Computer Mediated Communications
Speechlessness and Modern Internet Language-Loaded and Bloated Cyber Community
According to the Random House Dictionary's senior editor, Stuart B. Flexner: "The words, we use are changing faster today - not merely on the slang level, but on every level. The rapidity with which words come and go is vastly accelerated. This seems to be true not only of English, but French, Russian and Japanese as well-off the estimated 450,000 "usable" words in the English Language today, only perhaps 250,000 would be comprehensible to William Shakespeare. Were Shakespeare suddenly to materialize in London or New York today, he would be able to understand, on average, only five out of every nine words in our vocabulary. The Bard would be semi-literate."
The modern revolution of in linguistics, which began in the 1950s, discovered at the same time that the genetic code, was an attempt to investigate the universal principles of all languages using a similar route, delving down beneath the observable surface of spoken sentences to the hidden abstract structures underlying the. Noam Chomsky sought for tacit principles in the hidden mental operations which undergird human language. Chomsky wanted to discover "those basic relationships which hold in general." According to him, "What person says is an unreliable guide to what that person actually knows, often unconsciously, and it is knowledge of the patterns of language in the full sense of the word. For a theory of language in the full sense of the word can be said is of more interest than what is actually said, and every speaker can say infinitely much. The point of view of its relationship with all other messages which could have been sent but were not. The input to the channel between speaker and listener is "coded" by grammar which is regular and reliable. But as a message moves from the source in the brain on its journey to the person for whom it is intended, the message becomes distorted in various ways. At the surface, in the form of speech, the message is very often untidy, imperfect, and full of errors. It conveys messages, to be sure, but the messages are distorted by "noise" in the form of mistakes, slips of the tongue, memory lapses, repetitions and distractions. The receiver must make sense of the message, disentangle it from the noise, reconstruct it in its original, non-random form. Unless this is done, communication is impossible." Chomsky believes that a linguistic theory should deal only with an "ideal" speaker and listener, who knows his language perfectly and never makes any mistakes,never departs from grammatical propriety. This mode of communication is quickly being challenged by the new and emerging media and merging relationships.
If our images of reality are changing more rapidly, and the gadgets of image-transmission are being speeded up, and a parallel change is altering the very codes we use. For language, too, is convulsing. If language during Shakespeare had at least 200,000, these have dropped out and replaced in the four centuries then. The turnover in the language has more or less occurred in the last fifty years alone. The dropping and adding of words in the language is being replaced three times faster. Alvin Toffler gives us these examples: Some new words come directly from the world of consumer products and technology. Thus, for example, words like "fast-back," "wash-and-wear" or "flashcube" were all propelled into language by advertising in recent years. Other words come from the headlines. "Sit-in" and "swim-in" are recent products of the civil rights movement; "teach -in" a product of the campaign against the Vietnam war; "be-in" and "love-in" products of the hippie subculture. The LSD cults have brought with it a profusion of new head- "acidhead," "psychedelic," etc.
Flexner further explains how the language has changed from the 50s and 60s, affecting our speech and vocabulary patterns. He says: "At the level of slang the turnover is is so quick that the dictionary makers changed their criteria for word inclusion. In 1954, when I started work on the Dictionary of American Slang, I would not consider a word for the inclusion unless I could find three uses of the word over a five year period. Today such a criterion would be impossible, because, language, like art, in increasingly becoming a fad proposition. The slang "fab" and "gear" for example, didn't last a single year. They entered the teen-age vocabulary in about 1966; by 1967 they were out. You cannot use a time criterion for slang anymore. Toffler states: "As new words sweep in, old words vanish. A picture of a nude girl nowadays is no longer "pin-up" or a "cheesecake shot" but a "playmate." "hep" has given way for "hip"; Hipster to "Hippie." Many words, in short, have come and gone with the same speed they came in with. New words ket on coming on throughout the sixties and seventies, and have also been replaced by newer one in the 80s, 90s and 00s. As the language turned, it even appeared in non verbal forms of communication. The circle formed by the thumb and forefinger suggests that all goes well is now fading out. "V for Victory signs was now being used by protesters. Gestural language is peaking and affecting our language patterns and evolution.
It is important that we begin to look and understand how contemporary language or mode of speech is used to hide, even to ourselves, the less than exciting lives most of us are leading. Arthur Berger asks: "Have you ever wondered just how big Giant King Size" actually is or what "terrific" really means"? Berger says that we use language to hide, and whatever it is we are hiding, we are hiding it from ourselves too. He futher makes this point concrete by stating: "I can recall once overhearing two bored youths aat a tennis court. Said one of them. "let's split," a phrase in part usage today, in fitting with the schizophrenic nature of the times. Somehow, "splitting" from place is much more exciting that "going some-place else" or "leaving".
The Language of Radio and Television
Television commercials have bred some form os skepticism that needs to be overcome. They make absurd claims on Menus, travel brochures, book jackets and so on. The law of diminishing returns woks since the people believe less and less, and the advertisers promise more and more, that in the end advertising has created skepticism. Leo Lowenthal discusses the use of "superlatives" in the following manner: "This wholesale distribution of highest ratings defeats its own purpose. Everything is presented as something unique, unheard of, outstanding. Thus, nothing is unique, unheard of, outstanding. Totality of the superlative means totality of the mediocre because it levels the presentation of human life to the presentation of merchandise." Lowenthal observed that superlatives as they were used was about heroes of consumption. At first superlatives were insgnificant until their real functions were discovered.
It is important to segue into television to view Archie Bunker's use of language. Rosa and Escholz say that: Archies comand of language is "legionary"; viewers have witnessed him criticize Mike for reacting "on the sperm of the moment," castigate Edith for taking things "out of contest," and tell his family that his prejudices is a "pigment of their imagination". Archie uses malapropism[the inappropriate use of a word in place of another that has some similarity to it]. In his situational comedy show, Archie uses malapropisms as follows: "What is this, the United Nations? We gotta have a whole addenda ? I come home to tell you one o' the greatest antidotes of all times, an item of real human interest, and you sit there like you are in a comma. You sound like a regular Billie Sol Graham! "Sorry" ain't gonna clench my thirst ... as one of your faithful constitutionals . You gotta grab the bull by the corns and heave-ho. This nation under God shall not diminish from the earth. I do not need their whole Dun and Broadstreet. We got a regular Edna St. Louis Millet here. If he don't yell "pig" or none of them epaulets .... Ain't he took the exercise tax off a cars? No, Edith, I was out expectin' the street lights... For better or for worse, in secrets and in health till death do us part? It's like trying to make a sow's purse outta silk! Whoever sent 'em obviously wanted to remain unanimous . I'll believe that when hell freezes under."
If Archie is a modern master of the malapropism, he is also a prolific creator of barbarisms- made-up or malformed words produced by false analogy with other legitimate words. Like malapropisms, barbarisms reflect ignorance and often pretentiousness on the part of the person who uses them. Here is Archie's usage: "What am I, clairavoyage or somethin'?... what you call, connubible difficulties... It's gonna take a lotta thinkin' and it's gonna take all my consecration. One of these days I will probably dehead myself. It was said under dupress .... making you an excessity after the fact! It's a regular of facsamile of the Appolo 14. Like the Presidential, the Senatorial, the Governororial ,the Mayorororial ... These things ain't exactly hairlooms , you know. What do you mean by that insinuendo ? Back to the groinocologist! She's hanging around my neck like an Albacross! He had the inforntery to imply that... what you might call a certain lack of drive- you know, personal inititianative. Make this meathead take the literacy test. I remember some of the beauties you hung around with, and they wasn't exactly no "Madonises "
Radio has changed. Dr. Lawton tells us that: "Face up to the fact that, like it or not, from the bowels of radio has come a new art form. The practitioners of the new art are the managers of the "screamer" stations,.... stations with an extreme foreground treatment, playing only top tunes,with breathless and witless striplings making like carnival barkers." Today's radio chief purpose is to make money for those who control and use its mechanical devices. It threatens to prove as great a a disappointment as the moving-picture for those who sense radio's underdeveloped power as an agency of education,culture, and international good-will. According to Marshall McLuhan, "to the student of media, it is difficult to explain the human indiference to social effects of those radical forces. The phonetic alphabet and the printed word that exploded the closed tribal world into the open society of fragmented functions and specialist, knowledge and action have never been studied in their roles as a magical transformer. The history of radio is instructive as an indicator of the bias and blindness induced in any society by its pre-existent technology."
But Paul Lazarsfeld put it this way: "The last group of effects may be called the monopolistic effects of radio. If a government monopolizes the radio, then by mere repetition and by exclusion of conflicting points of view it can determine the opinions of the population. We do not know much about how this monopolistic effects really work. The Germans under Hitler danced entranced to the tribal drum of radio that extended their central nervous system to create depth involvement for everybody. Media can imprison the audience through government censors and information gate-keepers. It can also be free as demonstrated by Dave Mickie the Disc-jockey: "That's Patty Baby and that's the girl with the dancing feet and that's Freddy Cannon there om the David Mieckie Show in the nighttime ooohbah how are you booboo. Next we'll be Swinging on a Star and ssshhhwwoooo and sliding on a moonbeam. Waaaaaa how about that ... one of the goodest guys with you ... this is lovable kissable D.M. in the p.m. at 22 minutes past nine o' clock there,, aahhrightie, we're gonna have a Hitline, all you have to do is call WA 5-1151, WAlnut 5-1151, tell them what number is on the Hitline." Dave Mickie alternately soars, groans, swings, sings, solos, intones and scampers, always reacting to his own reactions. He moves entirely in the spoken rather than the written area of experience. It is in this way that the audience participation is created. The spoken word involves all of the senses dramatically. his is designed to suck-in and grab the listeners attention and faculties. This is free radio using spoken language to express itself and it listeners.
American speech is energetic and picturesque. The sports pages in the newspapers, uses jargon not too desirable but some times affected. These newspapers utilize action verbs throughout the football season. A few of these were gathered from weekend review of a miscellaneous assortment of daily papers, from small publications to the metropolitan press: "Duke annexes victory; Iowa bags tie with Mississippi; Ohio State beats Badgers; Lawrence belts Monmouth; Illini blast Indiana; Gophers bounce Indiana; Tulane bumps Mississippi; Oklahoma bowls over Nebraska; Michigan buries Northwestern; Duke conquers North Carolina; Ohio crushes Minnesota; Anderson drubs McKendree; Oklahoma edges Texas." Then there are additional expressions like: "batters, bows to, deals a blow, shatters hopes, squelches, swats and other common terms like wins, loses, beats, defeats, overcomes, outscores and so forth. With this kind of verbiage, there seems no problem that sports will stagnate or that the football game lose its many and enthusiastic artists in the field of athletic ballyhoo.
Final Thoughts on the Word and Speech
Words help help us understand the books, news and other reading formats we have much easier. They open the world and broaden understanding. Anybody who reads a lot can imagine the new world that has been opened. Books in reality makes our lives truly free. Prince Modupe, in Africa, on encountering the written word, wrote; "The one crowded space in Father Perry's house was his bookshelves. I gradually came to understand that the marks on the pages were trapped words Anyone could learn to decipher the symbols and turn the trapped words loose again into speech. The ink of the print trapped the thought; they could get no more get away than a doomboo could get out of a pit. When the full realization of what this meant flooded over me, I experienced the same thrill and amazement as when I had my first glimpse of the bright lights on Kornarky. I shivered with the intensity of my desire to learn to do this wondrous thing myself." Words in a book helps us revise them, read about them and the thoughts that they convey in the process, make us enlightened and knowledgeable. We are also enabled by knowing these words to speak fluently and clearly. Language today is the main accelerator and curtails space as the main factor in social dialogue and arrangements. The spoken word involves all of the senses dramatically, though literate people tend to speak as connectedly and casually as possible.
Word on Speech
Marshal McLuhan writes: "The widely separate characters of the spoken and written words are easy to study today when there is ever closer touch with non-literate societies. One native, the only literate , member of his own group, told of acting as a reader for the others when they received their letters. He said he felt impelled to put his fingers to his ears while reading aloud, so as not to violate the privacy of their letters. This is interesting testimony to the values of privacy fostered by the visual stress of phonetic word. Such separation of the sense, and of the individual from the group, can scarcely occur without the influence of phonetic writing. The witten word spells out in sequence what is quick and implicit in the spoken word." "Without language", Bergson suggests, "human intelligence would have remained totally involved in the objects of its attention. Language does for the intelligence what the wheel does for the feet and body. It enables them to move from thing to thing with greater ease and speed and ever less involvement. Language extends and amplifies man, but it also divides his faculties. His collective consciousness or intuitive awareness is diminished by this technical extension of consciousness that is speech.(McLuhan).
In the final analysis, language is our ability to transmit thoughts and ideas by using words. But with the introduction of electricity and new technologies and techniques , a new form of speech is lying on the horizon of future human speech. McLuhan puts it this way: "Our new electric technology that extends our senses and nerves in a global embrace has large implication for the future of language. Electric technology does not need words any more than the digital computer needs numbers. Electricity points the way to an extension of the process of consciousness itself, on a world scale, and without any verbalization whatever. Such a state of collective awareness may have been the preverbal condition of men. Today computers hold out the promise of a means of instant translation of any code or language into any any other code or language. The computer, in short, promises by technology a Pentacostal condition of universal understanding and unit. The next logical step would seem to be, not translate, but to by-pass languages in favor of a general cosmic consciousness. This is the condition of "weightlessness," that biologists say promises a physical immortality may be paralleled by the condition of speechlessness that could confer a perpetuity of collective harmony and peace." This would be very interesting to see if Internet and language would bring about a global speechless but cyber-conscious community without speech impediments.
"We are on the on-ramp of the Information Superhighway- the engine's running- but we don't really know where we are going yet."(NBC vice-president) There is also a new language that has developed out of our surfing the Web. The new media stresses certain characteristics more than the older forms like print, radio, film or television. (i)They involve computers at basic levels of person(s)-with-person(s). Take note that: "That there is the shift from isolated single-author writing to "word processing" which often involves multi-author manipulation of text(Heim, 1987); shopping via the World Wide Web or researching via on-line databases like Lexis/Nexi or dialog;highly interactive, talk-like writing via e-mail and electronic bulletin board services." (ii) They involve merged media, merged human senses, and thus more immersive experiences. Consider: "The extent to which satellite digital technology, computers, and phone lines have merged to facilitate viewer participation with, and control over, a myriad of specialized television channels; how virtual reality" simulations immerse individuals' experience immediately in sensation that both are, and aren't, "present"- how virtual travelers can at the same time "be there" without leaving "here"(Rheingold, 1991) (iii) They shift message responsibilities, thus involving audiences more as co-authors than as receivers: "The branching choices invited by hypertext software, the versatile vastness of CD-ROM technology, and the multitude of "user"- determined choices in videodisks and CDs, all of which make messages available differently to different persons. (iv) They arrange time and place sensibilities. Consider: "the linear cause-to-effect and here-to-there assumptions of directness theory have given away to more multicausal views and message ambiguities; previous assurances of what is and isn't real no longer seem to apply. Our former words, our former habits of talking about communication are outmoded." (v) They blur the traditional modern concepts of power and responsibilities: it used to be clear that to "respond" to a message someone else needed to "author" it first. Now, increasingly, the respondents- to the presence of databases, for example- reauthor, reconfigure or edit messages at will." As McLuhan stated: "with Computers, we are able similarly surrounded by the medium as it expects particular actions and responses from us. The medium is simultaneously an extension of us and an environment for us." We are now using a language that comes with this medium. It is now changing the vocabulary and adding to number of new words in the English language and within society and the Web Community. It has now become cyber babble which is accelerated andt continues to shape and reshape our world, words, thoughts and language.
Walter Ong Writes: "Human communication, verbal and other, differs from the 'medium' mode most basically in that it demands anticipated feedback in order to take place at all. In the medium model, the message is moved from sender-position. In real human communication, the sender has to be not only in the sender position but also in the receiver position before he or he can send anything. To speak, you have to address another or others. People in their right minds do not stray through the weeds just talking at random to nobody. Even to talk to yourself you have to pretend that you are two people. The reason is that what I say depends on what reality or fancy I fell I am talking int, that is, on what possible responses I might anticipate. Hence, I avoid sending quite the same message to an adult and to a small child. to speak, I have to be somehow already in communication with the mind I am to address before I start speaking. I can be in touch perhaps through past relationships, by an exchange of glances, by an understanding with a third person who has brought me and my interlocutor together, or in any of countless other ways. (Words are modifications of a more-than-verbal situation.) I have to sense something in the other's mind to which my own utterance can relate. Human communication is never -one-way. Always, it not only calls for response but is shaped in its very form and content by anticipated response. To formulate anything I must have another person or other persons already in mind. this is the paradox of human communication. Communication is intersubjective.The media model is not. There is no adequate model in the physical universe for this operation of consciousness, which is distinctly human and which signals the capacity of human beings to form true communities wherein person shares with person interiorly, inter-subjectively. (Ong)
The Internet is changing English and the Way we Speak
The new media trend internet is slowly changing the English language and the ways we speak. Because many people are using mobile phones texting, twittering, facebook, blogging, instant messaging and chat rooms o communicating with each other more than meeting up and chat. During this process of communicating with one another. people use short and simple words to express themselves. This creates a situation whereby the internet is changing the English language and the importance of the English language in their societies.By using the internet, it becomes much more easier to do research and find data fast. Less time is spent on finding information a person needs. But sometimes there is always a lot of irrelevant information making it hard for researchers to finnish their reports and projects.Communicating by typing, people tend to use short form or so-called "internet Slang to talk with each other, it's also much faster than typing the whole word out. These examples can be seen in the first and Hub photo of the Hub above.
After using internet slang frequently, when people meet up they use use internet slang with each other. However, not many people know exactly what it means and it affects the meaning of the sentence that they are trying to express. Even for work, proper presentation, good English language pronunciations is still important and needed. . Through using the internet, peoeple of all nationalities can converse together. They may be from different countries, internet slang makes it possible and easier for anyone of them to communicate with each other. This makes it possible that when exposing oneself to other languages to slowly be influenced by or changes the way one speaks not by grammar patterns or verb endings, but by the style of the language used in the internet to communicate with one another.
However, according to David Crystal, Professor of Linguistics (Science Daily, 2005), The expression of writing casualness that have considerably increased since the advent of the internet can in fact be considered as an innovation that "allows all of us to explore the power of the written language in a creative way." Language change that is steered by internet use is being viewed upon as a foundation for studies regarding language development within a new media. Soanes (2006) of Oxford Dictionaries also stated that the growing language change ushered by the internet can be seen as a learning experience, even explaining that "spelling isn't fixed and can change over the years... you only have to look back 100 years when word 'rhyme' was spelled 'rime'. Undoubtedly, the internet, though it may have had a few setbacks especially for English Learning and Teaching, have only made us realize that language would always be evolving. there would always be language changes; indeed, we have witnessed the difference of Old English to English we know today. The internet has only expanded the typical range and variety to particularly graphical ' written communication (Thorne, 2003) Understanding and acquiring new genres of communication are entirely decisive to the process of becoming a capable communicator. In a world where a lot of technologies are growing like mushrooms every minute and where people find new ways of communicating given their insatiable need for social acts, it is imperative that everyone must at least keep an open eye in observing significant phenomena such as language change - unless we want to be "LOL'ed" at for our indifference to changes in the 21st century. English is something that will never be permanent and will constantly be changed by technology. the fact that so many people are using those myriads of new terms uniformly, we can say that the internet is becoming "the" global language. Technology is the new vocabulary
For us to be able to speak we have to use language. We tend to think of language and money, electronic media, and other technologies as tools, but we tend to discount the degree to which our tool determine who we are and what we do. Language itself is a technology, a "tool" made by people. But the tool draws a circle around the realm of the thinkable beyond which few can negotiate. (Ong) Language and speaking are the main issues we need to stay clear about whenever we talk about the new and emerging techniques, technologies and the gadgets that go along with them. We also have to seriously study Internet Slang as much as we can as I am attempting to do below.
Internet Slang (Internet Language, Internet Shorthand)
Netspeak or Chatspeak
This is a type of slang that internet users have popularized and in many cases have coined.Such terms often originate with the purpose of saving keystrokes. Many people use the same abbreviations in texting and instant messaging,and social networking websites.Acronyms,keyboard symbols and shortened words are often used as methods of abbreviation on Internet Slang.Many items of Internet jargon cross from computer-mediated communication to face-to-face communication. Teenagers now sometimes useInternet acronyms in spoken communications as well as in written. David Crystal says that the crossover from written slang to speech is a brand new variety of language evolving,invented really by your people in the past ten years.
Other commentators disagree, saying that these new words, being abbreviations for resisting, long-used phrases,don't enrich anything; they just shorten it.furthermore, linguist Geoffrey K. Pullum of the University of Edinburg state that even if interjections such as LOL and ROTFL were to become very common in spoken English, their "total effect on language" would be "utterly trivial".
Laccetti, a professor of Humanities at Steven Institute of Technology and Molsk, in their essay entitled "The Lost Art Of Writing" are critical of the acronyms, predicting reduced chances of employment for students who use such acronyms, stating that, "Unfortunately for these students, their bosses will not be 'lol' when they read a report that lacks proper punctuation and grammar, has numerous misspellings, various made-up words, and silly acronyms. Fondiller and Nerone, in their style manual, assert that "professional or business communication should never be careless or poorly constructed, whether one is writing an electronic mail message or an article for publication, and warn against the use of smileys and these abbreviations, stating that they are "no more than e-mail slang and have no place in business communication".
Yunker and Barry, in a study of online courses and how they can be improved through podcasting,have found that these acronyms, as well as emoticons, are often "misunderstood" by students and are difficult to decipher" unless their meanings are explained in advance.They single out the example of "ROFL" as not obviously being the abbreviation of "rolling on th floor laughing". Haig singles out lOL as one to the three most popular initialisms in the Internet Slang, alongside BFN (Bye for now") and IMHO ("in my humble opinion"). In general, he describes these acronyms and the various initialisms of Internet Slang as convenient,but warns that "as ever more obscure acronyms emerge, they can also be rather confusing". Likewise, Bidgoli states that these initialisms "save keystrokes for the sender but [...] might make comprehension of the message more difficult for the receiver" and that "[s}lang may hold different meanings and lead to misunderstandings especially in International settings"; he advices that they be used "only when you are sure that the other person knows the meaning.for now,we will use a few words fromthe Intternet Slang Words. These will be added to with further research on the theory of this new cyber language, below
Word and Communications Accelerators
Computer Mediated Communications Spectrum
The Hub above purports to explore the use of Internet jargon in the media and the convulsions it is causing in traditional English language and communication dissemination and messaging that is now part and parcel of the modus operandi for one to stream within the Internet. But, as Naomi S. Brown will instruct is fully about this subject matter and area, we will begin to learn that there is more than meets the eye. I have touched on some of the point to be made below, I will write out the issues to further give them form and meat and in-depth breadth and fleshing-out to be able to see and understand the structures that message, transmit, are written, afford for computer conference, at times, through text messaging, which are connected too al forms of emerging gadgets, iPhone, Tablets, computers and so forth.
Within these gadgets are embedded are many systems which are responsible for the speeding up or Orality and Oral Tradition that was up to that time man's principal mode of communications, transmission and messaging amongst people themselves. The introduction of Morse Code, Radio, Print, Television, Cinema, Computers, were all melded within and throughout the computers which used the Web to manifest all these in a viral soup that it's expanding and extending man(a la McLuhan). These new technologies and techniques had two things in common that form a confluence of the Internet Social media: The Word and Language along with transmission and dissemination. I hope by laying out the systems structures of Messages sent through the Internet how they are aping old modes of communications or refine it, and how this manifests itself today and transforms us and our modes of communication and verbalizing(virally) with each other in the virally flowing datasphere. It is also important to state here, earlier on, that writing will remain, no matter the types of evolutions words, sounds, and messaging and technology become part of our human landscape realities and apparitions. As in the case that computer languages have helped bring along and establish languages that would not be otherwise known into the computer viral language sphere. We therefore learn from Naomi S. Brown that:
"We can think of CMC(Computer Mediated Communication) is one end a range of writing options that resembles traditionally composed (off-line) texts, the difference being only the means of transmission. At the other end is dialogue between two people that highly resembles speech, again, save for the medium of message exchange. If we think of traditional writing as a "product" (in the sense of being finished work) and face-to-face speech as a "process" (in that a conversation is typically a work in progress, with the outcome being determined by interaction between participants), we can lay out a spectrum of CMC(Computer Mediated Communication)
What is the contextual definition of Computer Mediated Communication. Simply enough, it is talking to other humans over computers. Here is what a panel of experts in the field have to say:
"It is impossible for a large group to have a complex problem solving discussion unless there is a structure that organizes the content and the process so the group can understand, as a group, what has been done. By being asynchronous and having this structure each individual can concentrate on the ideas they have at a given moment and make those contributions unrestricted by having to respond to anyone person or the group at any one time. People with different talents can focus on what they can do best in the group activity. Until you experience such an effort most people using E-mail or IM have no clue to what is possible. Imagine an ability to vote which tells people immediately what items they already agree to and which they currently agree and that vote is used to let them know where more discussion is needed in the underlying content structure. Based upon the discussion any one at any time can change their vote so the system can let them know when agreements have been reached. Voting is a continuous dynamic process guiding discussion." (Murray Turoff)
"True CMC allows for collaborative work and an archival of previous efforts, whereas IM is designed as a low or zero archival instant (disposable) communication, and E-mail a short time one. Additionally, integration of other group communications (voting, marketplaces) are also possible since the CMC environment is designed as a "commons" to allow true interaction of those in the community." (Martin Lyons)
Thomas Moulton explains it this way:
"Computer Mediated Communications is an environment where all the tools are designed to enable efficient communications. It works with mature communicators, people who care about the society and want to learn or help other or have a purpose. Yes that is it, it is a society where people have a serious purpose, a common goal. You visit chat rooms and the goals are to build up ego,meet chicks, etc. Those goals are self-centered, CMC can only exist when there is a common goal for the improvement of society."
According to James Whitescarver, "Organizations are human processes which computers can only facilitate with groupware. CMC is the science of groupware. Redundant processes may be automated, which is the domain of most information systems science. However, the real power of computers is not just reducing repetition, but in optimizing human productivity. This is the main domain of CMC. CMC is multidisciplinary; crossing the lines of computer science, psychology, sociology, behavioral sciences, and begs important questions in the philosophy of scinece. It should be noted that E-mail plus IM are complete in that any group process may be facilitated with just these tools. A CMC system might be no more than a set of norms (scripts) for using those tools. CMC systems facilitate and (minimally in my view) restrict communications to obey those norms to encourage maximal group productivity."
Finally, Ellen Lieberman states that"CMC was a true collaborative environment that facilitated group discussion, sharing of ideas, dynamic interaction, and software tools that enabled research development and the leading edge of communication."
The CMC Spectrum Morass
The Definitions above give us a broad view from experts concerning CMC and what it does: Affecting and effecting us and how it speeds-up the word and creates convulsion in the process, its role in communications and usage. It is very important that we expand this view much more by listing and explaining these Computer Mediated Communications means of communication through the computer using the groupware software we are about to discuss below-in that broad sense, begin to narrow in onto these CMC's and learn what their role is. In order to understand the CMC Spectrum MOrass, we will from henceforth defer to Naomi Brown:
"We can think of CMC as a cover term encompassing a range of writing options.At one end is writing that resembles traditionally composed (offline texts, the difference being only the means of transmission. At the other end is dialogue between two people that highly resembles speech, again, save for the medium of message exchange. ... At the far left ("product") end of the CMC spectrum are completed works such as academic papers or business reports that are available through a person organizational Web site or through attachments sent via E-mail. As we move to the right of the spectrum, all of the spectrum, all of the other categories of CMC show linguistic adaptation of the written medium as a result of being formulated for Internet transmission. However, as the Internet matures as a transmission medium, both user expectations and industry software tools are changing. As a, Web sites that used to be essentially static products are becoming increasingly interactive [thus the virally streaming word speeds up], making use of some of the newer markup languages and other Web desing tools.
"The second adaptation of the written medium involves anonymity," writes Naomi." "Historically, chat, MUDs and MOOs invited anonymous participation (involving not just pseudonyms but invented identities. Listservs were reserved for "vetted" (i.e., registered and perhaps even screened) participants, and E-mail was exchanged between interlocutors who already knew one another or who accurately introduced themselves when initiating communication with a stranger. However, these boundaries are increasingly shifitng. On the one hand, man Chat, MUDD, or MOO forums now vet their users. On the other hand, large numbers of individuals create multiple E-mailacconts to mask their identity from certain mail recipients. What is more, messages (whether on Listservs, E-mail or IM) are easily forwarded to individuals not on the original recipients list, thereby distributing information intended to intended participants. such forwarding may result not only in breaches of confidentiality but in distribution of hastily composed messages not intended for public scrutiny
Types Of CMC
Here are the major types of CMC, organized with respect to the extent to which they represent dialogue or monolugeu. A second important distinction to keep in mind is whether the communication is "asynchronous (i.e., participants do not have the potential to interact together in real time; or, synchronous (i.e., real time communication).
E-mail ("electronic mail") is an asynchronous form of CMC, prototypically between a single sender and single recceipient. However, contemporary E-mail permit multiple recipients, along with forwarding of a message one has received to third parties.
The E-mail function arose out of experimentation by Ray Tomlison, a computer engineer working for Bolt Beranek and Newman, the firm hired by the US Department of Defense to build ARPANET. Tomlison's first test message, an arbitrary string of letters, was actually sent between two PDP-10 computers in the same room that were connected via ARPANET. To clarify the recipient and machine location to which a message was addressed, Tomlison selected the @symbol, which separated a user's login name from the name of his or her computer. Very quickly, E-mail became the most prevalent use of ARPANET, and eventually emerged as the "killer ap" of networked computing.
Tere is an enormous variation in the language style used in E-mail, determined by such variables as age and computer experience of user, function (e.g., replacement for a formal office memo, casual invitation to lunch nest week, teenage online online flirting). E-mail is, in principle, not intended for public view. Therefore, the kind of language used in E-mail (sometimes ungrammatical,lacking in standard punctuation or spelling) should not be an issue for natural language processing or search procedures, since such mail is usually only stored on an individual user's computer (perhaps, in the case of a company, in the organization's back-up files), and not the subject of mechanical analysis. However, given the enormous popularity of E-mail, many of the informal (even careless) writing conventions that have emerged in writing E-mail are finding their way into the CMC venues that are intended for wider audiences.
- Instant Messaging
Instant Messaging (IM) is a synchronous form of CMC that, like E-mail, is prototypically utilized between a single sender and a single recipient. Given the synchronous nature of the communication, IM messages tend to be quite short and even more casual than E-mail.
One-to-one synchronous communication systems have been in use for some time, dating back at least to the 1980s and early 1990s with the usage of such UNIX applications as "talk", "ytalk", and "ntalk". and the Zephyr IM system through Project Athena at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. However, IM did not become a widespread phenomenon until the late 1990s, thanks in large part to the technology and marketing efforts of America Online (especially AIM - AOL Instant Messenger) and Mirabilis Ltd's IQC ("I Seek You"). It has been estimated that as of the end of 2002, there were 1.38 billion Instant Instant messages sent daily using AOL's network. While AIM is heavily used in the United States, IQC - which has 120 million registered Users - is predominantly used outside of the US. Note that ICQ, which first appeared in 1996, was purchased by AOL in 1998. Other contemporary players in the IM market include Yahoo(Yahoo! Messenger) and Microsoft (MSN Messenger).
Over time, IM systems have added many bells and whistles, intended either for convenience or to attract young users. For example, recent versions of AOL's AIM enable users to create individual profiles (in essence, brief online biographies) and away messages (to indicate that you are temporarily away from your computer and what you might be doing), along with buddies lists (revealing which of your IM "buddies" are presently online). As with many youth-orientated products, these features, along with their actual functions, can be expected to shift rapidly with time.
As in the case f E-mail, as long as instant messages remain in the private domain of sender and recipient, the language used in such exchanges does not become the concern of language processing and/or search programs. However, given the nature of corporate activity (including not only intranet messaging but, for example, major expansion of already existing IM systems on commercial Web sites), it becomes increasingly probable that business enterprises will look to parsing and search programs that will be able to make sense of these rapidly composed (and often cryptic or garbled) forms of electronic messaging.
Bilal Hameed wrote: Juniper Research, in recent report has projected that the number of mobile instant messaging (IM) users will exceed 1.3 billion by 2016, making a 300% increase from 2010. The growth s expected to be driven by the continued growth of services like AOL's AIM, Blackberry Messenger and Apples iMessage.
Increase smartphone adoption, low -cost data packages and the development of high speed mobile networks by the service providers are the key factors to thank for the impressive growth of mobile IM. Further, most IM services are free and considered as customer retention tools by the operators. However, the report suggest that apart from the strengths of mobile IM it won't be able to take the place of ubiquitous and easy to use SMS.
The abbreviation "SMS" formally stands for "short messaging", though it is generally interpreted as meaning "short text messaging". SMS is used on mobile telephones throughout much of the world, though market penetration in the United States still remains small by comparisons. Messages are generally created by tapping the numbers of the phone keypad one or more times, corresponding to the letter of the Roman Alphabet that is inteded. Thus, for example, "U" (a common SMS abbreviation for the word "you") would be generated on the phone's display screen by tapping the number "8" twice rapidly in succession, since the "8" key historically also bears the letters "T", "U", and "V". Letters were originally used on phone sets to represent the telephone exchange (i.i., the word appearing at the beginning of a telephone number). For example, my phone number s a child was GR 4-2525", with the "GR" standing for "Greenbelt", the name of the town having that exchange. Today, the same number would be "474-252. Americans who are not familiar with SMS nonetheless use the same system of multiple taps on the numerical keypad to program their mobile phones.
SMS was developed in Europe, first appearing in late 1992. The protocol was developed as part of a multinational European effort known as GSM (Group Speical Mobile) that was constituted to establish a uniform mobile system for Europe. Over time, "GSM" has come to mean "GLobal system for Mobile Telecommunications", as the historical origins of the system receded in users' minds that as the GSM protocols for mobile telephony spread worldwide. In the mid-2002, it was estimated that more than three billion SMS's were sent each month in Europe alone.
In many ways, the language of SMS is reminiscent of that seen in instant messaging: short, full of abbreviations, and casual.
Technically, SMS is not computer mediated communication, since it was designed to be sent and accessed trough mobile telephones (via satellite technology), not through computer networks. However, in recent years, may digital technologies have become interchangeable platforms for transmitting and receiving linguistic messages_ E-mai messages can be accessed on mobile phones; SMSs can be sent - and received - on computers. In the coming years, it is likely that as platforms become increasingly interchangeable (and as Americans become heavier users of mobile communication devices), the kind of language appearing in E-mail, IM, and SMS will tend to become more homogeneous: short, informal, and full of space-saving devices such as abbreviation and truncated syntax.
Listservs (also sometimes known as mailing lists or distribution lists) are asynchronous, text0based communication sent by a single user to multiple E-mail addresses. In its simplest form, a Listservs provides a forum for a single individual to send a message (e.g., announcement of a meeting) to two or more recipients. Frequently, however, postings are made by multiple members of the mailing list, thereby providing and electronic forum for discussion. Today, Listservs are commonly used by professional organizations, academic classrooms, or groups sharing common interests, enabling individual members to voice opinions or raise questions. Lists may be unmoderated (postings are automatically distributed without review by anyone) or moderated (someone collects messages received over a sort period of time and edits them in some way before posting - e.e., summarizing the topics, summarizing the contents of the posts, or censoring objectionable material).
Because Liserves constitute written, archived, and often quasi-public text, the potential for needing to search them with NLP tools is significant. However, the task may be less daunting than for, say,E-mail or IM, since the language in many Listervs (especially in academic or business circles) is more formal and grammatical than in one-to-one CMC.
Newsgroups are public forums for asynchronous one-to-many dialogue that originally were designed to be accessed through USENET (a non-governmental network developed in 1979 at the University of North Carolina). Unlike Listservs, which sends messages directly to all users on a distribution list, newsgroups constitute postings to a common public site, which can be accessed whenever users choose to log on.
The network of different newsgroups is vast. Tens of thousands of available newsgroups represent seemingly every topic imaginable, from sex to antique cars to medicine. Because newsgroups are written publicly posted, and archived, they invite textual analysis. However, unlike Listservs, newsgroups are neither moderated nor restricted in membership. As a result, the language appearing in posts can vary enormously, both in style and propriety.
Since the days when newsgroups were all accessed through USENET, newsgroups have been hierarchically organized into major categories, each of which is then subdivided. Currently, major divisions include "comp" Computer science subjects), "humanities" (humanities subjects "misc" (miscellaneous topics), "news" (news topics), "rec" (recreational topics), "sci" (science topics"), "soc" (sociological subjects), and "talk" (controversial topics). Each category is then further subdivided. for example, rec.arts.tv.soaps (also known by its acronym r.a.t.s.) is a newsgroup for discussing television soap operas.
- MUDs and MOOs
MUDs (originally meaning Multi-User Dungeons; now commonly interpreted to mean Multi-User Dimensions) are synchronous environments in which multiple players interact with one another in a textually-created imaginary setting. The first such adventure game was created in the late 1970s by Trubshaw and Richard Bartle at the University of Essex. The early versions of such games drew heavily upon "Dungeons Dragons", a popular board game from the early 1970s. At the time the early MUDs were created computers had very limited graphics capability. Players were necessarily restricted to verbal descriptions of both scenes and actions.
Unlike newsgroups (which talk about the world that is, using asynchronous posts), MUDs allow a comparatively restricted set of users to synchronously act on situations of their own construction. Players assume pseudonyms and interact according to pre-established navigation rules for moving through a defined terrain.For their first decade, MUDs were heavily dominated by male players engaged in fantastical adventure games. By the late 1980s and early 1990s, the use of MUDs began expanding to include wider ranges of participants and more social functions. During this same period, object orientated programming was introduced into MUDs, yielding the concept of MOOs (MUDs, Object Orientated), so named by their creator, Stephen White at the University of Wterloo. In 1990, Pavel Curtis at Xerox PARC added several features to White's program, creating the well-known LambdaMoo, a name Curtis chose because he he had used the name Lambda in some of his earlier MUD experiences. Unlike MUDs built on adventure themes, MOOs commonly define the virtual space of a real-world location (e.g., a university campus, a house), inviting participants to speak and act within particular zones (e.g., room, walkaway. Contemporary MOOs are being employed in social and educational contexts. Use of non-textual material (e.g., graphics, sound) is also now appearing in MUDs and MOOs.
- Chat is a synchronous CMC venue for holding conversations with multiple participants. While an early version of Chat was possible through the UNIX "talk" program (allowing multiple users to engage in Instant Messaging, Chat as we know it was not born until 1988. In that year, Jarkko Oikarinen, a student at the University of Oulu (in Finland), wrote a program that came to be known as Internet Relay Chat (IRC) which was intended as an improvement on UNIX "talk". By the early 1990s, IRC became known to the wider public, serving as a template for more generic Chat programs available through Internet providers such as America Online and through the Web.
As in the case of newsgroup, participants in Chat enter into a "channel". (fro IRC) or "room" (for AOL), ostensibly dedicated to a particular topic. However, with Chat, not only is the medium synchronous, but it invites both playful and manipulative behavior. Users log on through nicknames (akin to participation in MUDs), free to camouflage their real-world personal characteristics (age, gender, background, etc.). While conversation takes place in real time, users can (as in the case of newsgroups) scroll back through the archive to respond to earlier conversations. Like Listservs, Newsgroups, and MUDs and MOOs, Chat generates a quasi-public linguistic record that can subsequently be analyzed. However, given the nature of the conversation in Chat, it is primarily linguists and Internet researchers who are interested in analyzing such text, not organizations or commercial ventures.
- Web Sites
Unlike the forms of CMC we have discussed thus far, Web sites have historically been a monologic form of communication.That is, they have posted material on the World Wide Web that others might view rather than respond to. In recent years, there is increasing momentum to create Web sites that invite interaction (e.g., currency converters, translation programs, and personal feedback, not to mention the enormous category of online commerce). Mote that a Web site is composed of one or more Web pages.
- Web Pages
Web Pages (individual institutional, or commercial) form the backbone of the World Wide Web. Such pages became possible in the early 1990s when Tim Berners-Lee introduced the notion of what came to be known as a URL (Uniform Record Locator), whereby every Web page could be located by a unique address. today, there are billions of Web pages, with the number continuing to grow seemingly limitlessly.
- Web Blogs
Web Blogs are actually Web pages that serve a restricted, though loosely defined set of functions. Also known as Blogs, Web logs were created in 1997 by John Barger. Initially, Web logs were designed as lists of Web sites that the blogger found to be of interest and wished to share with others (;.e., via the blogger's own Web site). sometimes We logs of this genre simply provide a set of headlines (complete with Web links) that the compiler has put together (with frequent updates) - for example, John Barger's robot wisdom. Use of Weblogs has expanded from the link-and-commentary mode to include more personal journals or diaries. such Web logs may be devoted to posting one's creative writing (sometimes with requests for commentary from readers) or even quite personal revelations about one's daily life and thoughts, perhaps complete with live video from a Web camera. Given the popularization of Web logs, it is hardly surprising that a number of software programs have appeared that enable novice users to create and maintain their own Web logs.
Transformation of Verbal Expression:
Print, Consciousness and Secondary Orality
Thus far, I have been discussing MCC and what they are and their role in verbal and writing and visual communication(although the latter will be discussed furthermore in the future). It is very important that we know, identify and observe how these Internet Media. Computer mediated communication can be thought of as a kind of linguistic centaur, incorporating features from both traditional writing and face to face discourse but ending up being more than a simple amalgam of the two. As the number of linguists studying CMC increases, there is a growing interest in characterizing what kind of linguistic modality the language of CMC is, as well as in studying the influence of CMC on traditional spoken and written language.
So that, Ongoing developments in CMC technology may render obsolete many of our linguistic assumptions about the character o natural language usage conveyed by the Internet. As video capabilities improve, use of still photographs, along with streaming recorded video live and live Web cams could redefine the balance of information conveyed in written versus graphic form. And as voice recognition technology improves, we can envision a future in which CMC messages from those users presently type out themselves. Emiticons and abbreviations would presumable disappear; spelling, punctuation, and even grammar might improve (handled by the speech recognition program); and message would probably become much longer, since when we dictate, we generally use more words than when we write the text ourselves (Baron, 2000)
Some people have suggested that use of written CMC will be replaced altogether by audio transmission o messages (perhaps complete with Web cams. However, written CMC has a number of clear advantages over receiving audio signals: production of a durable record; potential to conceal age, gender, physical condition, or ethnic or linguistic background; rapidity with which a written message can be read or scanned (in comparison with listening to an oral message); relative privacy in public places; and the ability to multitask (e.g., compose and receive IM while speaking on the phone). Consequently, those who study the Internet generally doubt that written CMC will disappear, regardless of technological available alternatives. It is at this juncture that we will review some vocabulary, or Jargon, if you will, of the Internet computer mediated communications below:
Understanding the New Media Jargon
As the Internet grows, so does its language change with the development and growth of the Internet. It is not possible to write down all the new words used on the Web and in different media environments permeating the viral stream. But it is also important for the this article to at least list some of the words that are being used today, and these will be updated as the changes take place regarding the language of the communication on the Internet. We will take the liberty of using words or terms that have been provided by Webopedia:
New Internet Media Jargon:
- Page: In Word Processing, a page of 'text'. Most text-processing applications recongnize a hierarchy of components, starting with a character a the lowest level, followed by a word, a line, a paragraph, and a page. Application permit certain operations for each type of component, for example, you can delete a character, a word, a line, and sometimes an entire page. For pages, you can also specify formatting characteristics(for example, page size, margins and number of columns.
- Media: Objects on which data can be stroed. these include hard discs, floppy disks, CD-ROMs, and Tapes. In computer networks, media refers to the cables linking workstations together. There are many different types of transmission media, most popular being being twisted-pair wire(normal electric wire), coaxial cable(the type of cable used for cable television), and fiber optic cable(cables made out of glass) The form and technology used to communicate information. Multimedia presentations, for example, combine sound, pictures, and videos, all of which are different types of media.
- Siphoning: In SEO, siphoning is a technique used to "steal" traffic that would normally be directed to another website in search engine results. Siphoning could be the fraudulent use of spyware or cybersquatting to steal the traffic,or it could refer to those who copy a webpage with the content slightly altered to direct the Web search engine to show results of another webpage.
- Page Template: A page template, or Web page template, often refers to a predesigned Web page that you can customize. The page template would include font, style, formatting, tables, graphics and other elements commonly found on a Web page. Using a Web authoring program you can open the page template and easily customize the template to meet your needs.
- Squeeze Page: In Internet and online advertising vernacular, a squeeze page is a Web page that contains information that would interest the marketer's targeted readers. Squeeze pages are designed to obtain a reader's name and e-mail address information by encouraging users to opt-in to an e-mail list to receive more information about the topic. Marketers will collect the permission-based e-maol and information to follow. Currently there is still some debate over the actual definition of a squeeze page. Some consider landing pages that offer additional hyperlinks to information as well as e-mail opt-in list sign-up to be a squeeze page, while other in the industry believe only those pages containing just an e-mail sign-up are considered squeeze page.
- Paging: A technique used by virtual memory operating systems to help ensure that the data you need is available as quickly as possible. The operating system copies a certain number of pages from your storage device to main memory.When a program needs a page that is not in main memory, the operating system copies the required page into memory and copies another page back to the disk. One says that the operating system pages the data. Each time a page is needed that is not currently in memory, a page fault occurs. An invalid page fault occurs when the address of the page being requested is invalid. In this case, the application is usually aborted. This type of virtual memory is called paged virtual memory. another form of virtual memory is segmented virtual memory.
- Master Page: In Web site development with ASP NET, the master page is a feature that enables you to define common structure and interface markup elements for your Web site, including headers, footers, style definitions, or navigation bars. The master page can be shared by any of the pages in your Web site, called the Content Page, and removes needed to duplicate code for shared elements within your Web site.
- Page Break: The end of a Page of Text. In word-processing systems, you can enter special codes called hard page breaks or forced page breaks, that cause the printer to advance to the next page. Without hard page breaks, the word processor automatically begins a new page after a page has been filled (this depends on the number of lines per page). In this case, the page break is called a soft page break.
- Content Page: In Web site development with ASP .NT, the Content Page is a page that is associated to a Master Page. A Content Page will contain only markup and controls inside Content controls and it cannot have any top-level content of its own. Any content Page can use controls that specifically override content placeholder sections in the Master Page.
- Deep Pages: In Web site development a deep page is a Web Page within your site that takes four or more clicks to access from the home page. Deep page losers the quality of your Web site.
- Off-page Optimization: In search engine optimization, off-page optimization refers to factors that have an effect on your Web site or Web page listing in natural search results. These factors are off-site in that they are not controlled by you or the coding on your page. Examples of off-page optimization include things such as link popularity and page rank.
- On-page Optimization: In search engine optimization, on-page optimization refers to factors that have an effect on your Web site or Web page listing in natural search results. These factors are controlled by you or by coding on your page. Examples of on-page optimization include actual HTML code, meta tags, keyword placement and keyword density.
- Say Where: The name of a popular voice enabled application for the Apple iPhone device. Say Where is a free application that can be used to recognize your speech and input it as text into Web sites when using the Safari browser on your iPhone. The application is used to finding locations, directions and maps. for example, users can speak the name of a place, an address, or intersection and the application will show search result from a number of partners including Google Maps, MapQuest and others.
- Text: Words, sentences, paragraphs. This book, for example, consists of text. Text processing refers to the ability to manipulate words, lines, and pages. Typically, the term text refers to text stored as ASCII codes (that is, without any formatting). Objects that are not text include graphics,numbers (if they're not stored as ASCII characters), and program code.
- Text Messaging: Sending short text messages to a device such as a cellular phone, PDA or pager. Text messaging is used for messages that are no longer than a few hundred characters. The term is usually applied to messaging that takes place between two or more mobile devices.
- Short Message Service: Abbreviated as SMS, the transmission of short text messages to and from a mobile phone, fax machine and/or IP address. Messages must be no longer than 160 alpha-numeric characters and contain no images or graphis. Once a message is sent, it is received by a Short Message Service CenterSMSC), which must then get it to the appropriate mobile device. To do this, The SMSC sends a SMS Request to the home location register )HLR) to find the roaming customer. Once the HLR receives the request, it will respond to the SMSC with the subscriber's status: 1) inactive or active; 2) where subscriber is roaming. If the response is "inactive", then the SMSC will hold onto the message for a period of time. When the subscriber accesses his device, the HLR sends a SMS Notification to the SMSC, and the SMSC will attempt delivery. The SMSC transfers the message in Short Message Delivery Point to Point format to the serving system. The system pages the device, and if it responds, the message gets delelvered. The SMSC receives verification that the message was received by the end user, then categorizes the message as "sent" and will not attempt to send again.
- Text From Computer: Text from computer is a feature that allows you to send a text message (also called SMS) to a cellular phone of wireless device on a cellular network from anInternet-connected computer using e-mail. To text from computer you need an e-mail account and the full ten-digit phone number of the person you want to send a text message to. You will also need to know who the recipient uses for cellular service. Each cellular phone service provider (also called a carrier) will have an e-mail address that you will need to send a text from a computer. You need to put the recipient's full 10-degit cell number in front of the @ symbol in the e-mail address used by the service provider for e-mail text messages. Most text from computer messages an be a maximum of 160 characters in length. Text from computer is also called e-mail text message.
- Message Digest: The represenattion of text in the form of a single string of digits, created using a formula called a "one-way hash function". Encrypting a message digest with a private key creates a digital signature, which is an electronic means of authentication.
- Instant Messaging: Abbreviated IM, a type of communications service that enables you to create a kind of private chat room with another individual in order to communicate in real time over the Internet, analogous to a telephone conversation but using text-based, not voiced-based, communication. Typically, the Instant Messaging system alerts you whenever somebody on your private list is online. You can then initiate a chat session with that particular individual.
- Multimedia Message Service: Abbreviated as MMs,Multimedia Message Service is a store-and-forward method of transmitting graphics, video clips, sound files and short text messages over wireless networks using WAP protocal. Carriers deploy special servers, dubbed MMs Centers (MMSSCs) to implement the offerings on their systems. MMs also support e-mail addressing, so the device can send e-mails directly to an e-mail address. The most common use of MMS is for communication between mobile phones. MMS, however, is not the same as e-mail. MMs is based on the concept of multimedia messaging. The presentation of the message is coded into the presentation file so that the images, sounds and text are displayed in a predetermined order as one singular message. MMS does not support attachments as e-mail does. To the end-user, MMS is similar to SMS.
- Firewall: A system designed to prevent unauthorized access to or from a private network. firewalls can be implemented in both hardware and software, or a combination of both. Firewalls are frequently used to prevent unauthorized Internet users from accessing private networks connected to the Internet, especially Intranets. All messages entering or leaving the intranet pass through the firewall, which examines each message and blocks those that not not meet the specified security criteria.
- Port: 1) An interface on a computer to which you can connect a device. Personal computers have various types of poerts. Internally, there are several ports for connecting disc drivers, display screens, and keyboards. Externally, personal computers have ports for connecting modems, printers, mice, and other peripheral devices.
Almost all personal computers come with a serial RS-232C port or RS-422 port for connecting a modem or mouse and a parallel port for connecting a printer. On PCs. the parallel port is a Centronics interface that uses a 25-pin connector. SCSI (Small Computer System Interface) ports support higher transmission speeds than do conventional ports and enable you t attach up to seven devices to the same port. 2) In TCP/IP and UDP networks, an endpoint to a logical connection. The port number identifies what type of port it is. for example, port 80 is used for HTTP Traffic. To move a program from one type of computer to another. To port an application, you need to rewrite sections that are machine dependent, and then recompile the program on the new computer. Programs that can be ported easily are said to be portable.
- Filter: 1) A program that accepts a certain type of data as input, transforms it in some manner, and then outputs the transformed data. for example, a program that sorts names is a filter because it accepts the names in unsorted order, sorts them, and then outputs the sorted names. Utilities that allow you to import or export data are also sometimes called filters. 2) A pattern through which data is passed. only data that matches the pattern is allowed to pass through the filter. 3) In paint programs and image editors, a filter is an effect that can be applied to a bit map. some filters mimic conventional photographic filters, but many transform images in unusual ways. A pointillism filter, for example can make a digitized photograph look like a pointillistic painting.
- Internet: The Internet is a global network connecting millions of compputers. More than 100 countries are linked into exchanges of data, news, opinions. According to Internet World Stats, as of December 31, 2011 there was an estimated 2,267,233,742 Internet users worldwide. This represents 32.7% of the world's population. Unlike online services, which are centrally controlled, the Internet is decentralized by design. Each Internet computer, called a 'host', is independnet. Its operators can choose which Internet service to use and which local services to make available to the global community.. Remarkably, this anarchy by design works exceedingly well. There are a variety of ways to access the Internet. Most online services offer access to some Internet services. It is also possible to gain access through a commercial Internet Service Provider(ISP). Who owns the Internet? No one actually own the Internet, and no single person or organization control the Internet in its entirety. The Internet is more of a concept than an actual tangible entity, and it relies on a physical infrastructure that connects networks to other networks. Is Web and Internet the Same? The Internet is not synonymous with the World wide Web. The Internet is a massive network of networks, a networking infrastructure. It connects millions of computers together globally, forming a network in which any computer can communicate with other computers as long as the are both connected to the Internet. The World Wide Web, or simply Web, is a way of accessing information over the medium of the Internet. It is an information-sharing model that is built on top of the Internet
- Network: A network is a group of two or more computer systems linked together. There are many types of computer networks,including: Local-Area Networks(LANs): The computers are geographically close together (that is, in the same building); Wide-Area Networks (WANs) : The computers are further apart and are connected by telephone lines or radio waves; Campus-Area Networks (CANs): The computers are within a limited geographic area, such as campus or military base; Metropolitan-Area Networks (MANs): A data network designed for a town or city; Home-Area Networks (HANs): A network contained within a user's home that connects a person's digital devices. In addition to these types, the following characteristic: Topology: The geometric arrangement of a computer system. Common topologies include a bus, star, and ring; Protocol: The protocol defines a common set of rules and signals that computers on the network use to communiate. One of the most popular protocols for LAN is called "Ethernet". Another popular LAN protocol for PCs is the IBM 'token-ring network'.; Architecture: Networks can be broadly classified as using either a 'peer-to-peer' or 'client/server architecture'. Computers on a network are sometimes called 'des'. Computers and devices that locate 'resources' for a network are called 'servers'.
Aggregator: Software and applications that retrieve content from the web via structured feeds published by websites, podcasts, vlogs and other online content publishers.
AJAX: A web development language that increases the interactivity, speed and functionality of the websites and applications. Short for Asynchronous Java Script and XML, AJAX transfers data in the background providing the appearance that online interactions are almost instant. The process also has the added benefit of being able to communicate with a database without having to reload an entire page or application further enhancing the user experience.
API (Application Programming Interface): Refers to the interface that an online service or application provides to allow data exchange and service sharing by other applications and tools.
Architecture of participation: An environment where the community helps build the system as defined by Tim O'Reilly back in 2003. (Tim O'Reilly was one of the first people to introduce the concept of web 2.0). There are many examples of Architecture of Participation from the proliferation of widgets to the extensive creation of Facebook applications.
Atom Feed: A protocol for sharing content; using an XML file. It is one of the main ways to syndicate content from publishing platforms such as blogs and websites, with the protocol pushing new content out to subscribers.
Blog (weblogs): A simple content management system designed to make content publication simple for non technical people for the initial purpose of maintaining online diaries. Blogs have evolved to be key drivings of news and discussions online due to the ease of use and immediacy of outputs. They have also become an integral part of many integrated marketing strategies as they provide a great tool for building communities, managing online PR and contributing to other efforts such as Search Engine marketing.
Blogosphere: The term given to the ever growing collection of blogs across the internet. The expression was coined due to the interconnectivity of blogs with many of them entwined via comments, links and trackbacks creating a perceived sphere.