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What are Superstitions, Signs, and Omens?

superstitions-signs-and-omens-interpretation-and-origins

Introduction

Superstitious behaviour is something that many people engage in without thinking about it. Such as; knocking on wood, or not stepping on lines on the ground, or saying “bless you” after someone sneezes, or reading your horoscope, or opening an umbrella indoors… just in case. In the end your belief or otherwise in these superstitions is most definitely up to you.

Deciding the true origin of Superstitions, Signs, and Omens is in many cases a matter of speculation. So please do not consider the suggested country of origin as an absolute.

Some though are based on common sense. Such as, don’t walk under a ladder (something could fall on you) or cover your mouth when you sneeze (to stop the spread of germs and disease).

Even if you don’t believe in good or bad luck, enjoy perusing these entries (which are in no particular order) some of which have formed part of different cultures dating back thousands of years.

superstitions-signs-and-omens-interpretation-and-origins

Definitions

Omens | Phenomenon or occurrences believed to foretell future events which will be either good, evil, happy or disastrous. (Collins English Dictionary)

Signs | Something material or external that stands for or signifies something spiritual. (Merriam-Webster Dictionary)

Superstitions | Irrational beliefs, especially with regard to the unknown or unseen forces. (Collins English Dictionary)

superstitions-signs-and-omens-interpretation-and-origins

Superstitions, Signs and Omens

Never say “Happy Birthday” before the actual day of someone’s birthday

~Interpretation~

This will bring bad luck to the recipient.

Country of Origin | Russia

Never place two mirrors opposite each other

~Interpretation~

Mirrors facing each other are considered to be a portal to the devil.

Country of Origin | Mexico

Never place your chopsticks vertically

~Interpretation~

The chopsticks will resemble the number four, which means death or the incense sticks used at funerals.

Country of Origin | China

Never go straight home after attending a funeral

~Interpretation~

Stop off at a shop or cafe first. This is to avoid bringing home an evil spirit.

Country of Origin | Philippines

Never whistle indoors

~Interpretation~

The noise is believed to summon ghosts or demons.

Country of Origin | Lithuania

Never give cheers or toast someone with water

~Interpretation~

To do so means that you are wishing death on those in your company. From the Greek myth that the dead would drink from the River Lethe to forget their earthly past before passing on to the underworld.

Country of Origin | Germany

Never sleep with your head facing North

~Interpretation~

This is considered to bring bad luck as that is the position the dead are laid to rest.

Country of Origin | Japan

Never sleep with your head facing West

~Interpretation~

This is considered to bring bad luck as that is the position the dead are laid to rest.

Country of Origin | Africa

Never place shoes on a table

~Interpretation~

This is considered to bring bad luck as that is what was done in the past to let people know that someone had died.

Country of Origin | Britain

An itchy hand has financial implications

~Interpretation~

An itchy left hand signifies that you will come in to money but an itchy left hand means that you will lose money.

Country of Origin | Turkey

Never play around with scissors

~Interpretation~

This is believed to bring bad luck.

Country of Origin | Egypt

Owls are considered to be bad omens

~Interpretation~

Seeing or hearing an owl is believed to mean that you will soon hear some dreadful news.

Country of Origin | Egypt

An Owl flying into your home is said to be a bad omen

~Interpretation~

This is believed to signify that someone in the family will die soon.

Country of Origin | Italy

Never knit outside in Winter

~Interpretation~

To knit outdoors is believed to prolong the cold weather.

Country of Origin | Iceland

Never get your haircut on a Tuesday

~Interpretation~

Doing so is believed to mean that you will have bad luck for the rest of the day.

Country of Origin | India

Never give yellow flowers as a gift

~Interpretation~

To do so signifies that you are cursing the recipient with unfaithfulness in their marriage.

Country of Origin | Russia

From time to time drip some water behind a person

~Interpretation~

This gesture is believed to bring good luck to that person.

Country of Origin | Serbia

Wear bells on your wedding dress

~Interpretation~

This action is believed to ward off evil spirits who want to ruin the marriage.

Country of Origin | Ireland

Pregnant women should eat fish

~Interpretation~

If they have a hunger for fish but do not eat it, their baby will be born with a fish head.

Country of Origin | Canada

Never walk backwards

~Interpretation~

Walking backwards is believed to mean that you are showing the devil which way you are going.

Country of Origin | Portugal

Never walk under a ladder

~Interpretation~

The shape of a ladder is a triangle, which signifies life in some countries mythology. To walk through a triangle is said to tempt the fates and awaken any evil spirits, which live in the triangle.

Country of Origin | Britain

Never say the same word at the same time as a friend

~Interpretation~

To do this means that you will never get married. To reverse this curse then you must both immediately touch your noses.

Country of Origin | Italy

Never sing your favourite song while at the dinner table

~Interpretation~

To do so is considered to mean that you are singing to the devil.

Country of Origin | Netherlands

Never sit at the corner of a dinner table

~Interpretation~

To do so will mean that you will not get married in the next seven years.

Country of Origin | Russia

Never wear red during a storm

~Interpretation~

Red is considered to be the colour that will attract lightning.

Country of Origin | Philippines

Always say “white rabbit, white rabbit, white rabbit” at the start of a new month

~Interpretation~

To do so will ensure that you have good luck for the month.

Country of Origin | Britain

Never enter or leave a room left foot first

~Interpretation~

To do so will bring bad luck. Always enter or leave with your right foot first.

Country of Origin | Spain

Never open an umbrella indoors

~Interpretation~

To do so will mean that bad luck will “rain down” on you.

Country of Origin | Britain

Eat Grapes to celebrate the New Year

~Interpretation~

Instead of kissing someone to mark a new year, eat twelve grapes instead for good luck for the whole year ahead.

Country of Origin | Spain

superstitions-signs-and-omens-interpretation-and-origins

Always hide your thumbs when passing a graveyard

~Interpretation~

Hiding your thumbs protects your parents from an early death.

Country of Origin |Japan

Never step on a manhole cover

~Interpretation~

Stepping on a manhole cover marked with the letter “A” will bring you bad luck and a broken heart.

Country of Origin | Sweden

Never cut your nails at night

~Interpretation~

To do so could lead to a premature death.

Country of Origin | Japan

Never chew gum at night

~Interpretation~

To do so is seen as the equivalent of eating the flesh of the dead.

Country of Origin | Turkey

Never jump over a child

~Interpretation~

To do so will result in them not growing to their full height.

Country of Origin | Turkey

If you carry an Acorn you will stay young forevermore

~Interpretation~

Carrying an Acorn in your clothing in Ancient Britain was considered to ensure you keep a natural youthful complexion. Due to its own longevity, all parts of the Oak tree were considered to give a person long life and ward of disease or illness.

Country of Origin | Britain

Never place your purse (or wallet) on the floor

~Interpretation~

To do so is considered to mean that you will end up destitute.

Country of Origin | Brazil

Never declare that this is your last drink

~Interpretation~

To do so is seen as tempting fate and death will follow shortly after.

Country of Origin | Cuba

Never eat lettuce if you want to have children

~Interpretation~

During the 1800’s men avoided eaten lettuce as it was considered a sterile plant which if eaten would pass on its attributes.

Country of Origin | Britain

Never pick your own glove up if you drop it

~Interpretation~

This is considered to be bad luck and dates from the time when a “lady” would deliberately drop her glove in the hope of attracting an admirer to pick it up.

Country of Origin | Britain

Awkward silences

~Interpretation~

Any awkward silences in conversations means that an Angel is passing by.

Attributed to | Dylan Thomas

Never leave Hospital on a Saturday

~Interpretation~

To do so means that you will soon return.

Country of Origin | Britain

Pass a newly born baby through a wheel of cheese

~Interpretation~

During Medieval Times, expectant mothers made a large wheel of cheese, which would be left to mature for nine months. After a baby was born the cheese would be shared amongst family and friends and when only the outer rind remained the baby was passed through the wheel of cheese. This was considered to ensure they had good luck for all their life.

Country of Origin | Britain

Hang a Hot Cross Bun in your house for a year

~Interpretation~

This is considered by some to ward off evil spirits.

Country of Origin | Britain

Knock on wood

~Interpretation~

During medieval Times, churchgoers would touch wood that was claimed to be from the cross, which allegedly gave a connection to divinity and therefore good fortune.

Country of Origin | Britain

Wear (or carry) a Blue and White charm

~Interpretation~

This symbol (which resembles an eye) is said to guard a person from the gaze of the “Evil Eye”.

Country of Origin | Turkey

Seeing a single Magpie

~Interpretation~

This is said to be a sign of bad luck. However, seeing two or more is fine. So to avoid misfortune salute the Magpie and say “Good morning Mr Magpie and how is your lady wife today?” You are then referring to two Magpies and also showing respect to the Magpie.

Country of Origin | Scotland

Tuesday the 13th

~Interpretation~

Tuesday is Martes in Spanish, which comes from Mars giving the day a particular connection with violence and death.

Country of Origin | Spain

Never whistle at the Sun

~Interpretation~

This action is considered to cause rain to fall.

Country of Origin | Norway

Mirrors

~Interpretation~

A person’s reflection in a mirror was once considered to hold the soul of that person. To break the mirror causes part of that person’s soul to be taken for seven years during which time the person will experience bad luck.

A bird flying into your home

~Interpretation~

If the bird then flies in a circle and lands on a particular person’s chair that is said to signify that the person is about to die.

Use the ashes of a redhead

~Interpretation~

In medieval times the ashes of a redhead spread over a field were said to guarantee a good harvest.

Country of Origin | Egypt

Touching a condemned person

~Interpretation~

From the reign of Elizabeth I when it was considered that good luck would follow if you managed to touch someone being taken to the gallows.

Country of Origin | Britain

Pass illness to another

~Interpretation~

If someone you love has a serious illness every time you speak of them if you use the name of a person, you do not like in place of the ill persons name then the illness will be passed to the other person.

Country of Origin | Egypt

Baking bread

~Interpretation~

Bread will not rise if there is a corpse close by.

Country of Origin | Britain

Never cut off both ends of a loaf of bread

~Interpretation~

To do so will make the Devil fly over your house.

Country of Origin | Britain

Never leave a white tablecloth on a table overnight.

~Interpretation~

To do so means that you will need a shroud for someone very soon.

Country of Origin | Britain

Catch a falling leaf on the first day of Autumn

~Interpretation~

To do so will mean that you will not catch a cold all winter.

Country of Origin | Britain

Crush an eggshell

~Interpretation~

When you finish eating a boiled egg or break open an egg you must always crush each end of the shell. If you do not then a witch will collect the shell, build a boat, and start a storm out at sea.

Country of Origin | Britain

Ravens at the Tower of London

~Interpretation~

The belief is that if the Ravens ever fly away from the Tower then England and the Empire will fall. Since this belief continues today although they are very well cared for their wings are slightly clipped to ensure they cannot fly too far.

Country of Origin | Britain

Beginner’s Luck

~Interpretation~

The belief has been that someone trying out an activity or game for the first time are more likely to win. This is thought to be because the novice is less concerned about winning or proving themselves so they are less stressed or anxious.

Country of Origin | Britain

Fingers crossed

~Interpretation~

Two people would cross index fingers when one was making a wish, to show support for each other and to the person making the wish.

Country of Origin | Britain

Bats in your home

~Interpretation~

Finding bats in your house on Halloween was considered to be a sign that your house was haunted and the ghosts had let the bat in.

Country of Origin | Britain

Bats flying above your house

~Interpretation~

If you see a bat flying above your house and it circles three times then this was thought to mean that someone in the house would soon die.

Country of Origin | Britain

Jack-o’-Lanterns

~Interpretation~

Celtic folklore tells of a drunken farmer who tricked the devil but this eventually resulted in him being refused entry to heaven and hell. He then made a lantern from a turnip and lit it with a burning piece of coal the devil had thrown him from hell. He used the lantern to guide lost souls home at Halloween. This tradition continues today but in America a pumpkin is used instead of a turnip.

Country of Origin | Ireland

Seeing a spider

~Interpretation~

If you see a spider at Halloween then it is said to signify that a deceased member of your family is watching over you.

Trick-or-Treat

~Interpretation~

During the Pagan festival of Samhain it was believed that the barrier between the spirit world and our world was at its weakest. Ghosts would mingle with the living often disguised in human form. Some disguised as beggars would knock on your door and ask for food or money. Turning them away empty-handed would result in you receiving the vengeance of the spirit and being cursed or haunted.

Country of Origin | Ireland

Hang a horseshoe on your door (open end up)

~Interpretation~

From the time of the Middle Ages when it was believed that witches were afraid of horses and would avoid any place which had signs of them.

Country of Origin | Britain

Four-leaf clover

~Interpretation~

Considered to be very powerful plants that could be used to ward of evil.

Country of Origin | Britain

Always hold your breath when passing a cemetery

~Interpretation~

Breathing near the dead was considered to be unwise as you might inhale someone’s soul.

Country of Origin | America

Make a wish for good health while holding a dandelion

~Interpretation~

It was thought that dandelions could cure diseases.

Country of Origin | Britain

Putting candles on a birthday cake

~Interpretation~

From the practice in Ancient Greece of placing candles in a circular shape around a cake to honour the Goddesses of the Moon Artemis, Hecate, and Selene.

Country of Origin | Greece

Avoid seeing your bride on the day, until you are at the ceremony

~Interpretation~

This was considered to be bad luck because there was a worry that if the bride saw the groom she might get cold feet and cancel the wedding.

Country of Origin | Britain

Always carry your bride over the threshold of your home

~Interpretation~

It was considered to be extremely bad luck if a bride tripped when entering her new home so the groom would carry her.

Country of Origin | Britain

To sell your house quickly

~Interpretation~

Bury a statue of Saint Joseph (the patron saint of a happy death or recently the patron saint of real estate) upside down in your back garden.

Country of Origin | America

Seeing a Bluebird on St Valentine’s Day

~Interpretation~

This omen signifies that if you are single you will marry a happy person.

Country of Origin | Britain

Twisting the stem of an apple

~Interpretation~

Twist the stem while reciting the alphabet. When the stem comes of the letter you are at will be the initial of the person you will marry.

Country of Origin | Britain

Never wear new clothes to a funeral

~Interpretation~

This is considered to bring excessive bad luck.

Country of Origin | Britain

Experiencing a sudden shiver or shudder

~Interpretation~

This signifies that someone has just walked over your future grave.

Country of Origin | Britain

Never sweep on New Year’s Day

~Interpretation~

If you do you will sweep all the good luck away.

Country of Origin | China

Counting the Crows you see will predict your future

~Interpretation~

One is bad, Two is lucky, Three is health, Four is wealth, Five is sickness, and Six is death.

Country of Origin | Britain

superstitions-signs-and-omens-interpretation-and-origins

Get your hair cut when the Moon starts its waxing phase

~Interpretation~

This action will bring you good luck.

Country of Origin | Britain

Dropping a knife or folk

~Interpretation~

If you drop a knife then expect a male visitor. Drop a fork and you can expect a female visitor.

Country of Origin | Britain

Keep an acorn at a window

~Interpretation~

This will keep lightning from striking your home.

Country of Origin | Britain

Wear an Amber necklace

~Interpretation~

This will protect against illness and cure a cold.

Country of Origin | Britain

A Bee in your house

~Interpretation~

This is a sign that you will have a surprise visitor. Never kill the Bee as you will have bad luck and the visitor will be extremely unpleasant.

Country of Origin | Britain

Never say goodbye to someone on a bridge

~Interpretation~

Unless you never want to see them again.

Country of Origin | Britain

Dropping a comb

~Interpretation~

If you drop a comb whilst combing your hair then it is a sign that disappointment is coming.

Country of Origin | Britain

Always leave a house through the same door you entered

~Interpretation~

To leave a house through a different door will bring bad luck.

Country of Origin | Britain

Picture of an Elephant

~Interpretation~

This will bring good luck to your house and family but only if it faces a door.

Country of Origin | Britain

A twitching eye

~Interpretation~

If your left eye twitches then there will soon be a death in the family. If your right eye twitches there will soon be a birth in the family.

Country of Origin | Britain

Loosing an Eyelash

~Interpretation~

Put the eyelash on the back of your hand, make a wish, and then throw it over your shoulder. If it leaves your hand your wish will be granted.

Finding the first flower of Spring

~Interpretation~

If you find it on a Monday, Good fortune will follow. Tuesday: Anything great you attempt will be successful. Wednesday: Marriage will soon follow. Thursday: A warning of little money. Friday: Wealth will follow. Saturday: Misfortune is on the horizon. Sunday: Your luck will last for weeks.

Itchy foot

~Interpretation~

If the bottom of your right foot starts to itch then you will soon be going on a journey.

Things you should not do on a Friday

~Interpretation~

Change a bed: Bad luck. Sail a ship: Bad luck. Start a trip: Misfortune will follow.

A Frog entering your house

~Interpretation~

This will bring good luck to all who live there.

Pulling out your white or grey hair

~Interpretation~

This will cause ten more to grow in its place.

Itchy hand

~Interpretation~

Right palm: You will soon be coming into money. Left palm: You will soon be paying out money.

Hang a Horseshoe in the bedroom

~Interpretation~

This will keep you from having nightmares.

Receiving a knife as a gift

~Interpretation~

If you receive one from your lover that love will soon end.

Seeing your face in a mirror by candlelight

~Interpretation~

This is considered very unlucky.

A mirror which falls of a wall

~Interpretation~

If this happens when no one is around then it means that someone in the house will die soon.

Mistletoe

~Interpretation~

Protects a house from thunder and lightning. It can also cure many diseases and can be used as an antidote to poison.

White Moth

~Interpretation~

A white moth trying to enter or already inside a house means that someone in the household will soon die.

An onion cut in half

~Interpretation~

Placed under an ill persons bed will help cure fever and poisons.

Spilling pepper

~Interpretation~

This will cause you to have a significant argument with a friend.

Three people photographed together

~Interpretation~

The middle person will die first.

Seeing the first Robin of Spring

~Interpretation~

If you make a wish before it flies away that wish will come true.

An empty rocking chair

~Interpretation~

If you get out of a rocking chair and then leave it rocking evil spirits will sit on the chair.

If you spill salt

~Interpretation~

Throw a pinch over your left shoulder into the face of the devil who is waiting to take your soul.

If you drop scissors

~Interpretation~

This means that your partner is being unfaithful.

Dropping an unopened umbrella indoors

~Interpretation~

This signifies that there will soon be a murder in the house

Pictures of Elephants

~Interpretation~

These will bring good luck put only if they face a door.

Death Crowns

~Interpretation~

If someone with a down feather pillow falls ill check inside it for a “death crown” which consist of crown shaped masses of feathers. Remove any found and that person should quickly recover.

Country of Origin | America

Finding a Black Butterfly

~Interpretation~

If a black Butterfly enters your house and flies to all four corners of a room it means that someone in the family will soon die.

Country of Origin | America

Halley’s Comet

~Interpretation~

Its appearance is believed to cause illness, earthquakes, and red rain.

Country of Origin | Switzerland

Seeing your doppelganger

~Interpretation~

If you see your own doppelganger (a ghostly duplicate of a living person) it means that you are about to die.

Country of Origin | Germany

Hearing the Deathwatch Beetle

~Interpretation~

The constant tap, tap, tapping sound made by this beetle has long been considered due to it spending time around the dead or the dying.

A Solar Eclipse

~Interpretation~

In the past these were associated with disaster, destruction, and death. Some also believe that cooking food during an eclipse will make it poisonous.

Wearing Opals

~Interpretation~

These are associated with causing the devastating Black Death due to the fact that on people who wore them when still alive with the fever they would sparkle brightly but when that person died they would cease to glisten.

Interpretation of Dreams

~Interpretation~

Dreaming of the following is considered to be a warning of death. More than one moon. Walking through muddy waters. Getting dressed. Your teeth falling out.

Will-o-Wisps

~Interpretation~

If these mysterious lights start to follow you about then it is thought that death is coming for you. They will also fly between you and your finally resting place. If they are seen floating over a fishing boat then it will soon sink.

Three Loud Knocks at Your Door

~Interpretation~

A sign that someone has died or is about to die.

Country of Origin | America

Trees Which Foretell Death

~Interpretation~

A Peach Tree which blooms to early, or a Cedar Tree in your garden which dies, means that there will be a death in the family.

Opening an Umbrella Indoors

~Interpretation~

As umbrellas can also protect us from the sun opening one indoors away from the sun’s rays brings bad luck and ill-fortune as it offends the Sun God.

Diamonds in a Ring

~Interpretation~

From the Egyptians and Romans who considered diamonds had supernatural powers.

Breaking a Mirror

~Interpretation~

The seven years bad luck which is said to follow is from a belief in Roman times that to break a mirror meant a break in your well-being and soul and the body took seven years to regenerate.

The Number 13

~Interpretation~

The ancient Sumerians considered the number 12 to be the perfect number and the number after it to be inferior.

Wishing Upon a Falling Star

~Interpretation~

To make a wish when you see a falling star (meteor) comes from ancient Greece when it was considered that when the gods looked down from the sky a star would sometimes slip out and fall to the earth. If you saw one it meant that the gods were looking down on you and you could make a wish.

Unlucky Number 4

~Interpretation~

The number four is considered unlucky in China or Japan because it sounds like the word for death. Hotels and Hospitals etc will normally not have a numbered fourth floor.

Lucky Number 8

~Interpretation~

The number eight is considered lucky in China because it sounds like the word for fortune. Many Chinese try to schedule important events to dates that include the number eight. 888 is considered to be the jackpot number.

Placing Two Mirrors In Front Of Each Other

~Interpretation~

This will cause a threshold to the Devil to be opened.

Country of Origin | Mexico

Putting Sugar In Your Cup Before Adding The Coffee

~Interpretation~

This will make you rich and prosperous.

Country of Origin | Brazil

To Ward Of Evil

~Interpretation~

Hang seven green chillies and a lemon together and place inside your car or outside the door of your house or business. Change them every week. Do not stand on the old lemon or chillies as this is said to release the evil spirits trapped within.

Country of Origin | India


superstitions-signs-and-omens-interpretation-and-origins

Placing A Loaf Of Bread Upside Down On A Table

~Interpretation~

This will bring doom and gloom to all who eat it.

Country of Origin | France

Being Struck by a Falling Acorn

~Interpretation~

This will bring you good luck as well as strength and power.

Country of Origin | Britain

To Immediately Lift the Curse of Seven Years Bad Luck After Breaking a Mirror

~Interpretation~

Touch a gravestone with one of the broken pieces or throw it in a fire and then bury them.

Giving a Clock as a Gift

~Interpretation~

Never do this in China as it is considered to be very rude. The implication is that you are counting down the recipient’s time left in this world.

Country of Origin | China

Whistling at Night

~Interpretation~

Never do this in Japan as it is said to attract snakes.

Country of Origin | Japan

Keep a Cactus at Your Door

~Interpretation~

This will keep troubles away from your house.

Country of Origin | Greece

Never Hand Someone a Knife

~Interpretation~

If you do you will end up fighting with that person. Instead place it on a surface and let them pick it up themselves.

Country of Origin | Greece

Never Leave Your Shoes Turned Soles Up

~Interpretation~

This is considered very bad luck and an omen of death.

Country of Origin | Greece

Tuesday the 13th

~Interpretation~

This day is considered unlucky in Greece.

Country of Origin | Greece

To Stay Safe From Werewolves

~Interpretation~

Always remember that Werewolves can’t climb Oak trees and are afraid of water.

Country of Origin | Ireland

Keep Your Windows Closed on 1st November

~Interpretation~

On this day the souls of the dead are said to walk amongst the living and can enter a home through an open window.

Country of Origin | Spain

Paint Your Porch Blue

~Interpretation~

This colour confuses evil spirits so they will not enter your home.

Country of Origin | America

To Protect Your Home From Lightning

~Interpretation~

Place Acorns on your windowsill. Supposedly why the first window blind pulls used acorns.

Country of Origin | Scandinavia

For Very Good Luck

~Interpretation~

Keep a piece of Oyster shell in a notebook.

superstitions-signs-and-omens-interpretation-and-origins

~Bibliography~

A list of some of the written sources

of material/information cited in this publication.

Binney, Ruth | Plant Lore and Legend: The Wisdom and Wonder of Plants and Flowers Revealed

Cielo, Astra | Signs, Omens, and Superstitions

Kramer, Heinrich (Jacob Sprenger) | Malleus Maleficarum (Hammer of Witches)

Nozedar, Adele | The Element Encyclopedia of Secret Signs and Symbols

Oliver, Harry | Black Cats and Four Leaf Clovers: The Origins of Old Wives’ Tales and Superstitions in Our Everyday Lives

Opie, Iona (Moria Tatem) | A Dictionary of Superstitions

Sprenger, Jacob (Heinrich Kramer) | Malleus Maleficarum (Hammer of Witches)

Tatem, Moira (Iona Opie) | A Dictionary of Superstitions

Thomas, Dylan | Portrait of the Artist as a Young Dog

Webster, Richard | The Encyclopedia of Superstitions

Suggested Further Reading

This content is accurate and true to the best of the author’s knowledge and is not meant to substitute for formal and individualized advice from a qualified professional.

© 2019 Brian OldWolf