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Exodus: Major Stories and What We Learn About Them

Rev. Margaret Minnicks is an ordained Bible teacher. She writes many articles that are Bible lessons.


Remember at the end of Genesis, Jacob's sons and their families joined their brother, Joseph, in Egypt. The families began to grow to great numbers. Pharaoh became fearful that they would end up taking over. Therefore, he made them slaves and required all male babies to be drowned in the Nile River.

Story of Moses

Jochebed kept her baby with her as long as she could. When she could not hide him any longer, she made a basket for him and put him in the river hoping he would not drown. Jochebed sent her daughter to the river to watch to see what would happen to her baby brother. When Pharaoh's daughter went to the river, she saw the baby and took him as her own. Seeing Miriam there, she asked if she knew someone who could nurse the baby. Miriam recommended the baby's own mother. They named the baby boy Moses because he was drawn out of the water.

Moses grew up in the palace, and one day he saw an Egyptian beating a Hebrew slave. He killed the Egyptian and buried him in the sand. When the wind blew the sand off the body, Moses fled to Midian at the age of 40. He got married there and worked for his father-in-law, Jethro, tending sheep on the backside of the mountain. After 40 years, he saw a bush burning but it did not go out. That's when he realized it was God in the bush calling him.

God commanded Moses to go down to Egypt to set the slaves free. Moses gave God five different excuses why he could not go. Every time God had an answer for Moses to assure him that God would be with him. When Moses said no one would listen to him because he stuttered, God said he would send Moses' brother Aaron to be Moses' mouthpiece.

When Moses returned to Egypt, a different pharaoh was in charge and not the one who was there and was kind to Joseph and his family. The new pharaoh refused to let the Hebrews leave. Before Moses arrived, they were forced to make bricks out of straw. After Moses arrived with a plan to deliver them, Pharaoh forced the slaves to make the same number of bricks without straw.

Two Sets of Tens

There are two sets of familiar tens in the Book of Exodus.

  1. Ten Plagues in Egypt
  2. Ten Commandments

God placed the ten plagues on the Egyptians to punish them for not letting the Hebrew slaves leave. God displayed His power and judgment.

God gave Moses ten commandments on two tablets to govern the people. They need guidance now that they were no longer slaves.

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Ten Plagues

God allowed ten plagues to fall on the Egyptians, but they not affect the Hebrews. The tenth plague was the death of the firstborn of everything, including children and animals. That's when Pharaoh let the Hebrews leave.

God caused the Red Sea to dry up so the Hebrews could cross over on dry land. When Pharaoh's men on their chariots went after the Israelites, God caused the water to come back and they all drowned.


Ten Commandments

The Israelites wandered in the desert for 40 years because of their murmuring and complaining. Moses was on Mt. Sinai for 40 days and 40 nights with God, and God gave Moses tablets with the Ten Commandments on them to govern the people. The people were out of control when Moses came down from the mountain. Moses became angry and threw the tablets on the ground, and the two tablets broke into pieces. Then Moses went back up on the mountain for 40 more days to get a new set of tablets from God.

The Ten Commandments are found in two places in the Bible. They are in Exodus 20:2-17 and Deuteronomy 5:6-21. The first four commandments instruct people on how to live with God. The last six commandments tell people how to live with other people.

As the people wandered in the wilderness heading toward the Promised Land, they could only travel when the cloud moved by day and the pillar of fire moved at night. It took them 40 years to get to the Promised Land that should have taken them only eleven days.

  • Ten: The Number of Divine Order
    Ten is one of the four perfect numbers in the Bible that denotes completion or perfection. Three, seven, and twelve all mean completion and perfection. Ten is the number that represents divine order.
  • Moses' Excuses and God's Assurances
    When God called Moses from the burning bush, Moses gave God five distinct excuses. For each excuse Moses gave, God gave Moses His assurance.


charlie from From Kingdom of God living on Planet earth in between the oceans on July 28, 2018:

short and sweet,

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