Khilafat Movement (1919-1922)
During the First World War, turkey joined the war in favor of Germany. But when Germany and turkey lost the war, British started the Treaty of Versailles between the Allied Forces in which they decided to crack the Germany. When Germany was broken into Germany and Austria, Muslims worried that if the British break the Germany they will also shatter Turkey into pieces. Because Ottoman Empire contains the Holy Places e.g Mecca, Jerusalem and Medina, and the Sultan of Turkey was the head of all Muslims of the world Muslims were very worried. Indian Muslims were outraged and rose against the British government, Muslims started Khilafat movement in order to protect Sultan and their religion.
In November 1919, a conference was called in Dehli, which was headed by Muslims leaders like Moulana Abul Kalam Azad was senior and, Moulana Muhammad Ali Johar and Moulana Shoukat Ali were leading the delegation, containing aim to try to persuade the British to keep their promises about maintaining the Turkish Empire. The conference was passed a resolution agreeing to send a delegation to Britain to make sure that British were aware of strength of Muslims support for the Khalifa.
In December 1919, another conference was called but this time in Amritsar. At the same time congress and league were meeting. It was agreed that all three organizations will work together for the rights of Muslims. And it was also agreed that Ghandhi will take the lead in trying to persuade the British. At that time Maulana Muhammad Ali was returned from British from the delegation went to British in first conference, in which he listed the arguments and wish to give justice to Turkey. Lloyd George Prime Minister of British at that time said, ”Germany has had justice, Austria has had justice, pretty terrible justice, why should Turkey escape”. Delegation went back unsuccessful.
After unsuccess from the delegation went to British, Ghandhi gave the idea of non-cooperation movement in which the Muslims will not co-operate with British and:
- Give up the tittle,
- Stop sending their children to government schools, colleges and universities,
- Teachers stop teaching,
- Resigning from seats from local body,
- Boycotting British courts,
- Refusing to stand in election,
- Boycotting foreign goods,
- Refusing to stand for election.
Hundreds of thousands of people give up their tittle and sending their children to school. The vaccum created in government jobs and these jobs were filed with Hindus in some days. While Muslims left their all government jobs for the sake of Khilafat cause.
In January 1921, thousands of students left schools, teachers left teaching. The movement became so strong that British oblige to pay attention. Prime Minister invite the leader of movement Seth Jan Muhammad Chutan to discuss the problem. He moved with the delegation to British and return unsuccessful.
The Khilafat Movement ends with thousands of people behind the bar. However, many Muslims were not opposing the British in Khilafat movement but only for the cause of Khalifa. It was about protecting and fostering Islam. When it was at its strongest position, when western dress and hairstyles become less popular and the idea grew, particularly in NWFP and Sindh, that disregard of the law of Islam by British made India Dar-ul-hab (enemy territory). In August 1920, 18,000 Muslims left India to Afghanistan. When Afghanistan rejected them to enter in their county so they return back to India all the Land that they sold before were now selling at doubled price. The jobs on which they were working on was not now available for them.
The 8 July 3, 2018 1921, the All India Khilafat met its third and last time. It passed a series of resolutions, which so offended the British that the Khilafat leaders were arrested. The British schools serve in the police or army or after any form of cooperation to the British. As a result to their “sedition”, both the Ali brothers were imprisoned.
At Tirur, some 10,000 Moplahs set the police station on fire and took arms and ammunition. The British had to send troops in to end the uprising and 4000 Moplahs were killed. Perhaps the most famous incident occurs in Chauri-Chaura, 21 policeman were killed after they fired the political procession.
After this he decided that India was not yet ready for a mass campaign and he called off the movement. This was the biggest problem created by Ghandhi, and after he calls off the Muslims become know about the Hindus that they never were Muslim’s friends. They done that because of Hindus were interested in self-government and they were using Muslims to get rid of British from India.
The Khilafat movement was came to an end when Sultan of Turkey was deposed by Kemal Attaturk. After Hindus betrayed Muslims, they came to realize that the ‘two nation theory’ by Sir Syed Ahmed Khan was right. This was the enormous movement from which Muslims see the real face of Hindus.