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What You Don't Know About Hajj

Enclosed is my 24 month self-study and research into the fifth pillar of Islam, Hajj. The journey has been rewarding and praise is for Allah

Introducing The Fifth Pillar Of Islam – Hajj

Hajj is a six-day pilgrimage to the ancient and holy city of Makkah. A city founded by Adam ﷺ when angels initially built the Kabah. A city that was lost until it was rediscovered by Ibrahim ﷺ. To participate in Hajj, is to respond to call that Ibrahim ﷺ made, after he re-found the city and completed the construction of the Kabah. Pilgrims to this day, continue to arrive in droves - as guests of God. The focal point of Makkah, is the Kabah; otherwise known as The House of God. Other important sites around Makkah are: Mina, Arafat and Muzdalifah.

Important milestones in a pilgrimage include: circumnavigating the Kabah, praying near the Station of Abraham ﷺ and, running/walking between two hills (Safa & Marwa). Hajj is to also visit key landmarks on the outskirts of Makkah; all of which remind pilgrims of pivotal moments in human history and, forces us to reflect upon God within our own lives. The most important day of Hajj, is Arafat because: ‘God draws near’ and asks the angels - ‘what do these people want? Hajj is an ancient practise that dates back to Adam ﷺ and is a pilgrimage undertaken by many previous Prophets of old, including the last, Muhammad ﷺ who taught Muslims their rituals.

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Contents

1. What Is Hajj

1.1 What Are The Three Types Of Hajj

1.2 When Does Hajj Become Mandatory

1.3 How Did The Three Types Of Hajj - Originate

2 What Is Umrah

2.1 Why Do Muslims Do Umrah

3. What Is Miqat

4. What Is Ihram

5. What Is The Talbiyah

5.1 Are There Variations In The Talbiyah

5.2 What Is The Origins Of The Talbiyah

6. What Is Tawaf

6.1 Why Is The First Three Circuits Done In Haste (Ramal)

6.2 What Is The Yamaani Corner

6.3 What Is The Black Stone

6.3.1 The Origins Of The Black Stone

7. What Is The Kabah

7.1 Why Is It Called - Kabah

7.2 Who Built The Kabah

7.3 How Was The Kabah Initialy Built

8. What Is The Hijr / Hatim

8.1 Why Was The Hijr / Hatim Excluded From The Kabah

8.3 Why Do Pilgrims Pray Inside The Hijr / Hatim

9. What Is The Maqam Ibrahim

10. What Is as-Safa Wal-Marwah

10.1 Why Do Pilgrims Walk & Run Between as-Safa Wal-Marwah

11. What Is Zamzam Water

11.1 Why Is It Called Zamzam Water

11.2 How Was Zamzam Water Discovered

12. What Is Mina

12.1 What Rituals Occur At Mina

12.2 Why Do Pilgrims Visit Mina

12.3 Why Is Satan Stoned

12.4 Who Was The Sacrificial Son? Isaac ﷺ Or Ishmael ﷺ

12.5 Why Do Some Believe – Ishmael ﷺ Is The Sacrificial Son

12.6 Why Do Some Believe – Isaac ﷺ Is The Sacrificial Son

12.7 Did The Sacrafice Occur In Mina or Moriah

12.8 What Are Some Differences Between The Muslim & Jewish Narrative On The Sacrafice

13. What Is Arafat

13.1 What Rituals Occur At Arafat

13.2 Why Is It Called Arafat

13.3 What Is Special About The Day Of Arafat

13.4 Will Mankind Be Resurrected on Arafat

14. What Is Muzdalifah

14.1 Why Do Pilgrims Visit Muzdalifah

15. Muhammad ﷺ Last Sermon

15.1 Keynotes From Muhammad ﷺ Last Sermon

16. How Many Pilgrimages Did Muhammad (s) Do

17. Did Previous Prophets Visit Makkah

18. Controversy

19. Avoid Conflict In Makkah

20. Pilgrims Are Guests Of God

21. Pilgrimage Is Jihad For Women

22. Can Hajj Be Done On Someone Elses Behalf

23. What If You Die During Hajj

24. Comparison Between The Pagan And Muslim Hajj

25. Concluding Hajj

Bibliography

Endnotes


1. What Is Hajj

Hajj, linguistically means to intend, repair or betake oneself towards an object of reverence, veneration, respect or honour.1 In the Islamic sense, Hajj is to undertake a six-day pilgrimage to Mecca - during the Islamic lunar calendar month of Dhul-Hijjah. Dhul-Hijjah is the last month in the Islamic calendar. The six days of pilgrimage (Hajj) are between the 8th – 13th Dhul-Hijjah. A brief summary of the days are as follows:

what-you-dont-know-about-hajj

In short: Hajj is to undertake a six-day pilgrimage to Makkah between the 8th – 13th Dhul-Hijjah. One is required to travel to the landmarks of Mina, Arafat, Muzdalifah and the mosque in Makkah and the pilgrim is required to undertake a number of rituals at each site.

1.1 What are the three types of hajj?

i. Hajj-Ifrad - Umrah after Hajj

  • Enter Ihram when Hajj begins.
  • Exit Ihram when Hajj ends.
  • Enter Ihram for Umrah.
  • Exit Ihram for Umrah.3

Suitable for residents of Makkah.

ii. Hajj-Qiran - Umrah before Hajj

  • Enter Ihram when Umrah begins.
  • Exit Ihram when Hajj ends.

Suitable for pilgrims bringing a sacrificial animal

iii. Hajj-Tamattu: Umrah before Hajj.

  • Enter Ihram when Umrah begins.
  • Exit Ihram when Umrah ends.
  • Enter Ihram when Hajj begins.
  • Exit Ihram when Hajj ends.

Suitable for pilgrims not bringing a sacrificial animal.4

Please note, there are more differences than the aforementioned pertaining to rituals in the three types of Hajj. One example of a ritual difference between the three types of Hajj is: Hajj-Ifrad does not require a sacrificial animal to complete one’s pilgrimage whereas, the others (Hajj-Qiran and Hajj-Tamattu) do.5

There are also other ritual differences between the three types of Hajj, such variations are not the focus of my research because: nitty-gritty nuances between the three, - does not interest me. Therefore, the onus is on individuals to discuss [the three types of Hajj] with tour guides and then undertake a decision on the Hajj that suits you best. The most common type of Hajj, is Hajj-Tamattu which is the easiest for travellers. Hajj-Ifrad is popular amongst the residents of Makkah. And, Hajj-Qiran is for those pilgrims travelling to Makkah with a sacrificial animal.6

1.2 When Does Hajj Become Mandatory

Hajj becomes mandatory, when or if one is able to financially afford the journey.

"…Pilgrimage thereto is a duty men owe to Allah, - those who can afford the journey…"

— Quran: 3:97 [Abdullah Yusuf Ali] {7}

1.3 How Did The Three Types Of Hajj - Originate

Muhammad ﷺ set out for his farewell pilgrimage on Saturday 25th February 632A.D8 [28th Dhul-Qadah 10 A.H].9 He set out from Medina and his only intention was to do, Hajj; not including, - Umrah.

“…Aishah said: We set out with the Messenger of Allah thinking that it was for nothing other than Hajj.”

— Sunan An-Nasai, 2719, Sahih {10}

However, as the Prophet ﷺ was traveling towards Makkah, revelation came that Umrah is to be incorporated with Hajj.11

“…Someone came to me tonight from my Lord (Allah) while I was in the ‘Aqiq (valley), and said to me, “Offer Salat (prayer) in this blessed valley and say: ‘Labbaik’ for the (performance of) ‘Umrah and Hajj.”

— Sahih Bukhari, 7343 {12}

Muhammed ﷺ entered Makkah on the 2nd March 632A.D 13 [4th Dhul-Hijjah 10 A.H]14 and began performing the rites of Umrah. After completing his Umrah, the Prophet ﷺ further instructed: those who did not bring a sacrificial animal to exit Ihram. This became Hajj-Tamattu whereby, one could exit Ihram - after completing Umrah, if one does not bring a sacrificial animal. A pilgrim doing Hajj-Tamattu is expected to re-enter into Ihram at a later date closer to Hajj. However, because Muhammad ﷺ had brought with him a sacrificial animal, he completed his Umrah and remained in Ihram till the end of Hajj. This became Hajj-Qiran whereby, after Umrah is complete - one is to remain in Ihram till after Hajj, if, one does bring a sacrificial animal. I do not know the origins of Hajj-Ifrad.

In short: Muhammad ﷺ set out for Hajj, intending to do only Hajj. However, during his travel, revelation came that instructed him ‘to incorporate Umrah with Hajj. When Muhammad ﷺ completed his Umrah, he further instructed those, who did not bring a sacrificial animal, to exit Ihram. This became Hajj-Tamattu whereby pilgrims exit Ihram after Umrah and re-enter (Ihram) later for Hajj. However, upon Muhammad ﷺ completion of Umrah, he remained in Ihram till the end of Hajj; because, he brought with him a sacrificial animal. This became Hajj-Qiran whereby pilgrims remain in Ihram - after completing Umrah and only exit (Ihram) upon completion of Hajj. As for the origins of Hajj-Ifrad, I do not know.

2. What Is Umrah

Umrah is a minor pilgrimage to Makkah and consists of fewer rituals than Hajj. The rituals are:15

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Please note, there is a tad more to the ritual aspects than I have described; ritual aspects such as supplications etc have been purposefully omitted because: there is a myriad of dos and don’ts. For a more detailed guide on Umrah, consult your tour operator for I have only provided an overview.

In short: Umrah is a minor pilgrimage to Makkah and consists of fewer rituals than Hajj. The rituals consist of entering into Ihram and circumnavigating the Kabah, as well as attempting to touch specific points on the House of Allah ﷻ. Furthermore, one is to pray at the station of Ibrahim ﷺ [Maqam Ibrahim], drink holy water [zamzam], traverse between two hills [Safa & Marwa). Finally, the pilgrimage ends, - by the shaving or trimming of hair, and exiting ihram into normal clothing.

2.1 Why Do Muslims Do Umrah

The primary reason Muslims do Umrah is because: it is mentioned in the Quran to do so.

"And complete the Hajj or ‘umra in the service of Allah …"

— Quran: 2:196 [Abdullah Yusuf Ali] {16}

"Complete the hajj and ‘umrah for God...”

— Quran: 2:196 [Seyyed Hossein Nasr] {17}

The secondary reason Muslims do Umrah is because: it removes sin.

“… (The performance of) ‘Umra is an expiation for the sins committed between it and the previous one…"

— Sahih Bukhari, 1773 {18}

In short: the reason Muslims do Umrah is because: it is stated in the Quran to do so and, it removes sin.

3. What is Miqat

Miqat are appointed places specified by the Prophet ﷺ. A Hajj or Umrah pilgrim enters into Ihram at a Miqat - prior to arriving in Makkah.19 Some Miqats are tourist friendly places, and upon completing your pilgrimage, I highly recommend you visit some Miqats for leisure.

4. What Is Ihram

Ihram is two sheets of white unstitched seamless clothes that men wear during hajj or umrah. The dress symbolises humility, purity and equality in mankind.20 The Ihram clothing for women is the Jilbab. In the state of Ihram there are some restrictions such as prohibition on: hunting and applying perfume etc.21 Ihram is also a ‘frame of mind’ in which focus & thought is directed towards your intention and the continuous melodic chanting of the Talbiyah.

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5. What Is The Talbiyah

The Talbiyah is a special prayer or call that Muslim pilgrims continuously recite and chant during Hajj or Umrah. The Talbiyah is uttered in emulation of Prophet Ibrahim ﷺ 22 and in mindfulness of Allah ﷻ.

“…The Talbiya of Allah’s Messenger (s) was: ‘Labaik Allahumma labbaik, labbaika la sharika Laka labbaik, innal-hamda wan-ni’mata Laka wal-mulk, la sharika Laka’ …

— Sahih Bukhari, 1549 {23}

The translation of the Talbiyah is: ‘Here I am at your service, O Allah, here I am. Here I am. No partner do You have. Truly, the praise and the favour are Yours, and the dominion. No partner do You have’. 24

5.1 Are There Variations In The Talbiyah

Yes. There are variations in the Talbiyah. I do not know all the variations nor have I delved into it. Should one feel compelled to vary their Talbiyah from the standard, then, speak to your hajj or umrah tour operator.

“…The Messenger of Allah (s) began his Talbiyah for Hajj… and some people added: ‘Dhul-Ma’arij (The Owner of the Pathways to Heaven)’ and similar phrases, and the Prophet (s) heard them, and did not say anything.”

— Sunan Abu Dawud, 1813, Sahih {25}

5.2 What Are The Origins Of The Talbiyah

The uttering of the Talbiyah is a response to a call. A call that Prophet Ibrahim ﷺ made. When Ibrahim ﷺ completed the Kabah he said: “O Lord, how can I convey this to people when my voice will not reach them.” It was said: “Call them and We will convey it.” So, Ibrahim ﷺ climbed Mount Abu Qubays 26 and said, “O mankind! Your Lord has established a House so come on pilgrimage to it.” It is said that the mountains lowered themselves so that his voice would reach all regions of the earth, and those who were still in their mothers’ womb and their fathers’ loin would hear the call. The response came from everyone in the cities, deserts and countryside, and those whom Allah ﷻ has decreed will make the pilgrimage, until the Day of Resurrection.27

“And proclaim the hajj among mankind: they shall come to thee on foot and upon all (manner of) lean beast, coming from all deep and distant mountain highways”

— Quran: 22:27 [Seyyed Hossein Nasr] {28}

In short: the Talbiyah is a response to a call, a call that Ibrahim ﷺ made, – after he completed the construction of the Kabah. It is said, everyone on earth received the call, including those yet to be born.

6. What Is Tawaf

Tawaf is to circumnavigate the Kabah 7 times. The first three circuits are walked in haste, whilst the remaining four circuits are walked at normal pace. During the circumnavigation of the Kabah, one attempts to touch the Yamani Corner and, kiss or touch the Black Stone.29 Tawaf around the Kabah has been described as Salah, except that one is permitted to talk during it.

“…Tawaf around the House is similar to Salat except that you talk during it. So, whoever talks in it, then let him not say but good”

— Tirmidhi, 960, Hasan {30}

6.1 Why Is The First Three Circuits Done In Haste (Ramal)

The first three circuits of Tawaf, done in haste, is called Ramal. The reason one does Ramal, is to demonstrate physical strength.31 The origins of Ramal date back to March 629A.D 32 [Dhul-Qadah 7 A.H] 33 when the Prophet ﷺ returned to Makkah from exile. Muhammad ﷺ was briefly allowed to do Umrah because of the Al-Hudaibiyah Peace Treaty - which was signed in the previous year.

The Muslims came to do Umrah in Makkah and were weakened by fever, but, Muhammad ﷺ ‘did not want to show weakness in front of his foes. So, the Muslims done Tawaf, - marching like soldiers - in front of their polytheist foes. Thus, demonstrating strength towards an enemy that thought: Muslims were weak.

"… The Messenger of Allah (s) and his Companions came to Makkah, and they had been weakened by the fever of Yathrib. The idolators said: ‘Tomorrow there will come to you people who have been weakened by fever and they have suffered greatly because of it..."

— Sahih Muslim, [3059] 240 - (1266) {34}

“…Your people will see you tomorrow, so let them see you looking strong…”

— Sunan Ibn Majah, 2953, Hasan {35}

The polytheists of Makkah sat on mount Qu’aiqi’an and watched the Muslims performing Tawaf. They watched the Muslims running briskly around the Kabah on three sides (the fourth side was concealed by the Kabah).36 The polytheist foe were in awe at Muslim strength because: they were expecting to see, weakness. They later remarked:

"… These people whom you said had been weakened by fever are stronger than such-and-such..."

— Sahih Muslim, [3059] 240 - (1266) {37}

“…It is as if they are gazelles!…”

— Sunan Abu Dawud, 1889, Hasan {38}

In short: the first three circuits of Tawaf are done in haste to demonstrate strength. This practise dates back to 629A.D (7A.H) when Muhammad ﷺ briefly returned to Makkah from exile and was permitted to do Umrah. The Muslims had become weakened by fever, but the Muslims ‘did not want to show weakness in front of their enemy’ so they marched like soldiers in front of their Polytheist foe.

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6.2 What Is The Yamaani Corner

The Yamani corner is one corner of the Kabah. I do not know its significance nor history other than, pilgrims attempt to touch it because: Muhammad ﷺ touched it. However, the naming convention (Yamani Corner) seems to signify an obvious link to Yemen. Therefore perhaps, it is a geographical marker indicating the direction of Yemen. And / or, it was perhaps named as such in honour of Yemen and its people. Allah knows best.

“…The Messenger of Allah (s) would never leave touching the Yemeni corner and the Stone in each of his circuits…”

— Sunan Abu Dawud, 1876, Hasan {39}

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6.3 What Is The Black Stone

The Black Stone (Al-Hajr-Al-Aswad) is a stone that descended from heaven; and is located on one corner of the Kabah. Pilgrims attempt to touch the Black Stone because, it absorbs the sin off mankind. Initially, the stone was white, but blackened with time - due to it absorbing the sins ‘off from those who touched it.

“…The Black Stone descended from Paradise, and it was more white than milk, then it was blacked by the sins of children of Adam.”

— Tirmidhi, 877, Hasan {40}

Notwithstanding, the Black Stone is not to be worshipped for worship is only for Allah ﷻ. And God, is the ultimate forgiver of sins but, the Black Stone will testify on the Day of Resurrection for those who touch it.

“…Allah will raise it on the Day of Resurrection with two eyes by which it sees, and a tongue that it speaks with, testifying to whoever touched it in truth.”

— Tirmidhi, 961, Hasan {41}

Furthermore, Umar ﷺ understood the ultimate forgiver of sins is Allah ﷻ, and the Black Stone cannot erase sin unless Allah ﷻ forgives. Nonetheless, Umar ﷺ still touched the Black Stone because Muhammed ﷺ did too.

"…I saw ‘Umar kissing the Stone and clinging to it, and he said: ‘I saw the Messenger of Allah ﷺ taking an interest in you.”

— Sahih Muslim, [3071] 252 - (1271) {42}

In short: The Black Stone is a stone located on one corner of the Kabah, and pilgrims attempt to touch it. The reason pilgrims attempt to touch it is because, it absorbs sin off mankind. The Black Stone will come alive on the Day of Resurrection and testify for those who touched it; nonetheless, ultimate forgiveness of all sin - after its testimony - still rests with Allah ﷻ.

6.3.1 The Origins Of The Black Stone

When Ibrahim ﷺ was building the Ka'bah, one more stone was needed. Ismail ﷺ wanted to go and get something, but Ibrahim ﷺ said, "Help me to find a stone as I told you to do." So, Ismail ﷺ set out, looking for a stone, then he brought it to him and found that he had set the Black Stone in place. He said, "0 my father, who brought you this stone?" He said, “It was brought to me by one who is not relying on you to build it. It was brought to me by Jibril ﷺ from heaven.” 43

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7. What is The Kabah

The Kabah is the first house of worship built for mankind, a building dedicated to the worship of Allah ﷻ. The Kabah is an empty ‘cube-shaped stone building’ located within the open courtyard of the Sacred Mosque (Al-Masjidul-Haram) in Makkah. It is the most sacred place in Islam and is commonly referred to as: the ‘House of God. It is the focal point towards which all Muslims face in their five daily prayers and, pilgrims circumnavigate the Kabah 44 in ritual worship.

7.1 Why Is It Called - Kabah

The reason it is called Kabah is because it is cube-form (Muka’ab) in the shape of a cube (Ka’b). It is also called Kabah because it is square (Murabba’).45 In essence it is called Kabah because of its shape.

7.2 Who Built The Kabah

The foundations of the Kabah and the House itself was initially constructed by angels for Adam ﷺ. The Kabah was later reconstructed by Ibrahim ﷺ and Ishmael ﷺ about 4,000 years ago. During the lifetime of Muhammad ﷺ it was also rebuilt.46 After the lifetime of Muhammed ﷺ, it has also been occasionally re-built again – as and when maintenance has been needed.47 The point being: the Kabah has been built and rebuilt on a number of occasions, constructed on the same spot and also possibly, on the same foundations that the angels initially laid for Adam ﷺ.

7.3 How Was The Kabah Initialy Built

Prophet Adam ﷺ felt sad upon being unable to find a heavenly atmosphere on Earth whereupon he could pray. So, Almighty God (by means of the angels) constructed the Holy Sanctuary for Adam ﷺ. Allah ﷻ sent down the Kabah enfolded in a diamond and informed him: ‘O Adam! I have sent down My house with you. It shall be circumnavigated and the prayer offered beside it just as it is done at my Arsh.’ The angels descended along with the house and laid its foundation and built it.

Adam ﷺ headed towards Mecca, and Allah ﷻ caused water to gush forth from wherever he rested. Adam ﷺ settled in Mecca and remained therein until God took his soul. 48 Arabia during this period was a luscious green paradise on Earth. This notion is supported by findings in palaeontology and geochronology which indicate, Arabia was once green with vegetation and rivers.49 Notwithstanding, the date in which Adam ﷺ settled in Arabia is unknown, and will forever remain unknown, - until or unless archaeological remains that depict the earliest Man is found. Muhammad ﷺ too mentioned Arabia’s past landscape.

“…The Hour will not begin… until the land of the ‘Arabs goes back to being meadows with rivers.”

— Sahih Muslim, [2339] 60 - (157) {50}

With the passage of time, Adam ﷺ died and his offspring spread throughout the world. Mecca was eventually deserted as the rivers dried and the meadows turned to sand; thus, the area became uninhabitable for humans to thrive. Many many years later, approximately 4,000 years ago 51 when Ismail ﷺ was born; Allah ﷻ revealed to Ibrahim ﷺ - that he should take his wife Hajrah ﷺ and baby Ismail ﷺ to Mecca. 52 There was nobody in Mecca nor was there any water at this time. Ibrahim ﷺ left Hajrah ﷺ and Ismail ﷺ alone in the desert with some dates and a small water-skin of water and supplicated to Allah ﷻ:

“O our Lord! Verily, I have settled my offspring (Ismail [Ishmael]) in the barren valley (of Mecca) in the close vicinity of Your Sacred House, O our Lord, so that they may establish Prayer. So make the hearts of the people incline towards them with love and fondness, and provide for them (all kinds of) fruits as sustenance so that they may remain grateful.”

— Quran 14:37 [Muhammad Tahir-ul-Qadri] {53}

Hajrah ﷺ anxiously waited with Ismail ﷺ in the desert. She suckled Ismail ﷺ and drank the water she had. When the water finished, she began to panic. She ran to and from the tops of mount As-Safa and Al-Marwa in the hope of seeing somebody who could help. There was nobody in sight but a quiet voice spoke, and then she saw an angel digging the Zamzam well until water began to flow. The water attracted the Jurhum tribe who later settled in Mecca. After Hajar’s ﷺ death, and Ismail’s ﷺ marriage, Ibrahim ﷺ returned to Mecca and built the Kabah with the help of his son. They built the Kabah on top of a hill. Ismail ﷺ collected the rocks which Ibrahim (as) used to build.54

In summary: the Kabah was initially sent down by God, enfolded in a diamond and built by angels. The Kabah and its foundation was built by angels because: Adam ﷺ desired a heavenly atmosphere on Earth whereupon he could pray. So, Allah ﷻ sent down the Kabah in Adam’s ﷺ era, a time in which Arabia was heavenly with rivers and meadows. With the passage of time, - Adam ﷺ died and his offspring spread, and the Arabian Peninsula became barren. Mecca was lost and deserted by mankind. Until, Ibrahim ﷺ re-found the lost city approx. 4000 years ago.

When Ibrahim ﷺ arrived in Mecca with his wife Hajar ﷺ and baby Ismail ﷺ; Mecca was empty for water hadn’t yet been found [for wherever there is water in the desert – there is life]. Ibrahim ﷺ left Hajar ﷺ and Ismail ﷺ alone in the desert to fend for themselves because, that was Allah’s ﷻ plan. Ibrahim ﷺ walked away, supplicating to Allah ﷻ as he walked, leaving his wife and child in God’s Hand. In Hajar ﷺ and baby Ismail’s ﷺ moment of despair, alone in the desert without any water to quench their thirst, appeared an angel that dug the Zamzam well and outpoured water. The water attracted the Jurhum tribe to Mecca and the city was reborn. Many years later after Hajar ﷺ died and Ismail ﷺ married, Ibrahim ﷺ returned to Mecca to rebuild the Kabah.

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8. What Is The Hijr / Hatim

The Hijr / Hatim is an area, - demarcated by a short-curved wall 55 next to the Kabah. This area was once part of the Kabah itself but, was excluded from the Kabah - when the Quraish rebuilt the House. Muhammad ﷺ was thirty-five years old 56 and hadn’t yet received prophethood 57 when the Kabah was being rebuilt at this time.

8.1 Why Was The Hijr / Hatim Excluded From The Kabah

During Muhammad ﷺ lifetime and before Divine revelation came,58 the Kabah was in need of structural maintenance. So, the Quraish planned to rebuild the House. The Quraish wanted to rebuild the House with only ‘halal’ money but, fell short of the necessary funds and building material. 59 So, due to a lack of funds and building material, they made the Kabah smaller. In short: the area now called the Hijr / Hatim was excluded from the Kabah – because, the Quraish did not have enough funds and material to build a larger House, so they built a smaller one instead.

8.2 Why Do Pilgrims Pray Inside The Hijr / Hatim

The reason pilgrims pray inside the Hijr / Hatim is because: it is equivalent to praying inside the Kabah itself [as this area was once part of the House]. Notwithstanding, praying inside the Hijr / Hatim is not part of the hajj or umrah ritual but, something optional – if one desires to do so.

Aishah narrated: “I wanted to enter the House to perform Salat in it, so the Messenger of Allah ﷺ took me by the hand and put me in the Hijr, and he said: ‘Perform Salat in the Hijr if you want to enter the House. For indeed it is part of the House, but your people considered it insignificant when they built the Kabah, so they put it outside of the House.”

— Tirmidhi, 876, Sahih {60}

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9. What Is The Maqam Ibrahim

The Maqam Ibrahim is an area near the Kabah in which: the foot-prints of Ibrahim ﷺ is printed 61 and moulded in a stone. The stone was stood on by Ibrahim ﷺ during the building of the Kabah; and he did so – in order to reach the tops of the Kabah during its construction. This stone is guarded within a golden shrine. The Maqam Ibrahim is also known as: The Station of Ibrahim ﷺ 62.

“…When the walls became high, Ismail brought this stone and put it for Ibrahim who stood over it and carried on building…”

— Sahih Bukhari, 3364 {63}

During the lifetime of Muhammad ﷺ and Abu Bakr ﷺ the stone was attached to the Kabah, then Umar ﷺ moved it to its current location so as to make it easy for people to pray next to the Maqam.64

“…Make the place, where Ibrahim (Abraham) stood, a place of Prayer…”

— Quran: 2:125 [Muhammad Tahir-ul-Qadri] {65}

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10. What Is As-Safa Wal-Marwah

Safa and Marwah are two hills in Makkah, hills situated in close proximity to the Kabah. One who performs Umrah or Hajj should 66 walk & run seven times between these two hills.

“Truly Safa and Marwah are among the rituals of God...”

— Quran: 2:158 [Seyyed Hossein Nasr] {67}

10.1 Why Do Pilgrims Walk & Run Between as-Safa Wal-Marwah

Walking & running between these two hills is called, Sa’ee. The reason pilgrims walk & run between these two hills is because:

i. To remember the run of Hajar ﷺ 68 who ran between these hills in search of water.

ii. To remember the run of Ibrahim ﷺ who ran from Iblis.69

iii. To remember the walk and run of Muhammad ﷺ who marched to and fro in front of his Polytheist foes.70

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11. What is Zamzam Water

Zamzam is a sacred well near the Kabah in Makkah. The water that comes from the well is called Zamzam.71 In the current era, the well is covered so one cannot see nor access it; instead, the water is carried through pipes into taps.

11.1 Why Is It Called Zamzam Water

It is called Zamzam because its water is plentiful. ‘Zamzamah’ in Arabic implies quantity and coming together. 72 The well was also called Zamzam because: Hajrah ﷺ gathered (Zummat) sand 73 around the water as it gushed, so as to contain its flow, lest it should overflow the land.

It is also called Zamzam because: Hajar ﷺ feared that Ismail ﷺ may be harmed by the immense rush of water, so she exclaimed, ‘zam zam (stop, stop)!’ Thereafter, the pressure of the surging water eased, thus it has since been referred to as Zam zam.74

11.2 How Was Zamzam Water Discovered

See above 7.3 How Was The Kabah Initialy Built

12. What is Mina

Mina is an open and rugged plot of land that is situated on the outskirts of Makkah. It is an essential place to visit during the Hajj.75

12.1 What Rituals Occur At Mina

At Mina, one throws pebbles at three stone pillars which represents, Satan.76 Satan is pelted to remember his attempt at misleading Isaac ﷺ or Ismail ﷺ 77 – the day Ibrahim ﷺ attempted to sacrifice his son. The ritual of sacrificing an animal also occurs on the 10th Dhul-Hijjah, to commemorate Isaac ﷺ or Ismail ﷺ sacrifice by Ibrahim ﷺ.

12.2 Why Do Pilgrims Visit Mina

The reason pilgrims visit Mina is because: this is where Allah ﷻ sent the ram to Ibrahim ﷺ as a ransom for his son.78

12.3 Why Is Satan Stoned

Satan attempted to mislead Isaac ﷺ or Ismailﷺ79.When Ibrahim ﷺ noticed this, he exclaimed “Allahu Akbar!” and pelted Satan using seven pebbles. This caused Satan to sink into the ground, and father and son proceeded further. When the ground released Satan, he again attempted the same ploy. For the second time, Ibrahim ﷺ pelted him, causing him to sink into ground. When he again emerged from the ground, Satan made a third atempt, but Ibrahim ﷺ dismissed him with another seven pebbles, while exclaiming, “Allahu Akbar!” 80

12.4 Who Was The Sacrificial Son? Isaac ﷺ Or Ishmael ﷺ

Commentators of the Quran are divided as to whether the son to be slain was Isaac ﷺ or Ishmael ﷺ. While many earlier commentators, such as al-Tabari take Isaac ﷺ to be the son in question. Several latter commentators, such as al-Razi and Ibn Kathir, favour Ishmael ﷺ; some of whom go so far as to assert that the attribution to Isaac ﷺ derived from a corruption of the bible.81 In short: the sacrificial son was either Isaac ﷺ or Ishmael ﷺ.

When his son was old enough to work with him, he said, “My son, I have had a dream that I must sacrifice you. What do you think of this?” He replied. “Father, fulfil whatever you are commanded to do and you will find me patient, by the will of God”

— Quran: 37:102 [Muhammad Sarwar] {82}

12.5 Why Do Some Believe – Ishmael ﷺ Is The Sacrificial Son

The idea of the sacrificial son being Ishmael ﷺ stems from:83

"Mention in the Book (the Quran) the story of Ishmael; he was true to his promise, a Messenger and a Prophet. He would order his people to worship God and pay the religious tax. His Lord was pleased with him."

— Quran: 19:54-55 [Muhammad Sarwar] {84}

Furthermore, latter commentators [of the Quran] - believed the Old Testament was corrupted, hence disregarded the Jewish narrative of Isaac ﷺ being the sacrificial son.85 The corruption of the Jewish narrative stemmed from:

“And He said, Take now thy son, thine ONLY son Isaac…”

— Bible [King James] - Genesis 22:2 {86}

At no point was Isaac ﷺ ‘the only son’ of Abraham ﷺ because Ishmael ﷺ was the firstborn, and Ishmael ﷺ was Abraham’s ﷺ ‘only son’ for 14 years before Isaac 87 ﷺ. In short: several latter commentators [of the Quran] believed Ishmael ﷺ was the sacrificial son because of a verse in the Quran and, they adjudged the Old Testament to be unreliable.

12.6 Why Do Some Believe – Isaac ﷺ Is The Sacrificial Son

The reason some believe Isaac ﷺ is the sacrificial son is because of the Old Testament narrative.88 And, the Quran does not explicitly mention - whether it was Ishmael ﷺ or Isaac ﷺ that was the sacrificial son.

12.7 Did The Sacrafice Occur In Mina or Moriah

According to the Old Testament, the sacrifice occurred in the ‘land of Moriah. Jews believe the land of Moriah is Jerusalem, because, the Old Testament refers to Moriah as the mountain on which the Temple of Jerusalem is built.89

“…Take now thy son, thine only son Isaac, whom thou lovest, and get into the land of Moriah…”

— Bible [King James] - Genesis 22:2 {90}

According to Islamic sources, the sacrifice occurred in Makkah [Mina] because: the horns of the redemption sheep was once preserved inside the Kabah.91

“…I forgot to command you to cover up the two horns, for it is not appropriate that there be anything which distracts the worshipper while he is praying”

— Sunan Abu Dawud, 2030, Hasan {92}

12.8 What Are Some Differences Between The Muslim & Jewish Narrative On The Sacrafice

A few differences are: in the Quran the son (albeit Ishmael ﷺ or Isaac ﷺ) is willing and aware of his sacrifice. In the Old Testament, Isaac ﷺ is unaware of his sacrifice.93 Muslims believe the geographic location of the sacrifice is Makkah; whilst Jews believe the geographic location of the sacrifice is Jerusalem.

what-you-dont-know-about-hajj

13. What is Arafat

Arafat is an open and rugged plot of land that is situated on the outskirts of Makkah. Standing on Arafat on the 9th of Dhul-Hijjah and staying there from mid-day to sunset is the essence of the Hajj [the Pilgrimage].94

13.1 What Rituals Occur At Arafat

There are no specific prayers or rituals to be had on this day; one’s mere presence is enough to fulfil this ritual of hajj.95

13.2 Why Is It Called Arafat

A reason it is called Arafat is because: it is the place where, - Adam ﷺ reunited with Eve ﷺ - after their expulsionn from heaven 96 which caused them to separate & split. Upon their expulsion from heaven: Adam ﷺ descended to India, whilst Hawwa ﷺ descended to Arabia (Jeddah).97 Adam ﷺ travelled to Arabia in search of the Kabah, 98 and therein he also found Hawwa ﷺ. Husband and wife recognised one another at Arafat, thus it is named ‘a place where one recognises another.99

Another reason it is called Arafat is because: Allah ﷻ sent Jibril ﷺ to Prophet Ibrahim ﷺ and he performed Hajj for him [to teach him its rituals]. When Ibrahim ﷺ reached Arafat he said, ‘I have Afraftu (I know this place).’ He had come to that area before. Thereafter, it was called Arafat. It was also called Arafat because: Jibril ﷺ used to teach Ibrahim ﷺ the rituals of Hajj, and, Ibrahim ﷺ would say – ‘I have Araftu, I have Araftu100 (I know this place, I know this place).

In short: the reason the region is called Arafat is because: it is where Adam ﷺ and Eve ﷺ reunited after their expulsion from heaven, an expulsion which caused a split. Husband and wife - reunited and recognised one another at Arafat, hence it was named as such i.e., a place where one recognises another. Another reason it is named Arafat is because: Ibrahim ﷺ said ‘Araftu’ when Jibril ﷺ showed him the rituals of Hajj. Araftu means ‘I know this place’.

13.3 What Is Special About The Day Of Arafat

The day of Arafat is the essence of Hajj. The single most important day of Hajj.

"…The Hajj is Arafat, the Hajj is Arafat, the Hajj is Arafat …"

— Tirmidhi, 2975, Sahih {101}

On this day, Allah ﷻ majestically and happily draws near and gazes upon his slaves and says to the Angels: “What do these people want?” So gleefully and humbly ask Him whatever you want.

"…There is no day when Allah ransoms more slaves from the Fire than the day of Arafat. He draws near, then He boasts about them before the Angels and says: ‘What do these people want?’”

— Sahih Muslim, [3288] 436 - (1348) {102}

Finally, standing on the plains of Arafat is a moment to reflect and ponder over one’s life and spiritual well-being. It is an act of connecting with The Lord. And, the meaning of the word ‘Arafat’ and its historical connotation with Adam ﷺ & Eve ﷺ ought to be remembered. A remembrance that should lead to re-finding & rekindling the sacred bond - that one only share’s - with their spouse.

…Allah says: 'I am just as My slave thinks I am, (i.e., I am Able to do for him what he thinks I can do for him) and I am with him if he remembers Me. If he remembers Me in himself, I too, remember him in Myself; and if he remembers Me in a group of people, I remember him in a group that is better than them; and if he comes one span nearer to Me, I go one cubit nearer to him; and if he comes one cubit nearer to Me, I go a distance of two outstretched arms nearer to him; and if he comes to Me walking, I go to him running'."

- Sahih Bukhari, Hadith: 7405 103

In short: the day of Arafat is the essence of Hajj, and is a day in which Allah ﷻ draws near and forgives many. It is a day to reflect and offload to Allah. And, the historical meaning of the word Arafat and its connection with Adam ﷺ & Eve’s ﷺ reunion, ought to be remembered in our own lives.

13.4 Will Mankind Be Resurrected on Arafat

Some say that humanity will be gathered on the plains of Arafat on the Day of Resurrection for questioning and Judgment,104 whilst others have cited Ash-Sham [modern day Syria, Palestine, Lebanon and Jordan].105 I am therefore unsure as to whether man will be gathered on the plains of Arafat or Ash-Sham. Perhaps, it doesn’t matter ‘where’ humanity is resurrected - millions of years from now. Because, wherever you are - the barren landscape of this Earth - will all look the same. Perhaps, the sheer magnitude of people will stretch from Arafat to As-Sham. And, I think the act of standing at Mount Arafat during the Hajj is preparation for Judgement Day, a day in which many will be anxious as to whether they’ve made it to heaven or not.

14. What Is Muzdalifah

Muzdalifah is an open and rugged plot of land that is situated on the outskirts of Makkah. Pilgrims arrive at Muzdalifah, from Arafat. Pilgrims stop and stay at Muzdalifah for the whole night or greater part of the night - between the ninth and tenth of Dhul-Hijjah and, together perform the Maghrib and Isha prayers.106

14.1 Why Do Pilgrims Visit Muzdalifah

The reason pilgrims visit Muzdalifah is because, this is the place where: Adam ﷺ and Hawwa ﷺ drew close to one-another.107 It is perhaps a moment to reflect in the presence of God, the sacred bond that a husband and wife do share.

15. Muhammad ﷺ Last Sermon

On the day of Arafat, Muhammad ﷺ sat inside his tent - till the sun had set. He then ordered his she-camel to be readied. The camel was prepared. He then went down to the valley where 124,000 – 144,000 108 pilgrims had gathered. There he stood up and delivered his farewell speech. Below is his blessed speech, which I have pieced together from various sources and added some tweaks so as to make it sync.

“O people, listen to my words. I do not know whether I shall ever meet you again in this place after this year. O people, your blood and your property are sacrosanct until you meet your Lord, just as this day and this month of yours are sacred. Surely you will meet your Lord and He will question you about your deeds. I have (already) made this known. ‘Let he who has a pledge return it to the one who entrusted him with it, all usury is abolished, but ‘your capital belongs to you. Wrong not and you shall not be wronged. God has decreed that there will be no usury, and the usury of ‘Abbas b. ‘Abd al-Muttalib is abolished, all of it. All bloodshed in the pre-Islamic days is to be left unavenged.109 The first claim on blood I abolish is that of b. Rabia b. al-Harith b. ‘Abdu’l-Muttalib (who was fostered among the B. Layth and whom Hudhayl killed). It is the first bloodshed in the pagan period which I deal with.110 O people, indeed Satan despairs of ever being worshipped in this land of yours.111 But, if he can be obeyed in anything short of worship - he will be pleased in matters112 you minimize. So, beware of him in your religion.113 Postponement of a sacred month is only an excess of disbelief whereby those who disbelieve are misled; they allow it one year and forbid it another year. Time has completed its cycle and is as it was on the day that God created the heavens and earth. The number of months with God is twelve; four of them are sacred, three consecutive and the Rajab of Mudar, which is between Jumada and Sha’ban.114

Fear Allah ﷻ regarding women, for they are your assistants.115 You have rights over your wives and they have rights over you. You have the right that they should not defile your bed and that they should not 116 commit any open indecency. If they do, then God permits you to shut them in separate rooms and to beat them, but not severely. 117 If they refrain from these things, they have the right to their food and clothing with kindness. 118 Treat women 119 kindly, for they are prisoners with you 120 and do not possess anything for themselves. You have taken them only as a trust from God, and you have made the enjoyment of their persons lawful by the word of God, so understand and listen to my words,121 O men, for I have told you.122 Be kind with women, for you have taken them by Allah’s ﷻ covenant and earned the right to have sexual relations with them by Allah’s ﷻ word.123

I have conveyed the Message, and left with you something which, if you hold fast to it, you will never go astray: that is the Book of God and the sunnah of His Prophet.124 For even if a slave was appointed over you, albeit an Ethiopian with a mutilated nose, and he rules with Allah’s ﷻ Book, then listen to him and obey.125 I do not want to see you after I am gone, reverting to disbelief, striking the necks of one another [killing each other].126

O people, I am not succeeded by a Prophet and you are not succeeded by any nation.127 Have Taqwa of your Lord, and pray your five (prayers), and fast your month, and pay the Zakat on your wealth. 128 I recommend you to do the pilgrimage to the Sacred House of your Lord 129 and obey those who are in charge of you, if so - you will enter the Paradise of your Lord.130

Listen to my words, O people, for I have conveyed the Message and understand (it). 131 O people! You shall be asked about me, so what are you going to say?132 Know for certain that every Muslim is a brother of another Muslim, and that all Muslims are brethren. It is not lawful for a person [to take] from his brother except that which he has given him willingly, so do not wrong yourselves.133

O people, verily your Lord is One and your father is one. Verily there is no superiority of an Arab over a non-Arab or of a non-Arab over an Arab, or of a red man over black man, or of a black man over a red man, except in terms of Taqwa.134 It is incumbent upon those who are present, to inform those who are absent, in the hope that the absent - might comprehend [what I have said] better than the present. 135 O God, have I not conveyed the Message?” 136

15.1 Keynotes From Muhammad ﷺ Last Sermon

  • Avoid Bloodshed And Theft
  • Fear Allah For You Will Be Held Accountable For Your Wrongdoings
  • Abolish Usury
  • Be Wary Of Satan In Matters You Consider To Be Insignificant
  • Do Not Tinker With Calendars
  • Be Kind And Fair To Your Women
  • Hold Onto The Quran And Sunnah And Adhere To Leadership
  • Hold Onto The Five Pillars Of Islam
  • Do Not Be Racist

16. How Many Pilgrimages Did Muhammad ﷺ Do

After emigrating to Medina: Muhammad ﷺ did four Umrahs and one Hajj.

“…The Prophet ﷺ did ‘Umrah four times: ‘Umrah from al-Hudaibiyah, ‘Umrah the following year to make up for the one that has not been completed previously, the third ‘Umrah from al-Ji’ranah, and the fourth that he did with his Hajj.”

— Musnad Ahmed, 2211, Sahih {137}

what-you-dont-know-about-hajj

The Hudaibiyah Treaty was in 6 A.H. The polytheists prevented him ﷺ at Hudaibiyah from entering into Makkah, thereafter both parties agreed that the Muslims can perform ‘Umrah the next year. So, the Muslims at the same place, removed their ihram, slaughtered their sacrificial animals and returned to Al-Madinah. Though Muslims were not able to perform ‘Umrah in this journey, since they got its reward, hence it is considered as Umrah.

The ‘Umrah which was performed the next year according to the Hudaibiyah Treaty is known as ‘Umratul-Qada’. All of the Companions who were with the Prophet ﷺ in his past journey to Hudaibiyah, and were alive, participated in this ‘Umrah. Many other Muslims, apart from those Companions, also joined with them. Two thousand Companions with the Prophet ﷺ performed ‘Umrah in Dhul-Qadah 7 A.H. On his return from the battle of Hunain, the Prophet ﷺ stayed at a place called Ji’ranah and distributed the booty among the fighters. Then from that place he entered into the state of Ihram and performed ‘Umrah. This ‘Umrah was in 8 A.H.

The Prophet ﷺ performed the fourth ‘Umrah with his Hajj. He started his journey in the last days of the month of Dhul-Qa’dah and completed his ‘Umrah on the 4th of Dhul-Hijjah147 10 A.H.148

Furthermore, there is some questionable evidence which may also suggest: The Prophet ﷺ performed Hajj three times, twice before he migrated to Medina, and once after he had emigrated to Medina. It is uncertain if he ﷺ actually did do Hajj prior to his ﷺ fourteenth year of Prophethood i.e., 12/13 September 622 A.D 149 - which was the day of migration to Medina. And, if he ﷺ did do Hajj before migrating to Medina, – it is also unknown if it was before - or after receiving prophethood.

“…The Messenger of Allah ﷺ performed Hajj three times, twice before he emigrated, and once after he had emigrated to Al-Madinah…”

— Sunan Ibn Majah, 3076, Daif {150}

In short: it can be said with certainty that, Muhammad ﷺ performed Hajj, once, and Umrah on four occasions after he had migrated to Medina. But, he may also have performed Hajj a few times before he emigrated to Medina. Allah knows best.

17. Did Previous Prophets Visit Makkah

Yes. The Prophets of the Children of Israel also used to visit Makkah for Hajj, even though their Qiblah was Baitul-Maqdis.151

“…We were the Messenger of Allah ﷺ between Makkah and Al-Madinah, and we passed through a valley. He said: ‘What valley is this?’ They said: Azraq Valley.’ He said: ‘It is as if I can see Musa (s)…Then we travelled on until we came to a narrow pass, and he said: ‘What pass is this?’ They said: ‘Thaniyyat Harsha’ or ‘Laft.’ He said: ‘It is as if I can see Yoonus... passing through this valley, reciting the Talbiyah.”

— Sunan Ibn Majah, 2891, Sahih {152}

18. Controversy

During Muhammad ﷺ Hajj on the 2nd March 632 A.D 153 [4th Dhul-Hijjah 10 A.H],154 the pilgrims were shocked and confused to hear: Muhammad ﷺ had initiated Hajj-Tamattu. The aspect of Hajj-Tamattu that shocked and confused the Muslims was, exiting Ihram upon completing Umrah – as part of one’s hajj. The reason for the shock and confusion was because, prior to Hajj-Tamattu, – entering & exiting ihram during Hajj - was considered to be sacrilegious and an abomination.

“…The people [of the Pre-Islamic Period of Ignorance] used to think that to perform ‘Umra during the months of Hajj was one of the major sins on earth… In the morning of the 4th of Dhul-Hijjah, the Prophet ﷺ and his Companions reached Makkah, assuming Ihram for Hajj, and he ordered his Companions to make their intentions of the Ihram for ‘Umra only [instead of Hajj], so they considered his order as something great and were puzzled, and said, “O Allah’s Messenger! What kind [of finishing] of Ihram is allowed?” The Prophet ﷺ replied, “Finish the ihram completely like a non-Muhrim [you are allowed everything].”

- Sahih Bukhari, Hadith: 1564 155

Later, during Umar ﷺ, Uthman ﷺ and Muawiyah ﷺ tenure, Hajj-Tamattu was either forbidden 156 or strongly-discouraged by the State. Umar ﷺ either forbade or strongly-discouraged Hajj-Tamattu in his reign because: he considered it to be improper to have sexual intercourse – so close to hajj.157 Umar ﷺ preferred for people to do Hajj-Ifrad, thus forbade or strongly-discouraged both Hajj-Tamattu and Hajj-Qiran 158 because in his view, it is better to make intentions for Hajj and, stay in Ihram till the end [of Hajj]. Notwithstanding, he knew Muhammad ﷺ had allowed Hajj-Tamattu.

“…Umar said: “I know that the Messenger of Allah ﷺ and his Companions did it, but I did not like that people should lay with their wives in the shade of the Arak trees, and then go out for Hajj with their heads dripping.”

— Sunan An-Nasai, 2736, Sahih {159}

Uthman ﷺ forbade or strongly-discouraged Hajj-Tamattu in his tenure: because of administrative reasons.160 Notwithstanding, he too knew Muhammad ﷺ had allowed Hajj-Tamattu.

“…Ali and his Companions recited the Talbiyah for Umrah, and Uthman did not forbid them. ‘Ali said: ‘Have I not been told that you forbade Tamattu?’ He said: ‘Yes, I did.’ Ali said to him: ‘Did you not hear that the Messenger of Allah ﷺ did Tamattu? He said: ‘Of course.”

— Sunan An-Nasai, 2734, Sahih {161}

Muawiyah ﷺ reason(s) for forbidding or strongly-discouraging Hajj-Tamattu is unknown to me, but he nonetheless followed in the same vein as Umar ﷺ and Uthman ﷺ pertaining to this matter and forbade or strongly-discouraged Hajj-Tamattu. He also knew, Muhammad ﷺ had allowed Hajj-Tamattu.

“…Mu’awiyah said to Ibn Abbas: “Do you know that I cut the hair of the Messenger of Allah (s) at Al-Marwah?” He said: “No.” Ibn Abbas said: “This Mu’awiyah forbids the people to perform Tamattu but the Prophet (s) performed Tamattu’.”

— Sunan An-Nasai, 2738, Sahih {162}

Furthermore, other notable early Muslims believed: Hajj-Tamattu was only for the companions of Muhammed ﷺ and not for anybody else.

…Abu Dharr said: “Tamattu in Hajj was for the Companions of Muhammad ﷺ specifically”

— Sunan Ibn Majah, 2985, Sahih {163}

However, Ali ﷺ, Ibn Abbas ﷺ and others; did not agree with Umar ﷺ, Uthman ﷺ or Muawiyah ﷺ and others pertaining to the prohibition on Hajj-Tamattu. Therefore, some notable early Muslims continued to do Hajj-Tamattu despite it being forbidden or strongly-discouraged by the State.

…Uthman said: ‘Are you doing this when I have forbidden it?’ Ali said: ‘I will not give up the Sunnah of the Messenger of Allah ﷺ for any of the people.’

— Sunan An-Nasai, 2724, Sahih {164}

"… A man from Banu Al-Hujaim said to Ibn Abbas: ‘What are these religious rulings [Fatwa] with which you are confusing the people, saying that whoever circumnavigates the House may exit Ihram?’ He said: This is the Sunnah of your Prophet ﷺ whether you like it or not."’

— Sahih Muslim, [3018] 306 - (1244) {165}

In short: pertaining to the Hajj, a controversy erupted during the reign of Umar ﷺ, Uthman ﷺ and Muawiyah ﷺ - whereby they forbade or strongly discouraged Hajj-Tamattu. Other companions argued in support of Hajj-Tamattu on the grounds, that it was a practise which Muhammad ﷺ had sanctioned therefore could not be barred. The reasons for forbidding or strongly-discouraging Hajj-Tamattu was: preference, administrative reasoning or, some argued it was only applicable during Muhammad ﷺ hajj.

19. Avoid Conflict in Makkah

After the conquest of Makkah, Muhammad ﷺ forbade all further armed confrontation in the city. However, throughout history - this restriction has occasionally been ignored.

“…Makkah has been made sacred by Allah, not by the people. It is not permissible for any man who believes in Allah and the Last Day to shed blood in it, or to cut its trees. If anyone seeks permission to fight in it because the Messenger of Allah ﷺ fought in it, say to him: Allah allowed His Messenger [to fight therein] but He did not allow you…”

— Sunan An-Nasai, 2879, Sahih {166}

20. Pilgrims Are Guests Of God

Pilgrims are guests of God who have arrived by invitation from Allah ﷻ. It can also be said, pilgrims are responding to the call of Ibrahim ﷺ {See: 5.2 What Are The Origins Of The Talbiyah}.

“…The pilgrim performing Hajj and Umrah are a delegation to Allah. He invited them, so they responded to Him, and they ask Him and He gives to them”

— Sunan Ibn Majah, 2893, Hasan {167}

21. Pilgrimage Is Jihad For Women

Pilgrimage for women has been described as, jihad. Jihad, literally means ‘to strive’ or ‘to exert to the utmost’.168 Jihad for men is generally understood in the context of warfare; but for women, hajj is a form of jihad because: of the arduous journey [and living conditions] experienced in Makkah during hajj.

…O Messenger of Allah, is jihad obligatory for women? He said: “Yes: Upon them is a jihad in which there is no fighting: Al-Hajj and Al-Umrah.”

— Sunan Ibn Majah, 2901, Sahih {169}

22. Can Hajj Be Done on Somone Elses Behalf

Yes. The reason is because, Hajj is a duty one ‘owes’ to Allah ﷻ. And, this ‘debt’ can be paid off by anyone who is willing to pay.

…Pilgrimage thereto is a duty men owe to Allah, - those who can afford the journey…

— Quran: 3:97 [Abdullah Yusuf Ali] {170}

“…My father is an old man and cannot ride. May I perform Hajj on his behalf?” He said: “Yes, because if your father owed a debt, you would pay it off.”

— Sunan Ibn Majah, 2909, Sahih {171}

23. What If You Die During Hajj

If you are destined to die during hajj, it is a blessing because: you will be raised on the Day of Resurrection saying, Labbaik [See: 5. What Is The Talbiyah].

“…A man was at Arafat [for Hajj] … he fell down from his mount and broke his neck… Allah will resurrect him on the Day of Resurrection and he will be saying Labbaik.”

— Sahih Bukhari, 1266 {172}

24. Comparison Between The Pagan and Muslim Hajj

Below is a brief comparison between the Pagan and Muslim rituals of Hajj.

what-you-dont-know-about-hajj

25. Concluding Hajj

Hajj is to undertake a pilgrimage to Makkah. A pilgrimage that mankind owes to God. A pilgrimage in which pilgrims respond to a call that Ibrahim ﷺ made, a call that he made upon completing the Kabah. There are three types of Hajj, and a common theme within them all, is that they include Umrah. Umrah being a ritual in the month of Hajj that Muhammad ﷺ introduced. Hajj is to circumnavigate the Kabah and visit various landmarks in remembrance of Allah ﷻ and past events. The most important day in Hajj, is the Day of Arafat because: it is a day in which ‘God draws near’ and asks the angels ‘what do these people want?

During the month of Hajj, the city of Makkah is buzzing with pilgrims from across the world, all of whom dress in a similar cloth and chant a melodious hymn. Pilgrims circumnavigate the Kabah, a lost sanctuary initially built by angels for Prophet Adam ﷺ, – but later rediscovered by Ibrahim ﷺ approximately 4,000 years ago. Pilgrims hustle around a corner of the Kabah in which there is a black stone, a stone which absorbs the sin off of those that touch it, a stone that will come alive and ask Allah ﷻ to forgive the sins that it holds.

In close proximity to the Kabah there are two hills named Safa and Marwa. Pilgrims run and walk between these two hills, primarily in remembrance of Lady Hajar’s ﷺ panic. For she was left alone in the wilderness by Ibrahim ﷺ and ran between these hills (Safa & Marwa) - in search of help to quench baby Ishmael’s ﷺ thirst. Help eventually came by way of an angel that dug the Zamzam well and, the city of Makkah was reborn in Ibrahim ﷺ era. The discovery of the Zamzam well later attracted the Jurhum tribe who settled, so Makkah grew. Ibrahim ﷺ later returned to Makkah to rebuild the Kabah with Ishmael ﷺ and, attempted to sacrifice either Isaac ﷺ or Ishmael ﷺ because: that was God’s Devine decree and test of faith upon Ibrahim ﷺ and his family.

Hajj is to also visit Mina, Arafat and Muzdalifah to remind pilgrims of pivotal moments in human history. And, reflect upon our own lives and call upon God’s favour and mercy. Whilst, accepting ‘what is in His hands are all aspects of life - from the past to the present and beyond, - including the good and bad. And, He knows what is best for us and does not burden a soul with a grief or insecurity, except, what He knows we can handle. He gave us experiences to be happy, and moments of hardship to build character; all accumulating into thoughts and memories that are to be utilised as a catalyst towards His remembrance and, aid us in our journey towards Jannah. Ask Allah ﷻ for whatever you want at Arafat, but it is to best to offload and ask Him to do, whatever He thinks is best.

Lastly, Hajj is also fondly remembered for Muhammad ﷺ last sermon, - in which over 100,000 pilgrims gathered on the plains of Arafat - to participate with the Prophet ﷺ in his farewell pilgrimage. He ﷺ spoke of the importance of equality within mankind, and the importance of fairness and justice in the treatment of women. He ﷺ also spoke of other matters of importance pertaining to unity and remaining steadfast in religion. Previous Prophets too had done Hajj in Makkah, as did the Pagans; but Muhammad ﷺ showed Muslims a way of doing rituals in a manner that was somewhat similar to others yet unique in many aspects.

In short: Hajj is a pilgrimage to Makkah, in which a number of rituals are carried out in the space of six days. The rituals primarily involve visiting the various landmarks of Mina, Arafat, Muzdalifah and The Kabah. The most popular form of Hajj, is called Hajj-Tamattu which was newly introduced by Muhammad ﷺ [and later led to a controversy]. Hajj is to be in a serene state-of-mind and conscious of Allah ﷻ whist in the state of Ihram, in the ancient and holy city of Makkah. The most important day of Hajj, is Arafat because, it is a day in which ‘God draws near’ and asks the angels - ‘what do these people want? The day of Arafat is also the day in which Muhammad ﷺ delivered his famous sermon known as ‘his farewell speech’.

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End Notes

[1]An-Nasai p.416 Vol. 3

[2]Hajj & Umrah Made Easy p.23-35

[3]The Study Quran p.86

[4]English Translation Of Sahih Muslim p.466 Vol.7

[5]Hajj & Umrah Made Easy p.6

[6]English Translation Of Sahih Muslim p.466 Vol.7

[7]The Holy Quran - English translation of the Meanings and Commentary p.169

[8]Ar-Raheequl Makhtum - The Sealed Nectar - Biography of the Noble Prophet p.461

[9]IslamiCity: Hijri-Gregorian Converter

[10]English Translation of Sunan An-Nasai p.463 Vol. 3

[11]Ar-Raheequl Makhtum - The Sealed Nectar - Biography of the Noble Prophet p.462

[12]The Translation Of The Meanings Of Sahih Al-Bukhari Arabic-English p.96, Vol. 9

[13]Ar-Raheequl Makhtum - The Sealed Nectar - Biography of the Noble Prophet p.462

[14]IslamiCity: Hijri-Gregorian Converter

[15]Hajj & Umrah Made Easy p.14-21

[16]The Holy Quran - English translation of the Meanings and Commentary p.82

[17]The Study Quran p.85

[18]The Translation Of The Meanings Of Sahih Al-Bukhari Arabic-English p.21, Vol. 3

[19]English Translation Of Sahih Muslim p.497 vol.7.

[20]Ibid., p.473 vol.7.

[21]Ibid.,

[22]Ibid., p.533 vol.7.

[23]The Translation Of The Meanings Of Sahih Al-Bukhari Arabic-English p.359, Vol. 2

[24]English Translation Of Sahih Muslim p.533 vol.7.

[25]English Translation of Sunan Abu Dawud p.382, Vol. 2

[26]Tahir-ul-Qadri, Mawlid Al-Nabi Celebration And Permissibility p.36

[27]Tafsir Ibn Kathir (Abridged) p.556, Vol. 6

[28]The Study Quran p.836

[29]Hajj & Umrah Made Easy p.14-15

[30]English Translation of Jami At-Tirmidhi p.357 Vol.2

[31]English Translation Of Sahih Muslim p.516 vol.7.

[32]Ar-Raheequl Makhtum - The Sealed Nectar - Biography of the Noble Prophet p.342

[33]IslamiCity: Hijri-Gregorian Converter

[34]English Translation Of Sahih Muslim p.404 Vol.3

[35]English Translation Of Sunan Ibn Majah p.152-153, Vol.4

[36]Ibid.,

[37]English Translation Of Sahih Muslim p.403 Vol.3

[38]English Translation of Sunan Abu Dawud p.417, Vol. 2

[39]Ibid., p410. Vol.2

[40]English Translation of Jami At-Tirmidhi p.290 Vol.2

[41]Ibid., p358. Vol.2

[42]English Translation Of Sahih Muslim p.408 Vol.3

[43]History of Makkah p.67

[44]English Translation of Jami At-Tirmidhi p.589 Vol.6

[45]History of Makkah p.29

[46]English Translation of Jami At-Tirmidhi p.589 Vol.6

[47]History of Makkah p.35

[48]Mawlid Al-Nabi Celebration And Permissibility p.40-41

[49]BBC News

[50]English Translation Of Sahih Muslim p.56 vol.3.

[51]English Translation of Jami At-Tirmidhi p.589 Vol.6

[52]History of Makkah p.31

[53]altafsir.com

[54]The Translation Of The Meanings Of Sahih Al-Bukhari Arabic-English p.351 - 356, Vol. 4

[55]English Translation of Jami At-Tirmidhi p.290 Vol.2

[56]English Translation of Sunan Abu Dawud p.489, Vol. 2

[57]History of Makkah p.33

[58]Ibid.,

[59]English Translation of Sunan Abu Dawud p.489, Vol. 2

[60]English Translation of Jami At-Tirmidhi p.289-290 Vol.2

[61]Ibid., p.600. Vol.6

[62]Ibid.,

[63]The Translation Of The Meanings Of Sahih Al-Bukhari Arabic-English p.356, Vol. 4

[64]History of Makkah p.60) op. cit., note 43, p. 272

[65]altafsir.com

[66]English Translation of Jami At-Tirmidhi p.625 Vol.6

[67]The Study Quran p.68

[68]English Translation of Jami At-Tirmidhi p.281 Vol.2

[69]Ibid.,

[70]English Translation of Sunan An-Nasai p.592 Vol. 3

[71]English Translation of Jami At-Tirmidhi p.650 Vol.6

[72]History of Makkah p.73

[73]Ibid.,

[74]Mawlid Al-Nabi Celebration And Permissibility p.55

[75]English Translation of Jami At-Tirmidhi p.603 Vol.6

[76]Ibid., p.586 vol.6.

[77]The Study Quran p.1094

[78]History of Makkah p.119

[79]The Study Quran p.1094

[80]Illuminating Discourses on the Noble Quran (Tafsir Anwarul Bayan) p355, Vol. 4

[81]The Study Quran p.1094

[82]Dukes

[83]The Study Quran p.1094

[84]Dukes

[85]The Study Quran p.1094

[86]biblegateway.com

[87]The Holy Quran - English translation of the Meanings and Commentary p.1357

[88]The Study Quran p.1094

[89]The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica

[90]biblegateway.com

[91]English Translation of Sunan Abu Dawud p490, Vol. 2

[92]Ibid.,

[93]The Study Quran p.1094

[94]English Translation of Jami At-Tirmidhi p.548 Vol.6

[95]Tahir-ul-Qadri, Mawlid Al-Nabi Celebration And Permissibility p.56

[96]Ibid.,

[97]Ibid.,

[98]Ibid., p.40-41

[99]Ibid., p.56

[100]Tafsir Ibn Kathir (Abridged) p562, Vol.1

[101]English Translation of Jami At-Tirmidhi p.297 Vol.5

[102]English Translation Of Sahih Muslim p.499 Vol.3

[103]The Translation Of The Meanings Of Sahih Al-Bukhari Arabic-English p301, Vol. 9

[104]English Translation of Jami At-Tirmidhi p.548 Vol.6

[105]Ibid., p.516, Vol.6

[106]Ibid., p.612, Vol.6

[107]Mawlid Al-Nabi Celebration And Permissibility p.57

[108]Ar-Raheequl Makhtum - The Sealed Nectar - Biography of the Noble Prophet p.463

[109]The History of al-Tabari - Volume 9 - The Last Years of the Prophet p.112

[110]The Life of Muhammad A Translation of Ishaq's Sirat Rasul Allah p.651

[111]The History of al-Tabari - Volume 9 - The Last Years of the Prophet p.112

[112]The Life of Muhammad A Translation of Ishaq's Sirat Rasul Allah p.651

[113]The History of al-Tabari - Volume 9 - The Last Years of the Prophet p.112

[114]The Life of Muhammad A Translation of Ishaq's Sirat Rasul Allah p.651

[115]Tafsir Ibn Kathir (Abridged) p.446, Vol. 2

[116]The Life of Muhammad A Translation of Ishaq's Sirat Rasul Allah p.651

[117]The History of al-Tabari - Volume 9 - The Last Years of the Prophet p.113)

[118]The Life of Muhammad A Translation of Ishaq's Sirat Rasul Allah p.651)

[119]The History of al-Tabari - Volume 9 - The Last Years of the Prophet p.113

[120]The Life of Muhammad A Translation of Ishaq's Sirat Rasul Allah p.651

[121]The History of al-Tabari - Volume 9 - The Last Years of the Prophet p.113

[122]The Life of Muhammad A Translation of Ishaq's Sirat Rasul Allah p.651

[123]Tafsir Ibn Kathir (Abridged) p.412, Vol. 2

[124]The History of al-Tabari - Volume 9 - The Last Years of the Prophet p.113

[125]Tafsir Ibn Kathir (Abridged) p.497, Vol. 2

[126]English Translation of Sunan An-Nasai p.93 Vol. 5

[127]Ar-Raheequl Makhtum - The Sealed Nectar - Biography of the Noble Prophet p.464

[128]English Translation of Jami At-Tirmidhi p.74 Vol.2

[129]Ar-Raheequl Makhtum - The Sealed Nectar - Biography of the Noble Prophet p.464

[130]English Translation of Jami At-Tirmidhi p.74 Vol.2

[131]The History of al-Tabari - Volume 9 - The Last Years of the Prophet p.113

[132]Tafsir Ibn Kathir (Abridged) p.228, Vol. 3

[133]The History of al-Tabari - Volume 9 - The Last Years of the Prophet p.113

[134]Is the Arab Muslim better than the non-Arab Muslim?

[135]The Translation Of The Meanings Of Sahih Al-Bukhari Arabic-English p.95, Vol. 1

[136]The History of al-Tabari - Volume 9 - The Last Years of the Prophet p.113

[137]English Translation of Musnad Imam Ahmed Bin Hanbal p.363 Vol. 2

[138]English Translation Of Sunan Ibn Majah p.181, Vol.4

[139]IslamiCity: Hijri-Gregorian Converter

[140]English Translation Of Sunan Ibn Majah p.181, Vol.4

[141]IslamiCity: Hijri-Gregorian Converter

[142]English Translation Of Sunan Ibn Majah p.181, Vol.4

[143]IslamiCity: Hijri-Gregorian Converter

[144]The History of al-Tabari - Volume 9 - The Last Years of the Prophet p.115

[145]English Translation of Jami At-Tirmidhi p.244 Vol.2

[146]IslamiCity: Hijri-Gregorian Converter

[147]English Translation Of Sunan Ibn Majah p.181, Vol.4

[148]English Translation of Jami At-Tirmidhi p.244 Vol.2

[149]Ar-Raheequl Makhtum - The Sealed Nectar - Biography of the Noble Prophet p.169

[150]English Translation Of Sunan Ibn Majah p.230, Vol.4

[151]Ibid., p.121, Vol.4

[152]Ibid., p.120-121, Vol.4

[153]Ar-Raheequl Makhtum - The Sealed Nectar - Biography of the Noble Prophet p.462

[154]IslamiCity: Hijri-Gregorian Converter

[155]The Translation Of The Meanings Of Sahih Al-Bukhari Arabic-English p.368-369, Vol. 2

[156]English Translation of Sunan An-Nasai p.474 Vol. 3

[157]Ibid., p.507, Vol.3

[158]English Translation of Jami At-Tirmidhi p.248 Vol.2

[159]English Translation of Sunan An-Nasai p.473 Vol. 3

[160]Ibid., p.466, Vol.3

[161]Ibid., p.472, Vol.3

[162]Ibid., p.474, Vol.3

[163]English Translation Of Sunan Ibn Majah p.172, Vol.4

[164]English Translation of Sunan An-Nasai p.466 Vol. 3

[165]English Translation Of Sahih Muslim p.387 Vol.3

[166]English Translation of Sunan An-Nasai p.540 Vol. 3

[167]English Translation Of Sunan Ibn Majah p.121-122, Vol.4

[168]English Translation of Jami At-Tirmidhi p.587 Vol.6

[169]English Translation Of Sunan Ibn Majah p.126, Vol.4

[170]The Holy Quran - English translation of the Meanings and Commentary p.169

[171]English Translation Of Sunan Ibn Majah p.130, Vol.4

[172]The Translation Of The Meanings Of Sahih Al-Bukhari Arabic-English p.209, Vol. 2

[173]English Translation of Sunan Abu Dawud p.365, Vol. 2

[174]English Translation Of Sahih Muslim p.277 Vol.3

[175]Ibid., p.533, Vol.7

[176]Ibid., p.354, Vol.3

[177]Ibid., p.411, Vol.3

[178]Ibid., p.413, Vol.3

[179]English Translation of Jami At-Tirmidhi p.295-296 Vol.2

[180]English Translation Of Sunan Ibn Majah p.192-193, Vol.4

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