings were discovered in December 1994 at Vallon-Pont-d'Arc (Ardeche, France), the cave, composed of several spacious galleries and dens, is adorned with some 300 paleolithic paintings and engravings(dating 18,000 - 20,000 BC) which focus on a wide variety of animals including beats, owls, mammoths, rhinos, hyenas and felines. The cave has also retained several vestiges of human activities; fireplaces[hearths], flints and other clues which denote an evolution in tools and habits. Totally left intact and untouched by any human intrusion throughout the ages, the cave represents an exceptional source of studies for archeologists.
There are some rock paintings found in the cave of Cueva de las Mondea which imply that they were done in the last ice age, estimated to be about 32,000. One of these paintings were drawn with red and yellow ochre, hematite, manganese oxide and charcoal Painting on them was large wild animals such as bison, horses, aurochs deers and , human hands as well as tracing of Human Hands.
In the Ukhahlamba-Drakensburg Mountains Old paintings by the indigenous who settled there 8,000 years ago represent, some postulate, to represent religious beliefs. Some other Cave paintings can be found in Creswell Crags, Nottinghanshire, England. Other cave paintings can be found in Australia and others in Africa, in the Tassel n'ajjer mountains in Southeast Algeria, and also in Mesak Settafet and Tdrart in Libya and other regions of the Sahara: including Ayr mountains, Niger and Tibesti, Chad.
Telecommunications Technology in Outer Space
The Russians launched the Sputnik 1 Satellite in 1957. It was a metal sphere with a diameter of 58 cm, weighed 83.6 Kg and 4 protruding antenna. It was the beginning of the space age. The launching of space-borne Satellites began in earnest
The Associated Press reports that two big communications satellites collided in the first-ever crash of two intact spacecraft in orbit, shooting out a pair of massive Debris Cloud and posing a slight risk to the international Space Station. This accident occurred nearly 500 miles over Siberia in February 2008. NASA believes that the Space Station orbits 270 miles below the swirling collision debris." According to AP, the collision involved an Iridium commercial satellite, which was launched in 1997, and a Russian satellite launched in 1993 and believed to be non-functioning. The Russian satellite was out of control.
The Iridium craft weighed 1,235 pounds and the Russian crafted nearly a ton. At the beginning of the 2008 year, there were roughly 17,000 piece of man-made debris orbiting the earth. These items are at least 4 inches in size. The associated Press further informs us that: "Iridium Holdings LLC has a system of 65 active satellites which relay calls from portable phones that are about twice the size of a regular mobile phone.
It has more than 300,000 subscribers. The US Department of Defense is one of its largest customers. Iridium was initially launched by Motorola in the 1990s, and Iridium plunged into bankruptcy in 1999. Some Private investors relaunched. The orbit of the Iridium is very low and they move very fast. Most communication satellites are in much higher orbits and don't move relative to each other, meaning that collisions are rare.
The Advanced Extremely High Frequency (AEHF) satellites, according to the DefenceTech.org: "will support twice as many tactical networks, while providing 10-12 times higher data rate transfer than that of the current Milstar II satellites. They will perform the secure backbone of the Pentagon's intermediate term Military Satellite Communications(MILSATCOM) architecture, until the larger capacity Transformational Communications Satellite System or its equivalent enters service."
The GOES-O satellite is going to be launched for a position of 22,300 miles above the earth where it will keep a permanent eye on the atmospheric conditions in the Eastern United States and Atlantic Ocean. According tow the Website, Space-NASA Information" "GOES-O is the latest weather satellite developed by NASA to aid the nation's meteorologists and climate scientists. The acronym stands for Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite. The spacecraft in the series provide the familiar weather pictures seen on United States newscasts everyday. The satellites are equipped with a formidable array of sensors and instruments. GOES provides nearly continuous imaging and sounding, which allows forecasters to better measure changes in atmospheric temperature and moisture distributions, hence increasing the accuracy of their forecasts. GOES environmental information is used for a host of applications, including weather monitoring and prediction models.
When the information need motivated early man to leave a historical record for us in the caves and for later generations after we are gone, that gave rise to a need for us, modern man, to try and reach out for space, by using space for our information transmission and monitoring, and exploration. We drew picture of our surroundings in the caves, we drew animals, of all sorts and those we did not know resided in those parts of the world.
Early man recorded important events that affected and effected their routine, or drew about the practices of their customs in those time, themselves and their children, whenever they went hunting and if they encountered foreigners. They recorded this deep in darkened caves, high on the ceilings of the caves or in hidden or open caves; hey used red and yellow ochres, hematite, manganese oxide and charcoal to permanently record all these events which we appreciate because they were hidden in caves, and we get a glimpse of life and culture they drew.
The View from Above Space and from Underneath Earth
Over the millennium,communications has progressed very slowly and this has given rise to other technologies like radio with its radio waves, and the computer, with its wiring and the web. If we were running away from global change, wild animals, or human enemies, famine, we dug deeper into caves we found ready made, we brought our experiences and recorded them. We understood that the images we made were a record by virtue of what was draw and where it was kept from prying eyes and other problems.
Elongating and stretching our minds life, culture, customs, history or our environment and its animals, flora and fauna, we had a perceptive insight into keeping records. We eventually went into writing by inventing the alphabet, then we came around to the printing press, typewriter, radio, tape recorder, vinyl, tapes, stereo, TV, VCR, same-time camera,Movie Projectors, video cameras, i-Pods, I-Phones, The Web and Satellites. We have evolved in every aspect of our lives and are headed into the unknown.
How the Satellite Works
Satellites speed-up information and learning. We have created many of these transmitters and thrown them all over space, and now we have used another unforeseen problem: Space debris swirling around the earth at speeds ten time the bullet. Chris Sherwood wrote a piece on "How the Satellite Internet Work? Saying: Satellite Internet, as the name suggests, is the use of satellite technology to gain Internet Access. Satellite Internet equipment consists of the Satellite, Modem and Coaxial cable that run for the satellite to the modem. The Internet Signal begins at the hub of your internet provider.
This signal is sent into the sky using a large satellite dish and relayed off of a satellite dish orbiting earth. The orbiting satellite then relays the Internet signal to your personal Satellite Dish. Connected to the satellite dish are the coaxial cables. These cables run the internet signal to you router and then to your computer. Satellite Internet connects ten time fast than that of dial-up. We have, as noted above, had a massive collision of a Russian satellite and an American satellite that our space, according to NASA has clouds of debris hovering around the earth from these spacecrafts.
Then there is this satellite called TEST satellite. TEST stands for Thunderstorm Effects in Space Technology. Test was a Nanosatellite based on cube construction. The SPAce DUStA(SPADUS) experiment addresses the need to provide important information on the orbital characteristics and possible sources of near-Earth cosmic dust and the mass distribution of meteor-stream particles which may be encountered. The present-day lack of quantitative measurement of the flux ,velocity / trajectory, and time characteristics of small debris particles continues to hamper the development of reliable evolutionary modeling of orbital debris, and need for this data is important in this field."(Taylor).
In the case some caves have been contaminated by debris, moisture and the air conditioners used to cool the caves up and provide light. Some are falling off form their original spaces where they were painted. When we interact with nature and utilize the help of any technology we pollute and destroy the earth, inside and outside and above in space. There are goad ends and disastrous endless problems accruing in space as much as we are developing speed, efficiency and interconnectivity.
Technology helps and at the same time distracts for our goals and ambitions. When the old world meets with the contemporary world, we see disintegration and efforts to erase what we destroy working itself as one in the issues above. We have the technology, and whenever we use it, we create solutions and problems, and it is that balance we need to have in order to apply the new and old means of communication, acquiring knowledge, preserving data for the benefit of humanity.