"Jerry retired Trucker- Author- Ph.D. in Philosophy/ Life Coach from Kingdom Ambassadors Global Univ. & Currently MHC Life University"
The Coming Battle
Beloved, we are living in the age when the five fold ministry is not well accepted in today’s church and this is mainly because of the way the offices have been abused by those that are self seekers trying to operate in the gifts and have not fully matured in the way the gifts operate.
"And my speech and my preaching was not with enticing words of man’s wisdom, but in demonstration of the Spirit and of Power; That your faith should not stand in the wisdom of men but in the Power of God."
Dear saints, those that receive their recognition from men will end up in witchcraft (literally) and we can find in Galatians 5:20 that (witchcraft) is listed as one of the works of the flesh.
Beloved, whatever is gained through self centered ambition will need to be upheld by self and those that have been called of the Lord to help build his kingdom will be tried to the very faith they stand on.
Beloved, if the church is going to accomplish her last day assignment that is going to usher in the return of our Lord, the prophetic ministry must be in place which is made up of specially called and anointed warriors of God that are accurate and trustworthy in the roles they are assigned in the fivefold ministry.
Beloved saints, did you know that people in foreign lands are very disappointed in men and women who are not people of integrity.
Beloved, they will follow the God in you but you better not waver for they do not trust the ways of man.
Dear saints, as we draw near to the end of this age, we are going to need spiritual guidance from above especially with all the havoc in the world such as wars, unrest and natural catastrophes.
The Five-Fold Ministry Explained
Dear saints, I have noticed today that the true prophetic ministries and gifts of the Spirit are being restored to the church which fulfills the prophecy of Joel that is later preached by the Apostle Peter on the day of Pentecost which can be found in the book of Acts 2:17-18.
Beloved, this prophecy clearly speaks volumes concerning how the Living God in the last days will visit and pour out his Spirit upon all flesh causing our sons and daughters to prophesy as our old (mature) men having visions from the Lord.
Dear saints, we know and accept that God’s word is truth but without the Spirit, it is only the logos word or as the word say’s the letter killeth but the Spirit giveth life.
Dearly beloved, when the Spirit quickens the word to you, then it becomes rehema which means a living thing which produces faith.
Listen dear reader, I am talking about hearing a word behind the word, that voice that I like to sometimes refer to in my messages as "the whisper of God."
Beloved, Paul recognized that for his preaching to be effective, his message must be demonstrated by supernatural power rather than just words alone which I love to refer to as the breath of God's Spirit.
Saints, God will always show up verifying the truth and he sometimes will do this by performing miracles which he did through the ministry of Jesus and Paul to confirm his message to the people.
Beloved, to make the statement as some do today that the five-fold and prophetic ministry no longer exists as they preach that after the resurrection of Jesus that it had been done away with, ignorantly declare that the church has come to its complete fullness and has achieved a perfect state of maturity which is farther from the truth which can be proven through what we witness everyday, especially with the divorce rate and moral decay in our world increasing instead of declining.
Saints, for church leaders to preach that God gave the fivefold ministry for that day and there is no need for today is almost blasphemy because unknowingly, they are saying that God who is immutable, changes not and cannot lie has given an imperfect gift but what can you expect from leaders teaching others about Christ who do not believe in the virgin birth as they make an attempt to preach a gospel that requires no sacrifice for a repentant sinner including one that allows the flesh to stay alive.
Beloved saints, the church has not come to place of a complete maturity and has not achieved the measure of the stature which corresponds to the fullness of Christ therefore we need the fivefold ministry today more than ever.
Saints, before we go any farther in this message, lets reflect on some scriptures that we might gain some insight to what this sermon is about.
Ephesians 4: 10-14
10 He that descended is the same also that ascended up far above all heavens, that he might fill all things.
11 And he gave some, apostles; and some evangelists; and some pastors, and teachers;
12 For the perfecting of the saints, for the work of the ministry, for the edifying of the body of Christ:
13 Till we all come in the unity of the faith, and of the knowledge of the son of God unto a perfect man, unto the measure of the stature of the fullness of Christ:
14 That we henceforth be no more tossed to and fro, and carried about with every wind and doctrine, by the sleight of men, and craftiness, whereby they lie in wait to deceive;
Dear saints, according to these powerful scriptures, the five-fold ministry was given until the church comes to a state of maturity including the measure of the stature of the fullness of Christ, that the body of Christ may be edified and equipped for the work of ministry as stated in Ephesians 4:12 of the blessed word of God.
Beloved, the bottom line that clarifies and defines this sermon is, "the five fold ministry is essential for effective ministry" and the Lord has given us the members that make up his body every provision necessary to accomplish His purposes to prevail over the enemy.
Saints, I will now make an honest attempt to list the offices and function of the five-fold ministry and prophetic office that will give us some insight on the importance of recognizing the urgent need for these ministries to be active and in place throughout our churches, especially in this day and hour we live in that is full of fear which leads to confusion and unrest.
Beloved, the Holy scriptures indicate that spiritual gifts and the five fold ministry will become one of the most important and needful avenues of ministry prevalent at the end of the dispensation of grace.
Saints, in the days and weeks ahead, we are going to need spiritual wisdom, knowledge, the prophetic, and spiritual guidance to accomplish the Lord’s work especially when the Love of many in the church today has waxed cold fulfilling the scriptures as stated in Matthew 24:12 "that in the last days, because iniquity abounds, the love of many shall wax cold."
Beloved saints, we must get back to true worship in our services recognizing that as we mature in the grace and knowledge of the Lord Jesus Christ, that there is a vast difference between revelation which comes through the manifestation of the spiritual gifts and divination which is manifested through the works of the flesh.
Dear saints, we must be prayed up discern the difference in these spirits that manifest themselves in our services and we must understand that the Lord has called us to walk by faith and not by sight or by our senses.
Dear saints, the Lord wants us to be dependent upon him for he cares for us and dearly beloved, as his children, we discover in his word that his sincere desire is to change our hearts which will serve to change the way we view our surroundings because the Lord looks on the heart.
Beloved, the word of God in Proverbs 4:23 warns for us to "guard our heart for out of it flows the issues (source) of life," therefore beloved, the heart is referred to as our inner most being because this is where the Lord will speak to us, for in this secret place is where he will unlock the hidden secrets and ideas that will set us free to accomplish his will for our lives.
Beloved saints, did you know that prophecy from a man or woman of God, will serve to touch these hidden secrets and give us courage to step out on faith to believe and trust God that he has everything in control that concerns his will and purpose in our life.
Saints, a true word of knowledge from a man or woman of God can turn our whole situation around and in some instances be used of God to shine some valuable light on a situation that would require hours of counseling to be uncovered thus freeing up a pastors time to devote more study to feed his flock with the word of God.
Beloved, the Lord gives prophetic gifts because we desperately need them and when used correctly, they will greatly improve the effectiveness of any ministry.
Saints, for our ministry to be effective, we desperately need to seek a closer walk with the Lord that he may share his thoughts with us, not for what we can get from him, but that we might be drawn closer to him, in the end we can hear the words "well done my good and faithful servant" and saints, my desire is to be called a friend of God.
Beloved, friendship and intimacy with the Living God or let me say "Father God" should be the primary goal in our life and ministry that we might be used of him to touch and enrich the lives of others allowing him to leave his signature through his hand print on our live to future generations.
Saints, the Lord will reveal our purpose including his plan for our life, if we will only love and worship him for who he is and not be a talebearer of what we hear, especially when we are near the throne in communion with him.
Beloved, did you know that during the early 50’s and late 80’s, the prophetic ministry was on display in an unprecedented level such as William Branham, Oral Roberts, T. L. Osborne, AA Allen, Don Stewart and others.
Saints, their consecration to ministry and demonstration of the spiritual gifts in operation, have played a major role in making a positive influence on thousands of people throughout the world.
Beloved, did you know that one reason the five fold ministry is so needful today is that its full demonstration and operation will help open our eyes to be open to the workings of God's Spirit which will educate us to the schemes and wiles of the enemy.
Saints, there have been many that feel the call of God into the spiritual gifts on their life but lack the training to use these gifts, that have caused them to make terrible mistakes by attempting to understand God in trying to speak what he has not said but beloved, this usually happens because of not being trained in the essence of the need to wait on God to move in the situation for God is able to see in the past, present and future all at the same time.
Beloved, should we throw out the different ministries such as pastors, evangelists, or teachers because some have made mistakes by not being adequately trained or should we allow room for growth having the patience to learn from our mistakes. Beloved, as we move on to perfection in the Lord's work, let us endure hardness as a good soldier which means that we are not a soldier but are still in basic training therefore, it is ok to fall and miss the mark in target practice. (2 Timothy 3-5)
Dear saints, I asked the Lord to reveal more concerning this scripture to me and he explained that by failing, we become more aware of the tactics and schemes of our enemy which causes us to become more prone to be on guard and not fall when the real battle takes place, which beloved, the daily news proves that this time prophesized in the word of God is now upon us?
Beloved, this explains why some of us have lost everything, but be assured of this dear reader, sooner or later, the living God is going to repay everyone of us for all our losses and when we come out of these hard trials, we are going to be molded into a broken vessel with the precious anointing of God dripping off of us. Church, this is a good place to stop and say " a blessed Hallelujah and Praise to the Living God!"
Saints, please be aware that the church is predestined and headed for an eye opening show down with the Kingdom of darkness, therefore beloved, the church must have a strong and accurate prophetic ministry in place with people of integrity leading the charge with chosen people placed in the right place and position to become an effective influence in the coming battle.
Saints, the prophetic ministry must be in place to give accurate direction to the body that they may know the Lord’s plans ahead of time, for specially trained people to be placed in the right place and position to defeat the coming onslaughts of the enemy.
Dearly beloved, did you know all of our life's challenges and experiences have been training ground for us to grow and mature in the body of Christ, therefore beloved, for us to be effective in our calling and what we are able to see in the spiritual realm must be more real to us than what we see in the natural realm.
Saints, did you know that those operating in the prophetic ministry will be the Spiritual watchmen upon the walls whose job is to make sure the enemy does not ambush and blind side the leadership of a church or ministry.
Beloved, if we are trusted with a true gift of the Spirit and we are to manifest the fruit of that gift, the word of God says that our gift will make room for us, therefore let us be devoted to pleasing God and not man by being people of truth, integrity and humble submission to His Spirit.
Saints, God is in the process of restoration to those who have been shut down by pastors like unto the elder brother in the parable of the prodigal son.
Beloved, these young prophets felt the call on their life were attempting to use their gifts but because of the lack of discipline and training in understanding the spiritual gifts, caused church leaders to question their gifts and calling.
Dearly beloved, before we explore the five-fold ministry and how it can be compared to the structure of a building including the resemblance of a hand, we need to make a bold statement that we need one another and we need to understand that there is an urgent need today for the five-fold ministry including the spiritual gifts to be in full operation in the body of Christ.
Dear saints of God, we must understand that many today growing in the prophetic realm may experience visions and dreams but they soon fail in their interpretations because of not knowing and understanding the timing of God for these prophecies to be fulfilled.
The Five-Fold Ministry Compared to the Structure of a Building
Dear saints, in this part of our message, we will explore the office and function of the five fold ministry which is made up of the Apostle, the Prophet, the Evangelist, the Pastor and the Teacher.
Beloved to better understand and bring clarity to this important ministry, I now want to speak on the likeness and comparison of this ministry to that of the structure that can be found in a building.
Beloved, the first line of study in this inspired sermon is to begin with the office of the Apostle and speak of its importance to bring stability to the five-fold ministry. as found in (Ephesians 4:11) in the word of God.
The Apostles Are the Foundation
Beloved, the Apostles are the foundation of a ministry because they are the ones sent from the Lord and especially from a ministry of elders to minister in other nations whose sole purpose is to break ground for the Prophet to come in and give the body direction that is to be followed by the Evangelist to come preaching the salvation message.
1. Apostles are a visionary with usually one Kingdom message
2. Apostles, like the Evangelist - operate in the power gifts of the spirit
3. Apostles preach repentance and deliverance.
Prophets Are the Windows
Beloved, the office of the prophet is very needful in the body of Christ today for its main purpose is to give the ministry direction from the Lord, saving the ministry from being faced with a surprise attack from the enemy.
Saints, people chosen and appointed by God for this office do not usually make good pastors because they have their purpose and role in the five-fold ministry. Saints, prophets are usually different in the way they serve God which can be likened to someone wearing two socks that do not match, but they are very effective in their office and serve their purpose in the body of Christ for the edification of the body.
1. Prophets are usually gifted in music and singing
2. Prophets receive and they give messages direct from God
3. Prophets are intercessors in the body
4. Prophets usually do not make good pastors.
Pastors Are The walls
Saints, the pastors are considered to be the walls of a ministry whose sole purpose is to look after the needs, safety and protection of the sheep that God has entrusted into their care.
Saints, pastors are accountable before God for each and every individual conditions of their flock for they must see that they are properly fed a good balanced diet of the word of God.
Beloved, no one can feed the sheep entrusted unto their care like a pastor can, because the pastors that are called and appointed by God are known to possess a Shepard's heart which on their part requires that they extend a lot of love and patience for the continued growth of their flock.
1. Pastors are responsible for the safety, growth and up-keep of their sheep
Evangelists Are the Doors
Saints, the evangelists can be compared to the Doors of a ministry because they are the ones called and sent by God with a special anointing to preach the salvation message. Beloved, the evangelist like the prophet, is gifted by God to operate in the prophetic ministry including spiritual discernment.
Beloved, those called to operate in this office can be likened to a troubleshooter in the body of Christ that is equipped by God to find the short that is holding back the power.
Dear saints, evangelists are able to be used of the Lord to operate in the power gifts like the Apostle however their primary message should be one concerning the need for salvation, repentance and deliverance.
1. Evangelists + Ones sent to preach the salvation message
2. Evangelists can operate in the prophetic gifts
3. Evangelists can operate in spiritual discernment
4. Evangelists preach anointed messages of salvation, repentance and deliverance
Teachers Are the Roof and Covering
Beloved, those that are called to the office of being a teacher in the five-fold ministry serve as the roof and covering of a ministry whose primary purpose is to help the sheep grow in knowledge and grace through their gifted teaching while they serve to protect the church with knowledge, guidance and balance.
Saints, Teachers are needful and resourceful in the five-fold ministry for their sole purpose is to help the sheep grow in knowledge and grace through their gifted teaching.
1. Teachers help the sheep grow in knowledge and grace
2. Teachers are to protect, give guidance and balance to a ministry
3. Teachers are to spend time in prayer and the study of God's word
4. Teachers must be ready to preach should the need arise
My Five Minute Illustration on the Importance Teachers Hold In the Five-Fold Ministry.
Saints, I can recall a special service where I was given late notice that a well known church ministry wanted me to do a presentation on the role of teachers in the five-fold ministry however the catch was that they were only allotting me five minutes to present my presentation.
Beloved, what can you do with just five allotted minutes to address a church body concerning the teachers role and position in the five-fold ministry but dear saints, my Holy Spirit came through to save me which not only gave the youth a clear illustration of this important office but caused a stirring among the elders of the church ministry. Beloved on the way to the church, I stopped and purchased a pair of plastic gloves which I believe were black in color which caused them to be easily seen.
Beloved, as I stepped up to utilize my five minutes, I laid one of the gloves and a pencil on the table in front of the altar and asked one of the youths if I could use him to present an illustration of the teachers role in the five-fold ministry to the church body.
Saints, the young boy came forward excited to be part of my little project. I asked the young boy to ask the empty glove to pick up the pencil which he did. after several tries, I asked him why the glove will not pick up the pencil and he shrugged his shoulders. Beloved, I then asked the young boy to shout in a loud voice demanding the glove to pick up the pencil but nothing happened.
Beloved saints, with everybody now with fixed eyes on the boy and on the glove lying on the table, I asked the boy to place his hand in the glove and pick up the pencil.
Beloved, with the boys hand in the glove and still holding the pencil, I concluded my five minute illustration informing the church body that the glove needed a solid substance with the strength of that substance inside it to perform the task to pick up the pencil.
Church, I finished my presentation informing the church body that this beloved people, is what the role and function teachers have and should be doing in the five-fold ministry which is pouring solid teaching with the strength of that teaching into the body of Christ especially our youth.
Saints, this study has revealed to us why the five fold ministry is so needed in the coming attack from the Kingdom of darkness which is now upon us and in closing this part of our message, I sincerely hope that you have gained a general understanding of how important the purpose and function the five-fold ministry has in the body of Christ including how its role can be viewed and understood in greater detail by comparing these important offices to that of the structure of a building.
The Five-Fold Ministry Compared to the Structure of a Human Hand
Dear saints, now that we have expounded on the importance of the five-fold ministry and its role in the body of Christ by comparing it to the structure of a building, we have now come to the part in this sermon where we can receive a vivid revelation concerning this important ministry by looking at the fingers and thumb on our hand.
1. The Apostle would be the thumb that gives power to the rest of the hand.
2. The Prophet would be the index finger that points or gives direction to the hand.
3. The Evangelist would be the middle finger which is longer than the others.
4. The Pastor would be the ring finger because he is married to the church.
5. The Teacher would be the little finger that gives balance to the hand.
Closing Remarks Concerning the Need for the Five-Fold Ministry
Dear saints, to say that the word of God replaced the spiritual gifts and the five-fold ministry is to say that Ephesians 4:11-13 is and has been fulfilled.
Beloved, for church leaders to stand and proclaim this heresy is to declare before God that the church has achieved and reached a perfect state of maturity which is far from the truth.
Beloved, there appears to be a trend today where everyone wants to be recognized as wearing the hats with their man appointed titles but beloved, some of these self centered people have never been through the trials and training that is necessary to become a successful leader.
Dearly beloved, have you not heard and read the stories of how heroes and Generals were made by going through the war therefore saints, this should serve us warning that there are no shortcuts with God who is more interested in developing our character than our position.
Beloved, not many professing Christians in this closing dispensation of grace have shown to have a sincere hunger for God which is necessary for him to develop and place them where they are needed in the body of Christ to be under good leadership that they might grow into maturity to lead others.
Dear saints, this is so sad that people want to be leaders instead of being led because God places no boundaries in how far we can go in the Spirit.
Dear saints, do I hear the deep calling unto the deep, for beloved, the call of God is deep within all of us and it will help steer us to the goals that God has set for our life because beloved, these inward desires were placed in us at birth by God and we will never get away from what God has placed in our heart to do.
Saints, this deep within that desires to be discovered, can be the idea that is always flashing in our mind, yes, the dream that doesn't seem to go away, as it grows with a passion that drives and keeps us thinking about what we want to accomplish in the Kingdom of God.
Saints, please understand that God does not work on our time table because our God has an appointed season and time for different parts of our vision to be fulfilled and accomplished in our life.
Pastor Enid Stewart Expounding on the Five-Fold Ministry & Spiritual Gifts
Dearly beloved, in bringing this needful inspirational message to a close, may I ask you some very important questions that may answer a lot of your concerns about your life and purpose for being born on this planet?
1. Can you hear the cry deep within your heart that says, I was born to do something?
2. How can I fulfill the urge within that is calling me to something greater?
Beloved did you know that everyone born on this planet is born for a specific purpose for we were created to fulfill and accomplish something significant that will make a difference in our generation because saints, we were created to accomplish something special that no other person on Earth can accomplish, that God may leave his signature through our life and ministry to other generations.
Beloved, God placed the plans for our life within us when we were born and that is why we are taught in his word to delight our selves in him that he may bring these hidden desires into a reality because every person born on this planet was created to stand out as a unique person however sadly, some just want to go along with the crowd and attempt to blend in.
Saints, no one on Earth has your finger prints nor do they have your DNA including your brain waves because you were created to stand out, not blend in.
Beloved, you do not need a physic or horoscope to predict your future, because all you need to do beloved, is to humbly delight yourself in the Lord and look at what lies within you because your future is not ahead of you for it was placed within you at birth.
Saints, the scriptures teach that the church is to be a unified body consisting of many members with each member having and fulfilling its unique function within the body therefore beloved, no one can accomplish what God placed in your heart to do and there can be no room for jealousy in the body of Christ.
Church, we must be persistent in achieving the visions God has placed within us, therefore let us examine ourselves with a determined mindset to fulfill the purposes of God placed on our life which serves to drive our vision but beloved, let us not be caught off guard by our enemy which will cause abashments and distractions to come our way whose sole purpose is to steer us off course and away from our assignment.
Beloved saints, we need to let every opposition sent in our path serve to strengthen our walk with the Lord including every failure we encounter be counted as valuable experience that we can use as stepping stones to give us more courage and determination to meet our goals in life.
Saints, people that understand the need and purpose for the five-fold ministry will have a sincere determination to walk this walk of faith, be persistent in their walk with God and never take no for an answer in fulfilling their purpose.
Saints, the word declares in (Nehemiah 8:10) that "the joy of the Lord is our strength" therefore beloved, we need to fight until we get a breakthrough that we may experience the joy and presence of the Lord who promised to never leave us therefore may we take comfort in these words as we complete our assignment and fulfill our dreams.
Beloved, in the closing of this message, let us always be reminded that "God’s vision in our heart is stronger than any darkness the enemy may bring our way, therefore let us remember that patience with persistence is what wins the race and obtains the prize which is discovered in the high calling of God that we embrace in Christ Jesus our Lord.
Saints, more this inspirational message on the spiritual gifts and the five-fold ministry can be found in a book God blessed me to write titled " Spiritual Gifts and the Five-fold Ministry Revealed."
Beloved, this book was written in two days from the cab of my 18 wheeler in 2020 while parked in the Walmart distribution center in Cheyenne, Wyoming.
Dear saints, I was pre-scheduled and had previously taken time off to take my required shots needed to travel and conduct revivals throughout the Philippines.
Beloved, I had already paid in full for all my required flights including motels for this trip and I needed to hear from God whether to cancel or have faith that God would make a way but beloved, in the middle of writing this book, I heard the soft words in my spirit, "stay where you are" which was followed by the airlines sending me an email that they were canceling my flights.
Saints, at this time, I was working Walmart dedicated freight for my company Crete Carrier Corporation which had previously written letters to the Philippine government informing them that my job was secure and assured them that they were granting me permission for the needed time off to do these trips.
Saints, it was during this time that I was impressed of the Lord to write a book on the spiritual gifts and the working of the five-fold ministry describing their function in the body of Christ.
Beloved, this powerful book can be found on amazon and can be downloaded for free from our website. (www.witheredhand.org)
Dearly beloved, God wants you to know that you are special and just like money that is misplaced or lost, but when it is found beloved, it never loses its value because it is backed by its value in gold by the constitution and government of the United States treasury.
Dear friend, just like the money that never loses its value, you too can never lose your value before God because no matter what people may think or say about you, just know and understand that they are not the ones that will be signing your report card.
Beloved, your reputation is what man has heard and attempted to define you with but your character is what God already knows about you, because beloved, our sovereign God knew before hand, yes before creation, just how bad we were going to mess up in life, but chose to call us anyway because he looks at the heart. A-Men
End Time Evangelist
Jerry W. Hulse
Miracle Life Church International
This content is accurate and true to the best of the author’s knowledge and is not meant to substitute for formal and individualized advice from a qualified professional.
© 2012 Jerry W Hulse
Jerry W Hulse (author) from Kingsport, Tennessee / Philippines on July 07, 2013:
Thanks CMCastro, you are a blessing to the body of Christ and to me .
Christina M. Castro from Baltimore,MD USA on July 07, 2013:
Five Fold ministry is alive today, and it is possible for all gifts of the ministry to work together. It is not often that there is a ministry trained up to have the five fold all together at the same time, but it can happen with much discipline and dedication.
I belong to an Active five fold ministry, and I have seen diseases healed, addictions kicked, and broken hearts mended. The one who is called the overseer, The Apostle, has to be the one with the Gift of Discernment and Prophecy, and the Prophet or Prophetess works hand in hand with the Apostle to guide and discipline and teach those in need. The Pastors are the ones who council and intercede for those who receive the Word of the evangelist. So the Heads of Ministry are not only like the hand, but they also require the mind set to do what is right for the heart. This is what I have observed in participation with the church ministry that I belong to.
Thank you for sharing.
Jerry W Hulse (author) from Kingsport, Tennessee / Philippines on April 17, 2013:
I inserted the prophet for they are the ones who hear from God and give guidance but today more and more want to place themselves in this office and operate out of the workings of their flesh which brings a mark against this office. God does not give an imperfect gift which means until Ephesians 4 is fulfilled the gifts and offices will be active in the church.
Dora Weithers from The Caribbean on April 16, 2013:
Jerry, thanks for the explanation of the five fold ministry. I have a question, and I'm honest about wanting the answer. How does the prophet get into the listing? I do not see "prophet" written in the Ephesians quotation. Please enlighten me. Thanks.
Jerry W Hulse (author) from Kingsport, Tennessee / Philippines on August 21, 2012:
I finished a book on this in 2010 but lost it in a computer crash before I could get it published but here is some of my old notes from that book.