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The Purpose of the Wilderness Tabernacle: The Altar of Incense

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Tamarajo is an avid Bible scholar who loves nothing more than seeking out the treasures in God's Word and sharing them with others.


God's Desire to Dwell With His People

On Mount Sinai, Moses received more than just the Ten Commandments. Also included were the detailed instructions for building a meeting place for God and His people. The Tabernacle was a temple of worship that involved specific protocols and procedures. These protocols purposely provided a possible means for God's people to dwell with Him per God's request.

Let them make Me a sanctuary, that I may dwell among them.

— Exodus 25:8

From the fall in Genesis up until the Tabernacle construction, the Bible records people occasionally walking and talking with God but not dwelling with Him. As we shall see, within the framework of this Old Testament sanctuary, God draws His people closer to Himself through an intricate sacrificial system. Today, this arrangement can speak volumes about the specifics of such a great salvation and indescribable gift.

. . . how shall we escape if we neglect so great a salvation . . . ?

— Hebrews 2:3

Every detail that Christ accomplished to restore our relationship with God finds its discovery in the particulars of the wilderness tabernacle.

This article will cover the lessons of the Altar of Incense.


The Altar of Insense—a Meeting Place

The following portion of Scripture records the instructions for the Incense Altar and concludes with the mission statement of the entire Tabernacle's purpose, namely to meet with God.

. . . a cubit shall be its length and a cubit its width—it shall be square—and two cubits shall be its height. Its horns shall be of one piece with it. And you shall overlay its top, its sides all around, and its horns with pure gold; and you shall make for it a molding of gold all around. Two gold rings you shall make for it, under the molding on both its sides. You shall place them on its two sides, and they will be holders for the poles with which to bear it. You shall make the poles of acacia wood, and overlay them with gold. And you shall put it before the veil that is before the ark of the Testimony, before the mercy seat that is over the Testimony, where I will meet with you.

— Exodus 30:1-6

The phrase "I will meet with you," underlined in the portion of Scripture above, is mentioned three times in connection with the Tabernacle construction and arrangement. The first two appearances of this phrase are related to the Altar of Incense, with its second mention occurring with the instructions for the Holy fragrance that was burned upon this altar.

And the Lord said to Moses: “Take sweet spices, stacte and onycha and galbanum, and pure frankincense with these sweet spices; there shall be equal amounts of each. You shall make of these an incense, a compound according to the art of the perfumer, salted, pure, and holy. And you shall beat some of it very fine, and put some of it before the Testimony in the tabernacle of meeting where I will meet with you

— Exodus 30:34-36

The prescription of spices appears to be designed to affect both memory and emotional experience. Both memory and emotion directly link with the reward center of our brains. The aroma of the presence of God was designed to connect us with Him at this meeting place.

This particular altar was significantly positioned in front of the Holy of Holies, where the Ark resided. The third mention of "I will meet with you" strongly links us with these furnishings' functions and purposes.

You shall put the mercy seat on top of the ark, and in the ark, you shall put the Testimony that I will give you. And there I will meet with you . . .

— Exodus 25:21


Incense and Prayer

The Ark of the Covenant, directly in front of the Altar of Incense, was connected with God speaking to us.

I will speak with you from above the mercy seat, from between the two cherubim which are on the ark of the Testimony, about everything which I will give you in commandment to the children of Israel.

— Exodus 25:22

The Incense Altar represents us speaking to Him. The smoke that arose from the burning incense on the altar illustrates our prayers ascending before Him as the Psalmist well noted.

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Let my prayer be set before You as incense.

— Psalm 141:2

The book of Revelation links both the Incense Altar and the Ark of the Covenant represented by God's throne in the following verse.

Then another angel, having a golden censer, came and stood at the altar. He was given much incense, that he should offer it with the prayers of all the saints upon the golden altar which was before the throne And the smoke of the incense, with the prayers of the saints, ascended before God from the angel’s hand.

— Revelation 8:3-4

A New Testament scene from the Gospel of Luke illustrates the connection between prayer, incense, and God's hearing of our prayers. In the following account, Zechariah, the priest, attended the incense altar in the temple while the people prayed. At this time, he was visited by a messenger from God during his service, reassuring him that God had indeed heard his prayers.

So it was, that while he was serving as priest before God in the order of his division, according to the custom of the priesthood, to burn incense when he went into the temple of the Lord. And the whole multitude of the people was praying outside at the hour of incense. Then an angel of the Lord appeared to him, standing on the right side of the altar of incense. And when Zacharias saw he was troubled, and fear fell upon him. But the angel said to him, “Do not be afraid, Zacharias, for your prayer is heard.

— Luke 1:2-18


The Intercession of Christ Jesus Our Heavenly High Priest

This altar, like the Ark where God's presence dwelt, and the Table of the Bread of Presence associated with communion, was made of Acacia wood and overlaid with gold. All three of these stations were tied to concepts of intimate fellowship with God. This fellowship of heaven and earth, which had not been previously possible since the Garden, required God to become a man.

For such a chief priest did become us—kind, harmless, undefiled, separate from the sinners, and become higher than the heavens.

— Hebrews 7:26 (YLT)

The Acacia wood speaks of Christ's incorruptible humanity. The gold represents His Heavenly origin. The Altar of Incense shows us our great High Priest from heaven, who intercedes for us in prayer with a total understanding of our plea based on His experience of being one of us. The altar's location at the heart of this entire structure is in keeping with this thought.

Seeing then that we have a great High Priest who has passed through the heavens, Jesus the Son of God,let us hold fast our confession.For we do not have a High Priest who cannot sympathize with our weaknesses but was in all points tempted as we are,yet without sin. Let us, therefore, come boldly to the throne of grace, that we may obtain mercy and find grace to help in time of need

— Hebrews 4:14-16

All three furnishings: Ark, Table, and Altar of Incense, had a crown suggestive of Christ's kingship.

Grace to you and peace from Him who was and who is to come, and from the seven Spirits who are before His throne, and from Jesus Christ, the faithful witness, the firstborn from the dead, and the ruler over the kings of the earth

— Revelation 1:4-5


High Priest, King, and Most High God

The Altar of incense was the tallest piece of furniture in the Tabernacle, measuring two cubits high. This measurement speaks of a higher-order eternal priesthood that would come in Christ. The writer of Hebrews explains this and includes the role of intercession, which was one of the High Priestly duties that were executed at this altar. Notice as well that the offices of King and Priest, once again, are combined in this explanation.

For this Melchizedek, king of Salem, priest of the Most High God, who met Abraham returning from the slaughter of the kings and blessed him, to whom also Abraham gave a tenth part of all, first being translated “king of righteousness,” and then also king of Salem, meaning “king of peace,” without father, without mother, without genealogy, having neither beginning of days nor end of life, but made like the Son of God, remains a priest continually . . .

. . . in the likeness of Melchizedek, there arises another priest who has come, not according to the law of a fleshly commandment, but according to the power of an endless life . . .

. . . ‘You are a priest forever
According to the order of Melchizedek’ ”,

by so much more Jesus has become a surety of a better covenant.

Also there were many priests, because they were prevented by death from continuing. But He, because He continues forever, has an unchangeable priesthood. Therefore He is also able to save to the uttermost those who come to God through Him, since He always lives to make intercession for them.

For such a High Priest was fitting for us, who is holy, harmless, undefiled, separate from sinners, and has become higher than the heavens;

— Hebrews 7:1-26

The narrative of Abraham's encounter with Melchizedek uses the same language in terms of height and the connection between heaven and earth. The relationship between the Table of the Bread of Presence, depicting communion with Christ, and the Altar of Incense is evident.

Then Melchizedek king of Salem brought out bread and wine; he was the priest of God Most High. And he blessed him and said:

“Blessed be Abram of God Most High,
Possessor of heaven and earth;
And blessed be God Most High,
Who has delivered your enemies into your hand.”

And he gave him a tithe of all.

Now the king of Sodom said to Abram, “Give me the persons, and take the goods for yourself.”

But Abram said to the king of Sodom, “I have raised my hand to the Lord, God Most High, the Possessor of heaven and earth, that I will take nothing, from a thread to a sandal strap, and that I will not take anything that is yours, lest you should say, ‘I have made Abram rich’—

— Genesis 14:18-23


The Dimensions

The Altar of Incense had four horns. In Scripture, horns were symbols of power. When Jesus taught His disciples to pray, this idea was included at the end of "The Lord's Prayer."

Our Father in heaven,
Hallowed be Your name.
Your kingdom come.
Your will be done
On earth as it is in heaven.
Give us this day our daily bread.
And forgive us our debts,
As we forgive our debtors.
And do not lead us into temptation,
But deliver us from the evil one.
For Yours is the kingdom and the power and the glory forever. Amen.

— Matthew 6:9-13

The number four in the Bible categorizes the things of the earth. As it concerns this piece of furniture, it points to the universal (four corners of the earth North, South, East, and West), the scope of God's plan. Since Christ ever lives to make intercession to save, we too are called to intercede for all.

Therefore I exhort first of all that supplications, prayers, intercessions, and giving of thanks be made for all men, for kings and all who are in authority, that we may lead a quiet and peaceable life in all godliness and reverence. For this is good and acceptable in the sight of God our Savior, who desires all men to be saved and to come to the knowledge of the truth...I desire therefore that the men pray everywhere, lifting up holy hands, without wrath and doubting.

— I Timothy 2:1-5

The Incense altar was one cubit long and one cubit wide. "One" indicates the one and only true God. Paul continues with the application in connection with Christ as intercessor in his letter to Timothy.

For there is one God and one Mediator between God and men, the Man Christ Jesus, who gave Himself a ransom for all.

— I Timothy 2:6


The Fire on the Altar

The fire on this altar, which also had four horns, came from the coals of the Sacrificial Altar. The origin of this fire is rooted in God's acceptance of the sacrifice that He required.

Then Aaron lifted his hand toward the people, blessed them, and came down from offering the sin offering, the burnt offering, and peace offerings. And Moses and Aaron went into the tabernacle of meeting, and came out and blessed the people. Then the glory of the Lord appeared to all the people, and fire came out from before the Lord and consumed the burnt offering and the fat on the altar. When all the people saw it, they shouted and fell on their faces.

— Leviticus 9:22-24

"Strange fire" was not permitted. Nadab and Abihu were the first to experience the consequence of doing so. The narrative surrounding this event can be found in Leviticus chapter nine.

Kevin J. Connor, in his book The Tabernacle of Moses, explains what this means.

"God only accepts that Fire which originates with Himself on the basis of the blood atonement. "

The fire was then kept continually; it was never to go out.

And the fire on the altar shall be kept burning on it; it shall not be put out. And the priest shall burn wood on it every morning, and lay the burnt offering in order on it; and he shall burn on it the fat of the peace offerings. A fire shall always be burning on the altar; it shall never go out.

— Leviticus 6:12-13

So it was with the Altar of Incense.

“Aaron shall burn on it sweet incense every morning; when he tends the lamps, he shall burn incense on it. And when Aaron lights the lamps at twilight, he shall burn incense on it, a perpetual incense before the Lord throughout your generations.

— Exodus 30:7-8

The Lord Jesus illustrates for us the application as it applies prayer and intercession with His prayers in both morning and evening.

Now in the morning, having risen a long while before daylight, He went out and departed to a solitary place; and there He prayed.

— Mark 1:35

He went up on the mountain by Himself to pray. Now when evening came, He was alone there.

— Matthew 14:23

The Psalmist, too, exhibits the pattern of continuity of prayer.

Evening and morning and at noon
I will pray, and cry aloud,
And He shall hear my voice.

— Psalm 55

Daniel also observes this pattern.

Now when Daniel knew that the writing was signed, he went home. And in his upper room, with his windows open toward Jerusalem, he knelt down on his knees three times that day, and prayed and gave thanks before his God, as was his custom since early days.

— Daniel 6:10

And finally, Paul addresses the Thessalonians with a similar understanding.

Rejoice always, pray without ceasing, in everything give thanks; for this is the will of God in Christ Jesus for you.

— I Thessalonians 5:16-18

This particular altar did not burn anything but the prescription of incense that God required. All of which spoke of Christ's sufferings on our behalf.

Once a year, on the day of atonement, the priest took the shed blood from the Sacrificial altar and sprinkled seven times on the Altar of Incense and applied it to its horns. Horns were symbols of power.

Kevin J Connor, once again, gives us the application.

"Christ's blood the sin offering was the foundation of all intercession only His blood gives power to the incense of prayer."

Henry W. Soltau also writes:

"This incessant service of intercession is the result of and is grounded upon, the shedding of His blood. It is the perpetuating the voice of that precious blood in God's presence, and it shelters those who have been atoned for by that blood under the full fragrance of Him that shed it."


Before the Throne of God

As King David described in the following verse, the throne of God and the Ark are the same.

Then King David rose to his feet and said, “Hear me, my brethren and my people: I had it in my heart to build a house of rest for the ark of the covenant of the Lord, and for the footstool of our God . . .

— I Chronicles 28:2

In his book The Tabernacle, the Priesthood and the Offerings, Henry W. Soltau observes no chairs or places to sit in the Tabernacle. Yet, Christ is seated in the Heavenly Tabernacle. This is related to His completed work and is given four mentions in the book of Hebrews.

His Son, whom He has appointed heir of all things, through whom also He made the worlds; who being the brightness of His glory and the express image of His person, and upholding all things by the word of His power, when He had by Himself purged our sins, sat down at the right hand of the Majesty on high.

— Hebrews 1:3

Now this is the main point of the things we are saying: We have such a High Priest, who is seated at the right hand of the throne of the Majesty in the heavens

— Hebrews 8:1

And every priest stands ministering daily and offering repeatedly the same sacrifices, which can never take away sins. But this Man, after He had offered one sacrifice for sins forever, sat down at the right hand of God, from that time waiting till His enemies are made His footstool. For by one offering He has perfected forever those who are being sanctified.

— Hebrews 10:11-13

Therefore we also, since we are surrounded by so great a cloud of witnesses, let us lay aside every weight, and the sin which so easily ensnares us, and let us run with endurance the race that is set before us, looking unto Jesus, the author and finisher of our faith, who for the joy that was set before Him endured the cross, despising the shame, and has sat down at the right hand of the throne of God.

— Hebrews 12:1-2

Soltau eloquently concludes this study with the following quote.

". . . other priests had to stand daily and yearly. No seat was provided for them . . . for their work was never finished. Sins were never put away. The worshipers were never purged . . . But our High Priest has sat down on the right hand of God for atonement has been made to God. God's will has been accomplished. God's holiness has been forever satisfied. God's indignation against sin has been forever appeased . . . Thus the fact that Christ is seated at the right hand of God is the sure ground of peace to the soul of the believer."

Credits and Sources

"The Holy Vessels and Furniture of the Tabernacle" by Henry Soltau Published by Kregel Publications in 1971. Originally published in 1851 by Yapp and Hawkins, London, England.

"The Tabernacle: God's Portrait of Christ by J. Vernon McGee. Published by Van Kampen Press in Wheaton Illinois.

"The Tabernacle of Moses" by Kevin J. Connor. Published by City Christian Publishing in Portland Oregon. Copyright 1976

"The Tabernacle" by M.R. Dehaan, M.D. Published by Zondervan Publishing House. Copyright 1995

"Portraits of Christ in the Tabernacle" by Theodore H. Epp. Published by The Good News Broadcasting Association. Copyright 1976

"Seeing Christ in the Tabernacle by Ervin N. Hershberger. Published by Vision Publishers. Copyright 2007

"Spiritual Application of the Tabernacle" by Witness Lee. Published by Living Streams Ministries. Copyright 1987

"Temple Treasures" by Steven Fuson. Published by Bridge-Logos. Copyright 2010

"The Tabernacle: Shadows of the Messiah by David Levy. Published by The Friends of Israel Gospel Ministry Inc. Copyright 1993

The Tabernacle: Its Priests and Its Services by Willia Brown. Published by Hendrickson Publishers. Copyright 1996. Originally published in 1899 by Oliphant, Anderson, & Ferrier, Edinburgh, and London.


Tamarajo (author) on December 26, 2018:

Hi Bill,

It does sincerely amaze me how much application there is in every detail of God's Word.

I would love to have this in a book form even for my own reference. I am learning from the studying and writing myself and need to refer back to some of the material frequently. I don't know a thing about how to do that. Also, the online format allows me to edit as needed as well as add further information as it comes along.

I thank you much for your opinion. It is well respected!

God bless


William Kovacic from Pleasant Gap, PA on December 26, 2018:

I was just mentioning the altar of incense to the people Sunday morning. More good stuff, Tammy. I may have mentioned this before, but I think you ought to put this in book form. there's a lot of good information here that would make a nice collection - just my opinion.

Christian Writings on December 18, 2018:

I agree! There is just so much that we are not aware of, and it goes so deep! But thank you for laying it out so well, so that its easy to understand!



Tamarajo (author) on December 18, 2018:


The layers of His Word and Revelations are so infinite that I feel like I've barely scratched the surface on these studies.

I'm amazed how well educated the 1800's scholars were on these topics. I discovered much of the contents of these articles from sources from this time period.

I hope the other lessons will be useful.

God bless


Christian Writings on December 18, 2018:

I am very much looking forward to reading the rest of the series which you have laid out so comprehensively!

Tamarajo (author) on December 18, 2018:

Thank you CW. I'm glad you that you found this study interesting. I appreciate your stopping by and your comment.

God bless


Christian Writings on December 17, 2018:

Very interesting article on the altar of incense. I especially loved this sentence "But He, because He continues forever, has an unchangeable priesthood. Therefore He is also able to save to the uttermost those who come to God through Him, since He always lives to make intercession for them."



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