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Contemporary Media and Internet Jargon: Accelerated Word, Vocabulary & Language: Computer Mediated Communication (Cmc)


Computer Mediated Communications

Computer Mediated Communication is simply other humans talking to other human beings over the computer

Computer Mediated Communication is simply other humans talking to other human beings over the computer

Same word in different words, same meaning

Same word in different words, same meaning

Symbolic language and the 'laugh out loud' acronym

Symbolic language and the 'laugh out loud' acronym

Communications by typing, people use "internet slang" to talk with each other, it's faster than typing the whole word out

Communications by typing, people use "internet slang" to talk with each other, it's faster than typing the whole word out

The internet has far reaching effects, and is patterning itself just like the nervous system in our bodies

The internet has far reaching effects, and is patterning itself just like the nervous system in our bodies

Internet Jargon and language and new proliferation

Internet Jargon and language and new proliferation

The words we use in everyday life and words we see on the web every time we log in: convulsion of the word

The words we use in everyday life and words we see on the web every time we log in: convulsion of the word

Interchangeable and interconnected  undergirded human cyber communication

Interchangeable and interconnected undergirded human cyber communication

Language in an Online and Mobile World

Language in an Online and Mobile World

New Media Terms

New Media Terms

Uo% of users prefer to surf online using their own language, but most admit a willingness to use various languages online

Uo% of users prefer to surf online using their own language, but most admit a willingness to use various languages online

Both Grammar and Vocabulary are still with us

Both Grammar and Vocabulary are still with us

Mobile Instant Messaging will cost 1.3 billion Users by 2016

Mobile Instant Messaging will cost 1.3 billion Users by 2016

Speechlessness and Modern Internet Language-Loaded and Bloated Cyber Community

According to the Random House Dictionary's senior editor, Stuart B. Flexner: "The words, we use are changing faster today - not merely on the slang level, but on every level. The rapidity with which words come and go is vastly accelerated. This seems to be true not only of English, but French, Russian and Japanese as well-off the estimated 450,000 "usable" words in the English Language today, only perhaps 250,000 would be comprehensible to William Shakespeare. Were Shakespeare suddenly to materialize in London or New York today, he would be able to understand, on average, only five out of every nine words in our vocabulary. The Bard would be semi-literate."

Grammatical Man

The modern revolution of in linguistics, which began in the 1950s, discovered at the same time that the genetic code, was an attempt to investigate the universal principles of all languages using a similar route, delving down beneath the observable surface of spoken sentences to the hidden abstract structures underlying the. Noam Chomsky sought for tacit principles in the hidden mental operations which undergird human language. Chomsky wanted to discover "those basic relationships which hold in general." According to him, "What person says is an unreliable guide to what that person actually knows, often unconsciously, and it is knowledge of the patterns of language in the full sense of the word. For a theory of language in the full sense of the word can be said is of more interest than what is actually said, and every speaker can say infinitely much. The point of view of its relationship with all other messages which could have been sent but were not. The input to the channel between speaker and listener is "coded" by grammar which is regular and reliable. But as a message moves from the source in the brain on its journey to the person for whom it is intended, the message becomes distorted in various ways. At the surface, in the form of speech, the message is very often untidy, imperfect, and full of errors. It conveys messages, to be sure, but the messages are distorted by "noise" in the form of mistakes, slips of the tongue, memory lapses, repetitions and distractions. The receiver must make sense of the message, disentangle it from the noise, reconstruct it in its original, non-random form. Unless this is done, communication is impossible." Chomsky believes that a linguistic theory should deal only with an "ideal" speaker and listener, who knows his language perfectly and never makes any mistakes,never departs from grammatical propriety. This mode of communication is quickly being challenged by the new and emerging media and merging relationships.

If our images of reality are changing more rapidly, and the gadgets of image-transmission are being speeded up, and a parallel change is altering the very codes we use. For language, too, is convulsing. If language during Shakespeare had at least 200,000, these have dropped out and replaced in the four centuries then. The turnover in the language has more or less occurred in the last fifty years alone. The dropping and adding of words in the language is being replaced three times faster. Alvin Toffler gives us these examples: Some new words come directly from the world of consumer products and technology. Thus, for example, words like "fast-back," "wash-and-wear" or "flashcube" were all propelled into language by advertising in recent years. Other words come from the headlines. "Sit-in" and "swim-in" are recent products of the civil rights movement; "teach -in" a product of the campaign against the Vietnam war; "be-in" and "love-in" products of the hippie subculture. The LSD cults have brought with it a profusion of new head- "acidhead," "psychedelic," etc.

Flexner further explains how the language has changed from the 50s and 60s, affecting our speech and vocabulary patterns. He says: "At the level of slang the turnover is is so quick that the dictionary makers changed their criteria for word inclusion. In 1954, when I started work on the Dictionary of American Slang, I would not consider a word for the inclusion unless I could find three uses of the word over a five year period. Today such a criterion would be impossible, because, language, like art, in increasingly becoming a fad proposition. The slang "fab" and "gear" for example, didn't last a single year. They entered the teen-age vocabulary in about 1966; by 1967 they were out. You cannot use a time criterion for slang anymore. Toffler states: "As new words sweep in, old words vanish. A picture of a nude girl nowadays is no longer "pin-up" or a "cheesecake shot" but a "playmate." "hep" has given way for "hip"; Hipster to "Hippie." Many words, in short, have come and gone with the same speed they came in with. New words ket on coming on throughout the sixties and seventies, and have also been replaced by newer one in the 80s, 90s and 00s. As the language turned, it even appeared in non verbal forms of communication. The circle formed by the thumb and forefinger suggests that all goes well is now fading out. "V for Victory signs was now being used by protesters. Gestural language is peaking and affecting our language patterns and evolution.

It is important that we begin to look and understand how contemporary language or mode of speech is used to hide, even to ourselves, the less than exciting lives most of us are leading. Arthur Berger asks: "Have you ever wondered just how big Giant King Size" actually is or what "terrific" really means"? Berger says that we use language to hide, and whatever it is we are hiding, we are hiding it from ourselves too. He futher makes this point concrete by stating: "I can recall once overhearing two bored youths aat a tennis court. Said one of them. "let's split," a phrase in part usage today, in fitting with the schizophrenic nature of the times. Somehow, "splitting" from place is much more exciting that "going some-place else" or "leaving".

The Language of Radio and Television

Television commercials have bred some form os skepticism that needs to be overcome. They make absurd claims on Menus, travel brochures, book jackets and so on. The law of diminishing returns woks since the people believe less and less, and the advertisers promise more and more, that in the end advertising has created skepticism. Leo Lowenthal discusses the use of "superlatives" in the following manner: "This wholesale distribution of highest ratings defeats its own purpose. Everything is presented as something unique, unheard of, outstanding. Thus, nothing is unique, unheard of, outstanding. Totality of the superlative means totality of the mediocre because it levels the presentation of human life to the presentation of merchandise." Lowenthal observed that superlatives as they were used was about heroes of consumption. At first superlatives were insgnificant until their real functions were discovered.

Malapropric Malapropism

It is important to segue into television to view Archie Bunker's use of language. Rosa and Escholz say that: Archies comand of language is "legionary"; viewers have witnessed him criticize Mike for reacting "on the sperm of the moment," castigate Edith for taking things "out of contest," and tell his family that his prejudices is a "pigment of their imagination". Archie uses malapropism[the inappropriate use of a word in place of another that has some similarity to it]. In his situational comedy show, Archie uses malapropisms as follows: "What is this, the United Nations? We gotta have a whole addenda ? I come home to tell you one o' the greatest antidotes of all times, an item of real human interest, and you sit there like you are in a comma. You sound like a regular Billie Sol Graham! "Sorry" ain't gonna clench my thirst ... as one of your faithful constitutionals . You gotta grab the bull by the corns and heave-ho. This nation under God shall not diminish from the earth. I do not need their whole Dun and Broadstreet. We got a regular Edna St. Louis Millet here. If he don't yell "pig" or none of them epaulets .... Ain't he took the exercise tax off a cars? No, Edith, I was out expectin' the street lights... For better or for worse, in secrets and in health till death do us part? It's like trying to make a sow's purse outta silk! Whoever sent 'em obviously wanted to remain unanimous . I'll believe that when hell freezes under."

If Archie is a modern master of the malapropism, he is also a prolific creator of barbarisms- made-up or malformed words produced by false analogy with other legitimate words. Like malapropisms, barbarisms reflect ignorance and often pretentiousness on the part of the person who uses them. Here is Archie's usage: "What am I, clairavoyage or somethin'?... what you call, connubible difficulties... It's gonna take a lotta thinkin' and it's gonna take all my consecration. One of these days I will probably dehead myself. It was said under dupress .... making you an excessity after the fact! It's a regular of facsamile of the Appolo 14. Like the Presidential, the Senatorial, the Governororial ,the Mayorororial ... These things ain't exactly hairlooms , you know. What do you mean by that insinuendo ? Back to the groinocologist! She's hanging around my neck like an Albacross! He had the inforntery to imply that... what you might call a certain lack of drive- you know, personal inititianative. Make this meathead take the literacy test. I remember some of the beauties you hung around with, and they wasn't exactly no "Madonises "

Radio Ether

Radio has changed. Dr. Lawton tells us that: "Face up to the fact that, like it or not, from the bowels of radio has come a new art form. The practitioners of the new art are the managers of the "screamer" stations,.... stations with an extreme foreground treatment, playing only top tunes,with breathless and witless striplings making like carnival barkers." Today's radio chief purpose is to make money for those who control and use its mechanical devices. It threatens to prove as great a a disappointment as the moving-picture for those who sense radio's underdeveloped power as an agency of education,culture, and international good-will. According to Marshall McLuhan, "to the student of media, it is difficult to explain the human indiference to social effects of those radical forces. The phonetic alphabet and the printed word that exploded the closed tribal world into the open society of fragmented functions and specialist, knowledge and action have never been studied in their roles as a magical transformer. The history of radio is instructive as an indicator of the bias and blindness induced in any society by its pre-existent technology."

But Paul Lazarsfeld put it this way: "The last group of effects may be called the monopolistic effects of radio. If a government monopolizes the radio, then by mere repetition and by exclusion of conflicting points of view it can determine the opinions of the population. We do not know much about how this monopolistic effects really work. The Germans under Hitler danced entranced to the tribal drum of radio that extended their central nervous system to create depth involvement for everybody. Media can imprison the audience through government censors and information gate-keepers. It can also be free as demonstrated by Dave Mickie the Disc-jockey: "That's Patty Baby and that's the girl with the dancing feet and that's Freddy Cannon there om the David Mieckie Show in the nighttime ooohbah how are you booboo. Next we'll be Swinging on a Star and ssshhhwwoooo and sliding on a moonbeam. Waaaaaa how about that ... one of the goodest guys with you ... this is lovable kissable D.M. in the p.m. at 22 minutes past nine o' clock there,, aahhrightie, we're gonna have a Hitline, all you have to do is call WA 5-1151, WAlnut 5-1151, tell them what number is on the Hitline." Dave Mickie alternately soars, groans, swings, sings, solos, intones and scampers, always reacting to his own reactions. He moves entirely in the spoken rather than the written area of experience. It is in this way that the audience participation is created. The spoken word involves all of the senses dramatically. his is designed to suck-in and grab the listeners attention and faculties. This is free radio using spoken language to express itself and it listeners.

Action Verbiage

American speech is energetic and picturesque. The sports pages in the newspapers, uses jargon not too desirable but some times affected. These newspapers utilize action verbs throughout the football season. A few of these were gathered from weekend review of a miscellaneous assortment of daily papers, from small publications to the metropolitan press: "Duke annexes victory; Iowa bags tie with Mississippi; Ohio State beats Badgers; Lawrence belts Monmouth; Illini blast Indiana; Gophers bounce Indiana; Tulane bumps Mississippi; Oklahoma bowls over Nebraska; Michigan buries Northwestern; Duke conquers North Carolina; Ohio crushes Minnesota; Anderson drubs McKendree; Oklahoma edges Texas." Then there are additional expressions like: "batters, bows to, deals a blow, shatters hopes, squelches, swats and other common terms like wins, loses, beats, defeats, overcomes, outscores and so forth. With this kind of verbiage, there seems no problem that sports will stagnate or that the football game lose its many and enthusiastic artists in the field of athletic ballyhoo.

Final Thoughts on the Word and Speech

Words help help us understand the books, news and other reading formats we have much easier. They open the world and broaden understanding. Anybody who reads a lot can imagine the new world that has been opened. Books in reality makes our lives truly free. Prince Modupe, in Africa, on encountering the written word, wrote; "The one crowded space in Father Perry's house was his bookshelves. I gradually came to understand that the marks on the pages were trapped words Anyone could learn to decipher the symbols and turn the trapped words loose again into speech. The ink of the print trapped the thought; they could get no more get away than a doomboo could get out of a pit. When the full realization of what this meant flooded over me, I experienced the same thrill and amazement as when I had my first glimpse of the bright lights on Kornarky. I shivered with the intensity of my desire to learn to do this wondrous thing myself." Words in a book helps us revise them, read about them and the thoughts that they convey in the process, make us enlightened and knowledgeable. We are also enabled by knowing these words to speak fluently and clearly. Language today is the main accelerator and curtails space as the main factor in social dialogue and arrangements. The spoken word involves all of the senses dramatically, though literate people tend to speak as connectedly and casually as possible.

Word on Speech

Marshal McLuhan writes: "The widely separate characters of the spoken and written words are easy to study today when there is ever closer touch with non-literate societies. One native, the only literate , member of his own group, told of acting as a reader for the others when they received their letters. He said he felt impelled to put his fingers to his ears while reading aloud, so as not to violate the privacy of their letters. This is interesting testimony to the values of privacy fostered by the visual stress of phonetic word. Such separation of the sense, and of the individual from the group, can scarcely occur without the influence of phonetic writing. The witten word spells out in sequence what is quick and implicit in the spoken word." "Without language", Bergson suggests, "human intelligence would have remained totally involved in the objects of its attention. Language does for the intelligence what the wheel does for the feet and body. It enables them to move from thing to thing with greater ease and speed and ever less involvement. Language extends and amplifies man, but it also divides his faculties. His collective consciousness or intuitive awareness is diminished by this technical extension of consciousness that is speech.(McLuhan).

In the final analysis, language is our ability to transmit thoughts and ideas by using words. But with the introduction of electricity and new technologies and techniques , a new form of speech is lying on the horizon of future human speech. McLuhan puts it this way: "Our new electric technology that extends our senses and nerves in a global embrace has large implication for the future of language. Electric technology does not need words any more than the digital computer needs numbers. Electricity points the way to an extension of the process of consciousness itself, on a world scale, and without any verbalization whatever. Such a state of collective awareness may have been the preverbal condition of men. Today computers hold out the promise of a means of instant translation of any code or language into any any other code or language. The computer, in short, promises by technology a Pentacostal condition of universal understanding and unit. The next logical step would seem to be, not translate, but to by-pass languages in favor of a general cosmic consciousness. This is the condition of "weightlessness," that biologists say promises a physical immortality may be paralleled by the condition of speechlessness that could confer a perpetuity of collective harmony and peace." This would be very interesting to see if Internet and language would bring about a global speechless but cyber-conscious community without speech impediments.

Cyber Babble

"We are on the on-ramp of the Information Superhighway- the engine's running- but we don't really know where we are going yet."(NBC vice-president) There is also a new language that has developed out of our surfing the Web. The new media stresses certain characteristics more than the older forms like print, radio, film or television. (i)They involve computers at basic levels of person(s)-with-person(s). Take note that: "That there is the shift from isolated single-author writing to "word processing" which often involves multi-author manipulation of text(Heim, 1987); shopping via the World Wide Web or researching via on-line databases like Lexis/Nexi or dialog;highly interactive, talk-like writing via e-mail and electronic bulletin board services." (ii) They involve merged media, merged human senses, and thus more immersive experiences. Consider: "The extent to which satellite digital technology, computers, and phone lines have merged to facilitate viewer participation with, and control over, a myriad of specialized television channels; how virtual reality" simulations immerse individuals' experience immediately in sensation that both are, and aren't, "present"- how virtual travelers can at the same time "be there" without leaving "here"(Rheingold, 1991) (iii) They shift message responsibilities, thus involving audiences more as co-authors than as receivers: "The branching choices invited by hypertext software, the versatile vastness of CD-ROM technology, and the multitude of "user"- determined choices in videodisks and CDs, all of which make messages available differently to different persons. (iv) They arrange time and place sensibilities. Consider: "the linear cause-to-effect and here-to-there assumptions of directness theory have given away to more multicausal views and message ambiguities; previous assurances of what is and isn't real no longer seem to apply. Our former words, our former habits of talking about communication are outmoded." (v) They blur the traditional modern concepts of power and responsibilities: it used to be clear that to "respond" to a message someone else needed to "author" it first. Now, increasingly, the respondents- to the presence of databases, for example- reauthor, reconfigure or edit messages at will." As McLuhan stated: "with Computers, we are able similarly surrounded by the medium as it expects particular actions and responses from us. The medium is simultaneously an extension of us and an environment for us." We are now using a language that comes with this medium. It is now changing the vocabulary and adding to number of new words in the English language and within society and the Web Community. It has now become cyber babble which is accelerated andt continues to shape and reshape our world, words, thoughts and language.

Walter Ong Writes: "Human communication, verbal and other, differs from the 'medium' mode most basically in that it demands anticipated feedback in order to take place at all. In the medium model, the message is moved from sender-position. In real human communication, the sender has to be not only in the sender position but also in the receiver position before he or he can send anything. To speak, you have to address another or others. People in their right minds do not stray through the weeds just talking at random to nobody. Even to talk to yourself you have to pretend that you are two people. The reason is that what I say depends on what reality or fancy I fell I am talking int, that is, on what possible responses I might anticipate. Hence, I avoid sending quite the same message to an adult and to a small child. to speak, I have to be somehow already in communication with the mind I am to address before I start speaking. I can be in touch perhaps through past relationships, by an exchange of glances, by an understanding with a third person who has brought me and my interlocutor together, or in any of countless other ways. (Words are modifications of a more-than-verbal situation.) I have to sense something in the other's mind to which my own utterance can relate. Human communication is never -one-way. Always, it not only calls for response but is shaped in its very form and content by anticipated response. To formulate anything I must have another person or other persons already in mind. this is the paradox of human communication. Communication is intersubjective.The media model is not. There is no adequate model in the physical universe for this operation of consciousness, which is distinctly human and which signals the capacity of human beings to form true communities wherein person shares with person interiorly, inter-subjectively. (Ong)

The Internet is changing English and the Way we Speak

The new media trend internet is slowly changing the English language and the ways we speak. Because many people are using mobile phones texting, twittering, facebook, blogging, instant messaging and chat rooms o communicating with each other more than meeting up and chat. During this process of communicating with one another. people use short and simple words to express themselves. This creates a situation whereby the internet is changing the English language and the importance of the English language in their societies.By using the internet, it becomes much more easier to do research and find data fast. Less time is spent on finding information a person needs. But sometimes there is always a lot of irrelevant information making it hard for researchers to finnish their reports and projects.Communicating by typing, people tend to use short form or so-called "internet Slang to talk with each other, it's also much faster than typing the whole word out. These examples can be seen in the first and Hub photo of the Hub above.

After using internet slang frequently, when people meet up they use use internet slang with each other. However, not many people know exactly what it means and it affects the meaning of the sentence that they are trying to express. Even for work, proper presentation, good English language pronunciations is still important and needed. . Through using the internet, peoeple of all nationalities can converse together. They may be from different countries, internet slang makes it possible and easier for anyone of them to communicate with each other. This makes it possible that when exposing oneself to other languages to slowly be influenced by or changes the way one speaks not by grammar patterns or verb endings, but by the style of the language used in the internet to communicate with one another.

However, according to David Crystal, Professor of Linguistics (Science Daily, 2005), The expression of writing casualness that have considerably increased since the advent of the internet can in fact be considered as an innovation that "allows all of us to explore the power of the written language in a creative way." Language change that is steered by internet use is being viewed upon as a foundation for studies regarding language development within a new media. Soanes (2006) of Oxford Dictionaries also stated that the growing language change ushered by the internet can be seen as a learning experience, even explaining that "spelling isn't fixed and can change over the years... you only have to look back 100 years when word 'rhyme' was spelled 'rime'. Undoubtedly, the internet, though it may have had a few setbacks especially for English Learning and Teaching, have only made us realize that language would always be evolving. there would always be language changes; indeed, we have witnessed the difference of Old English to English we know today. The internet has only expanded the typical range and variety to particularly graphical ' written communication (Thorne, 2003) Understanding and acquiring new genres of communication are entirely decisive to the process of becoming a capable communicator. In a world where a lot of technologies are growing like mushrooms every minute and where people find new ways of communicating given their insatiable need for social acts, it is imperative that everyone must at least keep an open eye in observing significant phenomena such as language change - unless we want to be "LOL'ed" at for our indifference to changes in the 21st century. English is something that will never be permanent and will constantly be changed by technology. the fact that so many people are using those myriads of new terms uniformly, we can say that the internet is becoming "the" global language. Technology is the new vocabulary

For us to be able to speak we have to use language. We tend to think of language and money, electronic media, and other technologies as tools, but we tend to discount the degree to which our tool determine who we are and what we do. Language itself is a technology, a "tool" made by people. But the tool draws a circle around the realm of the thinkable beyond which few can negotiate. (Ong) Language and speaking are the main issues we need to stay clear about whenever we talk about the new and emerging techniques, technologies and the gadgets that go along with them. We also have to seriously study Internet Slang as much as we can as I am attempting to do below.

Internet Slang (Internet Language, Internet Shorthand)

Netspeak or Chatspeak

This is a type of slang that internet users have popularized and in many cases have coined.Such terms often originate with the purpose of saving keystrokes. Many people use the same abbreviations in texting and instant messaging,and social networking websites.Acronyms,keyboard symbols and shortened words are often used as methods of abbreviation on Internet Slang.Many items of Internet jargon cross from computer-mediated communication to face-to-face communication. Teenagers now sometimes useInternet acronyms in spoken communications as well as in written. David Crystal says that the crossover from written slang to speech is a brand new variety of language evolving,invented really by your people in the past ten years.

Other commentators disagree, saying that these new words, being abbreviations for resisting, long-used phrases,don't enrich anything; they just shorten it.furthermore, linguist Geoffrey K. Pullum of the University of Edinburg state that even if interjections such as LOL and ROTFL were to become very common in spoken English, their "total effect on language" would be "utterly trivial".

Laccetti, a professor of Humanities at Steven Institute of Technology and Molsk, in their essay entitled "The Lost Art Of Writing" are critical of the acronyms, predicting reduced chances of employment for students who use such acronyms, stating that, "Unfortunately for these students, their bosses will not be 'lol' when they read a report that lacks proper punctuation and grammar, has numerous misspellings, various made-up words, and silly acronyms. Fondiller and Nerone, in their style manual, assert that "professional or business communication should never be careless or poorly constructed, whether one is writing an electronic mail message or an article for publication, and warn against the use of smileys and these abbreviations, stating that they are "no more than e-mail slang and have no place in business communication".

Yunker and Barry, in a study of online courses and how they can be improved through podcasting,have found that these acronyms, as well as emoticons, are often "misunderstood" by students and are difficult to decipher" unless their meanings are explained in advance.They single out the example of "ROFL" as not obviously being the abbreviation of "rolling on th floor laughing". Haig singles out lOL as one to the three most popular initialisms in the Internet Slang, alongside BFN (Bye for now") and IMHO ("in my humble opinion"). In general, he describes these acronyms and the various initialisms of Internet Slang as convenient,but warns that "as ever more obscure acronyms emerge, they can also be rather confusing". Likewise, Bidgoli states that these initialisms "save keystrokes for the sender but [...] might make comprehension of the message more difficult for the receiver" and that "[s}lang may hold different meanings and lead to misunderstandings especially in International settings"; he advices that they be used "only when you are sure that the other person knows the meaning.for now,we will use a few words fromthe Intternet Slang Words. These will be added to with further research on the theory of this new cyber language, below

Word and Communications Accelerators

Computer Mediated Communications Spectrum

The Hub above purports to explore the use of Internet jargon in the media and the convulsions it is causing in traditional English language and communication dissemination and messaging that is now part and parcel of the modus operandi for one to stream within the Internet. But, as Naomi S. Brown will instruct is fully about this subject matter and area, we will begin to learn that there is more than meets the eye. I have touched on some of the point to be made below, I will write out the issues to further give them form and meat and in-depth breadth and fleshing-out to be able to see and understand the structures that message, transmit, are written, afford for computer conference, at times, through text messaging, which are connected too al forms of emerging gadgets, iPhone, Tablets, computers and so forth.

Within these gadgets are embedded are many systems which are responsible for the speeding up or Orality and Oral Tradition that was up to that time man's principal mode of communications, transmission and messaging amongst people themselves. The introduction of Morse Code, Radio, Print, Television, Cinema, Computers, were all melded within and throughout the computers which used the Web to manifest all these in a viral soup that it's expanding and extending man(a la McLuhan). These new technologies and techniques had two things in common that form a confluence of the Internet Social media: The Word and Language along with transmission and dissemination. I hope by laying out the systems structures of Messages sent through the Internet how they are aping old modes of communications or refine it, and how this manifests itself today and transforms us and our modes of communication and verbalizing(virally) with each other in the virally flowing datasphere. It is also important to state here, earlier on, that writing will remain, no matter the types of evolutions words, sounds, and messaging and technology become part of our human landscape realities and apparitions. As in the case that computer languages have helped bring along and establish languages that would not be otherwise known into the computer viral language sphere. We therefore learn from Naomi S. Brown that:

"We can think of CMC(Computer Mediated Communication) is one end a range of writing options that resembles traditionally composed (off-line) texts, the difference being only the means of transmission. At the other end is dialogue between two people that highly resembles speech, again, save for the medium of message exchange. If we think of traditional writing as a "product" (in the sense of being finished work) and face-to-face speech as a "process" (in that a conversation is typically a work in progress, with the outcome being determined by interaction between participants), we can lay out a spectrum of CMC(Computer Mediated Communication)

What is the contextual definition of Computer Mediated Communication. Simply enough, it is talking to other humans over computers. Here is what a panel of experts in the field have to say:

"It is impossible for a large group to have a complex problem solving discussion unless there is a structure that organizes the content and the process so the group can understand, as a group, what has been done. By being asynchronous and having this structure each individual can concentrate on the ideas they have at a given moment and make those contributions unrestricted by having to respond to anyone person or the group at any one time. People with different talents can focus on what they can do best in the group activity. Until you experience such an effort most people using E-mail or IM have no clue to what is possible. Imagine an ability to vote which tells people immediately what items they already agree to and which they currently agree and that vote is used to let them know where more discussion is needed in the underlying content structure. Based upon the discussion any one at any time can change their vote so the system can let them know when agreements have been reached. Voting is a continuous dynamic process guiding discussion." (Murray Turoff)

"True CMC allows for collaborative work and an archival of previous efforts, whereas IM is designed as a low or zero archival instant (disposable) communication, and E-mail a short time one. Additionally, integration of other group communications (voting, marketplaces) are also possible since the CMC environment is designed as a "commons" to allow true interaction of those in the community." (Martin Lyons)

Thomas Moulton explains it this way:

"Computer Mediated Communications is an environment where all the tools are designed to enable efficient communications. It works with mature communicators, people who care about the society and want to learn or help other or have a purpose. Yes that is it, it is a society where people have a serious purpose, a common goal. You visit chat rooms and the goals are to build up ego,meet chicks, etc. Those goals are self-centered, CMC can only exist when there is a common goal for the improvement of society."

According to James Whitescarver, "Organizations are human processes which computers can only facilitate with groupware. CMC is the science of groupware. Redundant processes may be automated, which is the domain of most information systems science. However, the real power of computers is not just reducing repetition, but in optimizing human productivity. This is the main domain of CMC. CMC is multidisciplinary; crossing the lines of computer science, psychology, sociology, behavioral sciences, and begs important questions in the philosophy of scinece. It should be noted that E-mail plus IM are complete in that any group process may be facilitated with just these tools. A CMC system might be no more than a set of norms (scripts) for using those tools. CMC systems facilitate and (minimally in my view) restrict communications to obey those norms to encourage maximal group productivity."

Finally, Ellen Lieberman states that"CMC was a true collaborative environment that facilitated group discussion, sharing of ideas, dynamic interaction, and software tools that enabled research development and the leading edge of communication."

The CMC Spectrum Morass

The Definitions above give us a broad view from experts concerning CMC and what it does: Affecting and effecting us and how it speeds-up the word and creates convulsion in the process, its role in communications and usage. It is very important that we expand this view much more by listing and explaining these Computer Mediated Communications means of communication through the computer using the groupware software we are about to discuss below-in that broad sense, begin to narrow in onto these CMC's and learn what their role is. In order to understand the CMC Spectrum MOrass, we will from henceforth defer to Naomi Brown:

"We can think of CMC as a cover term encompassing a range of writing options.At one end is writing that resembles traditionally composed (offline texts, the difference being only the means of transmission. At the other end is dialogue between two people that highly resembles speech, again, save for the medium of message exchange. ... At the far left ("product") end of the CMC spectrum are completed works such as academic papers or business reports that are available through a person organizational Web site or through attachments sent via E-mail. As we move to the right of the spectrum, all of the spectrum, all of the other categories of CMC show linguistic adaptation of the written medium as a result of being formulated for Internet transmission. However, as the Internet matures as a transmission medium, both user expectations and industry software tools are changing. As a, Web sites that used to be essentially static products are becoming increasingly interactive [thus the virally streaming word speeds up], making use of some of the newer markup languages and other Web desing tools.

"The second adaptation of the written medium involves anonymity," writes Naomi." "Historically, chat, MUDs and MOOs invited anonymous participation (involving not just pseudonyms but invented identities. Listservs were reserved for "vetted" (i.e., registered and perhaps even screened) participants, and E-mail was exchanged between interlocutors who already knew one another or who accurately introduced themselves when initiating communication with a stranger. However, these boundaries are increasingly shifitng. On the one hand, man Chat, MUDD, or MOO forums now vet their users. On the other hand, large numbers of individuals create multiple E-mailacconts to mask their identity from certain mail recipients. What is more, messages (whether on Listservs, E-mail or IM) are easily forwarded to individuals not on the original recipients list, thereby distributing information intended to intended participants. such forwarding may result not only in breaches of confidentiality but in distribution of hastily composed messages not intended for public scrutiny

Types Of CMC

Here are the major types of CMC, organized with respect to the extent to which they represent dialogue or monolugeu. A second important distinction to keep in mind is whether the communication is "asynchronous (i.e., participants do not have the potential to interact together in real time; or, synchronous (i.e., real time communication).

One-toOne Dialogue

  • E-Mail

E-mail ("electronic mail") is an asynchronous form of CMC, prototypically between a single sender and single recceipient. However, contemporary E-mail permit multiple recipients, along with forwarding of a message one has received to third parties.

The E-mail function arose out of experimentation by Ray Tomlison, a computer engineer working for Bolt Beranek and Newman, the firm hired by the US Department of Defense to build ARPANET. Tomlison's first test message, an arbitrary string of letters, was actually sent between two PDP-10 computers in the same room that were connected via ARPANET. To clarify the recipient and machine location to which a message was addressed, Tomlison selected the @symbol, which separated a user's login name from the name of his or her computer. Very quickly, E-mail became the most prevalent use of ARPANET, and eventually emerged as the "killer ap" of networked computing.

Tere is an enormous variation in the language style used in E-mail, determined by such variables as age and computer experience of user, function (e.g., replacement for a formal office memo, casual invitation to lunch nest week, teenage online online flirting). E-mail is, in principle, not intended for public view. Therefore, the kind of language used in E-mail (sometimes ungrammatical,lacking in standard punctuation or spelling) should not be an issue for natural language processing or search procedures, since such mail is usually only stored on an individual user's computer (perhaps, in the case of a company, in the organization's back-up files), and not the subject of mechanical analysis. However, given the enormous popularity of E-mail, many of the informal (even careless) writing conventions that have emerged in writing E-mail are finding their way into the CMC venues that are intended for wider audiences.

  • Instant Messaging

Instant Messaging (IM) is a synchronous form of CMC that, like E-mail, is prototypically utilized between a single sender and a single recipient. Given the synchronous nature of the communication, IM messages tend to be quite short and even more casual than E-mail.

One-to-one synchronous communication systems have been in use for some time, dating back at least to the 1980s and early 1990s with the usage of such UNIX applications as "talk", "ytalk", and "ntalk". and the Zephyr IM system through Project Athena at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. However, IM did not become a widespread phenomenon until the late 1990s, thanks in large part to the technology and marketing efforts of America Online (especially AIM - AOL Instant Messenger) and Mirabilis Ltd's IQC ("I Seek You"). It has been estimated that as of the end of 2002, there were 1.38 billion Instant Instant messages sent daily using AOL's network. While AIM is heavily used in the United States, IQC - which has 120 million registered Users - is predominantly used outside of the US. Note that ICQ, which first appeared in 1996, was purchased by AOL in 1998. Other contemporary players in the IM market include Yahoo(Yahoo! Messenger) and Microsoft (MSN Messenger).

Over time, IM systems have added many bells and whistles, intended either for convenience or to attract young users. For example, recent versions of AOL's AIM enable users to create individual profiles (in essence, brief online biographies) and away messages (to indicate that you are temporarily away from your computer and what you might be doing), along with buddies lists (revealing which of your IM "buddies" are presently online). As with many youth-orientated products, these features, along with their actual functions, can be expected to shift rapidly with time.

As in the case f E-mail, as long as instant messages remain in the private domain of sender and recipient, the language used in such exchanges does not become the concern of language processing and/or search programs. However, given the nature of corporate activity (including not only intranet messaging but, for example, major expansion of already existing IM systems on commercial Web sites), it becomes increasingly probable that business enterprises will look to parsing and search programs that will be able to make sense of these rapidly composed (and often cryptic or garbled) forms of electronic messaging.

Bilal Hameed wrote: Juniper Research, in recent report has projected that the number of mobile instant messaging (IM) users will exceed 1.3 billion by 2016, making a 300% increase from 2010. The growth s expected to be driven by the continued growth of services like AOL's AIM, Blackberry Messenger and Apples iMessage.

Increase smartphone adoption, low -cost data packages and the development of high speed mobile networks by the service providers are the key factors to thank for the impressive growth of mobile IM. Further, most IM services are free and considered as customer retention tools by the operators. However, the report suggest that apart from the strengths of mobile IM it won't be able to take the place of ubiquitous and easy to use SMS.

  • SMS

The abbreviation "SMS" formally stands for "short messaging", though it is generally interpreted as meaning "short text messaging". SMS is used on mobile telephones throughout much of the world, though market penetration in the United States still remains small by comparisons. Messages are generally created by tapping the numbers of the phone keypad one or more times, corresponding to the letter of the Roman Alphabet that is inteded. Thus, for example, "U" (a common SMS abbreviation for the word "you") would be generated on the phone's display screen by tapping the number "8" twice rapidly in succession, since the "8" key historically also bears the letters "T", "U", and "V". Letters were originally used on phone sets to represent the telephone exchange (i.i., the word appearing at the beginning of a telephone number). For example, my phone number s a child was GR 4-2525", with the "GR" standing for "Greenbelt", the name of the town having that exchange. Today, the same number would be "474-252. Americans who are not familiar with SMS nonetheless use the same system of multiple taps on the numerical keypad to program their mobile phones.

SMS was developed in Europe, first appearing in late 1992. The protocol was developed as part of a multinational European effort known as GSM (Group Speical Mobile) that was constituted to establish a uniform mobile system for Europe. Over time, "GSM" has come to mean "GLobal system for Mobile Telecommunications", as the historical origins of the system receded in users' minds that as the GSM protocols for mobile telephony spread worldwide. In the mid-2002, it was estimated that more than three billion SMS's were sent each month in Europe alone.

In many ways, the language of SMS is reminiscent of that seen in instant messaging: short, full of abbreviations, and casual.

Technically, SMS is not computer mediated communication, since it was designed to be sent and accessed trough mobile telephones (via satellite technology), not through computer networks. However, in recent years, may digital technologies have become interchangeable platforms for transmitting and receiving linguistic messages_ E-mai messages can be accessed on mobile phones; SMSs can be sent - and received - on computers. In the coming years, it is likely that as platforms become increasingly interchangeable (and as Americans become heavier users of mobile communication devices), the kind of language appearing in E-mail, IM, and SMS will tend to become more homogeneous: short, informal, and full of space-saving devices such as abbreviation and truncated syntax.

One-to-Many Dialogue

  • Listservs

Listservs (also sometimes known as mailing lists or distribution lists) are asynchronous, text0based communication sent by a single user to multiple E-mail addresses. In its simplest form, a Listservs provides a forum for a single individual to send a message (e.g., announcement of a meeting) to two or more recipients. Frequently, however, postings are made by multiple members of the mailing list, thereby providing and electronic forum for discussion. Today, Listservs are commonly used by professional organizations, academic classrooms, or groups sharing common interests, enabling individual members to voice opinions or raise questions. Lists may be unmoderated (postings are automatically distributed without review by anyone) or moderated (someone collects messages received over a sort period of time and edits them in some way before posting - e.e., summarizing the topics, summarizing the contents of the posts, or censoring objectionable material).

Because Liserves constitute written, archived, and often quasi-public text, the potential for needing to search them with NLP tools is significant. However, the task may be less daunting than for, say,E-mail or IM, since the language in many Listervs (especially in academic or business circles) is more formal and grammatical than in one-to-one CMC.

  • Newsgroup

Newsgroups are public forums for asynchronous one-to-many dialogue that originally were designed to be accessed through USENET (a non-governmental network developed in 1979 at the University of North Carolina). Unlike Listservs, which sends messages directly to all users on a distribution list, newsgroups constitute postings to a common public site, which can be accessed whenever users choose to log on.

The network of different newsgroups is vast. Tens of thousands of available newsgroups represent seemingly every topic imaginable, from sex to antique cars to medicine. Because newsgroups are written publicly posted, and archived, they invite textual analysis. However, unlike Listservs, newsgroups are neither moderated nor restricted in membership. As a result, the language appearing in posts can vary enormously, both in style and propriety.

Since the days when newsgroups were all accessed through USENET, newsgroups have been hierarchically organized into major categories, each of which is then subdivided. Currently, major divisions include "comp" Computer science subjects), "humanities" (humanities subjects "misc" (miscellaneous topics), "news" (news topics), "rec" (recreational topics), "sci" (science topics"), "soc" (sociological subjects), and "talk" (controversial topics). Each category is then further subdivided. for example, rec.arts.tv.soaps (also known by its acronym r.a.t.s.) is a newsgroup for discussing television soap operas.

  • MUDs and MOOs

MUDs (originally meaning Multi-User Dungeons; now commonly interpreted to mean Multi-User Dimensions) are synchronous environments in which multiple players interact with one another in a textually-created imaginary setting. The first such adventure game was created in the late 1970s by Trubshaw and Richard Bartle at the University of Essex. The early versions of such games drew heavily upon "Dungeons Dragons", a popular board game from the early 1970s. At the time the early MUDs were created computers had very limited graphics capability. Players were necessarily restricted to verbal descriptions of both scenes and actions.

Unlike newsgroups (which talk about the world that is, using asynchronous posts), MUDs allow a comparatively restricted set of users to synchronously act on situations of their own construction. Players assume pseudonyms and interact according to pre-established navigation rules for moving through a defined terrain.For their first decade, MUDs were heavily dominated by male players engaged in fantastical adventure games. By the late 1980s and early 1990s, the use of MUDs began expanding to include wider ranges of participants and more social functions. During this same period, object orientated programming was introduced into MUDs, yielding the concept of MOOs (MUDs, Object Orientated), so named by their creator, Stephen White at the University of Wterloo. In 1990, Pavel Curtis at Xerox PARC added several features to White's program, creating the well-known LambdaMoo, a name Curtis chose because he he had used the name Lambda in some of his earlier MUD experiences. Unlike MUDs built on adventure themes, MOOs commonly define the virtual space of a real-world location (e.g., a university campus, a house), inviting participants to speak and act within particular zones (e.g., room, walkaway. Contemporary MOOs are being employed in social and educational contexts. Use of non-textual material (e.g., graphics, sound) is also now appearing in MUDs and MOOs.

  • Chat is a synchronous CMC venue for holding conversations with multiple participants. While an early version of Chat was possible through the UNIX "talk" program (allowing multiple users to engage in Instant Messaging, Chat as we know it was not born until 1988. In that year, Jarkko Oikarinen, a student at the University of Oulu (in Finland), wrote a program that came to be known as Internet Relay Chat (IRC) which was intended as an improvement on UNIX "talk". By the early 1990s, IRC became known to the wider public, serving as a template for more generic Chat programs available through Internet providers such as America Online and through the Web.

As in the case of newsgroup, participants in Chat enter into a "channel". (fro IRC) or "room" (for AOL), ostensibly dedicated to a particular topic. However, with Chat, not only is the medium synchronous, but it invites both playful and manipulative behavior. Users log on through nicknames (akin to participation in MUDs), free to camouflage their real-world personal characteristics (age, gender, background, etc.). While conversation takes place in real time, users can (as in the case of newsgroups) scroll back through the archive to respond to earlier conversations. Like Listservs, Newsgroups, and MUDs and MOOs, Chat generates a quasi-public linguistic record that can subsequently be analyzed. However, given the nature of the conversation in Chat, it is primarily linguists and Internet researchers who are interested in analyzing such text, not organizations or commercial ventures.

  • Web Sites

Unlike the forms of CMC we have discussed thus far, Web sites have historically been a monologic form of communication.That is, they have posted material on the World Wide Web that others might view rather than respond to. In recent years, there is increasing momentum to create Web sites that invite interaction (e.g., currency converters, translation programs, and personal feedback, not to mention the enormous category of online commerce). Mote that a Web site is composed of one or more Web pages.

  • Web Pages

Web Pages (individual institutional, or commercial) form the backbone of the World Wide Web. Such pages became possible in the early 1990s when Tim Berners-Lee introduced the notion of what came to be known as a URL (Uniform Record Locator), whereby every Web page could be located by a unique address. today, there are billions of Web pages, with the number continuing to grow seemingly limitlessly.

  • Web Blogs

Web Blogs are actually Web pages that serve a restricted, though loosely defined set of functions. Also known as Blogs, Web logs were created in 1997 by John Barger. Initially, Web logs were designed as lists of Web sites that the blogger found to be of interest and wished to share with others (;.e., via the blogger's own Web site). sometimes We logs of this genre simply provide a set of headlines (complete with Web links) that the compiler has put together (with frequent updates) - for example, John Barger's robot wisdom. Use of Weblogs has expanded from the link-and-commentary mode to include more personal journals or diaries. such Web logs may be devoted to posting one's creative writing (sometimes with requests for commentary from readers) or even quite personal revelations about one's daily life and thoughts, perhaps complete with live video from a Web camera. Given the popularization of Web logs, it is hardly surprising that a number of software programs have appeared that enable novice users to create and maintain their own Web logs.

Transformation of Verbal Expression:

Print, Consciousness and Secondary Orality

Thus far, I have been discussing MCC and what they are and their role in verbal and writing and visual communication(although the latter will be discussed furthermore in the future). It is very important that we know, identify and observe how these Internet Media. Computer mediated communication can be thought of as a kind of linguistic centaur, incorporating features from both traditional writing and face to face discourse but ending up being more than a simple amalgam of the two. As the number of linguists studying CMC increases, there is a growing interest in characterizing what kind of linguistic modality the language of CMC is, as well as in studying the influence of CMC on traditional spoken and written language.

So that, Ongoing developments in CMC technology may render obsolete many of our linguistic assumptions about the character o natural language usage conveyed by the Internet. As video capabilities improve, use of still photographs, along with streaming recorded video live and live Web cams could redefine the balance of information conveyed in written versus graphic form. And as voice recognition technology improves, we can envision a future in which CMC messages from those users presently type out themselves. Emiticons and abbreviations would presumable disappear; spelling, punctuation, and even grammar might improve (handled by the speech recognition program); and message would probably become much longer, since when we dictate, we generally use more words than when we write the text ourselves (Baron, 2000)

Some people have suggested that use of written CMC will be replaced altogether by audio transmission o messages (perhaps complete with Web cams. However, written CMC has a number of clear advantages over receiving audio signals: production of a durable record; potential to conceal age, gender, physical condition, or ethnic or linguistic background; rapidity with which a written message can be read or scanned (in comparison with listening to an oral message); relative privacy in public places; and the ability to multitask (e.g., compose and receive IM while speaking on the phone). Consequently, those who study the Internet generally doubt that written CMC will disappear, regardless of technological available alternatives. It is at this juncture that we will review some vocabulary, or Jargon, if you will, of the Internet computer mediated communications below:

Understanding the New Media Jargon

As the Internet grows, so does its language change with the development and growth of the Internet. It is not possible to write down all the new words used on the Web and in different media environments permeating the viral stream. But it is also important for the this article to at least list some of the words that are being used today, and these will be updated as the changes take place regarding the language of the communication on the Internet. We will take the liberty of using words or terms that have been provided by Webopedia:

New Internet Media Jargon:

  • Page: In Word Processing, a page of 'text'. Most text-processing applications recongnize a hierarchy of components, starting with a character a the lowest level, followed by a word, a line, a paragraph, and a page. Application permit certain operations for each type of component, for example, you can delete a character, a word, a line, and sometimes an entire page. For pages, you can also specify formatting characteristics(for example, page size, margins and number of columns.
  • Media: Objects on which data can be stroed. these include hard discs, floppy disks, CD-ROMs, and Tapes. In computer networks, media refers to the cables linking workstations together. There are many different types of transmission media, most popular being being twisted-pair wire(normal electric wire), coaxial cable(the type of cable used for cable television), and fiber optic cable(cables made out of glass) The form and technology used to communicate information. Multimedia presentations, for example, combine sound, pictures, and videos, all of which are different types of media.
  • Siphoning: In SEO, siphoning is a technique used to "steal" traffic that would normally be directed to another website in search engine results. Siphoning could be the fraudulent use of spyware or cybersquatting to steal the traffic,or it could refer to those who copy a webpage with the content slightly altered to direct the Web search engine to show results of another webpage.
  • Page Template: A page template, or Web page template, often refers to a predesigned Web page that you can customize. The page template would include font, style, formatting, tables, graphics and other elements commonly found on a Web page. Using a Web authoring program you can open the page template and easily customize the template to meet your needs.
  • Squeeze Page: In Internet and online advertising vernacular, a squeeze page is a Web page that contains information that would interest the marketer's targeted readers. Squeeze pages are designed to obtain a reader's name and e-mail address information by encouraging users to opt-in to an e-mail list to receive more information about the topic. Marketers will collect the permission-based e-maol and information to follow. Currently there is still some debate over the actual definition of a squeeze page. Some consider landing pages that offer additional hyperlinks to information as well as e-mail opt-in list sign-up to be a squeeze page, while other in the industry believe only those pages containing just an e-mail sign-up are considered squeeze page.
  • Paging: A technique used by virtual memory operating systems to help ensure that the data you need is available as quickly as possible. The operating system copies a certain number of pages from your storage device to main memory.When a program needs a page that is not in main memory, the operating system copies the required page into memory and copies another page back to the disk. One says that the operating system pages the data. Each time a page is needed that is not currently in memory, a page fault occurs. An invalid page fault occurs when the address of the page being requested is invalid. In this case, the application is usually aborted. This type of virtual memory is called paged virtual memory. another form of virtual memory is segmented virtual memory.
  • Master Page: In Web site development with ASP NET, the master page is a feature that enables you to define common structure and interface markup elements for your Web site, including headers, footers, style definitions, or navigation bars. The master page can be shared by any of the pages in your Web site, called the Content Page, and removes needed to duplicate code for shared elements within your Web site.
  • Page Break: The end of a Page of Text. In word-processing systems, you can enter special codes called hard page breaks or forced page breaks, that cause the printer to advance to the next page. Without hard page breaks, the word processor automatically begins a new page after a page has been filled (this depends on the number of lines per page). In this case, the page break is called a soft page break.
  • Content Page: In Web site development with ASP .NT, the Content Page is a page that is associated to a Master Page. A Content Page will contain only markup and controls inside Content controls and it cannot have any top-level content of its own. Any content Page can use controls that specifically override content placeholder sections in the Master Page.
  • Deep Pages: In Web site development a deep page is a Web Page within your site that takes four or more clicks to access from the home page. Deep page losers the quality of your Web site.
  • Off-page Optimization: In search engine optimization, off-page optimization refers to factors that have an effect on your Web site or Web page listing in natural search results. These factors are off-site in that they are not controlled by you or the coding on your page. Examples of off-page optimization include things such as link popularity and page rank.
  • On-page Optimization: In search engine optimization, on-page optimization refers to factors that have an effect on your Web site or Web page listing in natural search results. These factors are controlled by you or by coding on your page. Examples of on-page optimization include actual HTML code, meta tags, keyword placement and keyword density.
  • Say Where: The name of a popular voice enabled application for the Apple iPhone device. Say Where is a free application that can be used to recognize your speech and input it as text into Web sites when using the Safari browser on your iPhone. The application is used to finding locations, directions and maps. for example, users can speak the name of a place, an address, or intersection and the application will show search result from a number of partners including Google Maps, MapQuest and others.
  • Text: Words, sentences, paragraphs. This book, for example, consists of text. Text processing refers to the ability to manipulate words, lines, and pages. Typically, the term text refers to text stored as ASCII codes (that is, without any formatting). Objects that are not text include graphics,numbers (if they're not stored as ASCII characters), and program code.
  • Text Messaging: Sending short text messages to a device such as a cellular phone, PDA or pager. Text messaging is used for messages that are no longer than a few hundred characters. The term is usually applied to messaging that takes place between two or more mobile devices.
  • Short Message Service: Abbreviated as SMS, the transmission of short text messages to and from a mobile phone, fax machine and/or IP address. Messages must be no longer than 160 alpha-numeric characters and contain no images or graphis. Once a message is sent, it is received by a Short Message Service CenterSMSC), which must then get it to the appropriate mobile device. To do this, The SMSC sends a SMS Request to the home location register )HLR) to find the roaming customer. Once the HLR receives the request, it will respond to the SMSC with the subscriber's status: 1) inactive or active; 2) where subscriber is roaming. If the response is "inactive", then the SMSC will hold onto the message for a period of time. When the subscriber accesses his device, the HLR sends a SMS Notification to the SMSC, and the SMSC will attempt delivery. The SMSC transfers the message in Short Message Delivery Point to Point format to the serving system. The system pages the device, and if it responds, the message gets delelvered. The SMSC receives verification that the message was received by the end user, then categorizes the message as "sent" and will not attempt to send again.
  • Text From Computer: Text from computer is a feature that allows you to send a text message (also called SMS) to a cellular phone of wireless device on a cellular network from anInternet-connected computer using e-mail. To text from computer you need an e-mail account and the full ten-digit phone number of the person you want to send a text message to. You will also need to know who the recipient uses for cellular service. Each cellular phone service provider (also called a carrier) will have an e-mail address that you will need to send a text from a computer. You need to put the recipient's full 10-degit cell number in front of the @ symbol in the e-mail address used by the service provider for e-mail text messages. Most text from computer messages an be a maximum of 160 characters in length. Text from computer is also called e-mail text message.
  • Message Digest: The represenattion of text in the form of a single string of digits, created using a formula called a "one-way hash function". Encrypting a message digest with a private key creates a digital signature, which is an electronic means of authentication.
  • Instant Messaging: Abbreviated IM, a type of communications service that enables you to create a kind of private chat room with another individual in order to communicate in real time over the Internet, analogous to a telephone conversation but using text-based, not voiced-based, communication. Typically, the Instant Messaging system alerts you whenever somebody on your private list is online. You can then initiate a chat session with that particular individual.
  • Multimedia Message Service: Abbreviated as MMs,Multimedia Message Service is a store-and-forward method of transmitting graphics, video clips, sound files and short text messages over wireless networks using WAP protocal. Carriers deploy special servers, dubbed MMs Centers (MMSSCs) to implement the offerings on their systems. MMs also support e-mail addressing, so the device can send e-mails directly to an e-mail address. The most common use of MMS is for communication between mobile phones. MMS, however, is not the same as e-mail. MMs is based on the concept of multimedia messaging. The presentation of the message is coded into the presentation file so that the images, sounds and text are displayed in a predetermined order as one singular message. MMS does not support attachments as e-mail does. To the end-user, MMS is similar to SMS.
  • Firewall: A system designed to prevent unauthorized access to or from a private network. firewalls can be implemented in both hardware and software, or a combination of both. Firewalls are frequently used to prevent unauthorized Internet users from accessing private networks connected to the Internet, especially Intranets. All messages entering or leaving the intranet pass through the firewall, which examines each message and blocks those that not not meet the specified security criteria.
  • Port: 1) An interface on a computer to which you can connect a device. Personal computers have various types of poerts. Internally, there are several ports for connecting disc drivers, display screens, and keyboards. Externally, personal computers have ports for connecting modems, printers, mice, and other peripheral devices.
    Almost all personal computers come with a serial RS-232C port or RS-422 port for connecting a modem or mouse and a parallel port for connecting a printer. On PCs. the parallel port is a Centronics interface that uses a 25-pin connector. SCSI (Small Computer System Interface) ports support higher transmission speeds than do conventional ports and enable you t attach up to seven devices to the same port. 2) In TCP/IP and UDP networks, an endpoint to a logical connection. The port number identifies what type of port it is. for example, port 80 is used for HTTP Traffic. To move a program from one type of computer to another. To port an application, you need to rewrite sections that are machine dependent, and then recompile the program on the new computer. Programs that can be ported easily are said to be portable.
  • Filter: 1) A program that accepts a certain type of data as input, transforms it in some manner, and then outputs the transformed data. for example, a program that sorts names is a filter because it accepts the names in unsorted order, sorts them, and then outputs the sorted names. Utilities that allow you to import or export data are also sometimes called filters. 2) A pattern through which data is passed. only data that matches the pattern is allowed to pass through the filter. 3) In paint programs and image editors, a filter is an effect that can be applied to a bit map. some filters mimic conventional photographic filters, but many transform images in unusual ways. A pointillism filter, for example can make a digitized photograph look like a pointillistic painting.
  • Internet: The Internet is a global network connecting millions of compputers. More than 100 countries are linked into exchanges of data, news, opinions. According to Internet World Stats, as of December 31, 2011 there was an estimated 2,267,233,742 Internet users worldwide. This represents 32.7% of the world's population. Unlike online services, which are centrally controlled, the Internet is decentralized by design. Each Internet computer, called a 'host', is independnet. Its operators can choose which Internet service to use and which local services to make available to the global community.. Remarkably, this anarchy by design works exceedingly well. There are a variety of ways to access the Internet. Most online services offer access to some Internet services. It is also possible to gain access through a commercial Internet Service Provider(ISP). Who owns the Internet? No one actually own the Internet, and no single person or organization control the Internet in its entirety. The Internet is more of a concept than an actual tangible entity, and it relies on a physical infrastructure that connects networks to other networks. Is Web and Internet the Same? The Internet is not synonymous with the World wide Web. The Internet is a massive network of networks, a networking infrastructure. It connects millions of computers together globally, forming a network in which any computer can communicate with other computers as long as the are both connected to the Internet. The World Wide Web, or simply Web, is a way of accessing information over the medium of the Internet. It is an information-sharing model that is built on top of the Internet
  • Network: A network is a group of two or more computer systems linked together. There are many types of computer networks,including: Local-Area Networks(LANs): The computers are geographically close together (that is, in the same building); Wide-Area Networks (WANs) : The computers are further apart and are connected by telephone lines or radio waves; Campus-Area Networks (CANs): The computers are within a limited geographic area, such as campus or military base; Metropolitan-Area Networks (MANs): A data network designed for a town or city; Home-Area Networks (HANs): A network contained within a user's home that connects a person's digital devices. In addition to these types, the following characteristic: Topology: The geometric arrangement of a computer system. Common topologies include a bus, star, and ring; Protocol: The protocol defines a common set of rules and signals that computers on the network use to communiate. One of the most popular protocols for LAN is called "Ethernet". Another popular LAN protocol for PCs is the IBM 'token-ring network'.; Architecture: Networks can be broadly classified as using either a 'peer-to-peer' or 'client/server architecture'. Computers on a network are sometimes called 'des'. Computers and devices that locate 'resources' for a network are called 'servers'.
  • Aggregator: Software and applications that retrieve content from the web via structured feeds published by websites, podcasts, vlogs and other online content publishers.

    AJAX: A web development language that increases the interactivity, speed and functionality of the websites and applications. Short for Asynchronous Java Script and XML, AJAX transfers data in the background providing the appearance that online interactions are almost instant. The process also has the added benefit of being able to communicate with a database without having to reload an entire page or application further enhancing the user experience.

    API (Application Programming Interface): Refers to the interface that an online service or application provides to allow data exchange and service sharing by other applications and tools.

    Architecture of participation: An environment where the community helps build the system as defined by Tim O'Reilly back in 2003. (Tim O'Reilly was one of the first people to introduce the concept of web 2.0). There are many examples of Architecture of Participation from the proliferation of widgets to the extensive creation of Facebook applications.

    Atom Feed: A protocol for sharing content; using an XML file. It is one of the main ways to syndicate content from publishing platforms such as blogs and websites, with the protocol pushing new content out to subscribers.

    Blog (weblogs): A simple content management system designed to make content publication simple for non technical people for the initial purpose of maintaining online diaries. Blogs have evolved to be key drivings of news and discussions online due to the ease of use and immediacy of outputs. They have also become an integral part of many integrated marketing strategies as they provide a great tool for building communities, managing online PR and contributing to other efforts such as Search Engine marketing.

    Blogosphere: The term given to the ever growing collection of blogs across the internet. The expression was coined due to the interconnectivity of blogs with many of them entwined via comments, links and trackbacks creating a perceived sphere.

    Citizen journalist: Everyday people who engage in the process of gathering, reviewing, reporting, analyzing and distributing news and information without the being professional journalists.

    Communities: Websites that internet users can join to network, find information and interact with other members. They are often formed around particular areas of interest or to provide an online area where people can socialize "virtually".

    Consumer Generated Media / Consumer Generated Content (CGM / CGC): Online content created and distributed by the web community via the new generation of online publishing platforms such as blogs, wikis or social networks.

    Digital channels: Modern electronic mediums used for communication such as blogs, podcasts, vlogs, social networks, webcasts communities et al.

    Folksonomy: The organization of the web based on community use of tags for categorization of content. This contrasts the traditional approach to web classification known as Taxonomy - where editors and computers categorize the web.

    Glocalisation: The combination of globalisation and localization. Provision of local services on a global scale via the internet.

    Mash Up: Application, media or tool created by combining data, content or other services to provide a single integrated experience.

    Podcast: An audio file made available online for users to download and provided via feeds and syndication. Podcast content can vary from traditional music to news, reviews, presentations and audio diaries.

    Rich Interactive Applications (RIA): Web applications that provide the features and functionality of desktop applications. RIAs effectively only present the user interface over the internet (visible in a web browser), with the application processing and data management done remotely on application servers.

    RSS (Really Simple Syndication): A family of content feed formats (using XML) used to publish content from websites, blogs, podcasts and other publishing platforms. An RSS document may contain either a summary of the content or the full version. RSS also includes the older versions known as RDF Site Summary and Rich Site Summary.

    Social Bookmarking:Is the process of storing and tagging websites and internet resources (URLs and descriptions) using online tools - similar to the traditional browser bookmarking (adding to favorites). These social bookmarks can then be made public, providing a valuable, human edited resource for other internet users.

    Social media: Online mediums used to facilitate social interactions online such as the sharing of content, opinions, insights, experiences, perspectives, and actual media. Social media takes on various forms including blogs, communities/social networks, wikis, podcasts, vlogs.

    Social network: Like communities, social networks enable users to become members and connect based on common interests or demographics. They facilitate the creation of personal online profiles and virtual interactions.

    Software as a Service (SaaS): Software that users use on a subscription basis (usually for a fee). Most SaaS applications are delivered via the Internet.

    Syndication: Refers to making online content available from a site or publishing tool in order to provide other people with a updates of the recently added content usually via feeds.

    Tag Cloud: Is a visual representation of the content tags for a website, blog or community. Font size is used to indicate the relative use of the tag - with larger fonts used for the most popular tags.

    Tagging: The process of labelling items such as posts, photos, web pages or video by the online community to help classify the content and make searching and sharing easier.

    Trackback: A tool that allows content that references other content to provide a connection between the two items. It's typically used by bloggers to link back to posts they have reference in their content. Trackbacks allow readers of blog content to follow conversations across several blogs on a particular topic.

    User Generated Content (UGC): Refers to content that is created by internet users. It is yet another term for Consumer Generated Media as mentioned above.

    Vlog or video blog: Is simply a blog where the content is provided in the form of video rather than text or audio. Like blogs and podcasts, vlogs can be syndicated via feeds.

    Web 2.0: The 2nd generation of web where online content and applications are created, collaborated on and shared by the web community. It describes the web as a community controlled interactive tool rather than a publishing medium.

    Wiki: Community publishing tool or website that allows users to edit and control content. Wikis are collaborative projects that can be used to create extensive databases with the resource developed and expanded by its users.

    XML (Extensible Markup Language): A system for sharing complex data structures and documents across multiple platforms. It is used to encode documents and serialize data with users able to define their own tags. It is the basis of the feeds and syndication that are driving web 2.0 content distribution. (Provided by rene-lemerle)

  • Traffic Meter: A router (or Wi-Fi) feature that will monitor the data consumption (upload and download) of all the devices on your network and notify you when you approach a predefined threshold. A traffic meter is useful if your ISP is enforcing a maximum monthly data transfer allocation (typically this is 250-GB).
  • Port Triggering: A type of port forwarding where outbound traffic on predetermined ports sends inbound traffic to specific incoming ports. Port triggering "triggers" an open incoming port when a client on the local network makes an outgoing connection to a predetermined port on a server. Port triggering is more secure than port forwarding, because the incoming ports are not open all the time, they are open only when a program is actively using the trigger port. One major advantage of port triggering is that it allows computers behind a NAT-enabled router to provide services which would normally require a static cost (one with an unchanging network address). This disadvantage of port forwarding is that it only allows one client on the network to use a particular service that occupies a particular port.
  • Port Application Mapping: Abbreviated as PAM, Port Application Mapping, is a feature of the Cisco IOS Firewall that allows you to customize TCP or UDP port numbers for network services or applications. Using the port information, PAM establishes a table of default port-to-application mapping information at the firewall. PAM also supports host or subnet specific port mapping, which allows you t apply PAM to a single host or subnet using Standard Access Lists(ACLs).
  • RSIP: Short for Realm-Spcific Internet Protocol, an IP address translation technique that is an alternative to NAT. RSIP lets enterprise safeguard many private Internet addresses behind a single public Internet address. RSIP functions by leasing public IP addresses and ports to RSIP hosts located in private addressing realms. The RSIP client requests registration with an RSIP server, or gateway. The server in turn delivers either a unique public IP address or a shared public IP address and a unique set of TCP/UDP ports and attaches the RSIP hosts private address to this public destinations. The packets contain both the public and private addresses, and the RSIP server strips off the private address header and send the packet on with a public IP header. RSIP can also be used to relay traffic between several different privately addressed networks by leasing several different addresses to reach different destination networks.
  • OPC Specification: OPC is designed to deliver open connectivity via open standards in industrial automation and the enterprise systems, and is based on a series of standards specifications. Originally based on Microsoft's OLE Co )Component Object Model) and DCOM (Distributed Component Object Model) technologies, the specification defined a standard set of objects,interfaces and methods for use in process control and manufacturing automation applications to facilitate interoperabiltiy. OPC is supported by the OPC foundation
  • Ingress Traffic: Ingress Traffic-Network traffic that originates from outside of the networks routers and proceeds toward a destination inside of the network.For example, an e-mail message that is considered ingress traffic will originate somewhere outside of an enterprise LAN,pass over the Internet and enter the company LAN before it is delivered to the recipient
  • Egress Traffic: Network traffic that begins inside of a network and proceeds through its routers to a destination somewhere outside of the network. For example, an e-mail message that is considered egress traffic will travel from a user's work station and pass through the enterprise's LAN routers before it is delivered to the Internet to travel to its final destination
  • Macro Mode: In photography and digital photography, night mode is a function of the digital camera that is used when you are taking photos, in low-light situations - or at night time. When taking photos in night mode, the digital camera uses a long shutter speed to capture scene details and also fires the camera's flash to illuminate the subject or foreground of the shot. Other digital camera settings and shooting modes include: Macro mode: to ficus on subjects close to the camera lens; Sports Mode: To shoot sports and other types of action shots; Movie mode: to capture moving subjects in a video format; In-camera red-eye fix: to auto-correct any incidences
  • Portrait Mode: In photography and digital photography, portrait mode is a fiction of the digital camera that is used when you are taking photos of a single subject. When taking photos in portrait mode, the digital camera will automatically use a large aperture to help keep the background out of focus by using a narrow depth of field so the subject being photographed is the only thing in focus.. Other digital settings and shooting modes include: Macro Mode: to focus on subjects close to the camera lens; Sports Mode: to shoot sports and other types of action shots; Movie Mode: to capture moving subjects in a video format; In-camera red-eye fix: to auto-correct any incidences red-eye; Face detection: to detect human faces and set the focus and appropriate exposure
  • Landscape Mode: In photography and digital photography, Landscape Mode is a function of the digital camera that is used when you are taking photos of a scene, not a single object (see "Portrait Mode"). When taking photos in landscape mode, the digital camera will automatically focus on as much of the scene as possible by using a large depth of field. The digital camera may also use a slower shutter speed in some cases. Other digital settings and shooting modes include: Macro Mode: to focus on subjects close to the camera lens; Sports Mode: to shoot sports and other types of action action shots; Movie Mode: to capture moving subjects in a video format; In-camera red-eye fix: to auto-correct any incidences red-eye; Face Detection: to detect human faces and set the focus
  • High Definition Photo: In digital camera terminology, high definition is a shooting mode on some digital cameras that produces 1920x1080 pixel high-definition (HD) quality photo that will perfectly first a wide-creen HDTV (16.9) for full-screen viewing. High definition photos may also be available on some digital cameras when capturing motion picture recording (videos) using the camera, rather than still pictures. Digital cameras that have the high definition photo feature also will offer an optional component cable that you can use to connect the digital cameral directly to the HDTV.
  • Digital Camera: A camera that stores images digitally rather than recording them on film. Once a picture has been taken, it can be downloaded to a computer system, and then manipulated with a graphics program and printed. Unlike film photographs, which have an almost infinite resolution, digital photos are limited by the amount of memory in the camera, the optical resolution of the digitizing mechanism, and, finally, by the resolution of the final output evice. Even the best digital cameras connected to the best printers cannot produce film-quality photos. However, if the final output device is a laser printer, it doesn't whether you take a real photo and then scan it, or take a digital photo. In both cases, the image must eventually be reduced to the resolution of the printer. The big advantage of digital cameras is that making photos is both inexpensive and fast because there is not film processing. Interestingly, one of the biggest boosters of digital photography is Kodak, the largest producer of film. Kodak developed the Kodak Photo CD format, which has become the de facto standard for storing digital photgraphs. Most digital cameras use CCDs to capture images, though some of the newer less expensive cameras use CMOS chips instead.
  • Virtual Camera: In 3D animation, a virtual camera is a function of the animation software that works and behaves in the same way a camera or digital camera would in real-world situations. In the software, the virtual camera is made up from mathematical calculations that determine how the object will be rendered based on the location and angle of the virtual camera in the software program. As with a real camera, when working with a virtual camera in 3D animation programs, you can use functions like pan, zoom, or change focus and focal points.
  • Active Child Mode: In digital camera terminology the Active Child Mode is a type of scene mode photographers can use to produce the best results when photographing moving subjects, such as active children.The 'active child mode' lets you frame and select the child before you begin shooting the pictures. Once framed the camera will then track and focus on that moving subject enabling you to soot faster and clearer images as a result. Active child mode is a shooting mode found on many Nikon brand digital cameras and may also be an option when capturing motion picture recording (videos) using the camera, rather than still pictures
  • Flight Mode: Flight Mode is a feature in many mobile phones and PDAs that allows you to use basic operations of the device while the transmitting functions is switched off. This enables passengers on airplanes to use the device in-flight, provided the device was switched to flight mode before take-off. In flight mode, users cannot perform some functions such as SMS or make phone calls.flight mode is also called 'airplane mode' or 'standard mode'.
  • ATM: Short of Asynchronous Transfer Mode, a network technology based on transferring data in cells or packets of a fixed size. The cell used with ATM is relatively small compared to units used with older technologies.The small, constant cell size allows ATTM equipment to transmit video, audio, and computer data over the same network, and assure that no single type of data hogs the line. Some people think that ATM holds the answer to the Internet Bandwidth problem, but others are skeptical. ATM creates a fixed channel, or route, between two point whenever data transfer begins. This differs from TCP/IP, in which messages are divided into packets and each packet can take a different route from source to destination. This difference makes it easier to track and bill data usage across an ATM network, but makes it less adaptable to sudden surges in network traffic.
  • Digital Zoom: Digital Zoom is a function of a digital camera used to make the image seem more close-up. digital zoom on a digital camera works the same as cropping and enlarging a photo in a graphics programs. this type of zoom will result in a loss of quality and image resolution because the image is simply being enlarged without any extra details or pixels being added. Due to the quality of photos taken when using the digital zoom function, these photos may not be of good enough quality to paint images than 4"x6".

Up to this far, I have tried as much as possible to list the old, new and incoming jargon used in relation to computers, i.e., a language that if understood, help people navigate and be more in tune with what the Web, and the internet, and all their trappings is about. I could not write out everything, but maybe with time will add more. It is better to begin to understand contemporary media with its jargon, vocabulary and language and how this helps us understand how the computer mediates this. I have given as much detailed interpretation of the main modern terms as much as possible, and hope in the future will add some to help the reader understand the language that we so often gloss-over and not pay attention as to its definitions and concrete meanings.

Convergence of Analogue and dital Media

Beyond media specificity, what happens after videotape has been absorbed into a new medium—and what are the implications of these continuing shifts in format for how we understand access and preservation? This panel considers forms of preservation th

Beyond media specificity, what happens after videotape has been absorbed into a new medium—and what are the implications of these continuing shifts in format for how we understand access and preservation? This panel considers forms of preservation th

Media Convergence of Analogue and Digital

Media Convergence

Media convergence have become a vital element of life for many people. With the development of technology in different platforms and operations such as television, Internet and mobile communication, audiences have had both a bigger choice of media and a life which media technologies has made easier. However, one question needed to be asked whether or not media convergence bring opportunities and challenges to the industry and society itself.

On the one hand, in term of industry, with the development of technology, the cost of products and software was lowered.Instead of having different news crews for every medium, one converged media operation can use the same reporters and staff to produce stories for, television, telecommunication and Internet mediums. By combining each medium’s resource, a converged operation can increase the quality of its product. As a result satisfaction of customer is increased, which leads to a larger audience. From the public’s standpoint, the increased convenience of information provided by converged stories makes using the media a better experience.

Beside, in term of society especially, media convergence cause the fragmentation of audiences for news. Nowadays, people talk about not having enough time to everything they want in a day or doing more than one thing at one time. Convergence lead the media is more interactive and audience participation is encouraged. In addition, greater audience engagement can help to enhance the way people experience the media. Moreover, with the interactive World Wide Web, audiences are able to download and share music , video , photo via social networking and become media produce.

On the other hand , media convergence bring many challenges . Audiences complain about information overload and they can be overwhelmed and find it difficult. Furthermore, the rapidly changing of technology has obstructed audience’s activities. People lack of skill to take full advantage of new media especially old people and disable. So will an audience so used to traditional forms of media embrace a new way of receiving information. In addition , media companies pursue audiences by greater benefit from maketing and advertising through cross-selling.

While the future of converged media seems very bright, its proprietors will have to ask themselves some questions: Will the new technology that is anticipated be as revolutionary as people expect? Will the investment in convergence be profitable enough in the short term, or in the long term? What competing technologies should be utilized in order to produce the best media? Will converged media be successful in a world marketplace?
Those are few of the many questions posed by the growing trend of media convergence.


Nowadays the power to control media industry is concentrated in the hands of private owners and relatively small number of big media corporations. For example, companies, such as Warner Bros., which used to focus on the film industry, nowadays have control over various aspects of entertainment industry in general, such as computer games, books, magazines, web sites and toys, which is all part of the process of media convergence (Jenkins, 2006). Consequences of this trend can be viewed as both positive and negative. On the one hand, it may cause the decline in the diversity of material offered and result in a tendency that voices of those lacking economic power will not be taken into account (Branston et al., 2008:179). On the other hand, it is argued that market driven media owned and controlled by big media corporations ‘can actually improve the value of the service, the flexibility of topics and the competence of the contributers’ as well as enable technological developments, change the elitism of media professionals and create new general awareness (Grant, 2009). Another aspect of media convergence that can be seen as its major drawback is what Jenkins (2006:23) calls the ‘participation gap’. This concept refers to the fact that while media convergence in general has encouraged audiences to participate in the process of content creation, it requires extended access to modern technologies, familiarity with the new forms of media, as well as developing certain skills (ibid.). As a result, certain segments of the audience arguably remain neglected and unable to fully participate in the new media culture.

Drawing on the definitions of media convergence outlined above, it can be argued that one of the ways of understanding media convergence is in terms of interaction between old and new forms of media. This concept can be explained more clearly using the example of television industry and its development over the years. The idea of transition from analogue media to digital media stands at the core of media convergence debate. The term ‘analogue’ is used to describe something ‘that resembles something else’ (Dewdney and Ride, 2006:227), therefore signals transmitted through television can be seen as being analogous to the light and sound of the actual scene (ibid.). In the case of analogue media, each form was separate and independent from the others due to the need to use different ‘materials, properties and apparatuses’ (ibid.). With the introduction of digital code however the situation changed rapidly and opened new possibilities for media creation and convergence, for example, new forms of interaction between producers and consumers.

Techne(Technolgy) Today

Our world is now a digital world and its technology is forever evolving, technology drives the change. Some of the biggest technological changes over the past decade have been phones, computers and television and it is still evolving.

In the 1870’s, Elisha Gray and Alexander Graham both created the telephone. This was a massive technological change that would shape our world today. Before the creation of this invention people were communicating via telegraph. The dot-and-dash morse code system was a very successful way of communicating however change was needed, people needed to talk to people. This is where the telephone began.

Ever since that bright moment, we have been communicating via telephone,however the invention has changed dramatically still since then. In the late 1990’s the mobile phone was created, this enabled people to use the telephone on the go and has been an even greater success.

Since the early 1930’s Computer technology had startedits journey in the new digital world and began to rapidly evolve along with it. In 1981 a company called Apollo Computer revealed its first computer work station called the DN100. This was one of the first computer work stations. A year later a company called Commodore released their own computer, an upgrade to the Apollo DN100, they called it the Commodore 64, it came with 64KB of RAM and featured impressive graphics for its time. Nothing compared to computer today. Over the years computers evolved rapidly, getting bigger and more powerful, faster and more reliable. Nowadays we have desktop computers and laptops, all of which vary from size, speed, graphics and other technical components that build them. Still to this day computers are evolving, what will come next in computer technology.

Televisions are also a fast moving digital change. They have gone from black and white to colour in the space of a decade and nowadays they are in HD and more recently 3D. When television were first around not everyone had them, they were expensive and very much like gold dust, now nearly every home has at least one television, it has become a necessity in this digital world, we rely on it. It’s entertainment, educational, relaxing, informing and reliable.

Over the years we have invented many technical devices, mobile technology, television and computer technology being the most important and effective to our lifestyle. These individual technical devices are now evolving into one another. For example mobile technology now offers new possibilities and has merged with television and computer technology. We have gone from just phoning people to communicate to texting, messaging such as Facebook and twitter, Imessage and Blackberry Messenger and the more recently Whatsapp, which enables you to Imessage and Blackberry Message people. Using the internet, watching television on your phone and news applications, nowadays instead of picking up a newspaper or waiting for the news on the television or radio, you can look at it straight away on your phone by just entering an application such as the BBC News application on my phone. Games, emailing, photography, video-recording and it has now even evolved in 3D technology.

What is going to come next? What will be the next evolution phase? What else is going to happen in our forever changing digital world?

What is ging to happen next id for us to begin to learn the incoming gizmos and their techniques and their effects and affects on us the users. We have to mark to changed ways of behaving, and highlight the new one in order to see clearly the lines of demarcated and delineated change.The merging and submerging of technologies and their information data soup need to be followed up and studied appropriately to try to stay above ground and manage the stealth and speed of the technologies and their technique-their effects and affects on us the user.

Maybe we should go back to Stock-tin cans

Jacob Silverman writes: Except for in-person, speech-based communication, it could be argued that all communication is technologically based. With the advent of written language -- itself a kind of technology -- humanity experimented with varying for

Jacob Silverman writes: Except for in-person, speech-based communication, it could be argued that all communication is technologically based. With the advent of written language -- itself a kind of technology -- humanity experimented with varying for

Effects of Technology on Language

One of the important forces that can help shape both written and spoken language (and the relationship between them) is the emergence of new technological means for producing, recording, or transmitting language. To understand whether the Internet is affecting the way we write (and, derivatively, the kinds of language parsers we need to process such writing), it helps to reflect upon how technology has affected language in the past.

Technological developments have long affected the nature and use of written language. The establishment of print technology eventually fostered not only standardization of spelling but the growth of literacy in Western Europe (Baron 2000: 99, 83-91). Successful marketing of typewriters at the end of the nineteenth century fueled invention of the business memorandum (Yates 1989), contributed to the decline of American handwriting skills, and encouraged the production of more lengthy typewritten prose (compared with handwritten text – see Haefner 1932), a trend also evident in the early years of word processing (Stoddard 1985).

Some effects of technology on writing are more subjective. The transition from the manuscript of medieval Europe to a print culture in early modern Europe entailed a shift from the notion of text production as a serial enterprise with contributions from multiple authors to a view of a text as the fixed work of a single author (Bruns 1980:113). Today, some scholars working on composition theory argue that thanks to the technology of the Internet, textual composition can (and should) return to the medieval model of collective composition (where the contributions of individual authors are not always formally acknowledged), and texts should be seen more as works in progress than as finished products (e.g., Lunsford and Ede 1994, Howard 1999, Bolter 2001).

Effects of Speech Technologies

Alexander Graham Bell’s introduction of the telephone in 1876 made possible two shifts in the way people communicate orally. The first shift affected the kinds of spoken messages speakers were likely to formulate. Since telephone conversations do not entail face-to-face encounters, many speakers are less hesitant expressing themselves on the phone than when in physical proximity with their interlocutor. More than a century of familiarity with the telephone appears to have contributed to the increased candor commonly reported in computer mediated encounters such as email or online conferencing, compared with face-to-face exchange (Sproull and Kiesler 1991).

The second shift concerns access to interlocutors. Before the invention of the telephone, the average person had no opportunity to insinuate his or her way into conversation with, say, members of the upper class, bank presidents, or politicians, all of whom had their visitors screened. However, in the early days of the telephone, gentlemen and business owners complained that “any person off the street may for a trifling payment ... ring up any [telephone] subscriber and insist on holding a conversation with him” (Marvin 1988:103). Open access has been a key feature of the Internet. Consequently, unless users make concerted efforts to conceal their email addresses, email users have almost limitless access to one another, radically redefining previous rules for constraining social discourse.

How Social Media is affecting the Way we Speak and Write

We are informed by Aliza Sherman that:

Do you speak “social?” There is a lot of writing out there about the effects of social media on business, marketing, branding and customer services. But what about how social media communications is impacting our written communications, or even our oral communications?

Do you speak “social?” There is a lot of writing out there about the effects of social media on business, marketing, branding and customer services. But what about how social media communications is impacting our writtencommunications, or even our oral communications?

Anyone remember when email was going to destroy letter writing, and even the art of writing altogether? Well, it did destroy letter writing, but did it really destroy the art of writing, or just change it?

The impact of "Social Speak" on the "Written Word"

I’d argue that email, SMS and social media communications tools have made irreversible impacts on the way we write, but that is not to say we should write in that “social” manner. Sure, I’m tempted to use “l8r” and countless other SMS abbreviations to save time and space. Those of us who are well-versed in the “old ways” of communicating will likely switch back and forth, as appropriate. I’m wondering, however, about those who have come of age in the era of SMS and the social web.

The social web has changed the written word in a couple of key ways:

1. Writing is more concise. When we first heard of Twitter and its 140 character limit, most of us wondered how in the world we could convey something meaningful in 25 to 30 words. Now we realize that Twitter pushes us to get to the essence of what we are trying to say. Who says you must have full sentences or paragraphs of text to make an impact or to drive people to action?

2. Use of different spelling and abbreviations. My husband came to me last night asking for help “translating” a text from his teenage daughter. “What does ‘TTYL’ stand for?” he asked. “Talk To You Later,” I replied. The strange thing was that I didn’t sense my own brain processing the translation. Instead, I immediately knew the answer in the same way I know that “casa” means “house” without having to do the mental computing to get from a foreign word to familiar one. People who are communicating via SMS or social networks aren’t necessarily spelling things incorrectly. They are effectively speaking a new language entirely — so who is to say if it is “right” or “wrong”?

"Social" Spoken Here

I think that one of the real impacts of social media communications on our general communications is that many of us tend to be much more revealing in business and personal communications than ever before. Somehow, telling the world personal things and then exploring them on our blogs, on Facebook and on Twitter has become socially acceptable in many circles. Not everyone has caught the TMI (too much information) bug, but I’d venture to guess that many of us are much less shocked by someone getting more personally revealing even in a business setting because, well, we read it first on their blog anyway.

"Social" as "Anti-Social"

In social settings or face-to-face interactions, there is a distressing attention deficit problem. Recently, I invited some female bloggers to a small gathering for a wine tasting, and to get to know one another better. In the old days, if you were shy, you might sit to the side of the crowd and smile politely, hoping someone would include you. These days, those with social timidity will bury their noses in their mobile devices. I saw photographs of my gathering after the fact showing that a very prominent social media “guru” spent the entire time texting. Not on the periphery of the group, or in the hallway, but smack dab in the middle of the entire group. Granted, this person could have been tweeting about the event, but the first impression I have is one of being anti-social.

I also have mixed feelings about the impact of social communications in the realm of public speaking. As an attendee at conferences I love tweeting quotes I hear from speakers, to share their wisdoms with my followers. But as a speaker myself, I have yet to experience the dreaded “Tops of Heads Syndrome.” There are a lot of public speakers who have been sent into tailspins trying to adjust to speaking to an audience whose faces are obstructed by their laptops or who are so busy on their phones that the speaker can only see the tops of their heads, instead of their eyes and face. How disconcerting that must be.

There is no single right or wrong way to assimilate “social speak” into our lives and work — it all depends upon your own time and tolerance, your setting, your colleagues, and even the image you want to project. For better or for worse, though, we are all in a new world of communications — and most of us will have to learn the new language.


Pirozzolo notes:

Technology has helped us store large amounts of information with ease. We can store files in computers rather than file folders, and we can send e-mail instead of mailing paper documents. Wireless networking technology enables us to access the Internet without having to be connected with cables. Cell phones and BlackBerrys enable us to communicate faster and send documents without having to use a desktop computer. However, many believe that communication technology has created an environment in which speed has taken precedence over accuracy. Bad grammar habits abound in the age of e-mail and texting. A promotional study found that 85 percent of 5,000 business correspondence samples had at least one spelling or grammatical error.

We are constantly evolving and we need to roll with the punches in order to acheive greatness.

"By understanding that new language technologies have shifted our students' attitudes about who holds the power in linguistic exchange, we will be better prepared to understand their perspectives and to reach common ground." (Naomi S. Baron)

"By understanding that new language technologies have shifted our students' attitudes about who holds the power in linguistic exchange, we will be better prepared to understand their perspectives and to reach common ground." (Naomi S. Baron)

The Advent Of the Digital Communication and Has Somewhat Affected and Changed Our Language

I would like to end up with the article by Naomi S. Baron in her article titled:

"Are Digital Media Changing Our Language?"

It's natural for languages to evolve. But what should really concern us is the way computers and mobile phones are changing our attitudes toward language.

Are instant messaging and text messaging killing language? To hear what the popular media say, a handful of OMGs (oh my god) and smiley faces, along with a paucity of capital letters and punctuation marks, might be bringing English to its knees.

Although journalists tend to sensationalize the linguistic strangeness of "online lingo," quantitative analyses of instant messaging conversations and text messages reveal that abbreviations, acronyms, and even misspellings are comparatively infrequent, at least among college-age students. For example, in a study I did of college students' instant messaging conversations, out of 11,718 words, only 31 were "online lingo" abbreviations, and only 90 were acronyms (of which 76 were LOL). In a study of college students' text messaging, my colleague Rich Ling and I found a few more lexical shortenings; yet the grand total of clear abbreviations was only 47 out of 1,473 words, which is hardly overwhelming.

Yes, young people sometimes accidentally slip a btw (by the way) into a school essay. But a recent study by the Pew Internet and American Life Project confirms that middle school and high school students understand what kind of language is appropriate in what context (Lenhart, Smith, & Macgill, 2008). What's more, scholars of new media language, such as David Crystal and Beverly Plester, remind us that the new technologies encourage creativity, which can spill over into school writing (Crystal, 2008; Plester, Wood, & Bell, 2008).

Minor Shifts: Vocabulary and Sentence Mechanics

Those of us studying electronically mediated communication (language produced on computers or mobile phones) have been looking for evidence that mediated language is changing traditional speech and writing. To our surprise, the list of effects is relatively short. Here are my candidates:

Incorporation of a few acronyms into everyday language. These days you sometimes hear students saying "brb" (be right back) to one another when they temporarily take their leave. I have also overheard "lol" (laughing out loud) in conversations among young people. However, these neologisms need to be put into perspective. Infusion of written acronyms into everyday speech is a common linguistic process—to wit, RSVP, AWOL, or ASAP. If a few more lexical shortenings make their way into general usage, that's nothing out of the ordinary.

Decreased certainty about when a string of words is a compound, a hyphenated word, or one word. This is a more nuanced proposition. Take the word newspaper. Should it be spelled newspaper, news-paper? Obviously the first, you say. But historically, words tend to begin as separate pairings (newsplus paper); gradually make their way to hyphenated forms (news-paper); and eventually, especially if they are high-frequency, become compounds (newspaper). The journey from electronic mail to e-mail, and, for many, to email, is a case in point.

Enter computers and the Internet. If I write news paper (two words) in an e-mail, no one is likely to correct me, because on the Internet no one is policing the grammar of the personal messages we construct. What's more, the two-word version handily passes spell-check (typically my students' criterion for correctness).

URL addresses for Internet sites may also be affecting our notion of word breaks. URLs allow no spaces between words. To create a Web page for selling beauty products,. It is easy to imagine beauty products crossing the line into beauty products in offline writing without many people giving the merger a second thought.

Diminished concern over spelling and punctuation. Spell-check, along with online search engines, may be convincing us that devoting energy to honing spelling skills is anachronistic. Even before you finish typing a word containing an error, spell-check often automatically corrects the word. Similarly, if you type a misspelled word (or phrase) into Google, chances are the search engine will land you pretty much at the same list of sites you would have reached had you been a finalist in the National Spelling Bee.

In the same vein, I am increasingly finding that my students have little regard for apostrophes. (And as we know, URLs disallow punctuation marks.) My studies of college students' text messages show that "required" apostrophes (in a word such as doesn't) only appear about one-third of the time.

These effects on vocabulary and sentence mechanics are actually fairly minor. New words enter languages all the time. As for word separation, hyphenation, and spelling more generally, it helps to take the long view. A quick check of the Oxford English Dictionary reveals that lexical practices evolve, and yesterday's oddity may be today's norm—or vice versa.

In studying new media language, however, I've become convinced that more fundamental linguistic changes are afoot. The shifts I'm talking about are not in vocabulary, spelling, or punctuation, but in ourattitudes toward language structure.

Attitude Shift 1: "Whatever"

Language is rule-governed behavior: That is, languages are constructed according to identifiable patterns that people follow. Native speakers have a mental template of these rules. Obviously linguistic rules have exceptions (the plural of man is men, not mans). And rules change over time. (Chaucer would have written "hath holpen" rather than "has helped.") However, we recognize exceptions—and change—by referencing our knowledge of rules currently shared within a language community.

By rules, I don't mean normative, prescriptive grammar—such edicts as, Don't end a sentence with a preposition. This arbitrary "rule" was concocted by 18th-century self-appointed grammarians who took Latin, which has no word-final prepositions, as their model. Instead, I have in mind such rules as, Subjects and verbs need to agree in number—making a sentence like "Cookie Monster eat toast for breakfast" ungrammatical. If a language community adheres to the rule-governed model of language, its members will render consistent judgments about linguistic usage. Yes, we all make performance errors, but our rule-governed linguistic brains recognize, perhaps after the fact, that we have erred.

Since the 1960s, a constellation of factors have combined to alter our sense of "good" language use (Baron, 2000). Revolutions in school pedagogy began replacing teacher-directed classrooms with peer review and activities designed to foster collaboration. The infamous red pen was now used more to encourage intellectual exploration than to correct sentence mechanics. Multiculturalism led us to encourage students not to be judgmental about their peers. No longer do we say that Li Po "talks strangely"; rather, she is an "English language learner." Instead of criticizing Bill from Appalachia (who says "Him and me went home"), we note that Bill speaks another dialect of English.

Gradually, we have become less obsessed with correctness and more focused on tolerance and personal expression. This shift, however admirable, has linguistic consequences. School is no longer necessarily a place to instill a sense that linguistic rules (or even linguistic consistency) matter.

Each year, I ask graduate students in my Structure of English class if it matters whether English continues to distinguish between the words may and can ("May I come in?" versus "Can I come in?"). Many of the students fail to see why anyone should care. The same laissez-faire attitude applies to distinguishing between the words capital and capitol (the first identifies the seat of state government, whereas the second refers to a building, such as the U.S. Capitol). Why not just ditch one and let the other do double duty?

My point is not to pass judgment. The issue is that attitudes toward linguistic "rules" have shifted. A wide swath of educated speakers of English (at least American English) simply don't worry about the niceties of such rules any more. One day it's may; the next day it's can. So what?

This attitude reminds me of spelling in Middle English, where you would often find the same word written half a dozen different ways, all on the same page. Standardized English spelling didn't become a reality until nearly the 18th century. By 1750, Lord Chesterfield famously warned his son that "orthography … is so absolutely necessary for a man of letters, or a gentleman, that one false spelling may fix a ridicule upon him for the rest of his life." Today, it is difficult to imagine anyone taking Chesterfield's admonition seriously. If spell-check doesn't catch the problem, whatever! Does spelling really matter, anyway?

The shift away from caring about language rules or consistency predates new media language. It even predates personal computers. However, computer and mobile-phone technologies add fuel to the linguistic fire. An e-mail manual such as Constance Hale and Jessie Scanlon's Wired Style (1999) encourages writers to "celebrate subjectivity" (p. 9) and to "play with grammar and syntax. Appreciate unruliness" (p. 15). Scholars like David Crystal and Beverly Plester, as I noted earlier, highlight the creative potential of text messaging. We should not be surprised to find linguistic free spirits applying similar latitude to everyday speech and even to more formal writing.

Attitude Shift 2: Control

Besides amplifying the linguistic "whatever" attitude, computers and mobile phones are instrumental in a second attitudinal shift—a change in the degree to which we control our linguistic interactions.

Human communication has always involved varying amounts of control. If I see you coming down the street and don't wish to engage in conversation, I might cross to the other side and start window shopping. If you phone me and I don't like what you're saying, I can always hang up.

Contemporary online and mobile language technologies ratchet up the control options. On my instant messaging account, I can block you so you never get a message through. (I always appear to be offline, even though I'm busily instant messaging others.) I can multitask, talking with you on the phone while I search for a cheap airfare online or instant messaging you while I'm conducting half a dozen other online conversations.

Social networking sites offer additional forms of control. People exercise control in the way they design their pages: Staged photographs, exaggerated profiles, and padded friends lists enable online users to manipulate how others see them. In the words of one undergraduate, her Facebook page is "me on my best day."

These sites also enable users to maintain relationships with friends without expending much effort. For example, young people commonly check up on their friends' activities by viewing their online photo albums or status reports, obviating the need for a phone call or e-mail, much less a face-to-face visit. One popular move is to post a Happy Birthday greeting on the Wall (a semi-public message board) of a friend's Facebook page without making real personal contact.

On mobile phones, caller ID informs us who's calling, so we can decide whether to answer. Sometimes when I'm meeting with students, their mobile phones ring. A quick glance at the screen, and then the phone is silenced and slipped into a pocket or backpack. "It's only Mom," they explain.

Another form of control on mobiles is deciding whether to talk or text. I might choose to send a text message rather than call to keep the communication short (meaning, "I don't want to get bogged down in a conversation in which I'm obligated to listen to what you have to say"). In cross-cultural research I conducted last year, more than one-third of the Swedish, U.S., and Italian university students I surveyed said "keeping the message short" was an important reason for texting rather than talking.

One inventive control technique is pretending to talk on your mobile phone when you see an acquaintance approaching—even someone you like— to avoid conversation. In my studies, 13 percent of U.S. students reported engaging in this behavior at least once a month. And 25 percent reported that they fiddled with text-based functions on their phones (such as checking old messages) to evade conversation with people they knew.

In each instance, technology enhances our ability to manipulate our communication with others. As the arsenal of control devices continues to grow, we increasingly come to see language not as an opportunity for interpersonal dialogue but as a system we can maneuver for individual gain.

Responding to Language Shifts

In thinking about the effects of new communication media on language, we need to distinguish between "may fly" language (here today, gone tomorrow) and changes that are more substantial. If we care that a couple of new acronyms and alternative spellings could make their way into everyday spoken or written language (particularly when it comes to schoolwork), it actually is possible to just say no. Students already understand that particular styles of language are appropriate for one venue but not another (calling a teacher "Mr. Matthews" but using first names for friends). They understand (and probably even expect) reminders.

Responding to the linguistic "whatever" attitude is a more complex proposition. Parents and teachers need to understand that young people are not the only ones manifesting this attitudinal shift. One of my favorite examples is from the environmentalist and author Bill McKibben, who wrote this in praise of a book: "Go find a friend and tell them all about this fine book." We've all learned that a singular noun such as friendneeds to be paired with a singular pronoun (here, him or her). Yet Simon and Schuster had no qualms about putting this blurb on a book jacket.

Depending on our pedagogical goals, we might choose to be linguistically hard-nosed (perhaps pluralizing the noun to friends and avoiding the gender question entirely). Or we might admit more casual spoken style into the classroom, following the general trend today for writing to reflect informal speech.

Before we despair that language is going to hell in a handcart, we should remember two lessons. First, normativeness in language goes through cycles, much like taste in music and politics. All is not lost. And second, regardless of the swings that language goes through, there is room for individual schools or teachers to set their own standards. Most schools have abandoned teaching handwriting, but a few have held their ground, to the good fortune of their students. Just so, if you choose to insist on written precision, students generally will follow your lead.

The issue of control is trickier, because it involves personal empowerment. Here the battles aren't about acronyms or noun-pronoun agreement but about such questions as, Should students be allowed to have mobilephones in school? or Is it the job of the school to teach online and mobile-device etiquette? These concerns rarely have easy solutions. However, by understanding that new language technologies have shifted our students' attitudes about who holds the power in linguistic exchange, we will be better prepared to understand their perspectives and to reach common ground."

It is important we have updates and keep on monitoring the changes that are taking place in the human communication field. There are more and new gadgets , technologies and techniques that are emerging and merging that as thee do so, we need to be cognizant of the changes that are taking place in our language systems and the way we use the newly acquired language to communicate.

Electronically mediated communication has definitely changing traditional speech, and it is a relatively short change because of the constant change in the gizmos, techniques and merging emerging technologies that the life-span of the change in languages in the communications field is short-lived. As the opening of the articles states: "It's natural for languages to evolve. But what should really concern us is the way computers and mobile phones are changing our attitudes toward language."

What's With The Internet...

“More and more people are being arrested for something they have said online. In 28 of the 60 countries that we assessed, people were detained for things they had posted in social media. Now it is not only activists that attract attention, but anyone

“More and more people are being arrested for something they have said online. In 28 of the 60 countries that we assessed, people were detained for things they had posted in social media. Now it is not only activists that attract attention, but anyone

Internet-Based Communication

At this juncture, I would like to restate and reiterate the definition and meaning of Computer-Mdiated Communication. John Cecember puts it this way"

Computer-Mediated communication is a "process of human communication", "via computers," involving "people," situated in particular "contexts," situated in particular "contexts," engaging in process to shape "media" for a variety of "purposes. If you think of Computer-Mediated Communication only "in terms of technologies," you might conclude that CMC on the Internet involves only information exchange and retrieval."

"If the Internet involves only data lookup, then there's a problem. This means that there's nothing profound happening online, then one should get out of the business of writing about the Net and researching how people use it. Yet, a technologically deterministic view of Internet-based CMC holds. CMC operates within human contexts and is thus a rich forum for human communications and an inexhaustible source of interest for study."

December elaborates a tad-bit in regards to his definition when he states that:

"This is a definition of computer-mediated communication that I've been using for several years; it is not meant to be the definition; I've used this as a working statement to explore the dimensions of what computer-mediated communication is and how to approach its study. Since I do research on Internet-basedCMC, this definition is oriented to that context; but I don't mean to imply here that all CMC is Internet-based.

I believe that process and context are key themes in the study of computer-mediated communication.

Computer-Mediated Communication (CMC) is the process by which people create, exchange, and perceive information using networked telecommunications systems (or non-networked computers) that facilitate encoding, transmitting, and decoding messages. Studies of CMC can "view this process" from a variety of "interdisciplinary theoretical perspectives by focusing on some combination of people, technology, processes, or effects. Some of these perspectives include the "social, cognitive/psychological," "linguistic, cultural, technical," or political aspects; and/or draw on fields such as "human communication, rhetoric and composition," "media studies," "human-computer communications," "journalism," "telecommunications," "computer sciences," "Technical Communications," or 'information studies."

What is CMC? An Overview of Scholarly Definitions


Computer-mediated communication (CMC) is a relatively new area of study, but as computers have become an integral part of society, spanning education, industry and government, the field is growing significantly. The lowered costs of and easier access to computer technologies has increased the number of users. This in turn is accompanied by a rapid growth of scholarly study of CMC. Because CMC scholarship spans many fields, and because of its rapid and continuing development, there is a variety of CMC terminology. This essay attempts a brief review of common scholarly definitions of CMC.

In general, the term computer-mediated communication refers to both task-related and interpersonal communication conducted by computer. This includes communication both to and through a personal or a mainframe computer, and is generally understood to include asynchronous communication via email or through use of an electronic bulletin board; synchronous communication such as "chatting" or through the use of group software; and information manipulation, retrieval and storage through computers and electronic databases.

However, as Santoro (1995) points out,

"at its broadest, CMC can encompass virtually all computer uses... (including) such diverse applications as statistical analysis programs, remote-sensing systems, and financial modelling programs all fit within the concept of human communication." (p. 11). [Brackets mine].

Because of the extremely broad range of CMC, the focus of this article is on scholarly definitions of specific "applications" of CMC." (Pixy Ferris)

In some way, this puts the whole issue of CMC into its proper perspective.

Neil Postman on Cyberspace, 1995

Self-Talk On the Social Network Medium

Within the context of communication, inter/intra communication that exist within the Web, in looking closely at its jargon and what it entails, one finds that they many people one talks to or communicates with, are just an illusion and can make one vulnerable to many things that were not foreseen.

I am in several Facebook Walls on Facebook: Those that deal with all sorts of musical genres, political and other on the edgeWalls. I make sure I try to generate a dialogue with the many people who post that they "lke' my posts. I have observed that many people, though one's 'griends' on Facebook, usually do not hold nor necessarily generate a dialogue, and some come just to see what's posted. In reality, there are jut a paltry few of all the 'friends' one has on Facebook that, as the speaker in the following warns and gives a heads-up when it comes to Facebook and and or Social Networking.

Body Language and Contemporary digitalia: Nov-Verbal Communication

The importance of leaders’ non-verbal communication cannot be underestimated, explains Carol Kinsey Gorman:

"The senior vice president of a Fortune 500 company is speaking at a leadership conference in New York. He’s a polished presenter with an impressive selection of organizational “war stories” delivered with a charming, self-deprecating sense of humor. The audience like him; they like him a lot.

Then, as he finishes his comments, he folds his arms across his chest and says, “I’m open for questions. Please, ask me anything.” Suddenly, there is a shift of energy in the room – from engagement to uncertainty. The audience that was so attentive only moments ago is now somehow disconnected and unable to think of anything to ask.

I was at that event. As one of the presenters scheduled to follow the executive, I was seated at a table onstage with a clear view of the entire room. And the minute I saw that single gesture, I knew exactly how the audience would react. Later I talked with the speaker (who didn’t realize he’d crossed his arms) and interviewed members of the audience (none of whom recalled the gesture, but all of whom remembered struggling to come up with a question).

Misaligned signaling

So what happened – how could a simple arm movement that none of the participants were even aware of have had such a potent impact? Although they may not be aware they are doing so, audience members are constantly evaluating a leader’s sincerity and deciding whether or not to trust what they hear by looking for congruence – that perfect alignment between what is being said and the body language that accompanies it.

Why? Because we have been “wired” that way. The executive who addressed that conference made a basic body language blunder when his gesture didn’t match his words. And it is this kind of misaligned signaling that people pick up on more quickly and critically than almost any other. In fact, their brains register the incongruence in ways that can be scientifically measured.

It is misaligned signaling that people pick up on more than any other body language blunder

Neuroscientist Spencer D. Kelly of Colgate University in New York studies the effects of gestures by using an electroencephalograph (EEG) machines to measure “event-related potentials” – brain waves that form peaks and valleys. One of these valleys, dubbed N400, occurs when subjects are shown gestures that contradict what’s spoken. This is the same brain wave pattern that occurs when people listen to nonsensical language. So, in a very real way, when your words say one thing and your gestures indicate another, you don’t make sense.

Like the conference speaker, a leader’s words may command an audience’s conscious attention by activating the pre-frontal cortex, but their body language speaks directly, and covertly, to the more primitive and emotional limbic brain. And, when faced with conflicting verbal and non-verbal messages, people will almost always believe and react to the non-verbal message.

So, back to our conference speaker. Why do you suppose he made such a “closed” gesture just as he was asking the audience to open up? There could have been several reasons. He might have been more comfortable standing this way. He might have been cold. The gesture might have been one he used habitually to help him think whenever questioned. Or maybe he was actually reluctant to interact with the audience.

I never asked him that question because “why” didn’t matter. It never does.

What does matter is helping leaders understand how their expressions, gestures, eye contact, use of space, postures, and all the other aspects of non-verbal communication will most likely be interpreted by others – and how those interpretations will most likely affect the observers’ behavior.

Non-verbal intelligence

It’s a great time for you to start building your non-verbal intelligence. Three factors have come together to put body language skills at the top of any leader’s “must do” list: the visual technology revolution; advances in scientific research that provide direct links between body language and leadership results; and the growing importance of cross-cultural communication with the global workforce.

One: The visual technology revolution

Smile – you’re on someone’s camera. From YouTube to cell phones with video capability to image-driven social media, there is no escaping the visual technology revolution. And we are only beginning to see the impact of this revolution on businesses around the world.

There are several companies with products that are making the virtual experience more realistic. Recently, I got a demonstration of Cisco’s TelePresence Meeting product, that uses “life-size” high-definition video and directional sound technology. This new generation of video-conferencing makes participants feel like they are actually sitting in the same room with people who are on the other side of the world (or, in my case, on the other side of the Cisco campus in San Jose, California). Best of all, I was able to make eye contact with my virtual partners, and we could respond to each other’s expressions and gestures."

Body Language - Non Verbal Communications


Amy Cuddy: Your body language shapes who you are

Where We are - Visualizing Our Modes Of Comuunication

Aisha writes: Computer can assist me to become a better language learner eventhough not 100% percent    because nothing is fully perfect . Computer has many softwares that are very useful to me. For example, when I’m typing my English essay, there ar

Aisha writes: Computer can assist me to become a better language learner eventhough not 100% percent because nothing is fully perfect . Computer has many softwares that are very useful to me. For example, when I’m typing my English essay, there ar

Research On the Effects and Affects Of Computer Mediated Communication

It is at this juncture that I rake a much in-depth look at the effects and affects of the Computer Mediated Communication' psychological and social well-being of College students(who are the ones that are using this much more than any other age group). It is also important to rephrase the fact that this word, language and vocabulary accelerated Computer mediated Communication, has its own effects and affects on its users and the whole society within which they are immersed and embedded. I cull the following from Kelis' research:

"Computer-mediated communication (CMC) is transforming the way people communicate in modern society. Herring (2001) explains computer-mediated discourse or communication as“the communication produced when human beings interact with one another by transmitting messages via networked computers” (p. 612).

"Computer-mediated communication (CMC) is transforming the way people communicate in modern society. Herring (2001) explains computer-mediated communication as “the communication produced when human beings interact with one another by transmitting messages via networked computers” (p. 612). Emailing, instant messaging, chat rooms, andfriend networking sites (myspace and facebook) are popular forms of CMC for finding new people and for keeping in touch with people they know.

"According to Simon (2006), CMC “has permeated our professional and personal lives” (p. 349). The increase in internet access, which research has found to be used mainly for communication purposes (Kiesler, Zubrow, & Moses,1985), has provoked an interest in researching the effects of the internet and other forms of CMC on society. According to Kraut, Patterson, Lundmark, Kiesler, Mukopadhyay, and Scherlis,(1998) the increased use of the internet as a mode of CMC over the past decade “could have enormous consequences for society,” including implications for interpersonal relationships andfor people’s personal well-being (p. 1017).

"Erik Erikson’s work (1950; 1968) focused on psychosocial development. More specifically he studied how socialization effects one’s sense of self. He believed that our sense of self, or ego identity, develops through social interaction. He broke down psychosocial development into eight stages, with each stage involving a conflict of identity. Erikson believed that successful completion of each stage brings one closer to psychological well-being and a successful social life.

"Harman, Hansen, Cochran, and Lindsey (2005) points out that: “socialrelationships play important roles in…development, with social skill mastery predictingimportant social outcomes. Children must master several aspects of social competence and self-control (self-esteem, social anxiety, aggression control, and general social skills) in order toadequately perform in social settings” (p. 1).

"Past literature made the connection betweensocial functioning and individual psychological well-being (Broadhead, Kaplan, James, Wagner,& Schoenback, 1983; Cohen & Wills, 1985; Jones, Hobbs, & Hockenbury, 1982; Riggio,Throckmorton, & DePaola, 1990). Research continues to find a relationship between social and psychological well-being (Lee, Keough, & Sexton, 2002; Lee & Robbins, 1998).

"Recent research has added the effects of societal changes to the research question,including the effects of CMC. Literature on the effects of CMC on social functioning and psychological well-being is conflicting. According to Bargh (2002), CMC “as a mode of interpersonal communication lends itself to both beneficent and destructive uses and consequences” (p. 2). In fact, two studies done by the same researcher can result in conflictingfindings. Kraut et al (1998) reported negative implications of CMC use, whereas Kraut et al(2002) found CMC use to be beneficial. The following is a review of the two conflicting studies.

Literature Review: Article 1


According to Kraut et al (1998), internet use has become a popular tool for accessing information, expanding commercialism, and communicating with others. Studies show that the dominant use of the internet in people’s homes is for interpersonal communication (Kraut,Patterson, Lundmark, Kiesler, Mukopadhyay, & Scherlis, 1998). Email, instant messaging, chatrooms, and friend networking sites have transformed the way people communicate with others.

"Kraut et al proposed that this transformation is having a negative effect on the social lives of those who use these types of computer-mediated communication. They argued that internet communication and use “is causing people to become socially isolated and cut off from genuine social relationships” (p. 1017). It was hypothesized that using the internet negatively effects social involvement and psychological well-being. Method The study consisted of a sample of 73 families (169 individuals) that did not have aninternet-ready computer within their home. The longitudinal data collected during the pretest and follow-up (12-24 months later) included demographic information, internet usage, and measuresof social involvement and psychological well-being.

"Data on internet use was collected automatically (computer software was installed to record the time spent on various activities online). The following instrument was used to measure social involvement: Cohen,Mermelstein, Kamarck, and Hoberman’s (1984) Interpersonal Support Evaluation List(Cronbach’s a = .80). The following reliability tested instruments were used to measure psychological well-being: UCLA Loneliness Scale (Russell, Peplau, & Cutrona, 1980), HasslesScale (Kanner, Coyne, Schaefer, & Lazarus, 1981), and Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (Radloff, 1977).


The “data analysis examined how changes in people’s use of the Internet over 12 to 24months were associated with changes in their social involvement and psychological well-being”(Kraut et al, 1998, p. 1023). The data supported the hypothesis that increased internet use has anegative effect on social involvement and psychological well-being. The data showed that with greater internet use, social involvement declines within the family (p. 5) and with those in the people’s local (p.5) and distant social networks (p. 7). The data showed that with greater internet use, measurements of loneliness (p. 5), stress (p.10) and depression increased (p. 5).


Among the strengths of the research study is that it was well planned out. Reliable instruments were used to gather data, data was collected over time (twice to show change), and statisticalcontrols (I.e., demographical attributes) were incorporated into the method. Among the limitations of the research study is that the sample size was small and not randomly selected, the participants were from one geographic area, a definition within the measurement instruments may have caused some confusion that may have interfered with accurate data collection, no control group was used, developmental changes of participants, and internet use changed during the time of the study which may have effected the results (I.e. it became more popular, expansion of content and programs, etc.).

"Kraut et al also discussed possible causal mechanisms that will be discussed within this learner’s project (I.e. internet displaces social activity). The authors pointed out that future research on the effects of internet use is needed to create preventive measures and interventions with individuals whom use computer mediated communication and who’s social and psychological well-being are negatively effected as a result.

Literature Review: Article 2


Kraut et al (2002) involves two studies that examine the effects of internetcommunication on social involvement and personal well-being (see Kraut et al, 1998). The limitations of past research on this topic (Kraut et al, 1998) were discussed. Ways to address the limitations were built into the method plan of Study 1 discussed in the article.

Study 1 was afollow-up of the Kraut et al (1998) study. The psychological and social well-being of the participants from the Kraut et al (1998) study were measured and compared to their pre-study measurements to determine if continued internet use negatively or positively effected the participant’s psychological and social well-being. Kraut et al (2002) proposed that internet communication and use “is causing people to become socially isolated and cut off from genuine social relationships” (p. 1017).

"They again hypothesized that using the internet negatively effectssocial involvement and psychological well-being.Study 2 examined “the differential effects of individual differences in extraversion and perceived social support on the effects of Internet use” Kraut et al, 2002, p. 58). The hypothesiswas left open due to a lack of reliable and consistent prior research on the subject.

"Two opposing theories were explained as hypothesis for the interaction of extroversion and social support on the effect of internet use on social involvement and well-being (“social compensation” and “rich get richer;” Kraut et al, 2002). Method Study 1 involved collecting a third phase of data from the sample used in the Kraut et al (1998)study.

"The data again measured the internet use, social involvement, and psychological well- being using reliability tested measures for social involvement and psychological well-being,including Interpersonal Support Evaluation List (Cronbach’s a = .80; Cohen, Mermelstein,Kamarck, and Hoberman, 1984); UCLA Loneliness Scale (Russell, Peplau, & Cutrona, 1980);Hassles Scale (Kanner, Coyne, Schaefer, & Lazarus, 1981); and Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (Radloff, 1977).

"Study 2 involved 406 new computer or television purchasers that were recruited through a newspaper advertisement. The television purchasers were used as a comparison group. Internet use was recorded automatically by software installed in the participants’ computers. A variety of instruments were used to gather the data on social involvement, psychological well- being, and various demographic information, including measurements of extrovert/introvertism and social support.

"Social involvement was measured through use of the following instruments: community and family involvement measurements, Interpersonal Support Evaluation List(Cronbach’s a = .80; Cohen, Mermelstein, Kamarck, & Hoberman, 1984). The following reliability tested instruments were used to measure psychological well-being: UCLA Loneliness Scale (Russell, Peplau, & Cutrona, 1980), Hassles Scale (Kanner, Coyne, Schaefer, & Lazarus,1981), Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (Radloff, 1977).

"The followinginstruments were used to measure extroversion: Measure of Extroversion (Bendig, 1962),anomie (Srole, 1956), trust in people (Rosenberg, 1957, revised from Survey Research Center,1969), and communication involvement (Mowday, Steers,, & Porter, 1979). ResultsStudy 1, which involved the sample from the Kraut et al (1998) study, found that depressive symptoms (p<.05) and loneliness (p<.01) declined with continued internet use (p<.05) from thefinal measurements of the original Kraut et al (1998) study. No negative effect on social involvement was found with continued internet use. The data show an increase in stress with thecontinued use of the internet.

"The results of the study 2 data analysis found that internet use had a positive effect onmeasures of social involvement. Increases were reported on size of local social circle (p. 1),distant social circles (p. 1), face-to-face interactions (p<.05), community involvement (p.10),and trust in people (p. 5). The only negative effects of internet use were an increase in stresslevel and a decrease of interest in local community (p. 5). The comparison of data from extroverts to introverts participants revealed positive changes in community involvement for extroverts and less community involvement for introverts.

" As for psychological well-being, the data supported the “rich get richer” theory. According to Kraut et al (2002), “extraverts who used the internet more reported increased well-being, including decreased levels of loneliness,decreased negative effect, decreased time pressure, and increased self-esteem. In contrast, these same variables showed declines in well-being for introverts” (p. 64).


Study 1 expanded the findings of the Kraut et al (1998) study, but the limitations of the original Kraut et al (1998) study still were present (hence the need for Study 2, which is more controlled). Study 1 showed that the original negative effects of the internet on social involvement and psychological well-being found in Kraut et al (1998) had mainly dissipated,with the exception of stress increasing with continued internet use. The findings of positive effects of internet use on social skills and well-being are contrary to the finding of the Kraut et al(1998) study.

Kraut et al (2002) propose that the change in internet use and popularity of the internet may be responsible for the change in results from negative to positive effect of internet use on social skills and well-being.Among the strengths of Study 2 is a larger sample size than the previous Kraut et al(1998) study, use of a variety of well-established measurement instruments, and inclusion of other variables that may have an influence on the results (i.e. extrovert/introvert and social support).

Among the limitations of this study include participant attrition, self-report measures were used to measure family involvement and community involvement which can lack validity,the planned control group sample did not work out (most of the control group got internet during the study), and the study includes a comparison of findings that were created using differentcriteria (Kraut et al, 1998, Study 1, and 2). Kraut et al (2002) point out that additional research on computer mediated communication is needed in order for clarification as to the effects of itsuse and implications for practice.

The Binary Affect/Effect Conundrum

As you are reading this, the index of the internet is expanding, comprised of data that contains, in the end, diverse meaning, but which is fundamentally reduceable to bits of binary code, just two digital digits.

As you are reading this, the index of the internet is expanding, comprised of data that contains, in the end, diverse meaning, but which is fundamentally reduceable to bits of binary code, just two digital digits.

Rearview Mirror Hindsight: CMC Environment

The research above was focused on students and what it found is what I think is the dame pattern from the users of the Web, today. There are side and after0effects/affects on the users of the internet and these have a significant impact on the larger society and the whole communities of Webusers. The research above points out to these findings, in a scientific prudent way, but, myself, as part of the Internet - user, I do note and am reading about the different effects and affects that this preoccupation has on us.

It is also important to use hard core research in order to edify the topic of this Hub and anchor the contents and some of the research used herein in a way that begin to inform the reader, in a more concrete and realistic way, as to what it is we are dealing with and are faced with in our computer mediated communications.

We are seeing those who are rich getting richer, and we are now having a permanent army of the unemployed and all sorts of social malais. The graphics below show hat I am trying to talk about, and this only relates to the United States. So that looking back, and facing the future, things have gotten worse for the poor, and better for the Filthy Rich.

Emily Jane Fox states it this way:

The ultra-wealthy weren't lagging behind. Walper said both the number of households with a net worth of $5 million and above and $25 million or more reached the highest numbers since Spectrem started tracking the figures.

There were 1.24 million households with a net worth of $5 million or more last year, up from 840,000 in 2008. Those with $25 million and above climbed to 132,000 in 2013, up from 84,000 in 2008.

"Because of their levels of wealth, they increased their exposure to equities during the downturn and were making investments in real estate when the market was at the bottom," he said. "That's why now they've benefited the most from the return in the economy."

They also own most of the media and they have control over it and how and what it propagates. They use the data provided by their users to be even more rich. The users, in this case, are the losers for there is nothing for them to gain in the same way the owners of all the media and mediums/gizmos that are being churned out so fast. In this way then, democracy in these media is still not a reality, and it will not function as the present-day democracy is functioning.

Number of U.S. Millionaires Hits New High

It looks like the rich have finally shaken off the recession. The number of U.S. households with a net worth of $1 million or more, excluding primary residence, rose to 9.63 million in 2013, according to a new report from Spectrem Group, a consulting

It looks like the rich have finally shaken off the recession. The number of U.S. households with a net worth of $1 million or more, excluding primary residence, rose to 9.63 million in 2013, according to a new report from Spectrem Group, a consulting

Computer Mediated Environ


The study of Media Ecology is essential towards a much fuller and clearer understanding of the media environments that have be spawned by the advent of merging and converging media enabled by the emergent gizmos. Understanding and know the present-day media ecologies has become prime, for it is within these environ human interactinve communication has moved to another level.

In the meiarized environ taht we exist in, there is no media-independent communications and interaction: tools, materials and social arrangements always mediate activity. The possibilities and the practice design are functions of the me with which we design. We can explore here the unique possibilities that 'computationalmedia' can have on design. Confession is shared only only aomngs minds, but also among minds and structured media with which minds interact(Resnick)

There is a vbelief out there amongast Media professionals, enthusiasts amd Nedia Ecologists that, computer-mediated communication is not the opposite of face-to-face communication, but face-to-face communication can be effectively supported with computational media. They are highly interactive and highly malleable, and provide rich knowledge structures(including boundary objects), but they are often costly to realize. We are in search of defining Media Ecologies, that also support matching appropriate and effective media to speciic tasks.

CMC can include any means by which individuals and groups use the Internet to 'talk' to each other.

CMC can either be synchronous (exchanges take place in 'real time') or asynchronous (messages are posted up at any time, and read and responded to by other users also at times which suit them; in other words, users do not have to be online at the same time, as they do with synchronous exchanges). Email, mailing lists, Usenet and computer conferencing are all asynchronous, while IRC, Internet telephony and videoconferencing all take place synchronously. All of these types of CMC are now available through the Web i.e. through a standard Web browser.

Which type of CMC you use will depend on what kind of discussion you want to take place? Each has their strengths and weaknesses both in terms of technical constraints and the type of interaction that they encourage.

The main technologies include:

Email - the most popular Internet tool, used to exchange messages between individuals

Mailing lists - which use email to enable communication among groups of people. Individuals send emails to the list email address and receive a copy of all emails sent to that address

Usenet newsgroup - a separate Internet system which allows users to read and contribute to global special-interest 'newsgroups'; the number of newsgroup topics is vast, and subjects range from the very dry to the totally bizarre

Computer conferencing - (sometimes also known as 'discussion boards' or more accurately 'threaded discussion lists') which enables groups of people to hold discussions by reading and posting text messages on a computer system. The advantages over mailing lists are that the messages are archived and the structure of the discussion is also recorded. Computer conferencing is widely used to support learning, and within the educational context is generally what people mean when they talk about 'CMC'

Internet Relay Chat (IRC) - an Internet system which allows users to chat 'live' (in real time) using text or audio Internet telephony, a way of using the Internet as an alternative to the main telephone network; currently in its teething phase, though exciting in that it has the potential to reduce the cost of calling long-distance to that of a local call

Videoconferencing - a means by which small groups of geographically distant people can hold discussions in real time, during which they are able to hear and see each other and share various other types of data.

Integrating Educational Technologies

While each of these technologies has its strengths and weaknesses, it is when they are combined that we start to see their true potential. This was one of the driving forces behind the arrival of Virtual Learning Environments (VLEs) although it has to be said that few of the commercial products make serious efforts to enable this, focusing more on the administration of learning rather than on the learning itself. VLEs attempt to 'wrap up' the three technologies discussed above into online course objects that are password protected. Usually, the sophistication of the tools within a VLE is less than that of an equivalent stand-alone tool; the trade off is in the ease of use, integration of technologies and single point of authentication. Whether you use a VLE or a combination of stand-alone tools really depends on what you are trying to achieve.

Classroom eLearning Technologies

The changes have not all been happening on the Internet or with students sitting in computer labs using CAL packages. Out in the classrooms and lecture theatres, data projectors have being introduced and packages like PowerPoint are being used to present directly through a computer rather than to create and print overhead projector transparencies. The setups have often been unreliable and under supported and there has been a lack of technical confidence among lecturers and it is only within the last few years that this has started to change. Other presentation technologies such as electronic whiteboards, audience feedback systems and videoconferencing facilities are beginning to appear in teaching spaces and these will all require careful thought in integrating them into teaching practice.

Recent studeis about social processes in the Internet have begun to conncentrate oe question oof whether ccomputer mediated communication eanale people to build up social relations with other persons despite geographical dispersion. so, different media environs within the Internet facilitate for interpersonal behaviors to to manifest in reality, by and through its coordinating techniques.

ONe thing Media Ecologists do is to evaluate and asses the impact and effect.affect of technologies on people and their environment. So that, we get to know that Internet technology induces social binding, and in being examined this postulation, wthe Media Ecolgists examine the furthr role that technology plays in shaping such behavioral conventionsThis s done by contrasting the fact that it is known that the technology ceates a sense of social presence that infuences behavior, and that peopole use the available functionality that requires the least cognitive effort to achieve their goals.

Many of these Media Ecologists assume that interactive media, like the Internet, serves as a medium which empahasizes the development of new forms of social binding. What dooes this mean? According to this assumption, technology is used to establish fragile and fluid social structures beyond the diversity and plurality of milieus where people com from in real life and despite all divergent individual perspectives.

Technology forms a kind of communicaition framework which allows, despite all the differences in perspectives and lifestyles of the participants, a kind of communication which can produce weak social binding on a transcontextual level. So that, the Internet function as a medium which allows a kind of social integration, becasue the commonly used technology from the basic framework of communication to which everybody refers.Access to thiese technology means fone should have adequate financial resources. Yet, access to scuh technologies are still not available in most parts of the world. One can seet from the following Mpa, Internet Distribution globally is sadly leacking in Africa and South American Continents.

Unequal Internet Distribution Globally


Collaborative Virtual Environments In the CMC

It is fair then to assert that those with so much access as can be gleaned from the map above, the internet can be regarded as a medium which constructs new forms of sociality despite traditional social structures and its boundaries.

So that, the question of whether computer-mediated communication can support the formation of genuine social systems, is that technology creates new forms of social reality beyond real life miles, and that this technology itself may influence how social binding emerges within online environments.

In real-life communities, a precondition for social coherence is the existence of social conventions. These have been discussed at lent above to determine how the use and emergence of conventions might be influenced by the technology. One factor contributing to the coherence of online social systems, but not the only one, appears to be the degree of social presence mediated by the technology. It can therefore be stated that social systems can emerge by compute-mediated communication and are shaped by the media of the specific environment. Here's What Tony Winograd wrote in regard to the fact that the computer is an instrument of communication:

"The prevalent view is that in AI we design 'expert systems' that can stand as surrogates for a person doing some job. From a viewpoint of human interaction, we see the computer differently. It is not a surrogate expert, but an intermediary — a sophisticated medium of communication. A group of people [typically including both computer specialists and experts[users too] in the subject domain, build a program incorporating a formal representation of their beliefs. The computer communicates their statements to the users of the system. The fact that these combinations may involve complex deductive logic, heuristic rule application or statistical analysis does not alter the basic structure of communicative acts."

These activities of using computers and the phone, means that humans need a simple, understandable gizmo for the intellectual activity, that is the one that provides for the telephone user and computer user a perspective as to their relationship.

In order for us to understand computer mediated communication, so long as we accept the premise that the computer is a communication tool, enabler and mediator, then we can understand it better from the following statement.

The universal machine analogy suffused that one could write a computer program that will operate in two modes. In one mode, this program would ingest grammar rules of a formal language (including their semantics), one at a time, building them into an appropriate grammar table.

The second mode, this program would accept any string in the terminal vocabulary of the language, process it, and output the appropriate response. These two programs together, would constitute a Universal Language Processor that could handle any sublanguage. This Idea constitute one of the core theoretical concepts of the New World of Computing Systems."

This suffices for the purposes of this Hub, in that, I am establishing here, that computers mediate and dictate our language and actions on its environments. The computer enables human communications in a diverse and broad sense and mode in our interacting and using it.

The Internet has afforded dramatic new opportunities to connect with other in a politically charged situation. It frees people to communicate across national border without having to travel or show a passport. It sometimes allows people living under repressive governments to express their views more easily. Through CMC, you can reach a wide audience across the world, speaking for an underrepresented group, or challenging authority. Yu can report evens on the ground which may conflict with how they're being reported in the mainstream media.

CMC is both political and politicizing, because it may be used to confront the authority of governing powers, and to resist dominant social, cultural and political ideologies.In recent conflicts, the voices of individuals online from war=torn territories provide an alternative perspective to the major, predominantly Western news media. CMC allows us to view current events from more than one perspective. It can also serve both to politicize us and to enable us to participate more actively in political processes.(SAGE)

The Internet I No Longer Global - Evry Counry Is An Island

The Internet is now no longer global—every continent and island is, well, an island. The best most basic part of the Internet is scooting data anywhere around the globe in an instant. That's over now. African is till lagging behind

The Internet is now no longer global—every continent and island is, well, an island. The best most basic part of the Internet is scooting data anywhere around the globe in an instant. That's over now. African is till lagging behind

Was you may already know, fractals are images and shapes where an identical pattern is repeated over and over and over. What's amazing about these digitally created, visually detailed images, however, is that exactly the same thing happens in nature. We find fractals in the formation of trees, coral or even a branch of broccoli — wherever a design or structure just keeps repeating itself.

Fractals are digital and new-age, but simultaneously organic and prehistoric. The same is true of the Internet.True, it's a pretty new, sophisticated technology, but what's really interesting about it is the way it's being used to do the same old totally natural thing: communication.

Throughout history, adventurous types have pushed against the boundaries of knowledge to explore the unknown and to make sense of what appeared to be mysterious and unfathomable. The early map makers found out that you couldn't, after all, fall off the edge of the earth. The first space travelers in the 1960s found out that humans could explore space, a journey only dreamt of earlier. In many ways, at this point in history, cyberspace has replaced space as the great unknown. As such, it's a topic surrounded by myth and reality, assumptions, suppositions and unanswered questions. It's one of our societies' talking point at this moment.

In discussing CMC, we are examining the social and cultural transformations being brought about by computers and, more precisely, the Internet.Thus focusing on social interaction — how 'identities,' 'relationships' and ''communities' are being changed or influenced by the Internet. Whether one owns a computer or not(and billions don't), these days everyone's lives are transformed by new media like the Internet, sometimes positively and sometimes negatively.

Muhammad Betz wrote:

"Our behavior away from our tools will probably be influenced by the tools that we use ... [and] will probably show some of the learned characteristics we have acquired from the time spent with our tools. I still wonder what the long term effects of information technology can have on our character, psychological and physical, when the artifacts of technology are in flux."

What he's saying is that there's more to technology than technology. It's human communication and what we do with our technology that really counts.What's more, its all about the transformation of our patterns of social interaction — how we live and work through, with and around technology. The trouble is,however, we don't always know what the outcome of these transformations will be, and that is very unsettling."(Thurlow, et al)

In this sense and case above, the media and technology of the Internet determines and effect and affects us in various waysIt is a technologized form of human inter/intra communication and information system. It creates a shortcut to our binding as a human race here on planet earth; it overcomes the hurdles like borders and ways and means to by the elite stifle the majority; it is a new way and wave/age of technologies taking away cognitive awareness and activity and simplifying and speeding up the process. It is a way through which we are and have become a global intercommunicating Village on the Viral Soup: Internet.


ixwa (author) on July 11, 2021:

You are welcome, and am glad you read the article above... Thanks, again

ixwa (author) on June 29, 2021:

I appreciate your response and comment to the article above. Please come back and read some other articles if you find time. Forgive me for replying so late...

UI UX Studio Delhi on March 25, 2018:

Nice post, things explained in details. Thank You.

ixwa (author) on September 30, 2015:

Richardpa: Thank you very much for checking out the Hub above. Your comment above that I have "given without restraint just what a few individuals might have sold as an e-book to earn some bucks for themselves", is spot on. You see, my country, South Africa, has over the last century, to date, prohibited us from writing anything for ourselves and by ourselves. Writing has been made the forte of the Europeans, that there is a apucity of wirttten works for us. A lot of people in my country are talking about overthrowing the government by any means necessary. I have decided to write as I do as you have noted, to give back to my peoples, who although come to these Hubs and steal if not outrightly plagiarize them, and that is sad. But, in my own humble way, I am gald to have put in the effort for them, if they ever get to see these works, would benefit and grow, that's my lame excuse for writing as I do.

But I thank you for the advice that I could write some stuff and post it on e-books. Well, I still have a lot to write about, I might start with that generation of articles and create them into e-books. Thanks for the encouragement, and I hope, as you say, people who will read some of the stuff I have written here, would benefit... thanks again.

Richardpa on September 25, 2015:

Needed to write you that very small word to thank you so much the moment again for those magnificent tips you've contributed on this website. This has been certainly shockingly open-handed with you in giving without restraint just what a few individuals might have sold as an e book to earn some bucks for themselves, and in particular given that you might well have tried it if you ever wanted. These basics likewise worked to provide a great way to be certain that the rest have the identical dreams similar to my personal own to see way more with reference to this issue. I'm certain there are several more fun periods up front for those who look over your website.

ixwa (author) on October 11, 2009:

I am working on putting in pictures of the hubs. I am a little challenged by that maneuver, but am utilizing the services of my teenage son. I will soon be working on utilizing pictures or image to improve on the hubs. I am working very hard to frame the issues pertaining to language and communication and media, that is, how these are changing and are affecting and being effected by our language format and speech patterns, from time in the past to the present/future we are now living in. It is true, we are facing a daunting task in the face of the deterioration of language, speech and vocabulary; in a word, the changing of the word, communication and and how these are effected by the new technology. I am very motivated by your interest in this subject matter, and will make my best effort to elucidate and simply articulate this phenomena and have it circulate in the cyber community and the data sphere. I really do appreciate your feed-back and am presently working on breaking down the 'word' and hope the hub will contribute more to making us understand how, why, and what makes for the slow death of language in the face of the interconnectivity of new media and emerging and merging technologies; also, how their memes dominate contemporary cyber-babble, and why and how society is being changed as we are now experiencing it. I am looking forward to your in-put and I am very grateful and thankful for your comments and advice. Thanks IslandVoice!

Sylvia Van Velzer from Hawaii on October 10, 2009:

Your subject and how you write is so explicit. I would suggest that you add graphics, illustrations, which will help your readers comprehend what you are saying. Overall, you have touched on something very important. Like i said, this issue must be addressed asap, or we see clearly how language is endangered. Yes, it was the tower of babel.

ixwa (author) on October 10, 2009:

It is interesting that you should talk about the Tower of Babel, and I have a hub I have written, "One Nation Under the Groove: Modern Media as the Tower Of Babel". I think I should develop that hub more to point out to your responses as to how people hope not to lose language as we know it, and try and show , more clearly, how and why I say Modern Media is the Tower of Babel. I am very thankful for your comments for they help me look into what I have written,and develop it more cohesively and coherently. I do have sense that language is fast disappearing, as McLuhan pointed out above,and I hope to eventually interest a lot of students onto the hub,not to only accept and use our new technologies passively, but should actively interrogate and participate in looking at our media critically. New technologies are good to keep us occupied through the doldrums of life, but are dangerous in altering and taking over our world and how we communicate with each other. As I have said, I do really appreciate your input, and it is helping me to draw attention to the dark side of the new technologies and the media they disseminate, and how these affect and affect us. Thank you again, IslandVoice!

Sylvia Van Velzer from Hawaii on October 09, 2009:

It will be a real challenge for us, and also for our young. I hope before i leave this earth, my granddaughter will understand the will that will be read to her! Kidding aside, i just hope there will not be much of a language barrier between humans, or God has to intervene like He did, was it Babylon? I think your hub should be a must subject in the classrooms!

ixwa (author) on October 09, 2009:

Hi IslandVoice! Thank you for the comment and having read the hub. My son is an alien and what he says and knows about computers baffles me because I did not send him to school to learn all that computer language and operations. I defer most of my ignorance on computers to him for help. I was taken-aback by the Internet language written about in Curmudgeon's hub. I realized I am living in a world with a new language, which is accelerated and changing everyday. Is it not funny that our children, whom we taught the language they speak today, we cannot even understand them? Maybe truly language will end up being speechless and we are seeing the death of language as we know it. Thank you, again!

Sylvia Van Velzer from Hawaii on October 08, 2009:

It's getting tougher these days, esp. between my generation and the next to communicate without getting lost, as they say, in the translation. Even my 5 yr old granddaughter is learning a language we don't recognize anymore! But, thanks for your intelligent babble!

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