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Genesis 1-2: Birth of the Cosmos

Some believe that Ancient Hebrew letters give a code of the creation of the universe.

Some believe that Ancient Hebrew letters give a code of the creation of the universe.

Rabbi Jonah taught that the world was made through the Hebrew letter bet.

Rabbi Jonah taught that the world was made through the Hebrew letter bet.

Midrash teaches that 6 things were created before the universe: Torah, God's throne of glory, the creation of the patriarchs, Israel, the temple, and the name of the Messiah.

Midrash teaches that 6 things were created before the universe: Torah, God's throne of glory, the creation of the patriarchs, Israel, the temple, and the name of the Messiah.

San Marco Mosiac

San Marco Mosiac


Our universe is full of splendor and marvels. There are many wonderful and interesting things found in nature. There are billions of things to know about society, space, time, history, etc. There is a certain order within everything we find in nature such as the orbit of planets, the ecosystem, the water cycle, the study of history and archaeology, and many other things inside this planet inhabited by people and life itself, however within the very first pages of the Bible, there is a history of how everything came to be, regardless of how ancient the book is. We can clearly see God's work of creation in everything.

It is important to identify what kind of literature the Bible is. The Bible is not a science textbook. It is theology, the study of God. Scriptures will therefore not be as precise as scientific observations. Specific words and phrases should be treated with caution and should not be interpreted literally in some contexts.

Gen. 1-2 is a creation myth. Creation myths are symbolic stories of how the universe came to be and how people came to live in it. Creation myths are stories told as truth to different cultures of different degrees. Creation myths develop in oral traditions and have multiple versions. They are the most common form of myth in each human culture. A myth is conveyed as profound truth whether it is literal, metaphorical, or symbolic in nature. The most common are myths describing the cosmos from a state of chaos.

Characters include humans, gods who are human-like, and animals who speak and transform. It is usually set at a non-specific past. Creation myths attempt to answer questions with a deep meaning to the particular society, forming the identity of the individual. There are several elements in a creation myth:

1. Symbolic stories at the beginning of the world are understood by a particular tradition or community. Creation myths reflect basic patterns of human life and culture.

2. Creation myths explain how life began, all cultures have creation myths, the first stage is the life of the species. All cultures identify ourselves through myths as creation myths explain metaphorically who we are in the world and reveal our priorities.

3. Philosophical and theological elaboration of the primal myth of creation within a religious community. The myth refers to an imaginative expression in what is expressed as basic reality. Creation refers to a universal beginning of things.

Mythologists have worked to classify myths in all cultures using various ways. Common motifs have been found such as:

1. Creation ex nihilo - Creation came from the work of the Divine

2. Earth diver - A diver usually a bird or Amphibian sent by the creator plunges into the seabed to bring up sand and or mud which develops into the world.

3. Emergence myths - Shifts and phases occur before the creation can be completed

4. Creation by dismemberment of a primordial being

5. Creation by splitting a primordial unity such as an egg and creating order

6. An abyss of space or waters

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7. A creator awakened in the abyss

8. A creator above the abyss

9. An embyro

10. A creator making the world through sound or word

11. Life emerging from the dismembered body of a corpse

We see in poetic terms how YHWH made the universe.

Hebrews 1:10 describes God "laying the foundation of the earth."

Job 9:8 "8 He alone spreads out the heavens, And treads on the waves of the sea.."

Canaanite text describes the goddess Ashera walking on the sea in order to subdue it, but God steps on the waves to control the surging sea.

Job 26:7 "7 He stretches out the north over empty space; He hangs the earth on nothing.."

In Hebrew, " talah" is the word for hang which means "to suspend."

Verse 10 "10 He drew a circular horizon on the face of the waters,
At the boundary of light and darkness."

Boundary is translated from the Hebrew word "choq", giving the idea that the horizon on the face of the waters is at a set place chosen by God.

Verse 13 "13 By His Spirit He adorned the heavens.."

adorned comes from the Hebrew word "shiphrah." The root word is "shaphar" which means "to make fair."

Job 37:18 "18 With Him, have you spread out the skies, Strong as a cast metal mirror?"

In Deuteronomy 28:23, a bronze sky symbolizes unremitted heat and drought.

Psalm 104:2 "2 Who cover Yourself with light as with a garment, Who stretch out the heavens like a curtain."

Isaiah 40:22 "22 It is He who sits above the circle of the earth, And its inhabitants are like grasshoppers, Who stretches out the heavens like a curtain, And spreads them out like a tent to dwell in."

Job 38 explains more on God's creation. God describes the boundaries, limits or the commonly use term "laws" of the universe that he established in the universe.

In verse 14, it says "14 It [the earth] takes on form like clay under a seal, And stands out like a garment."

The clay under the seal could refer to a cylinder seal or a stamp seal. Small cylinder seals were used to sign clay documents by rolling them over the clay. The owner would then wear the seal around his neck on a chord. This could give the analogy of the earth being figurative of a person being clothed to display wondrous craftsmanship of the features in which God bestowed upon it.

Jeremiah 5:22 "22 Do you not fear Me?’ says the Lord.‘Will you not tremble at My presence, Who have placed the sand as the bound of the sea, By a perpetual decree, that it cannot pass beyond it? And though its waves toss to and fro, Yet they cannot prevail; Though they roar, yet they cannot pass over it."

Jeremiah 51:15 "15 He has made the earth by His power; He has established the world by His wisdom, And stretched out the heaven by His understanding."

Verse 22 "22 Do you not fear Me?’ says the Lord. ‘Will you not tremble at My presence, Who have placed the sand as the bound of the sea,By a perpetual decree, that it cannot pass beyond it?And though its waves toss to and fro,Yet they cannot prevail; Though they roar, yet they cannot pass over it.

Proverbs 8:29 "29 When He assigned to the sea its limit, So that the waters would not transgress His command, When He marked out the foundations of the earth.."

Genesis chapter 1:

Gen. 1:1 "In the beginning, God created the heaven and the earth."

The Hebrew word for beginning is "re'shiyth." This word means "the first or height in place, time, or rank." In Hebrew, there's no definite article attached to the beginning. Literally, the verse would read "in beginning, God created the heaven and the earth." The text could refer to a beginning or the beginning.

In Hebrew, beginning usually refers to an initial period in time. Beginning refers to the created event. YHWH is outside of time and unaffected by it, he always existed. When the universe was created, its origins are unknown. We're not told if YHWH made the formless and void earth. What is known is that God formed the universe. The word "heaven" comes from the Hebrew "shamayim." This is a compound word. The word "Shem" means there. The plural word for waters is "Mayim." In other words, it is translated as "the waters are there." There are many possibilities of the origin of this word. One is that it came from the Hebrew word "Shamah", which means "lofty" in the sense that is high. The word "Shaman" meaning desolate which describes the wind blowing the land, drying it. This would also be translated as "Shamayim" in the plural form.

The word "create" can mean "to make fat" and it is the unique characteristic of God. Based on the context, the correct word should be "fattened." God fattened or filled the universe. The concept of fattening originates from ancient people feeding animals grain so they grew fat before killing them.

Is the universe eternal? Are there parallel universes? There's evidence to support that the universe is eternal and that there are other universes. If there was only one beginning, why doesn't the Hebrew text use the definite article "the" in front of beginning? Why is there more than one heaven?

In Hebrew, there is no word used to describe creation from nothing. The Hebrew words for create and make describe forming in the sense of changing the universe. Because there's no "the" before beginning, it leaves the possibility for other universes to exist. Beginning or reshiyt comes from the Hebrew word rosh or head. The head and the chief or best part are related because the head was a symbol of the most important part. From the word itself and how the word beginning was used in other texts, plurality is implied whether it means the first in time or the best of a group of nouns. This seems to imply the universe is eternal.

As for parallel universes, the best explanation for why the heavens are plural is because there are multiple universes.

Isa. 66:1

"This is what the Lord says:

“Heaven is My throne and the earth is the footstool for My feet.."

The Hebrew text reads "the heavens are my throne.." Since YHWH reigns forever, how could the universe be created from nothing? If the universe is finite, that implies YHWH at one point didn't have a throne which doesn't make sense. It makes more sense to conclude the universe is eternal since YHWH's reign is eternal.

2 Ki. 2:9-11

9 "When they had crossed over, Elijah said to Elisha, “Ask me what I should do for you before I am taken from you.” And Elisha said, “Please let a double portion of your spirit be upon me.” 10 He said, “You have asked a hard thing. Nevertheless, if you see me when I am taken from you, it shall be so for you; but if not, it shall not be so.” 11 And as they were walking along and talking, behold, a chariot of fire appeared with horses of fire, and they separated the two of them. Then Elijah went up by a whirlwind to heaven."

Which heaven did Elijah go to? He didn't go to YHWH's abode because Jesus said "no one ascended to heaven except he who came down from heaven." In 2 Chron. 21, Elijah wrote a letter to king Jehoram. This implies Elijah was transported to a physical place. Some theorize it was in a different place on the same earth. The problem is why did there need to be a chariot of fire and horses of fire? It seems too dramatic and unnecessary for such an amazing phenomenon to happen if Eliah was simply going to be transported to a different land. There's a strong likelihood Elijah was transported to a parallel universe.

Rev. 21:1

"Then I saw a new heaven and a new earth; for the first heaven and the first earth passed away, and there is no longer any sea."

First or protos in Greek can refer to the first in numerical order or importance. Which definition does the first refer to? This text is unusual as it says "a new heaven and a new earth." If our universe is the only one, why does the text say "a new heaven and earth" instead of "the new heaven and earth"? What's also unusual is "the first heaven and earth passed away.." If the universe was the only one, why does the text say the first heaven and earth passed away? We don't know how many universes existed between "the first heavens and earth" and "the new heaven and earth" in Rev. 21:1. Regardless of whether you interpret first as the first in a numerical sequence or as the most important, both seem to imply there's more than one universe.

According to eternal inflation theory, our familiar universe could be totally different from the hypothetical bubble universe next to our own even if we could reach the next bubble. Instead, the many-worlds theory proposes every time one state or outcome is observed, there is another "world" in which a different quantum outcome becomes reality. There could be a universe where you were never born or you died in an accident.

ANITA experiment, a balloon-borne experiment sensitive to radio waves, detected radio waves of a specific set of energies and directions coming from beneath the Antarctic ice. All sorts of cosmic particles travel through space, including the neutrino. While many of the neutrinos that pass through us come from the Sun, stars, or the Big Bang, some of them come from highly energetic astrophysical sources like pulsars, black holes, or unidentified objects. These neutrinos also come in a variety of energies. Neutrinos are mostly invisible to normal matter. It would take about a light-year’s worth of lead to have a 50/50 shot of stopping one so they can come from any direction. However, most high-energy neutrinos we see aren’t produced from far away but are produced when other cosmic particles (also of extremely high energies) strike the upper atmosphere, making cascades of particles resulting in neutrinos. Some neutrinos will pass through the Earth almost completely, only interacting with the final layers of Earth’s crust (or ice) where they can produce a signal our detectors are sensitive to. The rare events ANITA saw were consistent with a neutrino coming up through the Earth and producing radio waves, but at energies that should be so high that passing through the Earth unhindered should not be possible. They saw three events. Did they have to come through the Earth? No. The first two could have been normal air-shower tau neutrinos (one of the three types of neutrino allowed), while the third was probably just part of the experimental background. There’s evidence that disfavors them coming through the Earth: the IceCube neutrino detector exists. If high-energy tau neutrinos are regularly passing through the Earth (and the Antarctic ice), IceCube would have definitively seen a signal. They have not. There is no astrophysical point source out there creating the particles ANITA is indirectly seeing. Could it be from another universe?

Wormholes are one way we could travel to other universes. Another way is through bubbles of space. Elijah and Enoch could've traveled to other universes through those means.

Water is a very important element in the universe, without it, many of the earth's processes could not function well.

2 "And the earth was a formless and desolate emptiness, and darkness was over the surface of the deep, and the Spirit of God was hovering over the surface of the waters. 3 Then God said, “Let there be light”; and there was light. 4 God saw that the light was good; and God separated the light from the darkness. 5 God called the light “day,” and the darkness He called “night.” And there was evening and there was morning, one day."

Why did YHWH say "let there be light" first? Light generates heat and sustains life on earth. Life is everywhere and is unaffected by time.

According to the book Starlight and time, it is theorized that there was a sphere of water located within a small point in the universe known as the white hole. It's a region of space-time which cannot be entered from the outside, however light and matter are able to escape through it. God's spirit came through this hole and expanded the universe.

A few notes should be taken when learning about Genesis 1:14-16 "14 Then God said, “Let there be lights in the firmament of the heavens to divide the day from the night; and let them be for signs and seasons, and for days and years; 15 and let them be for lights in the firmament of the heavens to give light on the earth”; and it was so. 16 Then God made two great lights: the greater light to rule the day, and the lesser light to rule the night. He made the stars also."

* In Biblical Hebrew, the meaning of a specific word is determined by the context.

* Verbs did not have tenses related to time in Biblical Hebrew, only a finished action or an unfinished action. Verbs do not an order or duration of actions. Additions to the root verbs may demonstrate order. The phrases translated as "The earth was without form and void.." Could have been more accurately translated as "The earth became without form and void.."

* The word "Yom" meaning day is rarely used to refer to a 24-hour time period. It's most accurate translation is a period of daylight. Hebrew most often marked 24-hour days with ‘evening to evening’ and occasionally with ‘morning to morning’.” The “… and was evening, and was morning” phrase in Genesis 1 is unique thereby alerting “the reader that these days may have been periods other than 24-hour days.” [Hugh Ross, A Matter of Days, pg. 76 (2004)]

The first day of creation is yom echad or day one. The same phrase is found in Zech. 14:7 and its used to describe a period longer than 24 hours.

"Behold, a day is coming for the Lord when the spoils taken from you will be divided among you. 2 For I will gather all the nations against Jerusalem to battle, and the city will be taken, the houses plundered, the women raped, and half of the city exiled, but the rest of the people will not be eliminated from the city. 3 Then the Lord will go forth and fight against those nations, as when He fights on a day of battle. 4 On that day His feet will stand on the Mount of Olives, which is in front of Jerusalem on the east; and the Mount of Olives will be split in its middle from east to west forming a very large valley. Half of the mountain will move toward the north, and the other half toward the south. 5 And you will flee by the valley of My mountains, for the valley of the mountains will reach to Azel; yes, you will flee just as you fled from the earthquake in the days of Uzziah king of Judah. Then the Lord, my God, will come, and all the holy ones with Him!

6 On that day there will be no light; the luminaries will die out. 7 For it will be a unique day [yom echad] which is known to the Lord, neither day nor night, but it will come about that at the time of evening there will be light."

Evening and morning marked the end of the day regardless of the length of time. What happens between the evening and morning is nighttime when the worker would've rested. The evening represents a waning of one's creative acts and the morning symbolized the next day's work.

Only in Hebrew poetry could the definite article or "the" be omitted. Since the days in Gen. lack the "the", Gen. 1 was meant to be poetic. The days of creation are in a sequential pattern.

Psal. 90:6 and Psal. 30:5 use evening and morning in a metaphoric sense.

The word "Without form and void" is properly translated as "Desolate and empty." Nevertheless, i believe that it is best described as chaotic matter floating in space. That being said, the earth and heavens were once formless and chaotic, until God made them with order.

The "Deep" refers to the surging mass of primeval chaotic water.

When the Bible says that the the Spirit of God "moved" upon the face of the waters, the Hebrew gives several meanings "Move, shake, fluttered, brooded, hover, and grow soft. Throughout the Bible, the Spirit of God has been in charge of giving life to living things, hence it can then be inferred that the Spirit of God turned the chaotic waters into order.

Ruach comes from the root word meaning "path."

The same word to describe flutter is in Deut. 32:11.

"As an eagle stirs up its nest,
And hovers over its young,
He spread His wings, He caught them,
He carried them on His pinions."

The "Light" in the first chapter in Hebrew refer to the luminaries. It is observed that light can be present without the sun and moon, therefore, the light described could have come from energy, stars, and other sources.

The creation of light is not necessarily a physical existence. Light was not seen as physical but a phenomenon. The text focuses on time being a function.

Light is the revelation of God's creation and work.

The firmament in Gen. 1:6-8 is actually a celestial solid dome. the Sun and Moon were placed within the firmament itself. Pay close attention to what verses support this view. In these verses, the word translated as firmament is the Hebrew word "a visible arch of the sky, an expanse", but coming from the root meaning "raqa'" meaning "to pound the earth with passion, to expand by hammering, to overlay with sheets of metal, beat, spread out, stretch." Psalm 148:4 "4 Praise Him, you heavens of heavens, And you waters above the heavens! 5 Let them praise the name of the Lord, For He commanded and they were created." Rakia in Hebrew suggests a hammered-out slab which was not necessarily arched, but the English architectural term with it's celestial associations was appropriate.

According to ancient near eastern thinking, the expansion held cosmic waters above it. The heavens had windows. Heavens were understood to be on several levels with floors, walls, and roofs. Since YHWH is in the highest heavens, the beams are roof beams of the upper story of his dwelling. The ancient view included a heavenly ocean and openings in the vault over the earth as a source for these waters.

This sea above all other firmaments is an impenetrable and unreachable barrier between the physical and temporal universe and the eternal, spiritual dimension of Heaven, the abode place of God. This sea was not called "good", but functioned very much like the veil of the temple between the natural world and the holiness of God's divine and most glorious presence. An example of this is found in the molten sea found in Solomon's temple in 1 Kings 7:23. Paul mentioned this third heaven in 2 Corinthians 12:2

"2 I know a man in Christ who fourteen years ago—whether in the body I do not know, or whether out of the body I do not know, God knows—such a one was caught up to the third heaven."

This is biblical proof there are other universes. This symbolizes the basins at the Temple of Solomon.

Gen. 1:9-10 " Then God said, “Let the waters below the heavens be gathered into one place, and let the dry land appear”; and it was so. 10 And God called the dry land “earth,” and the gathering of the waters He called “seas”; and God saw that it was good."

Genesis 1:11-12 "11 Then God said, “Let the earth bring forth grass, the herb that yields seed, and the fruit tree that yields fruit according to its kind, whose seed is in itself, on the earth”; and it was so." 12 And the earth brought forth grass, the herb that yields seed according to its kind, and the tree that yields fruit, whose seed is in itself according to its kind. And God saw that it was good."

In the Septuagint, it reads "11 Then God said, “Let the land produce vegetation: seed-bearing plants and trees on the land that bear fruit with seed in it, according to their various kinds.” And it was so. 12 The land produced vegetation: plants bearing seed according to their kinds and trees bearing fruit with seed in it according to their kinds. And God saw that it was good."

YHWH gave the land the function to regularly make vegetation where agriculture can be grown.

The vegetation in the earth and especially in the garden of Eden reflect the vegetation of 1 Ki. 6:29

29 "Then he carved all the surrounding walls of the house with engravings of cherubim, palm trees, and open flowers, for the inner and outer sanctuaries."

In modern scientific classification, it tends to confuse the kinds of different organisms and plants, but in the Bible, there is only one kind that produces another of it's kind, there is essentially no "new" kind.

Genesis 1:14-18 "14 Then God said, “Let there be lights in the firmament of the heavens to divide the day from the night; and let them be for signs and seasons, and for days and years; 15 and let them be for lights in the firmament of the heavens to give light on the earth”; and it was so. 16 Then God made two great lights: the greater light to rule the day, and the lesser light to rule the night. He made the stars also. 17 God set them in the firmament of the heavens to give light on the earth, 18 and to rule over the day and over the night, and to divide the light from the darkness. And God saw that it was good."

The Septuagint of Gen. 1:14 says 14 And God said, “Let there be lights in the vault of the sky to separate the day from the night, and let them serve as signs to mark sacred times, and days and years!"

The Essences who wrote the Dead Sea Scrolls followed the Jubilees calendar. The Qumran new year happened on the fourth day of the week, suggesting that the Essenes remembered the fourth day of creation when YHWH made the luminaries. This was also the time the Essenes had their pilgrimage festivals. Philo said this about the luminaries.

What does this mean? The luminaries weren't simply to mark seasons and times. They were more specifically made for Israel to observe the holy festivals in the Torah!

The sun and moon were then made. In other ancient near eastern religions, the sun and moon were hailed as gods. The exact phrases "Sun" and "moon" were omitted to not confuse them with pagan deities. They possessed the ultimate power of the gods to give light to the earth according to other religious texts. In contrast, God creates other lights which also serve a great purpose, proving that there is only one creator God and everything within the universe belongs to his sovereign hand.

Genesis 1:20-22 "20 Then God said, “Let the waters abound with an abundance of living creatures, and let birds fly above the earth across the face of the firmament of the heavens.” 21 So God created great sea creatures and every living thing that moves, with which the waters abounded, according to their kind, and every winged bird according to its kind. And God saw that it was good. 22 And God blessed them, saying, “Be fruitful and multiply, and fill the waters in the seas, and let birds multiply on the earth.”

The tannin in this passage refers to a cosmic creature rather than a marine specimen.


In the Hebrew mind, space and time are the same. They're both described as occurring in the present and having distance in place. Qedem can mean east but also ancient past. It means the direction of the rising sun. This is consistent with science's understanding of space-time!

Sea creatures then came from the oceans. Interestingly, the concept of a sea creature comes from the Canaanite epic Enuma elisha. The sea creature Tiamat was a chaotic monster of the sea. She gave birth to many other gods, but in this sense, God uses Tiamat as nothing more than a giant sea creature to show that he can use creatures thought as monstrous to display his glory.

Genesis 1:24-25 "24 Then God said, “Let the earth bring forth the living creature according to its kind: cattle and creeping thing and beast of the earth, each according to its kind”; and it was so. 25 And God made the beast of the earth according to its kind, cattle according to its kind, and everything that creeps on the earth according to its kind. And God saw that it was good."

Land animals were then created after the sea creatures. This word cattle does not necessarily refer to livestock. but can also mean dumb beasts or animals. The phrase "beast of.." or hayto denotes wild beasts in the archaic construct form, but here, this form is not used.

Genesis 1:26-31

"26 Then God said, “Let Us make man in Our image, according to Our likeness; let them have dominion [radah] over the fish of the sea, over the birds of the air, and over the cattle, over all the earth and over every creeping thing that creeps on the earth.” 27 So God created man in His own image; in the image of God He created him; male and female He created them. 28 Then God blessed them, and God said to them, “Be fruitful and multiply; fill the earth and subdue it; have dominion over the fish of the sea, over the birds of the air, and over every living thing that moves on the earth.”

Radah is not the normal Hebrew verb for "rule." It is reflected by "dominion" and in most contexts, it suggests an absolute or fierce execution of mastery over God's creation. Fierce however doesn't mean oppressive.

29 And God said, “See, I have given you every herb that yields seed which is on the face of all the earth, and every tree whose fruit yields seed; to you it shall be for food. 30 Also, to every beast of the earth, to every bird of the air, and to everything that creeps on the earth, in which there is life, I have given every green herb for food”; and it was so. 31 Then God saw everything that He had made, and indeed it was very good. So the evening and the morning were the sixth day."

Make in the Hebrew sense does not mean to create in the context of nothing, but it comes from the ancient word "to do."

YHWH gives vegetation for food to humanity and animals in Gen. 1:29-30.

After all of creation, man was created and given the divine authority from God who dwells in the third heaven to rule over everything in the earth below.

Now, In chapters 1 and 2, they seem to present contradictory viewpoints of the creation. Some will argue that the first chapter is merely a summary of the whole process creation, while the second is a more detailed perspective, but this does not explain the slight differences and chronology of events between the two, so why does it seem to conflict with each other? I will argue that the first two chapters are in reality two different accounts written by two different authors, God and Adam. I will provide an explanation of this using evidence.

The authorship of Genesis 1 and 2:

The account of the creation is assumed to be written by God himself. This is true for the first chapter, however i believe that there is a more precise detailed account as to why human civilization behaves the way it does now. Genesis gives us many explanations and details on the relationship between God and man as a father is to a son. Many times, we as humans tend to think because of culture and science that we are independent of God, we developed language, we evolved from simpler organisms, and we will determine the outcome of our existence. I will explain how God in his wisdom gave Adam the authority to write to the earliest stage of humanity.

P.J wiseman was a british officer who found in Mesopotamia ancient narrative tablets with colophon endings, consisting of a specific format. He found that there are similarities between these ancient tablets and the narrative in the book of Genesis.

1) "This has been the history/genealogy of.."

2) The name of the person who owned the tablet

3) The date

He noticed that there are certain phrases containing this colophon format. They have been identified as the "toledoth." The book of Genesis is divided into several sections into toledoth phrases. He presented evidence that the colophons showed that Genesis had originally been a set of narrative cuneiform clay tablets, just like the tablets seen when Moses had edited the single document on parchment. Therefore, Adam is the author of Genesis chapter 2.

Therefore, God gave Man the ability to write and preserve the history of the creation of the world.

Genesis chapter 2:

What kind of literature is Gen. 2? Its a parable.

A parable is an instructional story in prose or verse that illustrates one or more lessons or principles. Parables are metaphorical analogies. Parables have human characters like Adam and Eve.

Parables are short stories like the story of Adam and Eve. The story only lasts for around two chapters.

Parables have a universal truth. The story of Adam and Eve has a universal truth about human nature, YHWH, suffering, etc.

Parables have characters who face a moral dilemma or suffer the consequences of a bad choice. Adam and Eve faced the dilemma of eating the forbidden fruit. Parables are often straight-forward like the story of Adam and Eve.

Parables use concrete and metaphorical language to tell you how to live. Parables can have puns like the story of Adam and Eve.

Genesis 2 is focused on Adam's perspective on God's creation.

Genesis 2:2-3 " 2 And on the seventh day God ended His work which He had done, and He rested on the seventh day from all His work which He had done. 3 Then God blessed the seventh day and sanctified it, because in it He rested from all His work which God had created and made."

God rested because all of his work had been completed and sanctified the seventh day for humanity's benefit. The concept of rest is common in ancient near eastern literature. A god's rest is done in a temple generally as a result of established order. Although the god disengaged from creation, engages in maintaining order as the god takes place at the helm. The building of the cosmos is configured in temple building and dedication terms. It parallels building of temples for divine rest. The temple was at the center of the universe an a microcosmos. The temple was architectual embodiment of the cosmic mountain. Ps. 78:69 communicates the idea the temple was based on the universe. Ideas like this are found in Mesopotamian literature where temples are compared to the heavens and earth. Temples are given cosmic location and function.

Genesis 2:5-6 "5 before any plant of the field was in the earth and before any herb of the field had grown. For the Lord God had not caused it to rain on the earth, and there was no man to till the ground; 6 but a mist went up from the earth and watered the whole face of the ground."

Notice that in chapter 1, God had already created plants and herbs, but they had not yet grown. Chapter 2 focuses on the beginning of agriculture via. irrigation and planting strategies.

Genesis 2:7 "7 And the Lord God formed man of the dust of the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living being."

"Form" in Hebrew, comes from the word "yatsar." It gives the idea of molding into form as a potter molds clay into pottery. God took the earth and molded it in the image of man as a potter does when he forms pottery.

Clay at its basic level is a combination of minerals acts as a breeding lab for molecules and chemicals which were absorbed like a sponge. Clay forms a hydrogel, a mass of tiny spaces that soak up minerals, chemicals, and molecules from ther areas. Clay hydrogel gave a confinement for biomolecules and biochemical reactions. Scientists base their findings on synthetic hydrogels that replicated this phenomenon to an extent.

The root word for man is fire. What relationship do they have? In ancient times, fire was made with a "bow drill" and tinder. The tinder is any fine material such as dried grass or inner bark fibers. The bow drill had four parts - the fireboard, bow and string, rod and handle. The fireboard was made of a flat board with a v-shaped cut at the edge of the board. The bow and string is made similar to an archers bow. The rod is a round stick pointed at one end and rounded at the other. The handle is a flat round board.

Fine tinder, compressed into a ball, is laid on the ground. The fireboard is put on the tinder with the v-shape cut over the tinder. The string of the bow is wrapped once around the rod and the pointed end of the rod is set on the fireboard over the v-shaped cut. The handle is placed on top of the rod. One hand holds the handle while the other moves the bow back and forth in a sawing motion. This action causes the rod to spin back and forth on the fireboard.

As the rod spins on the fireboard, fine wood dust is shaved off the rod and deposited in the v-shape cut on top of the tinder. The friction of the two woods rubbing create heat causing the dust to become very hot. After a short time of working the fire drill back and forth, smoke will begin to rise from the heated dust. The fireboard is carefully removed leaving the pile of smoldering dust on the tinder. The tinder is picked up and enclosed around the dust and the fire maker blows on the dust increasing the heat. The dust then ignites the tinder creating fire.

Isaiah 64:8

"8 But now, O Lord,
You are our Father;
We are the clay, and You our potter;
And all we are the work [product] of Your hand."

The Hebrew word for dust is "`aphar." In this context, the best rendering of this word is "mud." Man became a living soul, a being with a body, mind, heart, intelligence, emotions, feelings, and a conscience.

Genesis 2:8-9

8 "The Lord God planted a garden eastward in Eden, and there He put the man whom He had formed. 9 And out of the ground the Lord God made every tree grow that is pleasant to the sight and good for food. The tree of life was also in the midst of the garden, and the tree of the knowledge of good and evil."

The Hebrew meaning of Eden is "Paradise." Man was made to enjoy the many blessings that God, the father has bestowed upon him. Interestingly, there were two trees put in the middle of the garden, the tree of knowledge of good and evil and the tree of life. A flourishing tree in a dry climate is a sign of water.

Sacred trees in ancient near eastern literature are associated with fertility and devotion to goddesses but also with power and divine sanction given to kings and dynasties. Trees had the potential to unite the divine with humans. Trees are regularly associated with life giving and blessing and knowledge. Occasionally, trees could be personified. Gardens were sacred places in the ancient near east. The expression "good and evil" is a merism for the state of all-embracing knowledge.

the lampstand symbolizes the tree of life.

“Then you shall make a lampstand of pure gold. The lampstand, its base and its shaft, are to be made of hammered work; its cups, its bulbs, and its flowers shall be of one piece with it. 32 Six branches shall go out from its sides; three branches of the lampstand from its one side and three branches of the lampstand from its other side. 33 Three cups shall be shaped like almond blossoms on the one branch, a bulb and a flower, and three cups shaped like almond blossoms on the other branch, a bulb and a flower—the same for six branches going out from the lampstand;

Ex. 25:34-35 "on the lampstand four cups shaped like almond blossoms, its bulbs and its flowers. 35 A bulb shall be under the first pair of branches coming out of it, and a bulb under the second pair of branches coming out of it, and a bulb under the third pair of branches coming out of it, for the six branches coming out of the lampstand."

"And he made for the house windows with beveled frames."

The garden joined Eden as water flowed from Eden and watered the garden. The garden more accurately looks like a park with pools, landscaping, watercourses, and paths winding among fruit and shade trees. It was common in palaces of the ancient world.

Genesis 2:10-14

10 "Now a river went out of Eden to water the garden, and from there it parted and became four riverheads. 11 The name of the first is Pishon; it is the one which skirts the whole land of Havilah, where there is gold. 12 And the gold of that land is good. Bdellium and the onyx stone are there. 13 The name of the second river is Gihon; it is the one which goes around the whole land of Cush. 14 The name of the third river is Hiddekel; it is the one which goes toward the east of Assyria. The fourth river is the Euphrates."

Eden was probably a hill or mountain evidenced by the river that flowed from it. This is a symbol of the cosmic mountain motif in creation myth.

These rivers exist and have found to this day. The precise location of Eden has not yet been found. The text uses familiar picture of fertile waters flowing from the seat of God.

The Euphrates and Tigiris rivers were among the most important in Mesopotamia. These rivers are associated with the Hebrews.

Gen. 15:18

"On that day the LORD made a covenant with Abram, saying, “To your descendants I have given this land, From the river of Egypt as far as the great river, the river Euphrates."

Dan. 10:1-6

"In those days, I, Daniel, had been mourning for three entire weeks. 3 I did not eat any tasty food, nor did meat or wine enter my mouth, nor did I use any ointment at all until the entire three weeks were completed. 4 On the twenty-fourth day of the first month, while I was by the bank of the great river, that is, the Tigris, 5 I raised my eyes and looked, and behold, there was a man dressed in linen, whose waist had a belt of pure gold of Uphaz. 6 His body also was like topaz, his face had the appearance of lightning, his eyes were like flaming torches, his arms and feet like the gleam of polished bronze, and the sound of his words like the sound of a multitude."

This is a type of the Gihon river.

Ez. 47:1-12

"Then he brought me back to the door of the house; and behold, water was flowing from under the threshold of the house toward the east, for the house faced east. And the water was flowing down from under, from the right side of the house, from south of the altar. 2 And he brought me out by way of the north gate and led me around on the outside to the outer gate, by the way facing east. And behold, water was spurting out from the south side.

3 When the man went out toward the east with a line in his hand, he measured a thousand cubits, and he led me through the water, water reaching the ankles. 4 Again he measured a thousand and led me through the water, water reaching the knees. Again he measured a thousand and led me through the water, water reaching the hips. 5 Again he measured a thousand; and it was a river that I could not wade across, because the water had risen, enough water to swim in, a river that could not be crossed by wading. 6 And he said to me, “Son of man, have you seen this?” Then he brought me back to the bank of the river. 7 Now when I had returned, behold, on the bank of the river there were very many trees on the one side and on the other. 8 Then he said to me, “These waters go out toward the eastern region and go down into the Arabah; then they go toward the sea, being made to flow into the sea, and the waters of the sea become fresh. 9 And it will come about that every living creature which swarms in every place where the river goes, will live. And there will be very many fish, for these waters go there and the others become fresh; so everything will live where the river goes. 10 And it will come about that fishermen will stand beside it; from Engedi to Eneglaim there will be a place for the spreading of nets. Their fish will be according to their kinds, like the fish of the Great Sea, very many. 11 But its swamps and marshes will not become fresh; they will be left for salt. 12 And by the river on its bank, on one side and on the other, will grow all kinds of trees for food. Their leaves will not wither and their fruit will not fail. They will bear fruit every month because their water flows from the sanctuary, and their fruit will be for food and their leaves for healing.”

1 Ki 1:45 "..Zadok the priest and Nathan the prophet have anointed him [Solomon] king in Gihon, and they have come up from there rejoicing, so that the city is going wild. This is the noise which you have heard.."

These symbolize the precious stones in Gen. 2.

Ex. 28:6-20

6 “They shall also make the ephod of gold, of violet, purple, and scarlet material, and fine twisted linen, the work of the skilled embroiderer. 7 It shall have two shoulder pieces joined to its two ends, so that it may be joined. 8 The skillfully woven band of its overlay, which is on it, shall be like its workmanship, of the same material: of gold, of violet and purple and scarlet material and fine twisted linen. 9 And you shall take two onyx stones and engrave on them the names of the sons of Israel, 10 six of their names on the one stone and the names of the remaining six on the other stone, according to their birth. 11 As a jeweler engraves a signet, you shall engrave the two stones according to the names of the sons of Israel; you shall set them in filigree settings of gold. 12 And you shall put the two stones on the shoulder pieces of the ephod, as stones of memorial for the sons of Israel, and Aaron shall carry their names before the Lord on his two shoulders as a memorial. 13 And you shall make filigree settings of gold, 14 and two chains of pure gold; you shall make them of twisted cord work, and you shall put the corded chains on the filigree settings.

15 “You shall make a breastpiece of judgment, the work of a skilled embroiderer; like the work of the ephod you shall make it: of gold, of violet, purple, and scarlet material, and fine twisted linen you shall make it. 16 It shall be square and folded double, a span in length and a span in width. 17 And you shall mount on it four rows of stones; the first row shall be a row of ruby, topaz, and emerald; 18 and the second row a turquoise, a sapphire, and a diamond; 19 and the third row a jacinth, an agate, and an amethyst; 20 and the fourth row a beryl, and an onyx, and a jasper; they shall be set in gold filigree."

Genesis 2:15-17

"15 Then the Lord God took the man and put him in the garden of Eden to tend and keep it. 16 And the Lord God commanded the man, saying, “Of every tree of the garden you may freely eat; 17 but of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil you shall not eat, for in the day that you eat of it you shall surely die.”

Temple complexes also sometimes featured gardens that symbolized the fertility provided for by the deity. Gardens with a fishpond, waterfowl to zoos of giraffes, elephants, and bears, wild and tamed were also kept. Lush gardens with grapevines were kept.

The work Adam did is the same work of the priests (Num. 7:5).

Did Adam have free will? Up to this point, YHWH gave him commands. YHWH didn't offer him choices. Is verse 17 a prediction, a warning, or both? Did YHWH create Adam with the ability or inclination to sin? If so, why?

Genesis 2:18-20

"18 And the Lord God said, “It is not good that man should be alone; I will make him a helper comparable to him.”19 Out of the ground the Lord God formed every beast of the field and every bird of the air, and brought them to Adam to see what he would call them. And whatever Adam called each living creature, that was its name. 20 So Adam gave names to all cattle, to the birds of the air, and to every beast of the field. But for Adam there was not found a helper comparable to him."

Ezer or help-meet was normally used in a military context and meant "to be strong and save." Kenegdo means to be opposite or alongside the man. Beasts of the field and livestock usually refer to agricultural animals.

When YHWH said "its not good for man to be alone..", he meant "it's not functional for man to be alone.." Men and women were made to live in harmony to fill the earth.

The act of naming things denotes the character, purpose, and destiny of a particular person or thing, in this situation, animals. Throughout all of creation, the act of naming exhibits the ownership of the particular thing being named by person giving the name. This shows that Man was never meant to be alone throughout his existence.

This passage is odd. Why did YHWH say "its not good for man to be alone. I will make a help meet for him.." then have him name animals and create the woman? Why not say "its not good for man to be alone. I will make a help meet for him.." and jump right into the creation of the woman? Flesh means the meat of animals or meat of animals or man. The text says "for Adam, there was not a suitable help meet.." What relation did that have with the animals? I think YHWH's goal was to get Adam to realize he was not only different from the animals but he had no suitable help meet. Adam reached that conclusion after studying the animals in various aspects as he named them. Note, YHWH named some of his creations when he made them. Note, YHWH didn't name animals during the creation week. YHWH leaves that task to Adam. The act of naming his partner is related to him naming the animals and discerning who was of his king from those who were not.

The beast in Gen. 2 is singular and feminine. Bird is masculine singular. Livestock is singular feminine. It says "for Adam, no suitable helper was found.." but who was doing the finding? YHWH, Adam, both, or neither? The Qal in this Hebrew verb is active. Why did YHWH say its not good or functional for man to be alone? Probably because if there were no women and only animals, men would be inclined to sexually deviant behavior such as sex with animals. Scientists found a link between loneliness and sexual abuse. The text suggests Adam "experimented" with animals in various ways before realizing the woman was a suitable help meet for him. Note YHWH says he would make a help meet for Adam then brings animals for him to name. After he names the animals, he names his help meet the woman.

Anthony L. Podberscek and Andrea M Beetz’s Bestiality and Zoophilia: Sexual Relations with Animals cites about a half-dozen studies examples in prehistoric art that conclude there’s “no doubt that our prehistoric ancestors enjoyed frequent and pleasurable... relations with animals.”

A 25,000-year-old “engraved bone rod” found in a cave in France depicts “a lioness licking the opening of..." human genitalia. An Iron Age cave painting in Italy “portrays a man inserting his [member] into... a donkey.” Experts believe that some of these explicit drawings even had a key connection to some prehistoric clans' familial lineage. This is probably what the story of Adam and Eve addressed to an extent.

Genesis 2:21-25

21 "And the Lord God caused a deep sleep to fall on Adam, and he slept; and He took one of his ribs, and closed up the flesh in its place. 22 Then the rib which the Lord God had taken from man He made into a woman, and He brought her to the man.

23 And Adam said:

“This is now bone of my bones
And flesh of my flesh;
She shall be called Woman,
Because she was taken out of Man.”

24 Therefore a man shall leave his father and mother and be joined to his wife, and they shall become one flesh.

25 And they were both naked, the man and his wife, and were not ashamed."

Literally, Adam said "at last!" or "this time.." What about the other times?

This passage is the only complete account of the creation of man and woman in all of near-eastern literature. Comparing the creation account of Genesis and other accounts in terms of literacy, Genesis provides the most objective and honest depiction of creation.

In Mesopotamia, assigning of function is referred to as decreeing of destiny. Decreeing destiny by giving a name is an act of authority. In the ancient world, when a king conquered another country, the king he put on the throne was given a new name. In other cases, giving a name is an act of discernment in which the name is determined by the circumstances. Adam realizes there's no social equal to share his function and place. When a king named a possession or person, he laid claim to ownership over the possession or person.

In Hebrew, Adam's sleep was a trance.

Isa. 29:10

"For the Lord has poured over you a spirit of deep sleep,

He has shut your eyes—the prophets;

And He has covered your heads—the seers."

Adam's rib should be accurately translated as side.

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There are many ways the universe is a type of the Temple of Jerusalem. The lights of the menorah helped the priests perform their duties. The windows of heaven could represent the windows of the Temple. 1 Ki. 6:4

"And he made for the house windows with beveled frames.."

The mountains were symbols of pillars like the earth's pillars and symbolize the pillars of the Temple (Job 9:6.)

Is there evidence a God created the universe? Did life happen by chance? Is our universe fined tuned for life? Dr. Stephen Meyer explains chance generates unspecified arrangements but not specified arrangements. Chance doesn't produce information. Even if a single celled organism arose by chance, the probability it would become a more complex creature by chance is very low considering all of the factors.

The probability life in the universe could've arisen by chance might be lower when we consider other universes where there may be no life. In fact, the existence of parallel universes eliminates chance as an explanation for the universe. Even if there's life that is very different than our own in other universes, it begs the question - why is life different?

Physicist Leon M. Lederman said 137 is not only the inverse of the fine-structure constant, but also related to the probability that an electron will emit or absorb a photon. It also "contains the crux of electromagnetism (the electron), relativity (the velocity of light), and quantum theory (Planck's constant). It would be less unsettling if the relationship between all these important concepts turned out to be one or three or maybe a multiple of pi. But 137?" It "shows up naked all over the place", meaning scientists on any planet in the universe using whatever units they have for charge or speed, and whatever their version of Planck's constant may be, will all come up with 137, because it is a pure number."

"The amount of energy that an oscillator could have is discrete, like rungs on a ladder," Schlamminger says. "The energy levels are separated by h times f, where f is the frequency of the photon — a particle of light — an electron would release or absorb to go from one energy level to another."

"Energy is quantized..Only a certain amount of energy is allowed." Planck's constant defines the amount of energy a photon can carry according to the frequency of the wave in which it travels.

Electromagnetic radiation and elementary particles both function as waves and particles as Fred Cooper, a professor, explained. "The fundamental constant which connects these two aspects of these entities is Planck's constant. Electromagnetic energy cannot be transferred continuously but is transferred by discrete photons of light whose energy E is given by E = hf, where h is Planck's constant, and f is the frequency of the light."

If Planck's constant was drastically a bigger or smaller number, all the world around us would be completely different. There are other constants and variables showing our universe is fine tuned for life. If the earth is too far from the sun. the earth would freeze. If the earth is too close, the earth would be too hot for life to exist. Since chance is a highly unlikely explanation for a fine tuned universe, someone or something had to have made the universe this way.

Was that something or someone conscious? Light is a wave and a particle. When you shoot a single photon at the double slits, it still forms an interference pattern. It’s as if one photon travels through both slits at the same time. Just by observing the double-slit experiment, the behavior of the photons changes. The concept behind the double-slit experiment is even if the photons are sent through the slits one at a time, there’s still a wave present to make the interference pattern. The wave is a wave of probability because the experiment is set up so scientists don’t know which of the two slits any single photon will pass through. If they try to find out by setting up detectors in front of each slit to determine which slit the photon really goes through, the interference pattern doesn’t show up at all. This happens even if they try setting up the detectors behind the slits. No matter what the scientists do to observe the photons, the interference pattern fails to emerge. This means observing a photon can change events that have already happened. Can consciousness affect the physical realm? Is consciousness necessary for the universe's existence?

According to biocentrism, consciousness is theorized to have created the universe. Is that consciousness what people would call God?

Is there scientific evidence for Adam and Eve?

Y-Chromosomal Adam and Mitochondrial Eve are Scientific theories proving that we came from common ancestors.

In 1950, Crick and Watson, another string of DNA was found outside of the Nucleus, very unusual since all the rest of the DNA had 46 chromosomes are inside the nucleus. This was known as Mitochondrial DNA, the building for Mitochondrian, the power-plant for a cell. It has the same double helix as other DNA. When an egg is fertilized inside the woman's womb, 23 Chromosomes go through the cell wall, into the nucleus, to join with the 23 Chromosomes in the egg, creating 23 pairs. Outside of the Chromosomes, the rest of the egg and it's make up are made by the woman. This means that about 99.99% of the Mitochondrial DNA is inherited by the mother only. Because of this, there is no genetic mixing. The Mitochondrial DNA in a family and in past grandparents are the same, enabling us to trace them to a common ancestor. A study done in the 1980's expected to find many family trees, possibly explaining different races. Women from all races and continents were tested on. In 1987, the results were that although minor mutations existed, there was a single ancestor from which all people descended from. A unique pair of the nucleus determines our sex. An XX pair of chromosomes would be a woman, while the XY would be a man. During fertilization, the egg can have only an X chromosome as that is all a woman has, the man can give an X or Y chromosome, determining the sex of the baby. Since the Y chromosome is only inherited by the father, the same logic can be applied to determine if we came from a common ancestor. Different men from different continents were tested and the results were that all of them had a Y chromosome.

Africans were placed in one branch and on-Africans were placed in another. Africans started lower in a computer generated tree of recent human evolution. This is because the differences between the individuals was greater than other groups. The presence of Africans with non-African meant that there was a common african ancestor in the non-african branch. The group which has the most genetic mutations and changes must be the oldest.

Mitochondrial Eve and Y-Chromosomal Adam were thought to have lived thousands of years apart, but a new study shows that they lived around the same time after all. When the overall population size doesn't change, men typically have 1 son. Evolution predicts that for any given man, there is a high probability that his paternal life will end. All of his male descendants will have inherited a Y-Chromosome from other men. It's highly probable that at some point in the past, all men have except one had a Y-Chromosome and they are now extinct. Modern descendants would then have that same Y-Chromosome from Y-Chromosomal Adam. Comparable studies later showed that Adam, the common ancestor of the portion of the Y-Chromosome passes from father to son, lived 100,000 years ago. Carlos Bustamente, population geneticist at Stanford California led the latest studies, showing that polygamy could explain the age gap between Adam and Eve. The calculation of when Adam and Eve lived depends on the number of breeding adults in a population. Polygamy reduces the number of males passing their Y-Chromosome, skewing the estimate. He and his team sequenced the Y-Chromosomes of 69 males worldwide and uncovered 9,000 previously unknown DNA sequence variations. Using these variations, they found that Adam lived between 120,000 and 156,000 years ago. Comparable analysis of the same men's mtDNA suggest Eve living 99,000 and 148,000 years ago (2). Paolo Francalacci, population geneticist of Italy came to a similar conclusion by studying the Y-Chromosome of 1,200 men from Sardinia. The team identified 7,000 previously unknown Y-Chromosome variations and used that detail to create their own molecular clock. The clock helped pinpoint key events in Sardinian history, such as the rise of Neolithic populations and arrival of Africans part of the Roman slave trade. It suggested Adam lived 180,000-200,000 years ago, like Eve's age (3).Francalacci says the differences between the two study estimates of Adam's age could be due to different populations studied and how molecular clocks were calculated. Bustamente says the 2 parents match up well.

In recent years, many population geneticists focused on interpreting the rest of the genome, the autosomes, since it provided a richer, more complex picture. However, the latest studies suggest that the Y-chromosome is useful for studying human history. Bustamente and his team say that the chromosome gains a mutation every 125 years, allowing geneticists to tell when 2 closely related populations split or how closely related cousins are.

Michael Hammer, population geneticist at the university of Arizona reported the discovery of an African American family who's Y-Chromosome didn't seem to directly descend from Adam (4). The Y-chromosome came from an old species of human interbreeding with humans thousands of years ago.


2. Poznik, G. D. et al. Science 341, 562–565 (2013).

3. Francalacci, P. et al. Science 341, 565–569 (2013).

4. Mendez, F. L. et al. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 92, 454–459 (2013).


Is there evidence for the garden of Eden?

Between 30,000 and 6000 B.C, climate varied. From 15,000 B.C, rainfall decreased. Faced with dry weather, the palaeolithic population migrated to the fertile crescent north along the tigirs and Euphrates, west to the moist Mediterranean coast, south to the nile and east to the Indus river valley. Others were tired from the long trip in sever conditions of central arabia and kept going.

From 6000 to 5000 B.C, following a long stretch period called the neololithic wet phase when rains began to fall again on the gulf region, the reaches of eastern and northeastern saudi arabia and southwestern iran became fertile again. Populations came back to where the four rivers ran and there was rainfall on the plains. Animal bones in the plains of Arabia show that it had many animals. Thousands of stones show that there were hunters around dry lakes and rivers which were then full of water. They were even found in the empty quarter of Saudi Arabia. The land was a paradise. Agriculture gradually developed from along the Mediterranean coast in today's iran and iraq as a group of hunter-gatherers to agriculturists. People from central Arabia going back to the southern Mesopotamian plain, found it already resettled by agriculturists.

Since this process happened before writing was invented, there was no record of the disturbances in evolution. Traditional values, life-styles, the kind of clans/tribes that existed are unknown. The hunter-gatherers, they could join the agriculturists. It is believed that in the Tigris and Euphrates valley and in northern Arabia, the place of hunter-gatherers, flooding was in less hospitable regions. They were faced with more skilled humans who knew how to breed and raise animals. They made distinctive pottery and could settle in clustered groups. It is believed that they are a southern Mesopotamian group and culture known as the Ubaid. They founded the oldest of the Mesopotamian cities, Eridu about 5000 B.C. Through Eridu and other cities like Ur and Uruk were found a century ago, the Ubaidian presence came down along the coast of Kuwait and Saudi Arabia has been known for a little more than a decade, when vestiges of their settlements, graves, and pottery appeared. In Saudi Arabia, the Ubaidians were discovered.

The term Eden or Edin appears in Sumer, the Mesopotamian region that produced the first written language in the 3rd Millineum B.C. Eden means fertile plain. The word "Adam" means settlement of the plain. Both were set down in Sumerian as well as other places, but they are not originally Sumerian. A pre-Sumerian people was found to name rivers, cities, and trades like potter anti-coppersmith before the Sumerians appeared.

The proto-Euphratans may have been Ubaidians. Existing names were then translated into Sumerian ones. Eden was then written. Adam may have been a hunter-gatherer in the garden of Eden and his disobedience was seeking independence from God by using his knowledge to decide what is good and evil.

It may be possible that the ubaidians sailed across Arabia, finding the east coast of Eden, heard the story of Eden being drowned, and recorded it as part of their own story. The Sumerians may have then took it and adopted it to their own mythology.

Zarins traces the location of the garden of Eden to a collision of a head. The Garden of Eden was located east of Israel. The Tigris and Euphrates still flowed through the land. Pison was in the land of Havilah which is found in the biblical table of nations. There was once a fossil river which ran through northern Arabia and is now dry beds which are called Wadi Riniah and Wadi Batin. Gihon was difficult to locate and further south of Africa. Zarins believe that Gihon is now the Karun river which rises in Iran, flowing to the Gulf. Karun was once a prennial river until it was dammed and contributed to most of sediment forming of the Delta at the Persian Gulf's head. The Garden of Eden is then theorized to be at the head of the Gulf at a time when all 4 rivers joined and flowed through an area above the Gulf. It is interpreted that the 4 rivers in Genesis go upstream into 1, watering the Garden. It's suggested that the land of Kush refers to Kashu or the Kashuites in 1500 B.C, people who conquered Mesopotamia and prevailed until 900 B.C. The Hebrews then heard their words and traditions, using the terms "Eden" and 'Adam."

Ancient Hebrew concept of the universe is quite different from modern scientific viewpoints.

Ancient Hebrew concept of the universe is quite different from modern scientific viewpoints.

While Gen. 1 and 2 are often symbolic, they can be scientifically verified to some degree. Gen. 1 and 2 aren't completely in chronological order because the authors purposefully rearranged the order to make a theological point. Nonetheless, the order and language of creation in Gen. 1 closely resembles that of modern scientific theories.


The universe was originally a very hot and energetic, that particles did not exist. The forces that are in existence merged together, forming one unified force. Space expanded because of the immense energies involved and over time, these energies cooled down. Forces then condensed into one status then another repeatedly and finally, particles formed. A universe of matter then formed. Large-scale clusters such as stars and galaxies emerged.


This was primeval earth in it's earliest form. Our planet was one an inhospitable and uninhabitable rock full of volcanic activity. Earth was rich in sulphides that stopped advanced organisms from forming, such as fish and mammals.

It's creation began probably began when the violent death of a star called a supernova occurred. During this gigantic explosion, most of it's dying matter blasted into space. The expansion compressed molecules of gas and microscopic grains of dust nearby, forming a gigantic rotating cloud called the solar nebula. The gravitational pull between the molecules and grains made the cloud contract and as the nebula contracted, it spun faster and formed into a disk. Most of the material in the solar nebula went towards the center. This central mass grew dense and hot enough to for hydrogen atoms to begin fusing to helium atoms, the basis of nuclear fusion. The central mass became a star and sun. Dust gathered together with gas material, later forming a cluster of rocks and ultimately, forming the planet earth.


Scientists believe that after the earth formed, it crashed into a planet. The impact sent a cloud of vaporized rock out of it's surface and around it's orbit. The cloud cooled and formed a ring of small bodies when then struck together, creating the moon. The immense heat would have destroyed the earth and the moon, however many years afterwards, the earth would be as hot as the sun for 10,000 years. Both the earth and moon cooled to the point where light silicate rocks formed on earth's surface, thus forming the earth's crust. volcanoes formed and debris constantly hit the earth. A magma ocean was then made. Gases in the atmosphere emerged.

Some suggest that the comets brought frozen gases to the earth and formed the earth's atmosphere transported by water.

Water is likely to have been frozen and the earth contained little oxygen.

Stromatolites can tell us clues on the history of earth's ancient history.