Skip to main content

Egyptian God, Amon(amen) the Invisible Creative Power - Hidden From View: Akhnaton, Moses and the Origins of Monotheism

  • Author:
  • Updated date:
Amoun also known as Amon, Ammon, Amun and Amen. Egytian God known as 'king of the gods" and "Lord of Heaven," Nome God of Thebes and father of Khonsu. The Romans identified him with Jupiter

Amoun also known as Amon, Ammon, Amun and Amen. Egytian God known as 'king of the gods" and "Lord of Heaven," Nome God of Thebes and father of Khonsu. The Romans identified him with Jupiter

Amun(Amen) was a deity in Egypt who became the patron deity Thebes and one of the most important deities in Ancient Egypt

Amun(Amen) was a deity in Egypt who became the patron deity Thebes and one of the most important deities in Ancient Egypt

The Statue of Amen, the Hidden One, from the Luxor Museum in Egypt

The Statue of Amen, the Hidden One, from the Luxor Museum in Egypt

Amen-Ra is the living force that dwells around all living things and lives within all beings. He is also the Father of of the Gods and the Ruler of the Universe who constructed himself out of Chaos(NuN); [Big Bang]

Amen-Ra is the living force that dwells around all living things and lives within all beings. He is also the Father of of the Gods and the Ruler of the Universe who constructed himself out of Chaos(NuN); [Big Bang]

Picture of Amen Ra at Abu Simbel

Picture of Amen Ra at Abu Simbel

Amunet, (also spelled Amomet, Amaunet, Amentet, Amentit, Imentet, Imentit, and Ament) the female form of the originally androgynous god, Amun., was the deificiation of the primodial concept of Air, in the Ogdoad cosmogony

Amunet, (also spelled Amomet, Amaunet, Amentet, Amentit, Imentet, Imentit, and Ament) the female form of the originally androgynous god, Amun., was the deificiation of the primodial concept of Air, in the Ogdoad cosmogony

Statue of Queen Mut, the queen and wife of Amon/Amen-Ra

Statue of Queen Mut, the queen and wife of Amon/Amen-Ra

Isis: Egyptian Triple Goddess. Mother Goddess and bringer of life Passion: Life and Procreation

Isis: Egyptian Triple Goddess. Mother Goddess and bringer of life Passion: Life and Procreation

Khonsu was the son of Aoum, Amon or Amen and his mother was Mut and they formed the Theban triad of gods. He is represented as a royal child, wearing the side-plait  and carrying a crook and flail; he is shown with a falcon-head surrounded by a lunar

Khonsu was the son of Aoum, Amon or Amen and his mother was Mut and they formed the Theban triad of gods. He is represented as a royal child, wearing the side-plait and carrying a crook and flail; he is shown with a falcon-head surrounded by a lunar

The Goddess APIT

The Goddess APIT

The god Amsu

The god Amsu

A younger-looking Akhnaton bust

A younger-looking Akhnaton bust

Akhenaton in a typical El Amarna Art style. His face is long and narrow, his shoulders narrow and hips wide.. Many see a feminine form in his body, but it's not known if this was an expression for a fruitful sun, and whether his body was like this.

Akhenaton in a typical El Amarna Art style. His face is long and narrow, his shoulders narrow and hips wide.. Many see a feminine form in his body, but it's not known if this was an expression for a fruitful sun, and whether his body was like this.

Akhenaton

Akhenaton

Akhenaton's wife, Queen Nefertiti

Akhenaton's wife, Queen Nefertiti

Queen Nefertiti

Queen Nefertiti

Akhenaton and Nefertiti entertaining Queen Tiye

Akhenaton and Nefertiti entertaining Queen Tiye

Queen Tjye, the favorite wife of Amenhotep III recently found at Luxor

Queen Tjye, the favorite wife of Amenhotep III recently found at Luxor

Queen Tiye was an African,beautiful, Intelligent and inlfuential leader and ruler of Ancient Egypt

Queen Tiye was an African,beautiful, Intelligent and inlfuential leader and ruler of Ancient Egypt

Queen Tiye and Tutankhamen's profile

Queen Tiye and Tutankhamen's profile

Scroll to Continue
Black granite statue of Queen Tiye, mother of Akhenaton. This statue features a standing Queen Tiye wearing a wig and a cobra-decorated crown.

Black granite statue of Queen Tiye, mother of Akhenaton. This statue features a standing Queen Tiye wearing a wig and a cobra-decorated crown.

Tell El Amarna - Deir Mawas 280 miles south of Cairo. This was the new capital city founded by Akhanaton Tell El Amarna was formerly known as Akhenaten. The word Amarna, came from the Bedouin clan that settled in this village

Tell El Amarna - Deir Mawas 280 miles south of Cairo. This was the new capital city founded by Akhanaton Tell El Amarna was formerly known as Akhenaten. The word Amarna, came from the Bedouin clan that settled in this village

Tel Amarna Estate

Tel Amarna Estate

An artist  Sketch of how the Tell El Amarna complex looked like

An artist Sketch of how the Tell El Amarna complex looked like

Scarab of Thutmose IV

Scarab of Thutmose IV

Amenhotep III and Queen Tiye at the Upwawet Exhibit, at the Grand Egyptian Museum, near the Pyramids at Giza

Amenhotep III and Queen Tiye at the Upwawet Exhibit, at the Grand Egyptian Museum, near the Pyramids at Giza

Princess Meritaten [Merytaten], the wife of Smenkhkare, was daughter of King Akehenaton and Queen Nefertiti

Princess Meritaten [Merytaten], the wife of Smenkhkare, was daughter of King Akehenaton and Queen Nefertiti

Painted limestone relief with Merytaten offering mandrake fruit to her husband, Smenkhkare in the Berlin Museum

Painted limestone relief with Merytaten offering mandrake fruit to her husband, Smenkhkare in the Berlin Museum

This limestone relief found in the Royal Tomb at Amarna depicts Akhenaton, Nefertiti,and two of their daughters making an offering to the Sun-disk, Aten

This limestone relief found in the Royal Tomb at Amarna depicts Akhenaton, Nefertiti,and two of their daughters making an offering to the Sun-disk, Aten

Computer designed Tell el Amarna

Computer designed Tell el Amarna

A Ramake of Tutankhamun as to how he might have looked like as a person

A Ramake of Tutankhamun as to how he might have looked like as a person

From the sarcophagus of Tutankhamun found with his rich Loot in his Tomb.

From the sarcophagus of Tutankhamun found with his rich Loot in his Tomb.

EgyptianWall Painting of Moses

EgyptianWall Painting of Moses

Pharaoh Thutmose I and his daughter Thermuthis, who according to Hewish Hstorian Josephus, found Moses amongst the reeds, close to the Nile

Pharaoh Thutmose I and his daughter Thermuthis, who according to Hewish Hstorian Josephus, found Moses amongst the reeds, close to the Nile

An atfull depiction of Moses was found by the ladies.

An atfull depiction of Moses was found by the ladies.

Stature of Moses wearing Amons plumes

Stature of Moses wearing Amons plumes

Moses from the Tomb of Julius II. San Pietro in Vincoli, rome. Italy

Moses from the Tomb of Julius II. San Pietro in Vincoli, rome. Italy

Amoun - King of The Gods

"Am I now Your Enemy, just because I told you the truth" (Galatians 4:16)

Every time people say the Lords 'Prayer' at the end of their payers they add a one word salutation "Amen". "AMEN": The response to every Masonic Prayer as they say 'So mote it be-Amen'.

The word Amen signifies in Hebrew verily, truly, certainly. "Its proper place," says Gesenius, "is where one person confirms the words of another, and adds his wish for success to the others' vows." It is evident, then, that it is the brethren of the lodge, and not to the Master or Chaplain, who should pronounce the word. It is a response to the prayer.

The Talmudists have many superstitious notions in respect to this word, thus, in one treatise, (Uber Musar,) it is said that whoever pronounces it with fixed attention and devotion, to him the gates of Paradise will be opened; and again, "whosoever dwells upon it, pronouncing it distinctly and slowly, his life shall be prolonged." (AntiNewWorldOrder.Blogspot.com). Both of these sayings "Amen" and "So Mote it Be" are usually said at the closing of a spell, or ritual, and means "so as I will it, so shall it be done." In other words, it is an affirmation that the object of the speaker's desire will manifest into reality to and through Amon/Amen. To this day, the name of the Egyptian God, "Amen" is still recited at the end of prayers in both Jewish and Christian Religions. The Hebrews adopted the word and it passed into Christian use as "Amen". It is a petition for (the God - Amen) to fulfill our words."(Dr. Palo) Even if we were to grasp the excerpt above as to what it means, it does not answer the question as to where Amen Originates from. This means, it is important that we should investigate what the original meaning of Amen was and how and why it ended up as a one-word salutary comment at the end of the payer. It is also important to understand the true historical genesis and meaning of the word so that we can really understand why is it that we have a monotheistic religious culture and observance that traces its origins and existence as to Amen/Amon . These questions and queries are better explained by history and research as to what the historical origins of Amen and Monotheism are, and what role do these play, or are playing in todays' religious insights and perspectives and exhortations.

It is therefore important to earlier on to trace the origins of Amon(Amen). Historically the neolithic children of the Nile were the East Hamitic in East Africa; The later Egyptians were their descendants. The language of the Egyptians of the Egyptians was an East Hamitic dialect, as is spoken today by the natives between the Upper Nile and the Masai steppes. Egyptian skeletons, statues and countess pictures of Egyptians in their temples and monument show the same racial characteristics as those of the Nubians and the Nilotic clans, the brown-skinned hunters of the steppes and the savannah husbandmen of the Sudan. Therefore, Egypt was a great Kingdom created by Egyptians. ... Of African inspiration are the Pyramids, the Golden Burial Chambers, the Statues, Plastic, Temple Friezes and other great Egyptian works of Art. The Sphinx is an African monument, the Hieroglyphics are an African script, And Ammon, Isis, and Osiris are African Gods. So great was the achievement of the Africans in the Nile Valley that all the great men of ancient Europe journeyed there - the Philosophers Thales and Anixamader, the Mathematician Pythagorras, the statesman Solon and an endless stream of historians and geographers whose works are all based on Egyptian education to which their credit is due to them, for the conribution enlightening us about 'kmt', Herodotus' outstanding description of the Egyptians, to which the second volume of his history is entirely devoted, is a and still remains an excellent source of Egypt, though on its decline, still had the trappings of power and success characterized by past, and powerful Dynasties.. (Herbert Wendt)

For us to better understand the origins of Egyptian God Ammon as the Creator of the Universe, we will look even much more deeper into the idea and prevailing history of the day. For instance, Egyptian Sun worship was a most complex system, for the sun was known by several names, and its various attributes were differentiated and made objects of of divine worship. Olcott informs us as follows: "The Egyptians in the deification of the Sun, considered the luminary in its different aspects separating the light from the heat of the Sun, and the orb from the rays. Egyptian sun worship was therefore polytheistic, and several distinct deities were worshipped as Sun gods. Thus, there were Sun gods representing the physical orb, the intellectual Sun, the Sun considered as the source of heat, and the source of light, the power of the sun, the sun in the firmament, and the sun in his resting place." So that, the Egyptians, in their worship of the Sun, attributed its different physical qualities and material aspects to different gods within the Egyptian God Pantheons and God systems.

Therefore, it seems like that the greatest of the Nilotic Sun Gods was 'Ra' or 'Re', who was a personification of the physical Sun; so much so that "Ra" was the ordinary everyday Egyptian name for the Sun. Ra was part of a solar trinity, the other members being Osiris and Horus. As a solar divinity, Ra was usually pictured as a hawk-headed man, holding the regal scepte r in one hand and the crux ansata in the other. On his head was a globe or disk, around which a uraeus or asp was coiled, the serpent being emblematic of the power over life and death. The image of Ra and the disk on his head was generally painted red, since the deity was particularly associated with the heat of the midday sun. Osiris, on the other hand, was symbolic of the setting sun. Osiris, as a dweller among men, assumed the form of the bull, Apis . As a judge of the dead, he was depicted as a mummy of sacred blue color, armed with the rod of authority and the cross for life and adorned with the crown of Upper and Lower Egypt.

Ammon (Amen) or Ament

Another among the Egyptian solar divinities was Ammon(Amen), and he was the personification of the Sun after it had descended below the western horizon, and was thus 'hidden from sight'. Ammon was made in the image of a man with the head and horns of a ram, and his pictures and statues were painted blue, the sacred color of the source of life. In the Egyptian language, the word ram means concealment, and the solar God Amen(Ammon) was called the concealed one - which is an appropriate title for the sun as it had disappeared in the western sky and descended into the underworld. In Thebes, the cults of Ammon and Ra consolidated, and the Sun was worshipped under the name Amen-Ra.

Mr. George St. Clair directs our attention to a 'little group of deities' that stand apart form the rest: "These are "Amen", "Mut", and "Khonsu", often spoken of as the "Triad of Thebes", or the "Trintiy of Ethiopia". ... Budge tells us that the Theban triad had nothing to do with the "Book of the Dead," and from this we may suspect that they were either gods newly come up or gods of foreing derivation. For some good reason the orthodox Egyptian of the 'old school' kept them out of his sacred books. They were divinities of Thebes, and that city was hundreds of miles south of Heliopolis; they were the Trinity of Ethiopia and not of Egypt." Ethiopia's influence on Egypt is very important and will be looked into in the future.

Amen-Ra

Among the gods who were known to the Egyptians in very early times were Amen and his consort Ament, and their names are found in the Pyramid Texts, and in connexion with the twin lion-gods Shu and Tefnut, who are described as the two gods, who made their own bodies with the goddess Temt, the female counterpart of Tem. It is evident that even in the remote period of the Vth Dynasty, Amen and Ament were numbered among the primeval gods, if not s gods-in-chief certainly as subsidiary forms of some of them, and from the fact that they are mentioned immediately after the deities of "Primeval Matter" , Mau and Nen, who we may consider to be equivalents of the watery abyss from which all matter sprang(The Big Bang as explained by the Egyptians who say that 'all matter' originated from "Pimeval Matter" ), and immediately before Temt and Shu and Tefnut, as the writers of the Pyramid Texts assigned great antiquity to their existence. Of the attributes ascribed to Amen in the Ancient Empire is not known, but, if we accept the meaning of "hidden" which is given to his name, we can conclude that he was the personification of the 'hidden' and 'unknown' creative power which was associated with the Primeval Abyss gods in the creation of the world and all that is in it.[ italics mine] . The word or root "aimen" certainly means "what is hidden," "what is not seen," "what cannot be seen," and so forth; and, this fact is proved by scores of examples which maybe collected from texts of all periods. In hymns to Amen we often read that he is "hidden to his children," and "hidden to gods and men," and it has been stated that these expressions only refer to the "hiding," i.e., "setting" of the Sun each evening, and that they are only to be understood in a physical sense, and to mean nothing more than the 'disappearance of the god Amen for the sight of men' at the close of day. Now, not only is the god himself said to be "hidden," but his name is also "hidden," and his form, or similitude, is said to be unknown;" these statements show that "hidden" when applied to Amen,the great God, has reference to something more than the "sun which which has disappeared below the horizon," and that it indicates the God who cannot be seen with mortal eyes, and who is invisible, as well as inscrutable, to gods as well as men.In the times of the Ptolemic period, the name Amen appears to have been connected with the root men "to abide or to be permanent;" and one of the attributes which were applied to him was that of "eternal". (Wallis Budge) It is therefore becoming a bit clearer that the emergence of Amoun/Amon/Amen was mentioned earlier on amongst the Egyptians as they narrated their History as to the origins of Amon/Amen. Around the Vth Dynasty therefore, Amon/Amen was mentioned along with other god-heads from antiquity and with the deities of Primeval Matter.

Amoun is permanent is still permanent even today. He has been part of our human discourse and prayers for eons up to today. Per Ankh put it his way: "Yet another hint of an Egyptian influence in Christianity is the fact that even today, we still end prayers with the Word "Amen". Amen-Ra was the Chief God of the Egyptians. The Church's main tool for the conversion of the "pagans" was always the appropriation of the local religion's most Holy Days and Rituals. This allowed the locals to feel they were still worshiping the old Gods in the accustomed way." Robert Appleton in 1907 stated it thus: "Finally, we may note that the word "Amen" occurs in gnostic spells.... especially of Egyptian origin, and a sort of magical efficacy seems to have been attributed to this word. The practice of answering "Amen" at the end of prayers appears in the Canons of Hippolytus (No. 146) and in the Egyptian Church Order (p. 101)." According to Sir Lawrence Gardner in The Genesis of the Grail Kings": "The Israelites exiles from Egypt knew that Jehovah was not the same as the Egyptian God Aten, and so they presumed he must be the equivalent of the great State-god of Egypt to all prayers thereafter, and the name of that Egyptian God was "Amen". To this day, the name Amen is still recited at the end of prayers in both Jewish and Christian religions."Subtefuge says: "Isn't it strange that "Amen" was an ancient Egyptian God that was supposed to be very powerful, so much so that every prayer began and ended with his name." Funk and Wagnalls observe: "AMEN": In Egyptian Mythology, the mighty one (god) of life and procreation.... later identified with the Sun-god as the Supreme Deity of Egypt , and was called Amen-Ra." We read from the Coptic Prayers that: "The Egyptian Ruler, Akhenato, had the people worship in the temples of Amen-Ra, meaning God's Sun/Son. At the end of the services they would say "Amen", because they were sending a prayer to the gods through Amen-Ra, God's Sun/Son. Amen-Ra, served as a personal savior to them since the Sun gave them all life." Smith's Bible Dictionary gives this definition: "AMEN: An Egyptian divinity ... He was worshipped ... as Amen-Ra or 'Amen the Sun'." And Jerry Clifford asserts: "No other "God" of the Egyptians has left so indelible a stamp upon the world - as this first Father of the Egyptian Gods, known as Ammon, Amon and Amen, which means "THE ONE HIDDEN WITHIN,"Amen's spell is so mighty that over 20 centuries after his last Sanctuary was abandoned to the Desert, every Judeo-Christian prayer that is uttered - still whispers his name in closing." J.D. Roberts narrates: "When we did it ignorance, maybe God looked past that. But now that you know the truth, what will you do? will you continue to use the name of a pagan God to close your prayers? Is it too hard to change that now? Because you've been using the 'Amen' tradition for a long time - will you rationalize and justify why you keep on invoking the name of the Egyptian G, Amen? Will you a pastor or teacher to reassure you that "it's okay to say 'amen' - Or ... will you give thanks to God for revealing His truth and stop using the name of a "pagan" God? And in "The Final Reformation" Chris Koster states: "Again we can see how the "pagans" have been made welcome, been conciliated, by adopting the name of a "pagan" deity into the prayers of the Church [of Rome]. This deity became known as 'Amen-Ra', but he was only known as 'Amen' among the Thebans. Finally, J. Voss leaves us with a question to ponder upon: "By ending our prayers in 'amen'... one could very well ask, "Have we been misled to invoke the name of the Egyptian 'Sun-God' at the end of our prayers"?

It is interesting to begin to ponder on issues of prayer today and how it links the present and the ancient. The historical memory is fuzzy about the attributes, deeds and existence of Amon. But in the present day and for the foreseeable future, 'Amon' will always be a "Period" of our prayers and on our prayers. Therefore, it is important that we understand and know the how this story comes down to us from Father History. It is clear that, in our talking to "God", and pouring it all out to Him, we do so with the belief that whatever we ask of HIm and from Him, we wish that it be so, through 'Amon', by stating after our prayer, "Amen". It would also be to man's advantage to understand a God whom we cannot see, nor know his name and is also invisible to the Gods we are praying to, and also have an awareness of his existence which is said to be eternal and we salute him at the end of our prayers that he be our 'personal savior', because al things are possible only through him and must be known that in truth he exists. In order to understand know "Him"... "Amoun," Amon," "Ammon," or "Amen"..., we are informed by Budge that: "Ammon is represented in Five forms:

  1. As a man, when he is seen seated on a throne, and holding in one hand the sceptre, and in the other the symbol of "life;" in this form he is one of the nine deities who compose the company of the gods of Amen-Ra, the other eight being Ament, Nu, Nut, Hehui, Hehet, Kekui, Keket, and Hathor.
  2. As a man with the head of a frog, whilst his female counterpart Ament has the head of a uraeus.
  3. As a man with the head of a uraeus, whilst his female counterpart has the head of a cat.
  4. As an ape.
  5. As a lion couchant upon a pedestal.

Of the early history of the worship of Amen we know nothing, says Budge, but as far as evidence before us goes it appears not to have been general, and in fact, the only centre of it of any importance was the city of Thebes. In the XIIth Dynasty we find that a sanctuary and shrine were built in honor of Amen at Thebes in the northern quarter of the city which is called APT, with the addition of the feminine article 'T', the Copts derived their name for the city 'Tape', and from it comes the common name "Thebes." Over Apt, the quarter of the city there presided the goddess also called Apt, who was either the personification of it, or a mere local goddess to whom accident or design had given the same name as as the quarter; it is, however, most probable that the goddess was the spirit of personification of the place. In the reliefs on which she is represented we see her in the form of a woman holding the sceptre in her left hand, and "life, in her right hand.(See Picture in the gallery). Up to the time of the XIIth Dynasty, Amen was a god of no more than local importance, but as soon as the princes of Thebes conquered their rival claimants to the sovereignty of Egypt, and had succeeded in making their city a new capital of the country, their God, Amen, became a prominent god in Upper Egypt, and was probably under the that Dynasty that the attempt was made to assign to him the proud position which was afterwards claimed for him of "King of the Gods" As soon as the Theban prices became Kings of Egypt, their priests at once began to declare that their God was not only another form of the great creative Sun-god who had been worshipped for centuries at Annu, or Heliopolis, in the north of Egypt, under the names of 'Ra', 'Temu', 'Khepera', and Heru-khuti, but that all the attributes which were ascribed them were contained in him, and that he was greater than they. And as Thebes had become the cpital instead of Memphis, it followed as a matter of course that all the attributes of all the great gods of Memphis were contained in Amen also. Thus, by these means, the priests of Amen succeeded in making their god, both theologically and politically,the greatest of the Gods in the country.By the end of the XVIIth Dynasty, Amen had attained to an almost unrivalled position among the gods of the land. And when the royal devotees of in this Dynasty succeeded in expelling the Hyksos(The Shepherd Kings) of the XIIth Dynasty, and they carried war and conquest into Palestine and founded Egyptian cities there, the power and glory of Amen, their God, enabled them to carry out this difficult work of successful invasion, became extraordinarily great. Amen's Egyptian Priests began by asserting his equality with the other great gods of the old sanctuaries of Heliopolis, Kerakleopolis and other ancient cities, and finally they satisfied, or, at all events, attempted to do so, all worshipers of every form of the Sun-god Ra by adding his name to that of Amen, and thus forming a great god, who included within himself all the attributes of the primeval God Amen and of Ra. The highest conception of Amen-Ra under the XIXth and XXth Dynasties was that of an 'invisible', and 'creative' power which was the source of all life in heaven, and on earth, and in the great deep, and in the Underworld, and which made itself manifest under the form of Ra; but the Priests of Amen were not content with claiming that their God was one of the greatest of the deities of Egypt, for they proceeded to declare that there was no other god like him, and that he was the greatest of them all. (Budge) The most interesting with the attributes of Amnon/Amen, was that he was able to have all the qualities of the other gods from elsewhere, and still remain higher than them.

Hymns to Amon(Amen-Ra)

In this instance, we will review most of the "hymns' that give us a historical tabulation of the attributes of Amoun(Ammon, Amon, Amen-Ra/Re) that show us how he was raised above all the other gods and came to be called the "King of the Gods". For us to begin to read and understand the hymns of Amoun/Amon/Amen-Ra, maybe will aacquire and obtain a better and in-depth understanding of who we use as a salutation to our prayers; the one we use as a mediator between our gods and him; the one through whom we hope, in our prayers, in all languages, will be our saviour reading the hyms will help inform this need. The first of these occurs in the Papyrus of Hu-nefer, where it follows immediately after a hymn to Ra; this papyrus was written in the reign of Seti I., and it is interesting to observe that the two gods are addressed separately, and that the hymn to Ra precedes that to Amen-Ra. The Text reads:

"Homage to thee, O Amen-Ra, who dost rest upon Maat (Balance); as though passest over the heavens every face seeth thee. thou dost wax great as thy majesty doth advance, and "thy rays [shine] upon all faces. Thou art unknown, and thou tongue hath power to declare thy similitude; only thou thyself [canst do this]. Thou art One, even as is he that bringeth the tena" basket. Men praise thee in thy name, and swear by thee, for thou art lord over them. Thou hearest with thine ears and thou seest with thine eyes. Miilions of years have gone "over the world, and I cannot tell the number of those through which thou has passed.Thy "heart hath decreed a day of happiness in thy name of "Traveller." Thou dost pass over and "dost travel through untold spaces [requiring] millions and hundreds of thousands of years [to "pass over; thou passest through them in peace, and thou steerest thy way across the watery "abyss to the place which thou lovest; this thou doest in one little moment of time, and then "thou dost sink down and dost make an end of the hours." (Brit Mus., No. 9,901 sheet i.)

How far the XIXth Dynasty ascribed attributes to Amen-Ra represent those bestowed upon a god will never be known; but, the points chiefly dwelt upon are the unity, and the invisibility, and the long duration of the existence of the god; nothing is said about Amen-Ra being self- begotten and self-born, or of his great creative powers, or of his defeat of the serpent-fiend Nak, and it is quite clear that Hu-nefer drew sharp distinciton between the attributes of the gods. (Budge)

The following Hymn, which was probably written under the XXth or XXIst Dynasties, illustrates clearly the growth of the power of both Amen-Ra and is priests:

"Praise be to Amen-Ra, the Bull in Annu, the cief of all the gods, the beautiful god, the beloved one, the giver of life of all warmth to all beautiful cattle(Amen as referred to above as the Bull of Annu, was in recognition of Amon as the patron of cattle). Homage to thee, O Amen-Ra, lord of the thrones of the two lands, the governor of the Apts (i.e., Thebes, north and south), thou Bull of thy mother, who art chief in thy fields, whose steps re long, who art lord of the land of the South, who art lord of the Matchau peoples, and prince of Punt, and King of Heaven, and first born god of earth, and lord of things which exist, and stablisher of "creation, yea, stablisher of all creation. thou art One among the gods by reason of his seasons. Thou 'art the beautiful Bull of the company of the gods, thou art the chief of all the gods, thou art the lord of Maat, and the father of the gods, and the creator of men and women, and the maker of animals, and the lord of things that exist, nd the producer of the staff of life (i.e., wheat and barley), and the maker of the herb of the field which giveth life unto cattle.thou art the beautiful Sekhem wh wast made (i.e., begotten) by Ptah, and the beautiful Child who art beloved. The gods acclaim thee, O thou who art the maker of things which are below and of things which are above. Thou illuminest the two lands, and thou sailest over the sky in peace, O King of the South and North, Ra, whose word hath unfailing effect, who art over the two lands, thou mighty one of two-fold strength, thou lord of terror, thou Being above who makest the earth according to thy designs. Thy devices are greater and more numerous than those of any other god. The gods rejoice in thy beauties, and they ascribe praise unto thee in the great double house, and at thy risings in (or,from) the double house of flame. The gods love the smell of thee when thou comest from Punt (i.e., the spice land), thou eldest born of the dew,who comest from the land of the Matchau peoples, thou Beautiful Face, who comest from the Divine land (Neter-ta). The gods tremble at they feet when they recognize thy majesty as their lord, thou lord who art feared, thou Being of whom awe is great, thou Being whose souls are mighty, who hast possession of crowns, who dost make offerings to be abundant, and who dost make divine food." (tchefau)

"Adoration be to thee,O creator of the gods, who hast stretched out the heavens and made solid the earth. Thou art the untiring watcher, O Amsu-Amen or Min-Amen(See picture gallery), the lord of eternity, and the maker of everlastingness, and to thee adorations are paid as the governor of the apts. Thou hast two horns which endure, and thine aspects are beautiful, and thou art the lord of the ureret crown, and thy double plumes are lofty, thy tiara is one of beauty, and they white crown is lofty. The goddess Mehen, and the Uatchet,are about thy face, and the crowns of the South and North, and the Nemmes crown, and the helmet crown are thy adornments in they Temple. Thy face is beautiful and thou receivest the Atef crown, and thou art beloved of the South and the NOrth; thou receivest the crowns of the South and the North, and thou receivest the amensu sceptre, and thou art the lord of the makes sceptre, and of the whip(or flail). Thou art the beautiful Prince, who rises like the Sun with the White Crown, and thou art the lord of radiant light and the creator of brilliant rays. The gods ascribe praises unto thee. Thy flame maketh thine enemies to fall, and thine Eye overthroweth the Sebau fiends, and it driveth its spear through the sky into the serpent-fiend Nak and maketh it to vomit that which it had swallowed."

"Homage to thee, O Ra, thou lord of Maat, whose shrine is hidden, thou lord of the gods; thou art Khepera in thy boat, and when thou didst speak the word the gods sprang into being. Thou art Temu, who didst create beings endowed withreason; thou makest the color of the skin of one race to be different from that of another, but, however many may be the varieties of mankind, it is thou that makest them all to live. Thou hearest the prayer of him that is oppressed, thou art kind of heart unto him that calleth upon thee, thou deliverst him that is afraid from him that is violent of heart, and thou judgest between the strong and the weak. Thou art the lord of intelligence, and knowledge is that which proceedeth from thy mouth. The Nile cometh at thy will, and thou art the greatly beloved lord of the palm tree who makest mortals live. Thou makest every work to proceed, thou workest in the sky, and thou makest to come into being the beauties of the daylight; the gods rejoice in thy beauties, and their hearts live when they see thee. Hail . Ra, who art adored in the Apts, thou mighty one who risest in the shrine: O Ani,thou lord of the festival of the new moon, who makest the six days' festival and the festival of the last quarter of the moon. Hail, Prince, life, health and strength, thou lord of all the gods, whose appearances are in the horizon, thou Governor of the ancestors of Aukert (i.e., the Underworld), thou is hidden from thy children in thy name, 'Amen'."

"Hail to thee, O thou who art in peace, thou lord of joy of heart, thou crowned from, thou lord of the ureret crown, whose plumes are exalted, whose tiara is beautiful, whose White Crown is lofty, the gods love to look upon thee; the crowns of the South and North are established upon they brow. Beloved art thou as thou passest through the two lands, as thou sendest forth rays from thy two beautiful eyes. The dead are rapturous with delight when thou shinest. The cattle become languid when thou shinest in full strength; beloved art thou when thou art in the southern sky. thy beauties take possession of and carry away all hearts, and love for thee maketh all arms to relax, they beautiful form maketh the hands to tremble, and all hearts melt at the sight of thee."

"Hail, thou Form who art One, thou creator of all things; hail, thou ONLY ONE, thou maker of things which exist. men came forth from thy two eyes, and the gods sprang into being as the issue of they motuh. Thou makest the green herbs whereby cattle live, and the staff of life for the use of man. Thou makest the fish to live in the rivers, and the feathered fowl in the sky; thou givest the breadth of life to that which is in the egg, thou makest birds of every kind live, and likewise the reptiles that creep and fly; thou causest the rats to live in their holes, and the birds that are on every green tree. Hail to thee, O thou who hast made all these things, thou ONLY ONE; thy might hath many forms. Thou watchest all men as they sleep, and thou seekest the good of thy brute creation. Hail, Amen, who dost establish all things, and who art Atmu and Harmachis, all people adore thee, saying, 'Praise be to thee because of thy resting among us; homage to thee because thou hast created us.' All creaure say, "Hail to thee'! and all lands praise thee; from the height of the sky, to the breadth of the earth, and to the depths of the sea thou art praised. The gods bow down before thy majesty to exalt the Will of the Creator; they rejoice when they meet their begetter, and say to thee, "Come in peace, O father of the fathers of all the gods, who hast spread out the sky, and hast founded the earth, maker of things which are, creator of things which exist, thou Prince (life, health and strength [to thee!], thy Governor of the gods. We adore thy Will (or, souls) for thou hast made us; thou has made us and hast given us birth."