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Wiccan Holidays: What Is Imbolc?

The Wiccan Sabbat of Imbolc

Winter still has the land in its icy grip, and the hearth fires still blaze brightly to ward off the cold and brighten the depth of the night. But there are hints of thawing on the ground as signs of life and nature begin to stir. The days that seemed so long and dark just a month ago are growing noticeably shorter.

It must be Imbolc—the first fertility festival of the season. Take your last glimpse of winter and prepare to bid it farewell. The spring awakening is imminent.

Imbolc is one of the eight sabbats on the Wiccan Wheel of the Year. It is the first of the four greater sabbats of the year.

Whether this is your first Imbolc, or you’ve been celebrating them for decades, I hope you can take a moment to revel in the beauty of this season with me.

Imbolc has roots in antiquity.

Imbolc has roots in antiquity.


This holiday’s origins are not clear, but some form of it may go back as far as pre-Celtic times. Mainly it was observed in the ancient lands that we now know as Ireland and Scotland. It may have been the time to start looking for signs of Spring as part of agricultural planning.

The word “Imbolc” means “in the belly”. It comes from an older Gaelic world, “Oimelc”, which means “ewe’s milk”. It was the time of year the sheeps gave birth and started giving milk. If you can imagine living in the past in a place completely locked in winter’s deep freeze, you can understand the significance of that.

There was no electricity, no supermarkets to go to. You were pretty much trapped indoors, with nothing to do but wait and pray the house held up and no one in the family got sick. By February your firewood and food are getting really low. When the ewes give birth and the milk comes, you have a new food source—and you can breathe a sigh of relief. You’re going to be sustained, and spring is close.

The Many Names of Imbolc

ImbolcMost common name currently

February Eve

Original Name from British Traditional Wicca


Caatholic/Christianized Version

Brighid/Brigid/Brigit, Brighid's Feast, Brighid's Day, Bride

Some name this holiday after this Goddess


Gaelic, alternate spelling. Meaning "in the belly" referring to the lambing season.


Gaelic, meaning "ewe's milk", again referring to lambing season

Feast of Waxing Light

Generic NeoPagan

Groundhog's Day

American Secularized Version

Any Imbolc Fire Will Do...


Fast Facts on Imbolc

Most Common Dates of Celebration

Eve of January 31st; February 1st; February 2nd


February 12th (old calendar); but keep in mind, Wiccan sabbats don’t commemorate a specific day—they are in celebration of a season. So many Wiccans simply move their celebration to the day most convenient—the nearest weekend, or even the nearest full moon.


Brighid, of course, due to her connection to the holiday. Imbolc is especially appropriate if you worship any Gods and Goddesses of the hearth/home; fire Gods or Goddesses; young maiden/virgin Goddesses; Young, virile Gods or man-child Gods.

Direction Association


Time of Day


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Color Associations

Red; white; silver; grey


Fires; the hearth; candles; lanterns; lamps; snow and snowflakes; St. Brigid’s Cross; cows; sheep, particularly ewes; small, furry, burrowing animals; birds (particularly snow birds).


Besom (cleansing/cleaning); candles; aspergil (a brush or branch used to sprinkle purified or blessed water)


Any activity related to cleaning, cleansing, or purification. Anything related to domestic duties, such as cooking or cleaning. Anything to do with preparing for spring, such as shoveling away snow, or cleaning and oiling the garden tools, shopping for seeds or planting starter seeds; arts and crafts, particularly those to do with heat/fire (welding, wood burning, embossing, etc.); writing poetry.

Magical Workings

Cleansing, purification, transformations, protection, energy, artistic inspiration, family harmony.

Poll - Tell Me...

Excellent Video About Imbolc

Celebrating Imbolc

All of the sabbats should be observed in some way, no matter how small. Try to take some time out to perform a ritual, or at least to hold a small rite to acknowledge and meditate on the meaning of the season.

Set up an altar or shrine near your hearth around this time of year. It doesn’t have to be big—a tiny cone incense burner and a red candle and a small bowl would suffice. Make prayers and offerings to your hearth Goddess or any household spirits and guardians. Get your spring cleaning and garden planning underway, too.

On the day of Imbolc, or the most convenient time near it, plan a rite or a ritual. Have a small feast—even if it’s just you, make yourself or go get something a little special for the occasion. At some point, turn on all the lights in the house to symbolize the returning light, then go out into the cold—if only for a little while—to bid the winter farewell.

Further Reading for Celebrating Imbolc


Mackenzie Sage Wright (author) on January 11, 2013:

Thanks, SM! It's always had a special place in my heart, because I was first dedicated to Wicca on Imbolc in 1990 and I am in the service of a hearthfire Goddess myself. I appreciate your comment!

Sharon OBrien on January 10, 2013:

Very well done! This is starting to become one of my favourite of the sabbats, perhaps because Brighid is one of my main deities but also because of the quiet beauty of the holiday as well. The promise of the spring to come! Blessings!

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