Undeniably it is one of the biggest mysteries of the world that does God exist. Although in the subjective case, the answer to this question may vary from person to person, but objectively, the 21st-century intellectuals, historians, scientists, and young generation, who are more oriented to science and scientific progress, demand concrete evidence for the presence of God. In the subjective case, the individuals, who staunchly believe in the existence of God, are closer to different religions of the world, because these religious scriptures of the world contain specific arguments for the existence of God. According to the survey Statistics of the population believing in God, 2010 survey on faith on God that was conducted in 23 countries in September 2010; showed that on average 7o% of respondents believe in God or higher authority. On the contrary, the individuals who do not believe in the existence of God are called atheists and according to the sociologists, there is 450 to 500 million or 7% percent of the individuals who are convinced atheists. The highest number of atheists are found in China and are 200 million in number.
The standard on which the individuals evaluate the argument of presence or absence of God is encapsulated in the subsequent terminologies, known as rationalism and empiricism. Rationalists who support the ideology of rationalism, claim that they believe in the opinions and actions based on reasons and knowledge, and most probably, we can say that all theologians are religious rationalists, but all rationalists are not theologians. While the empiricists believe in practicality or evidence, by the operation of five human senses i-e seeing, tasting, hearing, touch, and smell. Many empiricists believe in science and scientific equipment. That is how they can sense, touch, and observe the progress of science, for instance, electric gadgets, medicines, and so on.
Although the existence of God is an ambiguous question and is transcendental and that is why, throughout human history, the researchers and intellectuals who are more curious about the existence of a God; talk in the language of argument and in all likelihood exercise the rationalist’s philosophy to justify god in the form of the materialistic world.
One of the prominent theologians or we can say the best rationalist, whose arguments regarding the presence of God, are more famed throughout history is known as St. Thomas Aquinas (c 1225-1274). St. Thomas presented five arguments regarding the presence of God and these arguments are highly accepted in the rationalist’s world but did not fully prove the existence of God. These arguments are as follows:
1. The argument of Motion:
The argument of motion claims that nothing can be moved until there is a first mover.
The example of the clock’s pendulum best fits this argument. When we put a charging cell in the clock, its pendulum starts moving to and fro. Likewise, the creation of earth and universe, for which many theories are being presented like big bang theory and suppose someone accepts this theory that universe got into existence from a single point, then rationally someone can ask that from where did this point come into existence?
2. Arguments of Cause and Effects:
Aquinas argument of cause and effects demonstrates that in this world we see that for every decision, movement, effect, and change; there is a cause.
It can be closely related to Newton’s third law of motion that states, “to every action there is always an equal but opposite reaction”. Rationally if we emphasize this practical world, we see the theory of cause and effects everywhere.
3. Necessary Being:
This argument elaborates the perception of being that existed, is dependent upon another being.
We can demonstrate it in an example that we can say if there is a space and it is empty and then in the meantime, we can say that there is no matter in that space and if we say that there existed a matter, then we can say that there is no space but something else who gives existence to that matter. In a more practical example, we can say that we had ancestors two thousand years ago and that is why I am living right now in the 21st century. So, this argument rationally concludes that there was a being who caused to establish this cosmos and maybe we can name it “GOD”.
4. The absolute being:
This argument refers to the completeness, authenticity, and perfectness of a being who is responsible for the creation of this universe and the objects inside it in a perfect manner.
The objects of this universe are in perfect motion and stability. If we look at the sun, it rises and sets in at a perfect time without even the slightest delay. Likewise, the moon appears in the meantime and the formation of day and night consecutively infers that there is an absolute being, under whom supervision all these mechanisms take place.
5. The grand designer:
The fifth argument claims that there is a grand designer for forms, shapes, and bodies. Each object has physical features that manifest perfectness in nature.
The designer not only created the objects without any flaw but introduced the mechanism for objects’ sustenance too. If we look at the arrangement of particles in solid, liquid, or gas, we will find a sequential arrangement of particles, without any kind of mismanagement or disruption. Likewise, the shape of the human body is an unprecedented example of the creator’s magnificent work. The world has progressed to an unprecedented level, but still, humanity is ambiguous and helpless in determining its creator and unveiling the truth lying behind each complex mechanism of this universe.