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Why do you have webbing between your fingers?

The aquatic apes theory

William Bond has a hub about the Aquatic Ape theory and his belief in the reality of mermaids and merfolk, which I highly recommend but I have been wondering about many other strands of information that have to do potentially with the true history of the human race and how we got to be as we are.

A good starting point is your own hands. Have you ever wondered why there are webs between the fingers?

If you believe in Darwin's Theory of Evolution, which personally I have many problems with, you will be familiar with the idea that fish became amphibians and reptiles that in turn became birds, which then became mammals and of the primate sort of these we evolved. Is that where we got webbed fingers from? From our ancestry as amphibians way way back?

The trouble with Evolution theory for me is I cannot see examples but I can see countless types of life that have remained the same as they were millions of years ago. Many forms of life such as the complicated parasite life-cycles are so fantastically complex that I can't see how they "just evolved" like that.

I admit I don't know how life forms got here but I do know that tampering with the DNA and genetic engineering causes rapid and very great changes in plants and animals. So too can selective breeding.


Dagon fish-god of the Philistines

Dagon fish-god of the Philistines

Fish gods, Aquatic Ape theory and related links

  • Mermaids, Witches & Amazons by William Bond (Book) in History
    Mermaids, Witches & Amazons by William Bond (Book) in History : Mermaids, Witches and Amazons are seen as mythical women. The official line is that Mermaids were sea cows, while witches are the result of the Christian Church ‘s paranoia.
  • Elaine Morgan
    Elaine Morgan's own description of the Aquatic Ape Theory
  • Amphibious Gods - Crystalinks
    The mitre on the head of the goddess Cybele is striking similarity to the 'fish head' of the God Dagon. The Great Goddess of Asia Minor is the oldest true Goddess known, predating the Goddesses of the Sumerian and Egyptians by at least 5,000 years.
  • Dagon the fish god... as the Pope?
    In 378 AD, the church began by Peter (the first believer) mixed with Mystery Religions from Babylon. Modern churches sprang from the Catholic Church.
  • Anunnaki - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
    The Anunnaki (also transcribed as: Anunnaku, Ananaki) are a group of Sumerian and Akkadian deities
  • Aquatic ape hypothesis - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
    The aquatic ape hypothesis (AAH), sometimes referred to as the aquatic ape theory, asserts that wading, swimming and diving for food exerted a strong evolutionary effect on the ancestors of the genus Homo
  • Nommo - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
    The Nommo are ancestral spirits (sometimes referred to as deities) worshipped by the Dogon tribe of Mali. The word Nommos is derived from a Dogon word meaning, "to make one drink," The Nommos are usually described as amphibious, hermaphroditic, fish-

Atlantis and the Annunaki

There are may theories put forward about genetic engineering being done in Atlantean times and also about alien beings who use this form of science and may well have done so here on us. The Annunaki have been linked with the Biblical Nephilim and the story of how the Sons of God interbred with the "Daughters of Man."

Alternative historian and author Michael Tsarion is one writer and researcher that puts forward the idea that extraterrestrial beings mixed their DNA with that of the humans already here and in so doing evil entered our world. These were the Nephilim or the Annunaki.

Something went very wrong with humans somewhere along the line, that's for sure, and the Biblical Devil isn't a good enough answer for me.

The story of godlike beings who create humans and other life and who interbreed with us are found in many sources. My guess is that the truth is known but we are definitely not being told what it is. So it is up to us to examine as much information and theory as possible.

If a line of thought is not getting much publicity and support by the world of scientists and academia this doesn't mean it is wrong but on the contrary suggests it is something close to the truth they don't want us to know. We have to ask why don't they want this information widely known about?

One such theory is the Aquatic Ape theory put forward by Elaine Morgan that suggests that at one stage in our evolution humans lived semi-aquatic lives and like other marine mammals this is why we have mainly hairless bodies, stores of fat under the skin and can cry salt tears. It has a lot of points that make good sense to me.

The Dogon tribe of Africa believe in beings known as the Nommos, which are some sort of amphibious extraterrestrials. They are in these people's creation story and they are said to come from the stars - from Sirius to be precise.

The Dogon had advanced astronomical knowledge of this part of the heavens long before modern scientists did so the question is how did they know unless there is a lot of truth in their beliefs?

There have been many fish-gods and amphibious deities in various ancient cultures. One is the god Dagon or Dagan who is depicted like a Merman with his lower half being a fish.One of cult author HP Lovecraft's stories was entitled Dagon. The Amphibious Gods link I have included in the links section is an excellent reference source on this subject.

Then there is the matter of the Pope's headgear, which whatever you believe, can be seen to resemble a fish head. Many people believe it is a representation of Dagon and is a continuation of the Babylonian priesthood that never really died out.

Another part of the mystery is the belief in underwater cities and civilisations along with the idea that extraterrestrials (or possibly terrestrials we do not know about), travel underwater in craft that can also fly. Many UFOs have been seen to emerge from the oceans or to enter them. There is even the term USO for such "Unidentified Submerged Objects."

The Dogon Tribe Africa & Sirius Amphibians


Jesus on September 13, 2015:

Ahhh speculation is so fun to do in free time. Ya'll should be science fiction writers!

Steve Andrews (author) from Lisbon, Portugal on March 10, 2011:

Thank you for posting!

Celestial Elf on March 10, 2011:

Great Post Bard, very interesting,

and in response I thought you might like to see my Mermaid Queen machinima film


Bright Blessings ~

Steve Andrews (author) from Lisbon, Portugal on February 08, 2011:

Colin, I never said I believed in mermaids! I said William Bond does! You did not read what I wrote!

I do have big problems with the theory of evolution though it is true and that is after being fascinated by nature and studying it all my life that I can say that! I see very little evidence to back up the theory. As for aliens, yes, I believe in them and it would make very little sense to me that whilst this planet is swarming with life in every habitat that other worlds in the countless billions and billions that are out there would not have life too! What makes this place so special? Or is it merely human arrogance to presume it is the only planet with life on it?

No, I don't think it at all strange that no fairies and goblins are reported because they are probably the same beings now reported as aliens.

colin on February 08, 2011:

You have a problem with Darwinian evolution by natural selection yet you in the very next sentence speak of aliens and mermaids as if they were fact ?

Such hypocrisy is poetically ironic and totally lost on you !

As for UFO'S do you not think it strange how no ghost ships are reported anymore and before that it was fairies and goblins

Our hallucinations are in complete parallel to our technological advancments

Its laughable that you refute the only scientific theory of how life evolved and yet believe in mermaids and atlantis....

The problem with humanity lies in our gullibility and you just disseminate it like it was candy...


Steve Andrews (author) from Lisbon, Portugal on March 15, 2010:

Thank you for your feedback, It's just me! Sorry to hear about your nerve disorder.

Most of my dreams are really weird - and I mean REALLY weird - but I don't spend time trying to figure them out.

It's just me from Alaska on March 14, 2010:

I started reading your link http://www.expansions.com/ but it reminded me of strange dreams I've had since childhood.

One repetative dream that still occurs is that I vibrate so fast that I fall through walls if I lean up against them and furniture if I try sitting down. Sometimes I would dream that I vibrate so fast that people couldn't see me. Since I have a nerve disorder that causes me to shake when I was a kid this dream was horribly frightening.

Another weird dream that it reminded me of is that a future incarnation of me comes to tell me about things that are going to happen, but they are things that happened to a past incarnation of me.

Steve Andrews (author) from Lisbon, Portugal on August 21, 2009:

It seems likely to me that such bases exist. Thank you for posting!

magnoliazz from Wisconsin on August 21, 2009:

Hi There!! What an interesting and informative hub. I too have problems with the idea of Evolution, the fossil record really does not support it at all.

As for the USOs, my father was a career Navy man, and he said he saw strange craft coming out of the ocean on more than one occasion, especially when he was stationed on the USS Roosevelt, which had nuclear capabilities.

Who knows, maybe there are vast underwater alien bases, it would be the perfect place to hide from humans.

Steve Andrews (author) from Lisbon, Portugal on August 01, 2009:

Yes, good point!

Raggits on August 01, 2009:

Bard, if you are talking of webs between the fingers, are you taking into consideration those of us who have webbing between our toes and a nearly non existent little toe?

Steve Andrews (author) from Lisbon, Portugal on April 22, 2009:

Thank you, someonewhoknows, for your fascinating feedback!

someonewhoknows on April 22, 2009:

Hi,everyone I'm happy to see there are some truly inspiring hubs here at hubpages.I myself have only been here a little while,though I have subnitted a few hubs,none as interesting as bard of ely,and jessica mystics ilke.

Conerning evolution,I've also heard of the theory of the small mamilian ape like creatures that lived near water.The way I've heard it though is, that because there were,no trees around these mamilian apes would wade or swim into the water to avoid preditors. I suppose they also ate fish too,if that was the only food available to them in the beginning of ,their evolutionary cycle.An interesting atecedent here is that,their nose was originally flat,and that ,it was modified,through the manipulation of their dna,through mental means,by our angelic hosts,which are the true means of evolution,and co-creation with the power or energy provided by God.The reason for this change was a logical one ,they would haved drowned easily without this change in their anatomy.And here I thought the reason for our nose,was just to smell with,and eventually hang our glasses on.Silly me ! lol !

They were the supposed beginning of our human ancestry,after the dinasuars,de-evolutionary cycle; wherein only the smaller creatures were able to survive a world wide cataclyism of some sort.

If,you believe in the evolution of soul energy from the elements ,earth,air,fire,and water,then the next logical step is to believe in the evolution of the soul of single celled microscopic plant organisims such as plankton ,which require ,all or most of the elements to survive.The next step would be parasites I suppose that live on the micro-organisims that preceeded them,then of course, under water plants ,and animals such as coral,that feed on the micro-organisims,then crustations,fish,reptiles,and finally mammals which have evolved from an aquatic environment to a land environment ,some of which went back to an aquatic environment,or shared both as we see around us today !

I've read a paperback book called "The wild pendulum" about the evolution of the soul,which explains the souls of minerals,plants,animals,and humans,all of which are part of our existance as physical and spiritual bodies and of the earth itself.So,evolution can't happen without creation period!

We are co-creators as well,seeing as we are part of the source of creation !

You are all, very much appreciated ! Godspeed to all of you !

Andrew Hawkley on November 25, 2008:

Regarding the original question asked, I must say I like the Michael Tsarion theory that thought changes dna. I think evolution is about aspiration. Musicians would not enjoy having particularly large webs between their fingers. On the other hand I think the web may help stop the fingers from slipping around too much. So regardless of the origin of the webs I think they remain because they have a positive functioning purpose.

I have similar feelings regarding fish. I think some fish are content to just improve themselves as waterbound legless creatures but others get bored and want to try something new.

The problem I find is that militant believers in evolution are frequently also survival obsessives. Evolving requires risks that would not occur to someone obsessed with survival at all costs.

Steve Andrews (author) from Lisbon, Portugal on November 24, 2008:

Thank you, Brainfire, Jerry and Pylos26 for your feedback!

Yes, Jerry, that's what it comes down to with most "official versions" of anything - you are just supposed to believe what you are told!

"And to your parasite question…a whole lot of trials and errors can come about in half a billion years to a tick." - Pylos, I was basically trying to say that the chances of a parasitic organism hitting on evolving into how we now see it would be so fantastically long that it staggers belief that it could be done and that the problem is there are millions of highly complicated parasites which have specific hosts and require a whole range of specific habitats, conditions and stimuli to complete their life cycles successfully. We are asked to accept that each of these by trial and error hit upon changing into and becoming how they now are! There are insects that have to track down larvae of other species inside tree trunks and then bore a hole through the wood to lay eggs in the host using a special ovipositor, countless parasitic worms that have more than one host in their life cycle such as the heartworm, which at one stage must be in a mosquito to be transmitted into its mammalian host, and if I consider the incredible migrations that many species carry out that science cannot even say how the animals navigate across hundreds or thousands of miles, I cannot see how it simply evolved that way. Then there are all the parasites of the parasites!

pylos26 on November 23, 2008:

Hello bard…your hub is right down my alley. Honestly, I’ve been tied up for some time trying in vain to enlighten some fanatical Christians, be that as it may. I love the topic of evolution. But in response to your hub sub topic, “Are we descendants of aquatic apes”? I would reply as this…only if they (the aquatic apes) had evolved into land mammals before a branch of them might have evolved into what is now termed homo-sapiens. And to your parasite question…a whole lot of trials and errors can come about in half a billion years to a tick. Thanks bard for allowing my 2 cents worth, cus that’s about what its worth.

And to you mistyhorizon2003…you are right on girl!!!

Jerry G2 from Cedar Rapids, IA on November 23, 2008:

Great hub, Bard! I always enjoy when you have a new hub up, since I know it will be thought provoking. I agree with you on evolution - there are far too many holes and far too many stretches from point A to point Z for me to put a lot of stock in it. That being said, part of the problem is that "evolution" isn't just one theory, and I think that's where so much of the argument comes from.

The idea of "survival of the fittest?" Sure. I'll buy into that, that just makes common sense. Furless and hairless animals will die in the artic while furry animals survive, but my problem especially comes with origins evolution. I'm being told I must believe in this, even though I've seen lines of "evolution" that would have ten points, and four of those points are theoretical, no evidence ever found, three points have one bone or two bones and never a complete skeleton, and based on these holes I'm supposed to completely and blindly agree with it 100%??

Not a chance. The theory of evolution has been good for studying the Earth, but it often is defended with a blind fundamentalist zeal that the most fundamentalist and violent religious believers also share. Isn't science supposed to keep growing with new evidence?

Anyway, good arguments. I can't say much on sea apes one way or the other, I'm not informed on both sides of the argument, but in general I think evolution has some points, but staying fanatical about how evolution is 100% right is only going to be harmful to the advancement of science, knowledge, and truth in general.

Great hub, keep them coming!

MotherGoddessEarth from The Island on November 23, 2008:

I agree many questions. I always use a margin of thumb: 40-60% unknown. I researched this area of the "Time Travel"/Montauk Proj. (a bit) and continue to research the area of Karma.

On the Montauk Project, I said a "Bit" because that stack of documents I read, and printed was only like 3 feet high from the ground. I didn't really get to read a lot about the individuals, as I was interested more in the equipment, technology, and posibilities, etc.

That was my extent of study, on that area, and I do like to jump back from time to time...lol no pun intended.

I have a photographic memory, and it's all now stuck in my brain...lol...I feel like I may become Lawn Mower Man at some point in the future! lol...I had to install an External Hard Drive!...lol :)

The Karma research is so interesting to me, and I continue with that.I have more than 15 instances of cases I have been personal witness to see these events unfold, over a few week period of time in each case. What they all had in common was, they had done something bad to another person I know personally.

Each case had something much worse come back following that act. I wasn't looking for it, (specifically to research) either, something about the right place, at the right time I think. Being privy to the unusual?

I can't prove, or confirm if it's karma at work, but it surely did seem that way.I was merely silently witnessing this, (while repelling the negativity), and logging it (in my computer brain...lol) until I reached over 15 instances (in less than a year) and thought, (to myself) there is a pattern. It was enough to catch my attention, and motivate me to continue to research it.

Oddly, they were "all" Negative acts, and received back negative consequences. Giving creedence to, "You Reap What You Sow"...and so on.

I remain very interested in the subject, and should I learn, or witness anything new, I'll be sure to share it with you. :)

I remember a funny line from Star Trek: Diana Troy said (while drunk) to #1: This is no time to argue about time...we don't have the time! lolThey were about to experience Warp Seed... To make first contact.

:) Always interesting questions you pose.

until next time!

Steve Andrews (author) from Lisbon, Portugal on November 23, 2008:

I know Montauk survivor Stewart Swerdlow and his wife Janet - http://www.expansions.com/ - and I also know Norio Hayakawa and Norio posted a blog some time back casting severe doubts on the reality of the Philadelphia Experiment basically with what is on this link: http://windmill-slayer.tripod.com/aliascarlosallen...

So what is the reality? I agree it is certainly a subject worth delving into.

I think that if we live in the now and only perceive the world as now then anything in the past is also perceived in the present so is also in the now as is the future. We are not leaving the moment we are in to consider time past or present.

MotherGoddessEarth from The Island on November 23, 2008:

Hi Bard:

What Goes Around...Comes Around. Hmmm

According to some of the experts on this, including the Japanese: We carry the load of Karma even from our parents. According to what I have heard, Back Tracking in the “Time Line” (from Start to finish: A Life, or general Increments of Time) will expose the chronology of karmatic events taking place.

From a Mathematical based stand point. Each act of each person causes a rift in the time line, thus offsetting history.Let’s not forget that “Time” as “we” know it, can, and may be a different way in alternate planes of existence, present right now.

Thinking back to the Montauk Project, which I happen to live nearby, and researched a bit...The ship mates were actually fused into the ship upon returning from there “Time Travel” Experience. According to where I left off on that subject is, I had heard the USS Eldridge is now being kept hidden in greece. Would love to examine that ship.

I seem to remember Dr. Chopra being on Oprah, discussing “Karma”, and how to measure it. If I’m correct, I think it was a 2 hour special. Don’t quote me though, I’ll have to research that.

At any rate, it is a great subject to delve more into.:)


The Philadelphia Project, U.S.S. Eldridge and Project Rainbow, page 1Discusion about The Philadelphia Project, USS Eldridge and Project Rainbow in the AboveTopSecret.com website alternative topics discussion forum Science ...www.abovetopsecret.com/pages/philadelphia.html

Steve Andrews (author) from Lisbon, Portugal on November 23, 2008:

Thank you and here's one I just posted as a blog at Myspace and a thread at David Icke's forum:

If there is only now now can there be the past, future, time, time travel and karma and how can what has gone around come around? Your answers please!

Tony Sky from London UK on November 23, 2008:

Hiya Bard, i am liking your new avatar!

Again, you have written a hub which gets the mind thinking! i am a very big believer in Evolution! and my brains a little mixed up right now to detail, . and like William bonds hub which inspired you to write this may inspire me one day to write about my evolution experiences and examples!:)

Steve Andrews (author) from Lisbon, Portugal on November 23, 2008:

Thanks for the info, Aya! In that case the Aquatic Ape theory loses a point or two on that score!

Aya Katz from The Ozarks on November 23, 2008:

Bard of Ely, interesting hub. Dagon is one of my favorite gods.

However, I must tell you, that you are a little off in your evolutionary musings. Bow is sitting with me here on the floor hunched over the laptop. I just checked his hands, and he's got webs between his fingers, too! His fingers are much more slender and hairier than mine, but equally webbed.

Steve Andrews (author) from Lisbon, Portugal on November 22, 2008:

Hi Andrew! Thanks for your thoughts on the matter. As someone who doesn't believe in the theory of evolution I nevertheless can think of several catfish that leave the water of their own accord and potentially risk drying up. The Clarias catfish does this and that's how it gets from one pond, lake or river to another - crawling overland. There are many other catfish that leave water. Eels do likewise at night and when its raining but obviously some must perish if it dries up and they are too far from any water.

I would give up my human body to be a cat - an animal I feel certain has a potentially much happier life than humans do!

Andrew Hawkley on November 22, 2008:

I like the aquatic ape theory because the Japanese are surrounded by water, don't have much hair on their bodies and eat a lot of fish.

One problem I have with evolution is that it flys in the face of the desire to survive. What kind of fish would constantly try to drag itself onto dry land only to dehydrate?

I can understand evolution in the sense of wanting to improve oneself. Darwin's idea was that each individual species would progress towards the perfection of its own kind. But that is the problem, if you are trying so hard to perfect the species you are why would want to change your species? I wouldn't mind being able to shape shift into a shark but I don't want to give up my human body in order to do it.

Steve Andrews (author) from Lisbon, Portugal on November 21, 2008:

Thanks for your responses, Cindy, William, Brainfire and Shannogh!

I have had severe problems in believing the theory of evolution for as long as I can remember. It does not explain to my mind how such incredibly complex life cycles "evolve" of animals and plants that are parasites, for example, that need specific hosts that have to do specific things at specific times or it all fails. The chances of such life cycles happening by chance or by pressure of needs seem so incredibly remote that I would think billions and billions of years could go by without them happening. I see divine design in lifeforms - be that design and precision of complexity by either a Goddess/God/other-dimensional or alien lifeform or whatever.

As for Zebras and giraffes, Cindy, this is what I see as finding 'proof' to fit the theory and ignoring other stuff that doesn't. There are plenty of other grazing herbivores like antelopes that do not have stripes and do equally well as Zebras. I often cannot and do not know why an animal or plant has a specific characteristic. I have often been asked by people knowing that I know a lot about plants and animals to explain why some species has a certain colour or characteristic and I confess I don't know. I accept that it just is so and is like God's artwork! There doesn't have to be any reason! Not a very good answer but it will do for me!

I do have evidence, however, of people causing deliberate change in other species and themselves by selective breeding and genetic engineering. That this should not be being also practised by other beings from other worlds wouldn't make much sense. That this was done in past civilisations like Atlantis and Mu seems likely.

The theory of evolution can and has been used to further the idea of selective breeding in humans and the superiority of some over others in what is known as eugenics. Who makes these decisions of what is good or bad characteristics? I'll leave it with the Creator.

Shannogh, no Chris hasn't told me that one.

William, I agree that there were past matriarchal cultures that we are not being told about. As a point of interest I see that the Guanche peoples of the Canary Islands are being portrayed by academics and science as "Stone age" primitives. They were not a matriarchal culture though because they had male leaders known as menceys. Portraying a culture as Stone age seems to be a means of making it appear inferior when it is often anything but as for example, the Kogi show.

I don't agree with the 5,000 years ago figure though. I am sure there were males causing war and destruction long long before then.

I believe that there are people who know the true answers to all this but we are not being presented with that knowledge.

shannogh on November 21, 2008:

Hi Steve,

Did CJ ever tell you the story of the Romanian mermaid that was meant to have been found a few years ago by some villegers in the Danube?

MotherGoddessEarth from The Island on November 21, 2008:

Very Nice Bard!

Really good points here, and in Williams comment too.

Questions I too have had even from child hood. If it doesn't make sense, and it doesn't equate...We keep searching for the real answers.

A common quest for many of us. I'm not too impressed with the evolution theory.

Thanks for making these points, more of our people should question what doesn't truly jive...I had a bad habit of doing that as a child in Sunday School...They wouldn't tell me where the dinosaurs came from, and I was whisked out of the room, each time I asked...lol

Until next time my friend...Take care...Always a pleasure


William Bond from England on November 20, 2008:

Hi Steve

The webbing between our fingers is also part of the Aquatic Ape Theory.The idea that Aliens from out of space might of genetically engineered us doesn’t disprove evolution, because how were the Aliens created?  Were they in turn created by an older Alien race? If so, how far does this process go back?  And how were the Aliens who started this process created in the first place?  If evolution works on this planet, then logic would tell us that it would also work just as well on other planets.

I don't go along with the Erich von Däniken stuff anyway. I prefer the ideas of Richard Rudgley in his book "Lost Civilisations Of The Stone Age". He makes the point at official history tells us that civilization started with the Ancient Egyptians and Mesopotamians, and there is a big gap to the people of the stone age who were suppose to be savage brute. So the mystery is that how did these savage brutes suddenly create sophisticated civilizations? And people like Erich von Däniken and Robert Temple have provided a solution to this mystery.What Richard Rudgley points out is that there is not a mystery at all. There were Civilizations far older than the Ancient Egyptians going back to the Neolithic age over 10,000 years ago. The problem is that modern archaeologists do not want to talk about these civilizations and try to censor all knowledge of them to the general public. One archeologist Marija Gimbutas did try to tell the public about the Neolithic civilizations was was savagely attacked by her colleges.

The reason for all this censorship, is because of the nature of the Neolithic civilizations.  They worshiped Goddesses, and they were peaceful. Archaeologists cannot find in the excavation of the Neolithic sites, any evidence of violence and warfare. This then is political dynamite. Simply because if people were able to live in peace and harmony thousands of years ago why can't they do the same today? And the answer seems to be, that these Neolithic civilizations were ruled by women. This also undermines the idea that 'Stone Age Man' was a savage brute. And supports more the Aquatic Ape Theory than the more conventional ideas of early humans. It seems that we only had a world of violence and warfare when men took over and rule the world about 5,000 years ago.

I'm not against the idea of being visited by other advanced civilizations in outer Space. (Providing they have worked out how to go faster than the speed of light). But I think that they won't contact us because they have a sense of responsibility. If an advance civilization from another planet was to, "land on the White House lawn", then it would totally disrupt our way of life. I think it is important that we ourselves get ourselves out of the mess we are in. If an Alien race was to do this for us, then we will have learnt nothing.

William Bond

Cindy Lawson from Guernsey (Channel Islands) on November 20, 2008:

Hi Steve,

interesting hub, but I have to disagree with you on evolution. What about such creatures as Giraffes, that have grown longer necks to facilitate them reaching the higher leaves on the trees, or Zebras, that have developed camouflage to confuse the lions etc when they are all running at once? The animals that have not evolved such as crocodiles and alligators have not needed to, as the way they were already evolved worked perfectly well as a survival technique, so 'if it ain't broke, why fix it?'.

You could argue that humans must have evolved because of the coccyx tail they still have the remnants of, not to mention the unused appendix!

Fascinating hub though, even if I do firmly believe in evolution.

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