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Greek Bible Words: Meaning, Translation, and Mistranslation

The author won an award for his performance in a nationwide intercollegiate ancient Greek translation contest.

There are a good number of words in the Bible which have been used within Christianity for so long that society at large has lost sight of what those words actually mean. So the common perception of these words is often quite different from their literal meanings in Greek (the New Testament was written in Greek), and carry undertones layered in by the church over centuries. This page lists a number of Greek words commonly found in the bible, gives their translation, and explains their original meanings as they were in the Greek language. The list is alphabetized according to the most common English translation.

Pronunciation Note

In the given pronunciations, “o” is always short as in “hot”; “oe” is long as in “so”.

Greek Bible Words

Apostle - ἀπόστολος (apostolos)

Literal meaning: ambassador, emissary, envoy, diplomat

Word breakdown: from “apo” (away) + “stello” (dispatch, send) = one who is sent away or dispatched

This word commonly referred to foreign ambassadors.

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Shared under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 2.5 Generic license (

Church - ἐκκλησία (eklesia, pronounced “Eh-kleh-SEE-ah)

Literal meaning: assembly

Word breakdown: from “ek” (out of/out from) + kaleo (to call/summon) = one who is called or summoned out to a public assembly

Originally, this was a political term referring to the public assembly of all eligible voters (that is, all adult, male citizens who had completed military training) in the Athenian democratic system. In such an assembly, each person could have their say, and all of their votes counted. Each person contributed directly to important national decisions and legislation.

Damn - κατακρίνω (katakrino, pronounced “Kah-tah-KREE-noe”)

Literal meaning: make a judgment against, condemn

Word breakdown: from “kata” (down/against) + krino (to separate/choose/decide/judge) = to decide/judge against

The word “damn” in the common public perception, has come to imply a divine act whereby God sends a soul to an eternity of torment. The original word had no religious connotation, and it certainly did not suggest eternal punishment. It meant, simply "to make a judgment against".

Shared under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported license (

Shared under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported license (

Devil - διάβολος (diabolos, pronounced dee-AH-bo-los)

Literal meaning: accuser, prosecutor, slanderer, false accuser

Word breakdown: from “diabalo” (to backbite/slander, accuse, or give hostile information)

In the new 2011 NIV (New International Version), John 6:70 reads, “Then Jesus replied, “Have I not chosen you, the Twelve? Yet one of you is a devil!” Is Jesus calling Judas a demon? No. According to Liddell & Scott’s highly reputable Greek-English lexicon, one sense of “diabolo” is simply “to give hostile information”. So it seems likely that Jesus is (correctly) calling Judas the “one who will give hostile information” about him to the Jewish religious leaders, betraying him to his death. So why does the English translation use a word like “devil”, which by now in English has the sole meaning of “evil spirit” or “the supreme evil spirit”?

Disciple - μαθητής (mathetes, pronounced mah-theh-TES)

Literal meaning: student, pupil

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Word breakdown: from “math-” (aorist root of a verb meaning “to learn/perceive/comprehend”) + suffix “-tes” (“one who”) = one who learns

Doctrine - διδασκαλία (didaskalia) , διδαχή (didache, pronounced dee-dah-KHEH)

Literal meaning: teaching, instruction, education

Word breakdown: from “didasko” (to teach)

The modern sense of “doctrine” is almost invariably religious in nature. For example, we don’t generally refer to the “doctrine of chemistry”. In the true sense of the Greek word, it would have been perfectly natural to apply it to something like chemistry, as it referred to any kind of systematic instruction, teaching, or education. It did not imply a “dogma“, in the sense of a “formulated code of acceptable and established beliefs which are not to be disputed”. It originally did not have a religious meaning.

Eternal - αἰώνιος (aionios, pronounced ai-OE-nee-os)

Literal meaning: pertaining to an age/eon, lasting for an age

Word breakdown: an adjective formed from the noun “aion” (an age/era/period/span/epoch/eon)

One acceptable translation of the word “aionios” is “lasting for or having to do with an age (a long, yet distinctly finite period of time)”. Since it is an adjective built on the noun “aion”, it need not convey something beyond the meaning of the noun from which it was derived. Since “aion” refers to a finite span of time, rather than an unending span of time, “aionios” can refer to something with a similarly finite span of time. For example, if we take the noun “day”, and build from it the adjective “daily”, then the adjective refers to the same time-frame as the noun. A “daily shower” is thus a shower taken each day, not a shower taken every minute or every year.

The renowned New Testament scholar, William Barclay, in his book William Barclay: A Spiritual Autobiography, says that something can be “eternal“ without being "aionios". He tells us that Plato, who may have created the word, saw it as a word strictly referencing God. According to Barclay, “aionios” denotes something that pertains to God, and can only rightfully be used of something having to do with God.

Jesus was quoted in the canonical gospels defining "eternal life" as having an intimate knowledge of God, which is to say a personal relationship with God (John 17:3). Jesus did not say that such a relationship would lead to eternal life, but that such a relationship is eternal life. Thus, he defined "eternal life", not as an endless duration of life, but as a quality of life. Namely, it was the quality of a life lived in fellowship with God. This definition is uncannily reminiscent of Plato's and Barclay's. Eternal life is "eternal" because it emanates from the only thing that is truly eternal: God.

From that perspective, whatever is the opposite of "eternal life" is neither transient life nor a punishment with eternal duration. It is the quality of a life lived without fellowship with God (keeping in mind that "God is Love"). By divine providence, the quality of life lived without love always ends up in misery at some point. In this sense, "eternal punishment" is "eternal" in the sense that it also, like "eternal life", is a loving emanation of the only thing that is eternal: God.

This misery, after it has been endured for as long as an individual can endure it (perhaps multiple eons/aions or lifetimes for some souls), always drives the soul to seek something better. And that search can only end in the discovery of Love/God. It ends in the quality of life known as "eternal life".

Fornication - πορνεία (porneia, pronounced por-NAY-ah)

Literal meaning: prostitution

Word breakdown: from “porne” (prostitute)

“Porneia” originally meant prostitution. Eventually, it may have also come to refer to other taboo sexual acts, such as adultery or incest. The English word “fornication”, however, has come to mean much more than even these extended meanings, denoting any sexual act outside of marriage. This meaning was not inherent in the Greek word.

Jesus - Ἰησοῦς (iesous, pronounced ee-eh-SOOS)

Literal meaning: “YHWH saves” or “YHWH is salvation”

Word breakdown: a Greek version of the Hebrew name “Yehoshua/Yahshua”

The best English rendering for the Jewish name “Yahshua” is the English name “Joshua”.


γέεννα (geena, pronounced GEH-eh-nah)
ᾅδης (hades, pronounced HAH-des)
ταρταρος (tartaros, pronounced TAR-tar-os)
שְׁאוֹל (sheol)

Herrad of Landsberg's "Hell"; Public Domain

Herrad of Landsberg's "Hell"; Public Domain

In the Old Testament in the King James version (which has massively impacted English speakers for centuries), the Hebrew word שְׁאוֹל (Sheol), is translated “hell” many, many times. However, Sheol meant merely “the Grave”. It did not in any way imply an afterlife or punishment or suffering.

Three different words in the New Testament are translated as “hell”. γέεννα (Gehenna) referred to a valley (Valley of the Son of Hinnom) outside ancient Jerusalem where garbage and dead bodies were thrown out to be burned. In Judaism, this came to refer also to a place where the wicked go to suffer and be purified of their sins, after which they went to Olam Ha-Ba (The World to Come, essentially “heaven”).

ᾅδης (Hades) was originally the name of the Greek god of the dead, and when people died they were said to go to the “house of Hades”. Eventually, “hades” (which means “the unseen”) came to mean a shadowy place where all people go when they die.

Ταρταρος (Tartarus) was a mythological place within the earth where Zeus (the chief of the Greek gods) imprisoned the Titans. It was not a Christian word, but the name of a place in pagan mythology.

Lust -ἐπιθυμία (epithumia, pronounced eh-pee-thoo-MEE-ah)

Literal meaning: desire, longing, craving

Word breakdown: from “epi” (on/upon) + thumos (heart) = a having of one’s heart set upon something

The word “lust” to modern English ears has come to usually imply sexual lust. But the word originally meant any strong desire for something, whether it be sex, money, power, excitement, knowledge, or anything else that someone strongly set their heart upon. In the New Testament, it doesn't always have a negative connotation. It is sometimes used, for example, to refer to the longing of good friends to be reunited after a long separation.

It's interesting that the Buddha said that desire is the root of suffering and evil. 2 Peter 1:4 talks about the “corruption/decay that is in the world through desire”. Although the translators of the 2011 NIV, perhaps afraid of what might happen if they were to translate a verse of scripture without inserting imaginary words, render “evil desires”, the word “evil” is not in there. The cause of this corruption is just “desire”, plain and simple.

James 1:15 says, “Then, after desire has conceived, it gives birth to sin; and sin, when it is full-grown, gives birth to death.” So, this tells us, as the Buddha does, that desire causes evil and suffering (if you consider death to be a sort of suffering).

Preach - κηρύσσω (kerusso, pronounced keh-ROO-soe)

Literal meaning: to announce, to make a public broadcast, to proclaim, to be a town-crier, to be a herald

The Greek word referred to public proclamations of the town-criers and heralds, whose roles in that society were similar to the roles of news anchors and radio/TV spokespeople today: to make announcements and deliver news to the public. It was not a religious word. In our society today, however, the word “preach” has come to carry almost exclusively the religious sense of “deliver a sermon”. From the word “preach”, a religious establishment may justify the existence of a word like “preacher”, which refers to someone who makes a living delivering their own religious sermons to groups of people. Thus, the structure of the religious system is reinforced by the existence of this title and office: “preacher”, which is an extension of a word that originally had no religious connotation at all.

Punishment -κόλασις (kolasis, pronounced KO-lah-sis)

Literal meaning: corrective discipline, chastening

The renowned New Testament scholar, William Barclay, in his book William Barclay: A Spiritual Autobiography, pointed out that "kolasis" originally referred to the pruning of trees, and never denotes anything but remedial discipline. The word “punishment” is thus a bad translation because it implies punitive discipline rather than solely corrective disciple.

Repent - μετανοέω (metanoeo, pronounced meh-tah-no-EH-oe)

Literal meaning: to have an after-thought, to change one’s mind

Word breakdown: from “meta” (after) + “noeo” (to think/consider) = to have the benefit of afterthought, to rethink, to think twice, to reconsider, to change one’s mind

To modern ears, “to repent” seems like a very dramatic sort of action, wrought with great emotional turmoil, shamed prostration on the ground, tearful begging and solemn promises… at least to me, that’s what the word brings to mind. In Greek, however, it simply meant “to change one’s mind or reconsider”.

From a mystical or transpersonal perspective, this word denotes a complete transformation of a person's entire mindset. It is a metamorphosis into a higher stage of consciousness. Personally, I believe that the authors of the Christian canon may very well have used the word in a similar mystical sense. Elsewhere, such authors enjoined their readers to "be transformed" and to "have the mind of Christ".

Sin - ἁμαρτία (hamartia, pronounced hah-mar-TEE-ah)

Literal meaning: missing of a target, error, mistake, failure

The word originally referred to occasions when one missed a target that one was aiming at. In English, “sin” is almost inconceivable outside of a religious context. In Greek, it meant any kind of mistake, error, failure, or shortcoming.

Bibel aus dem Jahr 1866; shared under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported license (

Bibel aus dem Jahr 1866; shared under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported license (

Scripture - γραφή (graphe, pronounced grah-PHEH)

Literal meaning: a writing, something written

Word breakdown: from “grapho” (to write)

The word translated as “scripture” simply means “a writing” or “something written”. It is not an inherently religious word, and it does not denote divinely inspired writing unless that is what the author intends it to denote within his own religious context. Once more, in English, it is impossible to imagine this word without religious connotation, as it was originally.


This article has examined just a few of the common Greek Bible words that have morphed in meaning over centuries of use within Christian contexts. Many more examples could be given, but hopefully the selection of cases discussed in this article will suffice to show the reader that many words used for a long time in a religious context once started out with very different connotations than they have come to represent in the collective psyche of our present culture. Hopefully, this will motivate the reader to explore such phenomena further, or at least to exercise caution when presented with commonly accepted interpretations of ancient texts.

© 2010 Justin Aptaker


The Bible Unchained from Above The Sun on November 25, 2019:

I'm still working my way through this, but I find this confusing:

"Jesus did not say that such a relationship would lead to eternal life, but that such a relationship is eternal life. Thus, he defined "eternal life", not as an endless duration of life, but as a quality of life"

If the relationship IS eternal life, then wouldn't eternal life be a quality of the RELATIONSHIP, rather than of life? Or, do you mean it's a quality of a life lived in relationship with God? Could you clarify just a bit please?


Trudie on March 02, 2019:

Luke 1 verse 28 and 29

About this scripture there are two words I wonder if the translation to English is in context. One word is tower in verse 29. The context of the words around family or relatives with the word hate in verse 28.

Chris Mills from Traverse City, MI on December 12, 2012:

japtaker, you have done a nice job of breaking the words down into their parts of speech. Certainly to find the meaning of a word we should begin here. Early Christians took many of these words and redefined them on purpose. I think λόγος is the best example. This word had very diverse meanings among Greek philosophers. The Apostle John came along and redefined it yet again. What I am saying is that many words in all languages are filled with different meanings from what the linguistic breakdown of the word might give us. The fact is, the word has the meaning that the writer had in mind. Nothing trumps that, and the only way we know what he meant is by the context in which he used it. The early Christians needed a word for the presentation of the Gospel in spoken form. They chose κηρύσσω and then redefined it on purpose. γέεννα could have originally meant mushroom, but when Christians took it over, it still would have meant hell. We can go back to the basic meaning but we do an injustice to any writer if we do not allow the larger context of his writing to define his words.

You have shown some good skills in language and history. I look forward to reading more of your writings. Voted up and interesting.

walter suman on April 18, 2012:

This proves that man is fallible even with the holy spirit.To not take scripture out of context one must find out~ who, what, where,why, when culture and language. Take a look at our own culture in 70 years the meaning of gay has changed big time.

d.william from Somewhere in the south on October 18, 2011:

Well done. Good examples of how the modern day version of those "holy" books have been twisted through the ages to deepen the guilt in people. Much better control with the more intense versions being taught today. As the art of manipulation grew, the intensity of fear and guilt had to grow with it.

ruffridyer from Dayton, ohio on June 14, 2011:

I agree with your interpetations fully. I knew of the three different terms for hell that actually had three separate meanings. You did some good research. This is an excellent hub.

Spanish Translation on May 10, 2011:

I've been looking for something like this. I'd be interested in finding something like this with Hebrew as well.

Christopher Antony Meade from Gillingham Kent. United Kingdom on January 06, 2011:

Very good article. Voted it useful and awesome. Thank you.

daravuthz from Cambodia on December 28, 2010:

Great hub and information here, thanks

Lilred on December 28, 2010:

Very good, detailed study of the breakdown of these words and their true meanings.

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