Skip to main content

Egyptian God, Amon(amen) the Invisible Creative Power - Hidden From View: Akhnaton, Moses and the Origins of Monotheism

  • Author:
  • Updated date:
Amoun also known as Amon, Ammon, Amun and Amen. Egytian God known as 'king of the gods" and "Lord of Heaven," Nome God of Thebes and father of Khonsu. The Romans identified him with Jupiter

Amoun also known as Amon, Ammon, Amun and Amen. Egytian God known as 'king of the gods" and "Lord of Heaven," Nome God of Thebes and father of Khonsu. The Romans identified him with Jupiter

Amun(Amen) was a deity in Egypt who became the patron deity Thebes and one of the most important deities in Ancient Egypt

Amun(Amen) was a deity in Egypt who became the patron deity Thebes and one of the most important deities in Ancient Egypt

The Statue of Amen, the Hidden One, from the Luxor Museum in Egypt

The Statue of Amen, the Hidden One, from the Luxor Museum in Egypt

Amen-Ra is the living force that dwells around all living things and lives within all beings. He is also the Father of of the Gods and the Ruler of the Universe who constructed himself out of Chaos(NuN); [Big Bang]

Amen-Ra is the living force that dwells around all living things and lives within all beings. He is also the Father of of the Gods and the Ruler of the Universe who constructed himself out of Chaos(NuN); [Big Bang]

Picture of Amen Ra at Abu Simbel

Picture of Amen Ra at Abu Simbel

Amunet, (also spelled Amomet, Amaunet, Amentet, Amentit, Imentet, Imentit, and Ament) the female form of the originally androgynous god, Amun., was the deificiation of the primodial concept of Air, in the Ogdoad cosmogony

Amunet, (also spelled Amomet, Amaunet, Amentet, Amentit, Imentet, Imentit, and Ament) the female form of the originally androgynous god, Amun., was the deificiation of the primodial concept of Air, in the Ogdoad cosmogony

Statue of Queen Mut, the queen and wife of Amon/Amen-Ra

Statue of Queen Mut, the queen and wife of Amon/Amen-Ra

Isis: Egyptian Triple Goddess. Mother Goddess and bringer of life Passion: Life and Procreation

Isis: Egyptian Triple Goddess. Mother Goddess and bringer of life Passion: Life and Procreation

Khonsu was the son of Aoum, Amon or Amen and his mother was Mut and they formed the Theban triad of gods. He is represented as a royal child, wearing the side-plait  and carrying a crook and flail; he is shown with a falcon-head surrounded by a lunar

Khonsu was the son of Aoum, Amon or Amen and his mother was Mut and they formed the Theban triad of gods. He is represented as a royal child, wearing the side-plait and carrying a crook and flail; he is shown with a falcon-head surrounded by a lunar

The Goddess APIT

The Goddess APIT

The god Amsu

The god Amsu

A younger-looking Akhnaton bust

A younger-looking Akhnaton bust

Akhenaton in a typical El Amarna Art style. His face is long and narrow, his shoulders narrow and hips wide.. Many see a feminine form in his body, but it's not known if this was an expression for a fruitful sun, and whether his body was like this.

Akhenaton in a typical El Amarna Art style. His face is long and narrow, his shoulders narrow and hips wide.. Many see a feminine form in his body, but it's not known if this was an expression for a fruitful sun, and whether his body was like this.



Akhenaton's wife, Queen Nefertiti

Akhenaton's wife, Queen Nefertiti

Queen Nefertiti

Queen Nefertiti

Akhenaton and Nefertiti entertaining Queen Tiye

Akhenaton and Nefertiti entertaining Queen Tiye

Queen Tjye, the favorite wife of Amenhotep III recently found at Luxor

Queen Tjye, the favorite wife of Amenhotep III recently found at Luxor

Queen Tiye was an African,beautiful, Intelligent and inlfuential leader and ruler of Ancient Egypt

Queen Tiye was an African,beautiful, Intelligent and inlfuential leader and ruler of Ancient Egypt

Queen Tiye and Tutankhamen's profile

Queen Tiye and Tutankhamen's profile

Black granite statue of Queen Tiye, mother of Akhenaton. This statue features a standing Queen Tiye wearing a wig and a cobra-decorated crown.

Black granite statue of Queen Tiye, mother of Akhenaton. This statue features a standing Queen Tiye wearing a wig and a cobra-decorated crown.

Tell El Amarna - Deir Mawas 280 miles south of Cairo. This was the new capital city founded by Akhanaton Tell El Amarna was formerly known as Akhenaten. The word Amarna, came from the Bedouin clan that settled in this village

Tell El Amarna - Deir Mawas 280 miles south of Cairo. This was the new capital city founded by Akhanaton Tell El Amarna was formerly known as Akhenaten. The word Amarna, came from the Bedouin clan that settled in this village

Tel Amarna Estate

Tel Amarna Estate

An artist  Sketch of how the Tell El Amarna complex looked like

An artist Sketch of how the Tell El Amarna complex looked like

Scarab of Thutmose IV

Scarab of Thutmose IV

Amenhotep III and Queen Tiye at the Upwawet Exhibit, at the Grand Egyptian Museum, near the Pyramids at Giza

Amenhotep III and Queen Tiye at the Upwawet Exhibit, at the Grand Egyptian Museum, near the Pyramids at Giza

Princess Meritaten [Merytaten], the wife of Smenkhkare, was daughter of King Akehenaton and Queen Nefertiti

Princess Meritaten [Merytaten], the wife of Smenkhkare, was daughter of King Akehenaton and Queen Nefertiti

Painted limestone relief with Merytaten offering mandrake fruit to her husband, Smenkhkare in the Berlin Museum

Painted limestone relief with Merytaten offering mandrake fruit to her husband, Smenkhkare in the Berlin Museum

This limestone relief found in the Royal Tomb at Amarna depicts Akhenaton, Nefertiti,and two of their daughters making an offering to the Sun-disk, Aten

This limestone relief found in the Royal Tomb at Amarna depicts Akhenaton, Nefertiti,and two of their daughters making an offering to the Sun-disk, Aten

Computer designed Tell el Amarna

Computer designed Tell el Amarna

A Ramake of Tutankhamun as to how he might have looked like as a person

A Ramake of Tutankhamun as to how he might have looked like as a person

From the sarcophagus of Tutankhamun found with his rich Loot in his Tomb.

From the sarcophagus of Tutankhamun found with his rich Loot in his Tomb.

EgyptianWall Painting of Moses

EgyptianWall Painting of Moses

Pharaoh Thutmose I and his daughter Thermuthis, who according to Hewish Hstorian Josephus, found Moses amongst the reeds, close to the Nile

Pharaoh Thutmose I and his daughter Thermuthis, who according to Hewish Hstorian Josephus, found Moses amongst the reeds, close to the Nile

An atfull depiction of Moses was found by the ladies.

An atfull depiction of Moses was found by the ladies.

Stature of Moses wearing Amons plumes

Stature of Moses wearing Amons plumes

Moses from the Tomb of Julius II. San Pietro in Vincoli, rome. Italy

Moses from the Tomb of Julius II. San Pietro in Vincoli, rome. Italy

Amoun - King of The Gods

"Am I now Your Enemy, just because I told you the truth" (Galatians 4:16)

Every time people say the Lords 'Prayer' at the end of their payers they add a one word salutation "Amen". "AMEN": The response to every Masonic Prayer as they say 'So mote it be-Amen'.

The word Amen signifies in Hebrew verily, truly, certainly. "Its proper place," says Gesenius, "is where one person confirms the words of another, and adds his wish for success to the others' vows." It is evident, then, that it is the brethren of the lodge, and not to the Master or Chaplain, who should pronounce the word. It is a response to the prayer.

The Talmudists have many superstitious notions in respect to this word, thus, in one treatise, (Uber Musar,) it is said that whoever pronounces it with fixed attention and devotion, to him the gates of Paradise will be opened; and again, "whosoever dwells upon it, pronouncing it distinctly and slowly, his life shall be prolonged." ( Both of these sayings "Amen" and "So Mote it Be" are usually said at the closing of a spell, or ritual, and means "so as I will it, so shall it be done." In other words, it is an affirmation that the object of the speaker's desire will manifest into reality to and through Amon/Amen. To this day, the name of the Egyptian God, "Amen" is still recited at the end of prayers in both Jewish and Christian Religions. The Hebrews adopted the word and it passed into Christian use as "Amen". It is a petition for (the God - Amen) to fulfill our words."(Dr. Palo) Even if we were to grasp the excerpt above as to what it means, it does not answer the question as to where Amen Originates from. This means, it is important that we should investigate what the original meaning of Amen was and how and why it ended up as a one-word salutary comment at the end of the payer. It is also important to understand the true historical genesis and meaning of the word so that we can really understand why is it that we have a monotheistic religious culture and observance that traces its origins and existence as to Amen/Amon . These questions and queries are better explained by history and research as to what the historical origins of Amen and Monotheism are, and what role do these play, or are playing in todays' religious insights and perspectives and exhortations.

It is therefore important to earlier on to trace the origins of Amon(Amen). Historically the neolithic children of the Nile were the East Hamitic in East Africa; The later Egyptians were their descendants. The language of the Egyptians of the Egyptians was an East Hamitic dialect, as is spoken today by the natives between the Upper Nile and the Masai steppes. Egyptian skeletons, statues and countess pictures of Egyptians in their temples and monument show the same racial characteristics as those of the Nubians and the Nilotic clans, the brown-skinned hunters of the steppes and the savannah husbandmen of the Sudan. Therefore, Egypt was a great Kingdom created by Egyptians. ... Of African inspiration are the Pyramids, the Golden Burial Chambers, the Statues, Plastic, Temple Friezes and other great Egyptian works of Art. The Sphinx is an African monument, the Hieroglyphics are an African script, And Ammon, Isis, and Osiris are African Gods. So great was the achievement of the Africans in the Nile Valley that all the great men of ancient Europe journeyed there - the Philosophers Thales and Anixamader, the Mathematician Pythagorras, the statesman Solon and an endless stream of historians and geographers whose works are all based on Egyptian education to which their credit is due to them, for the conribution enlightening us about 'kmt', Herodotus' outstanding description of the Egyptians, to which the second volume of his history is entirely devoted, is a and still remains an excellent source of Egypt, though on its decline, still had the trappings of power and success characterized by past, and powerful Dynasties.. (Herbert Wendt)

For us to better understand the origins of Egyptian God Ammon as the Creator of the Universe, we will look even much more deeper into the idea and prevailing history of the day. For instance, Egyptian Sun worship was a most complex system, for the sun was known by several names, and its various attributes were differentiated and made objects of of divine worship. Olcott informs us as follows: "The Egyptians in the deification of the Sun, considered the luminary in its different aspects separating the light from the heat of the Sun, and the orb from the rays. Egyptian sun worship was therefore polytheistic, and several distinct deities were worshipped as Sun gods. Thus, there were Sun gods representing the physical orb, the intellectual Sun, the Sun considered as the source of heat, and the source of light, the power of the sun, the sun in the firmament, and the sun in his resting place." So that, the Egyptians, in their worship of the Sun, attributed its different physical qualities and material aspects to different gods within the Egyptian God Pantheons and God systems.

Therefore, it seems like that the greatest of the Nilotic Sun Gods was 'Ra' or 'Re', who was a personification of the physical Sun; so much so that "Ra" was the ordinary everyday Egyptian name for the Sun. Ra was part of a solar trinity, the other members being Osiris and Horus. As a solar divinity, Ra was usually pictured as a hawk-headed man, holding the regal scepte r in one hand and the crux ansata in the other. On his head was a globe or disk, around which a uraeus or asp was coiled, the serpent being emblematic of the power over life and death. The image of Ra and the disk on his head was generally painted red, since the deity was particularly associated with the heat of the midday sun. Osiris, on the other hand, was symbolic of the setting sun. Osiris, as a dweller among men, assumed the form of the bull, Apis . As a judge of the dead, he was depicted as a mummy of sacred blue color, armed with the rod of authority and the cross for life and adorned with the crown of Upper and Lower Egypt.

Ammon (Amen) or Ament

Another among the Egyptian solar divinities was Ammon(Amen), and he was the personification of the Sun after it had descended below the western horizon, and was thus 'hidden from sight'. Ammon was made in the image of a man with the head and horns of a ram, and his pictures and statues were painted blue, the sacred color of the source of life. In the Egyptian language, the word ram means concealment, and the solar God Amen(Ammon) was called the concealed one - which is an appropriate title for the sun as it had disappeared in the western sky and descended into the underworld. In Thebes, the cults of Ammon and Ra consolidated, and the Sun was worshipped under the name Amen-Ra.

Mr. George St. Clair directs our attention to a 'little group of deities' that stand apart form the rest: "These are "Amen", "Mut", and "Khonsu", often spoken of as the "Triad of Thebes", or the "Trintiy of Ethiopia". ... Budge tells us that the Theban triad had nothing to do with the "Book of the Dead," and from this we may suspect that they were either gods newly come up or gods of foreing derivation. For some good reason the orthodox Egyptian of the 'old school' kept them out of his sacred books. They were divinities of Thebes, and that city was hundreds of miles south of Heliopolis; they were the Trinity of Ethiopia and not of Egypt." Ethiopia's influence on Egypt is very important and will be looked into in the future.


Among the gods who were known to the Egyptians in very early times were Amen and his consort Ament, and their names are found in the Pyramid Texts, and in connexion with the twin lion-gods Shu and Tefnut, who are described as the two gods, who made their own bodies with the goddess Temt, the female counterpart of Tem. It is evident that even in the remote period of the Vth Dynasty, Amen and Ament were numbered among the primeval gods, if not s gods-in-chief certainly as subsidiary forms of some of them, and from the fact that they are mentioned immediately after the deities of "Primeval Matter" , Mau and Nen, who we may consider to be equivalents of the watery abyss from which all matter sprang(The Big Bang as explained by the Egyptians who say that 'all matter' originated from "Pimeval Matter" ), and immediately before Temt and Shu and Tefnut, as the writers of the Pyramid Texts assigned great antiquity to their existence. Of the attributes ascribed to Amen in the Ancient Empire is not known, but, if we accept the meaning of "hidden" which is given to his name, we can conclude that he was the personification of the 'hidden' and 'unknown' creative power which was associated with the Primeval Abyss gods in the creation of the world and all that is in it.[ italics mine] . The word or root "aimen" certainly means "what is hidden," "what is not seen," "what cannot be seen," and so forth; and, this fact is proved by scores of examples which maybe collected from texts of all periods. In hymns to Amen we often read that he is "hidden to his children," and "hidden to gods and men," and it has been stated that these expressions only refer to the "hiding," i.e., "setting" of the Sun each evening, and that they are only to be understood in a physical sense, and to mean nothing more than the 'disappearance of the god Amen for the sight of men' at the close of day. Now, not only is the god himself said to be "hidden," but his name is also "hidden," and his form, or similitude, is said to be unknown;" these statements show that "hidden" when applied to Amen,the great God, has reference to something more than the "sun which which has disappeared below the horizon," and that it indicates the God who cannot be seen with mortal eyes, and who is invisible, as well as inscrutable, to gods as well as men.In the times of the Ptolemic period, the name Amen appears to have been connected with the root men "to abide or to be permanent;" and one of the attributes which were applied to him was that of "eternal". (Wallis Budge) It is therefore becoming a bit clearer that the emergence of Amoun/Amon/Amen was mentioned earlier on amongst the Egyptians as they narrated their History as to the origins of Amon/Amen. Around the Vth Dynasty therefore, Amon/Amen was mentioned along with other god-heads from antiquity and with the deities of Primeval Matter.

Amoun is permanent is still permanent even today. He has been part of our human discourse and prayers for eons up to today. Per Ankh put it his way: "Yet another hint of an Egyptian influence in Christianity is the fact that even today, we still end prayers with the Word "Amen". Amen-Ra was the Chief God of the Egyptians. The Church's main tool for the conversion of the "pagans" was always the appropriation of the local religion's most Holy Days and Rituals. This allowed the locals to feel they were still worshiping the old Gods in the accustomed way." Robert Appleton in 1907 stated it thus: "Finally, we may note that the word "Amen" occurs in gnostic spells.... especially of Egyptian origin, and a sort of magical efficacy seems to have been attributed to this word. The practice of answering "Amen" at the end of prayers appears in the Canons of Hippolytus (No. 146) and in the Egyptian Church Order (p. 101)." According to Sir Lawrence Gardner in The Genesis of the Grail Kings": "The Israelites exiles from Egypt knew that Jehovah was not the same as the Egyptian God Aten, and so they presumed he must be the equivalent of the great State-god of Egypt to all prayers thereafter, and the name of that Egyptian God was "Amen". To this day, the name Amen is still recited at the end of prayers in both Jewish and Christian religions."Subtefuge says: "Isn't it strange that "Amen" was an ancient Egyptian God that was supposed to be very powerful, so much so that every prayer began and ended with his name." Funk and Wagnalls observe: "AMEN": In Egyptian Mythology, the mighty one (god) of life and procreation.... later identified with the Sun-god as the Supreme Deity of Egypt , and was called Amen-Ra." We read from the Coptic Prayers that: "The Egyptian Ruler, Akhenato, had the people worship in the temples of Amen-Ra, meaning God's Sun/Son. At the end of the services they would say "Amen", because they were sending a prayer to the gods through Amen-Ra, God's Sun/Son. Amen-Ra, served as a personal savior to them since the Sun gave them all life." Smith's Bible Dictionary gives this definition: "AMEN: An Egyptian divinity ... He was worshipped ... as Amen-Ra or 'Amen the Sun'." And Jerry Clifford asserts: "No other "God" of the Egyptians has left so indelible a stamp upon the world - as this first Father of the Egyptian Gods, known as Ammon, Amon and Amen, which means "THE ONE HIDDEN WITHIN,"Amen's spell is so mighty that over 20 centuries after his last Sanctuary was abandoned to the Desert, every Judeo-Christian prayer that is uttered - still whispers his name in closing." J.D. Roberts narrates: "When we did it ignorance, maybe God looked past that. But now that you know the truth, what will you do? will you continue to use the name of a pagan God to close your prayers? Is it too hard to change that now? Because you've been using the 'Amen' tradition for a long time - will you rationalize and justify why you keep on invoking the name of the Egyptian G, Amen? Will you a pastor or teacher to reassure you that "it's okay to say 'amen' - Or ... will you give thanks to God for revealing His truth and stop using the name of a "pagan" God? And in "The Final Reformation" Chris Koster states: "Again we can see how the "pagans" have been made welcome, been conciliated, by adopting the name of a "pagan" deity into the prayers of the Church [of Rome]. This deity became known as 'Amen-Ra', but he was only known as 'Amen' among the Thebans. Finally, J. Voss leaves us with a question to ponder upon: "By ending our prayers in 'amen'... one could very well ask, "Have we been misled to invoke the name of the Egyptian 'Sun-God' at the end of our prayers"?

It is interesting to begin to ponder on issues of prayer today and how it links the present and the ancient. The historical memory is fuzzy about the attributes, deeds and existence of Amon. But in the present day and for the foreseeable future, 'Amon' will always be a "Period" of our prayers and on our prayers. Therefore, it is important that we understand and know the how this story comes down to us from Father History. It is clear that, in our talking to "God", and pouring it all out to Him, we do so with the belief that whatever we ask of HIm and from Him, we wish that it be so, through 'Amon', by stating after our prayer, "Amen". It would also be to man's advantage to understand a God whom we cannot see, nor know his name and is also invisible to the Gods we are praying to, and also have an awareness of his existence which is said to be eternal and we salute him at the end of our prayers that he be our 'personal savior', because al things are possible only through him and must be known that in truth he exists. In order to understand know "Him"... "Amoun," Amon," "Ammon," or "Amen"..., we are informed by Budge that: "Ammon is represented in Five forms:

  1. As a man, when he is seen seated on a throne, and holding in one hand the sceptre, and in the other the symbol of "life;" in this form he is one of the nine deities who compose the company of the gods of Amen-Ra, the other eight being Ament, Nu, Nut, Hehui, Hehet, Kekui, Keket, and Hathor.
  2. As a man with the head of a frog, whilst his female counterpart Ament has the head of a uraeus.
  3. As a man with the head of a uraeus, whilst his female counterpart has the head of a cat.
  4. As an ape.
  5. As a lion couchant upon a pedestal.

Of the early history of the worship of Amen we know nothing, says Budge, but as far as evidence before us goes it appears not to have been general, and in fact, the only centre of it of any importance was the city of Thebes. In the XIIth Dynasty we find that a sanctuary and shrine were built in honor of Amen at Thebes in the northern quarter of the city which is called APT, with the addition of the feminine article 'T', the Copts derived their name for the city 'Tape', and from it comes the common name "Thebes." Over Apt, the quarter of the city there presided the goddess also called Apt, who was either the personification of it, or a mere local goddess to whom accident or design had given the same name as as the quarter; it is, however, most probable that the goddess was the spirit of personification of the place. In the reliefs on which she is represented we see her in the form of a woman holding the sceptre in her left hand, and "life, in her right hand.(See Picture in the gallery). Up to the time of the XIIth Dynasty, Amen was a god of no more than local importance, but as soon as the princes of Thebes conquered their rival claimants to the sovereignty of Egypt, and had succeeded in making their city a new capital of the country, their God, Amen, became a prominent god in Upper Egypt, and was probably under the that Dynasty that the attempt was made to assign to him the proud position which was afterwards claimed for him of "King of the Gods" As soon as the Theban prices became Kings of Egypt, their priests at once began to declare that their God was not only another form of the great creative Sun-god who had been worshipped for centuries at Annu, or Heliopolis, in the north of Egypt, under the names of 'Ra', 'Temu', 'Khepera', and Heru-khuti, but that all the attributes which were ascribed them were contained in him, and that he was greater than they. And as Thebes had become the cpital instead of Memphis, it followed as a matter of course that all the attributes of all the great gods of Memphis were contained in Amen also. Thus, by these means, the priests of Amen succeeded in making their god, both theologically and politically,the greatest of the Gods in the country.By the end of the XVIIth Dynasty, Amen had attained to an almost unrivalled position among the gods of the land. And when the royal devotees of in this Dynasty succeeded in expelling the Hyksos(The Shepherd Kings) of the XIIth Dynasty, and they carried war and conquest into Palestine and founded Egyptian cities there, the power and glory of Amen, their God, enabled them to carry out this difficult work of successful invasion, became extraordinarily great. Amen's Egyptian Priests began by asserting his equality with the other great gods of the old sanctuaries of Heliopolis, Kerakleopolis and other ancient cities, and finally they satisfied, or, at all events, attempted to do so, all worshipers of every form of the Sun-god Ra by adding his name to that of Amen, and thus forming a great god, who included within himself all the attributes of the primeval God Amen and of Ra. The highest conception of Amen-Ra under the XIXth and XXth Dynasties was that of an 'invisible', and 'creative' power which was the source of all life in heaven, and on earth, and in the great deep, and in the Underworld, and which made itself manifest under the form of Ra; but the Priests of Amen were not content with claiming that their God was one of the greatest of the deities of Egypt, for they proceeded to declare that there was no other god like him, and that he was the greatest of them all. (Budge) The most interesting with the attributes of Amnon/Amen, was that he was able to have all the qualities of the other gods from elsewhere, and still remain higher than them.

Hymns to Amon(Amen-Ra)

In this instance, we will review most of the "hymns' that give us a historical tabulation of the attributes of Amoun(Ammon, Amon, Amen-Ra/Re) that show us how he was raised above all the other gods and came to be called the "King of the Gods". For us to begin to read and understand the hymns of Amoun/Amon/Amen-Ra, maybe will aacquire and obtain a better and in-depth understanding of who we use as a salutation to our prayers; the one we use as a mediator between our gods and him; the one through whom we hope, in our prayers, in all languages, will be our saviour reading the hyms will help inform this need. The first of these occurs in the Papyrus of Hu-nefer, where it follows immediately after a hymn to Ra; this papyrus was written in the reign of Seti I., and it is interesting to observe that the two gods are addressed separately, and that the hymn to Ra precedes that to Amen-Ra. The Text reads:

"Homage to thee, O Amen-Ra, who dost rest upon Maat (Balance); as though passest over the heavens every face seeth thee. thou dost wax great as thy majesty doth advance, and "thy rays [shine] upon all faces. Thou art unknown, and thou tongue hath power to declare thy similitude; only thou thyself [canst do this]. Thou art One, even as is he that bringeth the tena" basket. Men praise thee in thy name, and swear by thee, for thou art lord over them. Thou hearest with thine ears and thou seest with thine eyes. Miilions of years have gone "over the world, and I cannot tell the number of those through which thou has passed.Thy "heart hath decreed a day of happiness in thy name of "Traveller." Thou dost pass over and "dost travel through untold spaces [requiring] millions and hundreds of thousands of years [to "pass over; thou passest through them in peace, and thou steerest thy way across the watery "abyss to the place which thou lovest; this thou doest in one little moment of time, and then "thou dost sink down and dost make an end of the hours." (Brit Mus., No. 9,901 sheet i.)

How far the XIXth Dynasty ascribed attributes to Amen-Ra represent those bestowed upon a god will never be known; but, the points chiefly dwelt upon are the unity, and the invisibility, and the long duration of the existence of the god; nothing is said about Amen-Ra being self- begotten and self-born, or of his great creative powers, or of his defeat of the serpent-fiend Nak, and it is quite clear that Hu-nefer drew sharp distinciton between the attributes of the gods. (Budge)

The following Hymn, which was probably written under the XXth or XXIst Dynasties, illustrates clearly the growth of the power of both Amen-Ra and is priests:

"Praise be to Amen-Ra, the Bull in Annu, the cief of all the gods, the beautiful god, the beloved one, the giver of life of all warmth to all beautiful cattle(Amen as referred to above as the Bull of Annu, was in recognition of Amon as the patron of cattle). Homage to thee, O Amen-Ra, lord of the thrones of the two lands, the governor of the Apts (i.e., Thebes, north and south), thou Bull of thy mother, who art chief in thy fields, whose steps re long, who art lord of the land of the South, who art lord of the Matchau peoples, and prince of Punt, and King of Heaven, and first born god of earth, and lord of things which exist, and stablisher of "creation, yea, stablisher of all creation. thou art One among the gods by reason of his seasons. Thou 'art the beautiful Bull of the company of the gods, thou art the chief of all the gods, thou art the lord of Maat, and the father of the gods, and the creator of men and women, and the maker of animals, and the lord of things that exist, nd the producer of the staff of life (i.e., wheat and barley), and the maker of the herb of the field which giveth life unto cattle.thou art the beautiful Sekhem wh wast made (i.e., begotten) by Ptah, and the beautiful Child who art beloved. The gods acclaim thee, O thou who art the maker of things which are below and of things which are above. Thou illuminest the two lands, and thou sailest over the sky in peace, O King of the South and North, Ra, whose word hath unfailing effect, who art over the two lands, thou mighty one of two-fold strength, thou lord of terror, thou Being above who makest the earth according to thy designs. Thy devices are greater and more numerous than those of any other god. The gods rejoice in thy beauties, and they ascribe praise unto thee in the great double house, and at thy risings in (or,from) the double house of flame. The gods love the smell of thee when thou comest from Punt (i.e., the spice land), thou eldest born of the dew,who comest from the land of the Matchau peoples, thou Beautiful Face, who comest from the Divine land (Neter-ta). The gods tremble at they feet when they recognize thy majesty as their lord, thou lord who art feared, thou Being of whom awe is great, thou Being whose souls are mighty, who hast possession of crowns, who dost make offerings to be abundant, and who dost make divine food." (tchefau)

"Adoration be to thee,O creator of the gods, who hast stretched out the heavens and made solid the earth. Thou art the untiring watcher, O Amsu-Amen or Min-Amen(See picture gallery), the lord of eternity, and the maker of everlastingness, and to thee adorations are paid as the governor of the apts. Thou hast two horns which endure, and thine aspects are beautiful, and thou art the lord of the ureret crown, and thy double plumes are lofty, thy tiara is one of beauty, and they white crown is lofty. The goddess Mehen, and the Uatchet,are about thy face, and the crowns of the South and North, and the Nemmes crown, and the helmet crown are thy adornments in they Temple. Thy face is beautiful and thou receivest the Atef crown, and thou art beloved of the South and the NOrth; thou receivest the crowns of the South and the North, and thou receivest the amensu sceptre, and thou art the lord of the makes sceptre, and of the whip(or flail). Thou art the beautiful Prince, who rises like the Sun with the White Crown, and thou art the lord of radiant light and the creator of brilliant rays. The gods ascribe praises unto thee. Thy flame maketh thine enemies to fall, and thine Eye overthroweth the Sebau fiends, and it driveth its spear through the sky into the serpent-fiend Nak and maketh it to vomit that which it had swallowed."

"Homage to thee, O Ra, thou lord of Maat, whose shrine is hidden, thou lord of the gods; thou art Khepera in thy boat, and when thou didst speak the word the gods sprang into being. Thou art Temu, who didst create beings endowed withreason; thou makest the color of the skin of one race to be different from that of another, but, however many may be the varieties of mankind, it is thou that makest them all to live. Thou hearest the prayer of him that is oppressed, thou art kind of heart unto him that calleth upon thee, thou deliverst him that is afraid from him that is violent of heart, and thou judgest between the strong and the weak. Thou art the lord of intelligence, and knowledge is that which proceedeth from thy mouth. The Nile cometh at thy will, and thou art the greatly beloved lord of the palm tree who makest mortals live. Thou makest every work to proceed, thou workest in the sky, and thou makest to come into being the beauties of the daylight; the gods rejoice in thy beauties, and their hearts live when they see thee. Hail . Ra, who art adored in the Apts, thou mighty one who risest in the shrine: O Ani,thou lord of the festival of the new moon, who makest the six days' festival and the festival of the last quarter of the moon. Hail, Prince, life, health and strength, thou lord of all the gods, whose appearances are in the horizon, thou Governor of the ancestors of Aukert (i.e., the Underworld), thou is hidden from thy children in thy name, 'Amen'."

"Hail to thee, O thou who art in peace, thou lord of joy of heart, thou crowned from, thou lord of the ureret crown, whose plumes are exalted, whose tiara is beautiful, whose White Crown is lofty, the gods love to look upon thee; the crowns of the South and North are established upon they brow. Beloved art thou as thou passest through the two lands, as thou sendest forth rays from thy two beautiful eyes. The dead are rapturous with delight when thou shinest. The cattle become languid when thou shinest in full strength; beloved art thou when thou art in the southern sky. thy beauties take possession of and carry away all hearts, and love for thee maketh all arms to relax, they beautiful form maketh the hands to tremble, and all hearts melt at the sight of thee."

"Hail, thou Form who art One, thou creator of all things; hail, thou ONLY ONE, thou maker of things which exist. men came forth from thy two eyes, and the gods sprang into being as the issue of they motuh. Thou makest the green herbs whereby cattle live, and the staff of life for the use of man. Thou makest the fish to live in the rivers, and the feathered fowl in the sky; thou givest the breadth of life to that which is in the egg, thou makest birds of every kind live, and likewise the reptiles that creep and fly; thou causest the rats to live in their holes, and the birds that are on every green tree. Hail to thee, O thou who hast made all these things, thou ONLY ONE; thy might hath many forms. Thou watchest all men as they sleep, and thou seekest the good of thy brute creation. Hail, Amen, who dost establish all things, and who art Atmu and Harmachis, all people adore thee, saying, 'Praise be to thee because of thy resting among us; homage to thee because thou hast created us.' All creaure say, "Hail to thee'! and all lands praise thee; from the height of the sky, to the breadth of the earth, and to the depths of the sea thou art praised. The gods bow down before thy majesty to exalt the Will of the Creator; they rejoice when they meet their begetter, and say to thee, "Come in peace, O father of the fathers of all the gods, who hast spread out the sky, and hast founded the earth, maker of things which are, creator of things which exist, thou Prince (life, health and strength [to thee!], thy Governor of the gods. We adore thy Will (or, souls) for thou hast made us; thou has made us and hast given us birth."

"Hail, lord of grain, who makest to live the cattle on the hills to thee, maker of all things, lord of Maat, father of the gods, maker of men, creator of animals, lord of grain, who makest to live the cattle on the hills. Hail, Amen, bull. beautiful face, beloved of the Apts, mighty of rising in the shrine, who art doubtly crowned in Heliopolis; thou art the head of the company of the gods, ONLY ONE, who hast no second, thou governor of the Apts, Ani at the head of the company of the gods, living in Maat daily, thou Horus of the East of the double horizon. thou hast created the mountain, and the silver and real lapis-lazuli at they will. Incense and fresh anti are prepared for thy nostrils, O beautiful Face, who comest forth from the land of the Matchau, Amen-Ra, lord of the thrones of the two lands, at the head of the Apts, Ani, the chief of thy shrine/ Thou king who art ONE among the gods, they names are manifold, and how many they are is unknown; thou shinest in the eastern and western horizons, and overthrowest thy enemies at they birth daily. Thoth exalteth thy two eyes, and maketh thee to set in splendor; the gods rejoice in thy beauties which those who are in thy [following] exalt. Thou art the lord of the Sektet Boat and of the Atet Boat,which travel over the sky for thee in peace. Thy sailors rejoice when they see Nak overthrown, and his limbs stabbed with the knife, and the fire devouring him, and his filthy soul beaten out of his filthy body, and his feet carried away."

The gods rejoice, Ra is content, and Annu (Heliopolis) is glad because the enemies of Atmu are overthrown, and the heart of Nebt-ankh (i.e., Isis) is happy because the enemies of her lord are overthrown. The gods of Kher-aha rejoice, and those who dwell in the shrine are making obeisance when they see thee might in thy strength. Thou art the Sekhem (i.e., Power) of the gods, and Maat of the Apts in thy name of 'Maker of Maat.' Thou art the lord of tchefau food, the Bull of offerings in they name, 'Amen, Bull of his other.' Thou art the Great Hawk which gladdeneth the body; the Beautiful Face which gladdenenth the breast. Thou art the form of [many] forms, with a lofty crown; the Uatcheti goddess (i.e., Nekhebet and Uatchet) fly before his face. The hearts of the dead go out to meet him, and the denizens of heaven turn to him; his appearances rejoice the two lands. Homage to thee, Amen-Ra, lord of the throne of the two lands; thy city loveth thy radiant light." (by Grebaut, "Hymne a Ammon-Ra ", Paris, 1875)

The main point of interest in connexion with this hymn is the proof it affords of the completeness with which Amen had absorbed all the attributes of Ra and of every other ancient form of the Sun-god, and how in the course of about one hundred years he had risen from the position of a mere god to that of the "King of the gods" of Egypt. His worship at Thebes, where the earliest known Temple was dedicated to him can be traced to the 5th Dynasty onward. He gained prestige when he replaced the war god Montu as the principle God of Thebes during Egypt's New Kingdom that he came to be recognized as the "King of the Gods". At that tim, because of Egypt's influence in the world, he actually became became a Universal God. In fact, by the 25th Dynasty, Amun-Re grew so important spiritually and politically by the time of the New Kingdom that Egypt became something of a Theocracy. At the apex of his worship, Egyptian religion approached monotheism . The other gods became mere symbols of his power, or the manifestations of Amoun-Re. In esscence, he became one and only supreme deity. He was one of the eight god heads of the Ogdoad of Mermopolis where his original concort was Amaunet [Ament](see picture gallery).

The Nubians, believed that he originated at Gebel Barkal, located in the modern north of the Sudan. It is also striking that the ancients payer started in this manner: "O Amen, O Amen, who art in heaven, turn thy face upon the dead body of thy son/daughter, and make him/her sound and strong in the Underworld. Grant that he/she may be of the land of Maat, let him not be left in his condition of solitude, for he belongeth th this land wherein he will no more appear. O let him be a perfect spirit, or a strong spirit, and let him be the sould of the mighty body which is in Sau, the City of Net. O Amen, O Amen, O God, O god, O Amen, I adore thy name, grant thou that I may have peace in the Tuat (Underworld), and that I may possess all my members therein. And the divine Soul which is Nut saith; "I will make my divine strength to protect them and I will perform everything which thou hast said. And this has to be recited over the figure of the "god of the lifted hand", who is Amen the God of generation and reproduction. And if the the directions given in the rubric were properly carried out it would enable the deceased to drink water in the underworld from the deepest and purest part of the celestial stream, and he would become "like the stars in the heavens above". If the story and origins and history of Amon(Amen)has been lost to us, it has not done so in its entirety. In our prayers today, we still pay homage to Amon(Amen) whenever reciting the "Lords Prayer". We consistently and continually offer as a salutation to Him for our salvation, for Him to be a mediator between our gods and to Himself, by uttering his name after our prayers, in whatever language, ..... "AMEN".

Akhenaton (Amenhotep IV) 1350 B.C.

History tells us that the typical Egyptian of the Old Kingdom was of a relatively gentle and charitable nature. Although future events could modify these characteristics,this man seemed made for peace and not for war. In fact, men eligible for service would occasionally take refuge in the hills at the time of army recruitment Brugsch remarks that: "... in the schools the poor scribe's child sat on the same bench beside the offspring of the rich ... Above all things they esteemed justice, and virtue had at he highest value in their eyes. The law which ordered them to honor the dead; to give bread to the hungry, water to be thirsty, clothing to the naked - reveals to us one of the finest qualities of old Egyptian character - pity toward the unfortunate."When examining Egyptian history as a whole, a historian will discover areas where the historical record becomes convoluted and nebulous. Religion is one such area of ambiguity. Sir Wallis Budge tells us that "the knowledge of the Egyptian priests of the real meaning of their religion after 1200 B.C. seemed extremely vague and uncertain. The early beliefs became buried in magic and amulets, and only a few retained the doctrine of the old faith. All the characteristics indicate that the Egyptian religion was of African rather than Asiatic origins. Its true form died about 3000 years ago. The best explanation of the Egyptian religion could only be obtained from the religion of Soudan(Sudan)

Akenaten and the God Aten

According to Budge: "In connexion with the Sun-gods of Egypt and with their various forms which were worshipped in that country must be considered the meagre facts which we possess concerning ATEN,who appears to have represented both the God or spirit of the Sun, and the solar disk itself. The origin of this God is wholly obscure, and nearly all that is known about him under the middle empire is that he was some small provincial form of the Sun God which was worshipped in one little town in the neighborhood of Heliopolis, and it is possible that a temple was built in honor in Heliopolis itself. His attributes which were attributed to him in the Middle or Early Empire are hard to describe, because the texts which were written before XVIIIth Dynasty give us no information on the subject. Under the rule of Amenhotep III and his son Amenhotep IV(Akhenaton), they usurped all the titles and attributes of the ancient solar Gods of Egypt, Ra, Ra-Heru-Khuti, Horus and so forth, but it does not follow that they originally belonged to him. Amenhotep IVth succeeded his father, Amenhotep III, and he succeeded his father without difficulty, even though his mother was not a member of the royal family." Some historians have pointed out to the fact that Pharaohs of Egypt did not make queens of foreign princesses, except one who was given an Egyptian name; other historians argue that this cannot be substantiated because because of the paucity of information about female royalties. Budge continues: "for the first few years of his reign he followed the example of the earlier Kings of his Dynasty, and lived at Thebes, where he ruled according to his mother's(Queen Tia's), wishes; he offered up sacrifices to Amen-Ra at the appointed seasons, and was, outwardly at least, a loyal servants, a loyal servant of this God, whose name formed a part of his name as "Son of the Sun."

Akhenaton, otherwise formerly known as Amenhotep IV who took up his name earlier in his reign, revolutionzed his rule in Egyptian. In what is called the Amarna interlude, the seat of of government was moved to a short-lived new capital city known as Akhenaten [modern el Amarna], the introduction of a new art style, and the elevation of the religion of the Sun disc, the Aten, to a high status in Egyptian religion. Amenhotep III introduced the and started the revolutionary Armana Art which was re-introduced by Akahanaton, which were already present during Aknenaton's earlier reign. His reign was a co-regency which was no logner than the short period before the new king assumed his preferred name of Akhenaten (The Servant or Sun of Aten) in 5ears. There was no disccontinuity with that of his predecessors he was crowned at Karnak(Temple of the God Amon(Amen), but he married a lady from non-royal blood, Nefertiti, the daughter of vizier Ay. Ay seemed to have been the brother of Queen Tiye, and a son of Yuya and Tuya. Nfertiti's mother is unknown; there is some speculation that she might have died after birth, and Nfertiti was raised by another wife of Ay named Tey, Nefertiti's Stepmother. Akahanton was succeeded by Smenkhkare, his younger brother who ruled for two years as a co-regent to Aknehnaton, during the latter's last years. There is graffito in the tomb of Pairi at Thebes that records a third regnal year, and there are indications that Smenkhkare was preparing ground for a return to the old orthodoxy and had left Akhneton. He was married to Merytaten, the senior heiress of the royal blood line, but she seems to have predeceased him. Her sister Ankhesenpaaten thus became the senior survivor of the six daughters - having herself borne a small daufhter by akhenaton, named after her - and was married to the young Tutankhamen, the heir apparent [who was later to change his name to Tutankhamun]. A. Aldred) This should lay to rest the notion that Akhenaton originated monotheism. The practice and focus on Amoun(Amon/Amen) had already been in practice with the focus on Amoun(Amon/Amen) as the King of the Gods long before Akhenaton. What he did was choose one aspect of the Amon/Amen-Ra and reisntate it as a religion of eminence and that which influenced his intelligence and philosophy in leading the way as to its attributes and philosophical-religious approach, practice, application and reality.

Living centuries before King David, he wrote psalms as beautiful as those of the Judean monarch Thirteen hundred years before Chirst he preached and lived a gospel of perfect love, brotherhood and truth. Two thousand years before Muhammed he taught the doctrine of One God. Three thousand hears beore Darwin, he sensed the unity that runs thorugh all living things. Akhenaton was the riches man on earth. The entire empire of Egypt was his personal property, and with it the lives of subjects. It is impossible to give an idea of his wealth, but if one were to visit the Museum in Cairo and seen the immense treasure taken out of the tomb of his son, Tutakhamun, might relay the idea. Akhenaton was not interested in war and the spoils of war, and people kneeling to him and kissing the ground to show him obedience as a deity. Inside him burnt the spirit of Truth and beauty, and the desire to spread the knowledge of One God. He saw his people worshipping bull, hippopotami, lions cats and multitude of other gods. The priests of Amen, firmly rooted in the great city of Karnak, disseminated these superstitions, suppressed free thought, and upheld ignorance. He was grieved by this because he held that there was but a single Force running through all life -a force of which all other forces were but a part. That Power, he believed, was the One God. Belief in that God made him happy, and with absolute power at his command he wished to create conditions under which his subjects would also be happy. Akhenaton knew that his people loved war and conquest, but he abhorred and despised it. The sight of burn sacrifices disgusted his esthetic soul. He later on forbade them and banished the sacred bull, Apis. Akhenaton banned the graven images, a thousand years before Moses did when he wrote the second Amendment.

Akhenaton and the Religion of Aten

There is no doubt that Akhenaton was far more a thinker and philosopjer than his predecessors. Amenhotep III had recognized the growing power of the Priesthood of Amon(Amen) and had sought to curb it; his son was to take the matter a lot further by introducing a monotheistic religion specifically that of Sun Worship. Akhenaton did not originate monotheism, which was already in its growing stages during the, but what he started was sun-worship that was an incarnate in the Sun's disc, the Aten. This was not in itself a new idea as as stated: as a relatively minor aspect of the sun god Re-Harakhte, the Aten had been venerated in the Old Kingdom and a large scarab of Akhenaton's grandfather, Thuthmosis IV (See picture gallery: now in the British Museum), has a text that mentions the Aten in its own right.

Akhenaton realized that he needed to have a symbol of is new God, something that even the less enlightened could see, he selected the Sun, source of all life. God to him was the unseen and yet ever-present Father of Mankind made manifest in sunshine, the Creator of the Universe and the Bestower of all Good. And his God, unlike that of Moses, was not a jealous God, but a God of Perfect love, a God who was compassionate even toward the chicken that "crieth in the eggshell," a God who gives the manchild a mother to 'soothe him that he may not weep."Nowhere in his writings does Akhenaton make mention of an avenging God.He moved his court to from the magnificent city of Thebes, home of Amon/Amen and his ancestors, and went down the Nile where he built the beautiful city of Akhenaton, (Tell el' Armana) - a city "great in loveliness, mistress of pleasant ceremonies. ... At the sight of her beauty, there is rejoicing. She is lovely and beautiful; when one sees her, it is like a glimpse of heaven. "(J.H. Breasted)

Here in this town, Akhenaton built and erected beautiful temples dedicated to religion, art and music, His poets were taught how to write what the felt and his artist paint what they saw. for his temples he constructed halls resplendent with light and beauty; Oracles, no stage effects, no tricks or priestcraft to terrify the ignorant. He gave the first signal of the religion that the west upholds today. In his city of Akhenaton{Tell el Amarna), he abolished pose and pretense by setting an example. Past Pharaohs had taught that they were of heavenly origin. Their persons were held to be so sacred that no one scared look at them. They could be depicted only in certain conventional attitudes. But Akhehnaton showed himself to the people, and when he drove through the streets, his guards were unarmed. He allowed himself to be painted in all manner of poses, thus being, perhaps, the first Pharaoh of whom we have true likeness. His earliest pictures, however, are of a conventional type.) In his pictures he is seen in such familiar scenes as playing with his daughters, resting in his garden, eating a roasted pigeon, or putting his teeth into the neatly trimmed meat adhering to a large bone which he holds in his hand. Of jewels, he wore none, and is crown was used only for the state. In all things he attempted to teach naturalness. Truth, to him, was the daily facts of life.

He also encouraged respect of women by setting an example. He is portrayed in many affectionate poses with his wife, the beautiful Queen Nefertiti, who is said by several authorities to have been his own sister. This was noted above that her father Ay, was the brother of Queen Tiye. (It was the practice of the Pharaoh, like that of the Inca Ruler, to marry his own sister in order to preserve the purity of the royal strain.) He has posed with his family many times for the painters. She had the greatest filial love for his other, Queen Tiye, and undying affection for her Akhenaton's religion was one of of happiness and joy. He loved the good things f life - the flowers, the beautiful gardens, the charms of music, the tonic of a ogood bowl of wine or a well-cooked meal. He hated cruelty, he abolished the use of the lash. The Art of his time shows no slaves burdened with chains. Intoxicated with the artistic passion that burned witin him, his mind was consistently at work Weigall says: "His brain was so active that he could not submit to be idle, and even when he reclined amidst the flowers in his gardens, his whole soul was straining upwards in an attempt to pierce the barrier which lay between him and the God which caused the flower to bloom."

In the tomb of Ay, the chief minister of Akhenaton (and later to become King after Tutankhamun's death), occurs the longest and best rendition of a composition known as the "Hymn to Aten", said to heave been written by Aten himself.It is a moving piece of poetry, its similarity to, and possible the source of the concept in, Psalm 104 has always and long been noted.. This is one of the most majestic and moving compositions of its kind. This is the first verse:

Thy dawning is beautiful in the horizon of heaven

O living Aton, beginning of life.

When though risest in the eastern horizin of the heavens

Thou fillest every land with Thy beauty,

For thou art beautiful, great,littering high over the earth,

Thy rays they encompass the lands even all hou has made.

Thou art Ra, and Thou has carried them all away in capative;

Thou blindest them by Thy love.

Though Thou art Far, thy rays are on earth;

Thou art on high, Thy footprints are the day.

One can note, as the Hymn to Amun/Amen above the same themes and attributes accorded to Amon/Amen are the guts of Akhenaton's poetry/music as he has laid within his attributes of Aten, his God. It is well worth noting that Psalm 104 sums up the whole ethos of the Aten religion and especially the concept that only Akhenaten had access to the god: "Thou arisest fair in the horzon of Heaven, O living Aten. Beginner of Life ... there is none who knows thee save thy Son, Akhenaton. Thou hast made him wise in Thy plans and Thy power." No longer did the dead call upon Osiris to guide them through the afterlife and afterworld, for only through their adherence to the King and his intercession on the behalf could they hope to live beyond the grave. This means that Akhenaton became the middleman between Aton and the subjects.

According to present evidence, however it appears that it was only the upper echelons of society which embraced the new religion with any fervor and perhaps that was only skin deep). Recent archeological digs at Amarna have indicated that even here the old ways of the religion continued among the people. On a wider scale, throughout Egypt, the new religion does not seem to have had much effect at a common level except, of course, in dismantling the priesthood and closing temples; but then the ordinary populace had little to do with the religious establishment anyway, except on the high days and holidays when the God's statue would be carried in procession from the sanctuary outside the great temple walls.

Akhenaton's conduct has been denounced as obstinate and fanatical by some historians. Excessive zeal on his part cause him to enter his father's tomb and strike the "Amen" from his name, but it was the custom at that time to disfigure monuments of a predecessor whose teachings were considered undesirable. Many other leading Egyptologists have spoken in the highest praise of him. Breasted calls him "the most remarkable of the Pharaohs, with whom died a spirit such as the world had never seen before ... a brave soul undauntedly facing the momentum of immemorial tradition, and thereby stepping out from the long line of conventional and colorless Pharaohs that he might disseminate ideas far beyond and above the capacity of his age to understand ... the modern world has yet adequately to value or even acquaint itself with this man who in an age so remote and conditions so remote, became the world's first idealist." Petrie said: "No such grand theology had ever before appeared in the world so far as we know. Weigall put it this way: "When the world reverberated with the noise of war he preached the first known doctrine of peace; when the glory of martial power swelled the hearts of his subjects, he deliberately turned his back upon heroics. He was the first man to preach simplicity, honesty, frankness, and sincerity, and he preached it from the throne. He was the first Pharaoh to be a humanitarian, the first man in whose heart there was no trace of barbarism. He has given us an example three thousand years ago that might be followed at the present day - an example of what a husband and father should be; of what an honest man should be; of what a poet should feel; of what a preacher should teach; of what a scientist should believe; of what a philosopher should think. Like all other great teachers, he sacrificed all to his principles and his life plainly shows, alas! the impracticability of his doctrine; yet there can be no question that has ideals will hold good 'till the swan turns black, and the crow turns white, 'till the hills rise up to travel, and the deeps rush into the rivers."

Amenhotep IV later to be known as Akhenaton was a Pharaoh who ascended to the throne and had no other interest than in developing the idea that the idea of One God, and a Universal God like Aton, which no longer restricted to one people and one country, which the imperialism Egypt afforded. Akhenaton raised the Aton Religion to the official religion and thereby the Universal God became the Only god; all that was said of other gods became deceit and guile. He resisted all the temptations of magical thought and discarded the illusion, dear particularly to the Egytpians, of life after death. He was able to scientifically recognize the energy of the Sun's radiation the source of all life on earth and worshipped the Sun as the symbol of his God's power. He gloried in its joy in the Creation and in his life in Maat(Truth, Justice and Balance)

Budge further informs us thus: "In so far as it rejected all other gods, the Aten religion was monotheistic, but to judge by the texts which describe the power and works of Aten, it contained no doctrines on the unity of oneness of Aten similar to those which are found in the hymns to Ra, and none of the beautiful ideas about the future of life, with which we are familiar from the hymns of other compositions in the Book of the Dead. The chief source of our knowledge of the attributes ascribed to Aten is obtained from the hymns to this god which Amenhotep IV, caused to be inscribed on his monuments, and from one of them which has twice been published in recent years, first by Bouriant and secondly by Breasted, we obtain the following extracts:

Akhenaton's Hymn to Aten

"1. A hymn of praise to Heru-Khuti (Harmachis), who springeth up joyfully in the horizon in his name of 'Shu who is in the Disk, and who liveth for ever an d for ever, Aten the Living one, the great one, he who is [celebrated] in thirty year festival, lord of the orbit of the sun, the lord of the House of Aten in the city of Khut-Aten, 2. by the king of the South and North, who liveth by Maat, the Lord of the Two Lands, Nfer-kheperu-Ra-ua-en-Ra, the son of the Sun, who liveth by Maat, the lord of the crowns, Khu-en-Aten, who is great in the duration of his life, 3. and by his great royal wife, his darling, the Lady of the Two Lands, Nefert-iti, Nefer-neferu-Aten, (The proper name is Nefert-iti, and her title means "Beauty of the beauties of Aten,") the living one, the strong one for ever." The hymn proper begins after the words: "He (i.e., the king) saith, 4. 'Thy rising is beautiful in the horizon of heaven, 5. O thou Aten, who hadst thine existence in primeval time. 6. When thou risest in the eastern horizon thou fillest every land with thy beauties, 7. thou art beautiful to see, and art great, and art crystal, and art high above the earth. 8. Thy beams of light embrace the lands, even every land which thou hast made. 9. Thou art as Ra, and thou bringest [thyself] unto each of the , 10. and thou bindest them with thy love. 11. Thou art remote, but thy beams are upon earth. 12. So long as thou art in the heavens day shall follow in thy footsteps. 13. When thou settest in the western horizon the earth is in darkness, and is like a being that is dead. 14. They lie down and sleep in the habitations, 15. their heads are covered up, and their nostrils are stopped, and no man can see his neighbor, 16. and all their goods and possessions may be carried away from under their heads without their knowing it. 17. Every lion cometh forth from his den, 18. and serpents of every kind bite; 19. the night becometh blacker and blacker, 20. and the earth is silent because he who hath made them hath sunk to rest in his horizon.

"21. When thou risest in the horizon the earth lightens, and when thy beams shine forth it is day. 22. Darkness taketh to flight as soon as thy light bursteth out, and the Two lands keep festival daily. 23. Then [men] wake up and stand upon their feet because thou hast raised them up., 24. they wash themselves, and they array themselves in their apparel, 25. and they lift up to thee their hands with hymns of praise because thou has risen. 26. [Over] all the earth they perform their work. 27. all beasts and cattle repose in their pastures, 28. and the trees and the green herb put forth their leaves and flowers. 29. The birds fly out of their nests, and, and their wings praise thy Ka as they fly forth. 30. The sheep and goats of every kindskip about on their legs, 31. and feathered fowl and the birds of the air also live [because] thou hast risen for them, 32. The boats float down and sail up the river likewise, 33. for they path is opened when thou risest. 34. The fish in the stream leap up towards thy face, 35. and thy beams shine through the waters of the great sea.

"36. Thou makest male seed to enter into women,and thou causest the liquid seed to become a human being. 37. Thou makest the man child to live in the body of his mother. 38. Thou makest him to keep silent so that he cry not, 39. and thou art a nurse to him in the womb. 40. Thou givest breath that it may vivify every part of his being. 41. When he goeth forth from the belly, on the day wherein he is born, 42. thou openest his mouth that he may speak, 43. and thou providest for him whatsoever is necessary. 44. When the chick is in the egg, and is making a sound within the shell, 45. thou givest it air inside it so that it may keep alive. 46 Thou bringest it to perfection so that it ma split the eggshell, 47. and it cometh forth from the egg to proclaim that it is a perfect chic, 48. and soon as it hath come forth therefrom it runneth about on its feet. 49. How many are the things which thou has created!

"50. There were ..... in the face of the One God, and his ..... had rest. 51. Thou didst create the earth a they will when thou didst exist by thyself, 52. and men and women, and beasts and cattle, and flocks of animals of every kind, 53. and every thing which is upon the earth and which goeth about on its feet, 54. and everything which is in the air above and which flieth about with wings, 55. and the land of Syria and Nubia, and Egypt. 56. Thou settest every man in his place, 57. Thou providest for every man that which he should have in his storehouse, and thou computest the measure of his life. 59. They speak in tongues which are different [from each other], 60. and their dispositions (or characteristics) are according to their skins. 61. Thou who canst discern hast made the difference between the dweller in the desert to be discerned.

"62. Thou hast made Hapi (i.e., The Nile) in the Tuat, 63. and thou bringest him on according to thy will to make rational beings live, 64. inasmuch as thou hast made them for thyself, 65. O thou who art the lord of all of them, and who dost remain with them. 66. Thou art the lord of every(?) land, and thou shinest upon them, 67. thou art Aten of the day, and art revered in every foreign land(?), 68. and thou makest their lives. 69. Thou makest Hapi in heaven to come down on them, 70. and he maketh his rushing waters to flow over the hills like the great green sea, 71. and they spread themselves abroad and water the fields of the people of their villages. 72. Thy plans (or, counsels)are doubly beneficent. 73. Thou art the Lord of eternity, and thou thyself art the Nile in heaven, and all foreign peoples and all the beasts on all the hills.. 75. Hapi (i.e., the Nile) cometh from the Tuat to Egypt, 76. and thou givest sustenance to its people and to every garden, and 77. [when] thou hast risen they live for thee.

"78. Thou hast made the seasons of the year so that they may cause the things which thou hast made to bring forth, 79. the winter season bringeth them cold, and the summer season a fiery heat. 80. Thou hast created the heavens which are far extending that thou mayest rise therein and mayest be able to look upon all which thou didst create when thou didst exist by thyself, 81. and thou dost rise in thy creation as the living Aten, 82. and thou dost rise, and dost shine, and dost depart on they path, and dost return. 83. Thou didst create [the forms] of created things in thyself when thou didst exist alone. 84. Cities, towns, villages and hamlets, roads and river[s], 85. from these every eye looketh upon thee, 86. for thou art the Aten of the day and art above the earth. 87. Thou journeyest through that which existeth in thine Eye. 88. ............ 89. Thou art in my heart, 90. and none knoweth thee except thy son Nefer-kheperu-Ra-ua-en-Ra. 91 and thou makest him to be wise and understanding through thy counsels and through thy strength. 92 The earth is in they hand, inasmuch as thou hast made them (i.e., those in it). 93. When thou risest mankind live; and when thou settest they die. 94. As long as thou art in the sky they live in thee, 95. and the eyes of all are upon they beauties until thou settest, 96. and they set aside their work of every kind when thou settest in the west. 97. Thou risest and thou makest to grow ........ for the king. 98 ........ from the time when thou didst lay the foundations of the earth, 99. and tou didst raise them up for thy son who preceeded from thy members."

The above version of the hymn to Aten will serve to illustrate the views held by the king and his followers about their god, may be compared with the hymns to Amen-Ra, which which have been quoted above for as the Hymns of Amon/Amen. Some of the themes from Akhenaton do not tarry far from the Amon hymn. Akhenaton only excises that which is violent and leave an ideal world aesthetically beautiful and full of love and goodness, good living and good deeds. All these deeds were for Aten through Akhenaton as the only one who knows and sees has the attributes of Aten, i.e., for him to be an example to the people, the world and all that is in it. Anyone who wanted to know Aten and to accept Aten, had to go through Akhenaton, the Son of the Sun.

The standard bureaucracy continued its endeavors to run the country while the king courted his god. Cracks in the Egyptian Empire may have begun to appear in the later years of the reign of Amenhotep III; at any rate they became more evident as Akhenaton increasingly left government and diplomats to their own devices. Civil and military authority came under two strong characters; Ay, who held the title of "Father of the God" (and was probably Akhanaten's father-in-law), and General Horemheb (also son-in-law of Ay since he married Ay's daughter Mutnodjme, sister of Nefertiti). both men were to become Pharaoh before the 18th Dynasty ended. This redoubtable pair of closely related high officials no doubt kept everything under control in a discreet manner while Akhanaton pursued his own philosophical and religious interests.

This is the first case in mankind's history, and perhaps the purest of a monotheistic religion. A deeper knowledge of the historical and psychological conditions of its origin would be of an inestimable value. Information about the Aton religion is meagre, and not much has come down to contemporary history. the weak successors that came after Akhnaton could not prevent the breakdown of everything he had created. The Priesthood he had suppressed vented their fury on his memory and the Aton religion was abolished and pillaged. In 1350 B.C., the 18th Dynasty was demolished and extinguished. After an interval of anarchy, General Haremhab who reigned in 1315 B.C., restored order. Akhenaton's reforms seemed to have been an episode doomed to be forgotten

Moses and Monotheism

There is a tradition of considering Moses as an Egyptian rather than a Hebrew, which Freud also did in Moses and Monotheism, Not as implausible as it might sound to those familiar only with the traditional story. The familiar Biblical story self describes Moses as growing up as an Egyptian prince, and Moses is an Egyptian name. The research about Amon/Amen as to why it is being used today after people say " The Lord's Prayer" and end up calling to and closing by saying "Amen" has been the focus of this hub. The search to the origins of the Word or name Amon/Amen revealed in this hub that the origins of Monotheism were tied with the the story of Amun as he was lifted into prominence around the 5th Dynasty by the High Priests of Thebes, required that a historical straight path be drawn linking up Amoun'Amen with Akhenaton and Moses, which, I speculated, will lead us to Understanding why we end up in our prayers, in whatever language, with the salutation, "Amen" Thus far, it is becoming clearer that the use of Amen in our prayers is a forgotten ancient histrical mind-set as to why is Amen an ever-enduring name for over ten millenniums. If we are able to trace Amoun/Amen from the primodial epoch, and the effect that this had on Akhenaton,then we can see how Akhenaton got to his philossphy and religious conception of Aten, because he had deep knowledge of Amoun/Amen so that one can see some of the themes, tributes and elelments of the attributes of Amoun/Amen in his hymns and religious philosophy; and we move closer to our time by interrogating the story of Moses and Monotheism, and how this is linked to the story of Akhenaton. It is always important that we know things as much clearer and closer, broader and deeper into to the truth or the original story or history in order to make informed decisions and retain positive knowledge about Amoun/Amen and the role they have played in our understanding the importance of saying Amon,Amen today, and throughout time- and what that means or may mean or is.

Sigmund Freud informs us: "The man Moses, the liberator of his people, who gave them their religion and their laws, belonged to an age so remote that the preliminary question arise whether he was a historical person or a legendary figure. If he lived, his time was the thirteenth of fourteenth century B.C. We have no word of him except from the Holy books and written traditions of the Jews. Although the decision lacks final historical certainty, the great majority of historians have expressed the opinion that Moses did live and that the Exodus from Egypt, led by him, did in fact take place. It has been maintained with good reason that the later history of Israel could not be understood if this were to admitted.

I accept and admit that the truth about the Exodus did exists and am also saying we need to research it and begin to understand the formation and notion of Only One God and its ties or relationship to Moses, Aton, aAmoun/Amen, the Jews and the world. It must be noted that when Akhenaton was expelled or moved away from Thebes to form Akhenaton(in modern-day Tell El Amarna), he and his people went wandering in the wilderness and died form the thirst and hunger. This too has bee a very important note to be made about Akhenaton and his "exodus" to the City of Akhanaton, that some historians have observed that he got his inspiration of worshiping the Sun, even tough it was killing his people, but he also saw it as a source of life and ultimately the God-symbol of Aten. He banished all other gods and betook himself from Thebes and build his Akhenaton city in Tell El Amarna. He elevated his God, Aten, symbolized by the Sun to a new and revolutionary religion in Egypt and all over the world, and in Asia too. The normachs (provincial governors) had warned him that that hostile armies were gathering on the borders and planning to invade the nation, but he did not pay attention to them. The priests of the banned Amoun/Amen religion rebelled and Akhenaton died, probably poisoned by his enemies; the Aton religion was abolished. On the enthronement of his youthful son-in-law, Tutanka\hamen, the capital was moved back to Thebes, and the old religious adherence to Amoun/Amen restored to power. The career of King Tut was ended by his early death,at the age of seventeen years. Then the throne was seized by a priest named Eye, whose reign brought reign brought ruin to the country; for, during his brief rule, nearly all the foreign territories annexed by the great Kings of Dynasty XVIII were lost. Eye was toppled by Harmhab, as noted briefly above, and the decline of Egypt was brough to an end.

The monotheistic Aton religion was crushed in Egypt, but it did not perish entirely; since there was a young priest Moshe(Moses) who had received his theological education at the Temple of Heliopolis, and who became the disciple of Akhenaton. When Atonism was was suppressed in Egypt, Moses led a group of heretics out of the country and reestablished the religion in Palestine. The Egyptian historian, Manetho, is our authority for saying that Moses was an Egyptian Priest. His opinion was endorsed by Strabo, who wrote: "Moses, who was one of the Egyptian priest, taught his followers that it was an egregious error to represent the deity under the form of animals, as the Egyptians did, or in the shape of man, as was the practice of the Greeks and Africans.

Mosche, as it is written in Hebrew, whom we know today told of a young princess as Moses. Exodus Chapter ii has answered that by telling of a story of an Egyptian princess who saved the baby. Breasted's explanation helps us cut through the various explanation causing cacophony and confusion- Breasted writes: "It is important to notice that his name, Moses, was Egyptian. It is simply the Egyptian word 'mose' meaning 'child,' and this is an abridgment of a fuller from of such names as 'Amen-mose' meaning 'Amon-a-child' or 'Ptah-mose,' meaning 'Ptah-a-child,' these forms themselves being likewise abbreviations for the complete form 'Amon- (has given a child') or 'Ptah- (has-given -a-child.) The abbreviation 'child early became a convenient rapid form for the cumbrous full name, and the name Mose,, 'child'' is not uncommon on the Egyptian monuments. the father of moses without doubt doubt prefixed to his son's name that of an Egyptian god like Amon or Ptah, and his divine name was gradually lost in current usage, till the boy was called 'mose'. As he grew up and became a high Priest, and in the final analysis led the followers of Aten into the wilderness, it is clear that he assed on his knwledge gained from being a disciple of AKhenaton and his religion. The Jewish religion did not speak of anything beyond the the grave, for such a doctrine is reconcilable with the strictest monotheism. Being perplexed disappears if we go back from the Jewish religion to the Aton religion and surmise that this feature was taken over from the Aton religion, since for Akhenaton, it was a necessity in fighting the popular religion, where the death-god, Osiris, played perhaps a greater part than any god of the upper regions(See and Read my Hub "Egypt(Kemet, Alkebuland): The Egytpain Book of the Dead - The Negative confession. Part 1 and Part 2), in order to fully understand the role played by Osiris, God and Judge of the Dead in after life.

Moses, did not enjoy an unqualified success in his promulgation of the new religion since many of his followers still recognized the old gods: "But in vain did he proscribe the worship of symbols which prevailed in Lower Egypt and Phoenicia, for his god was, nevertheless, an Egyptian god invented by those priests of whom Moses had been the disciple. ... In vain did Moses wish to blot from is religion everything which had relation to the stars; many traits call them to mind in spite of all he has done. The seven planetary luminaries of the great candlestick; the twelve stones, or signs in the Urim of the high priests; the feasts of the two equinoxes (entrances and gates of the two hemispheres); the ceremony of the lamb the celestial ram, then in the fifteenth degree); ... all remains so may witnesses of the filiation of his ideas, and of their extraction form the common course." (Count Volney)

As has been noted above, there are differing views as to how the religion of Akhenaton got to be powerful and spread around the world, and taken up by the Jewish people according to a myriad scholarly works, a certain consistency emerges. That of Moses being an Egyptian and having taught the principles of Aten to his follower and recognizing the existence of One God. There is a historical narrative that traces the route taken by the believers of Aten into what is the belief of one God amongst the Jews and role played by the original monotheistic Amoun/Amen Religion.

Moses and One God Religion

Wilderness Meanderings

Freud informs us that "Moses gave the Jews not only a new religion; it is equally certain that he introduced the custom of circumcision." There is a biblical account, according to Freud, that dates this custom to the patriarch Abraham's covenant with God. On one hand in an obscure passage mention is made of God's wrath against Moses for neglecting this holy usage, and proposed slaying him as a punishment. His wife, Midianite, saved her husband from the wrath of God by speedily performing the operation. Heordotus says: "the custom of circumcision has long been practiced in Egypt," and this was confirmed by the examination of Mummies and even by drawings on the walls of the graves. No other people of the eastern Mediterranean, as far as we know, has followed this custom. Moses, more than Akhenaton was active among the Shasu(Midianites) Beduins ans also conceived the founding of a new empire, of finding a new people, to help disseminate his religion.

For a more accurate and clearer historical account, Freud informs us that his interest is to fill-in historical gaps as to what was the fate of Moses' doctrines, and how this was affected by the revolt of the Jews.: "From the Jahvist account, written in around about 1000 B.C,we leaned that the union of the clans and the foundation of the religion in Qades was a compromise and the two parts are still easily distinguishable. On the one hand, one partner was concerned only in denying the recency and foreignness of the God Jahve and in heightening his claim to the people's devotion. On th other hand the other partner would not renounce the memories, so dear to him, of the liberation from Egypt and the magnificent figure of his leader, Moses; and, indeed, he succeeded in finding a place for the fact as well as for the man in the new representation of jewish early history, in retaining at least the outer signs of the Moses religion, namely, circumcision - and in insisting on certain restrictions in the use of the new divine name. Those who insisted on those demands and changes were the descendants of the Moses followers, the Levites, who were separated by by a few generation only from the actual contemporaries and compatriots of Moses and attached to his his memory by a tradition that was still very new and green.

Jahve was not different from the gods of the neighboring peoples and clans; we wrestled with the other gods, it is true, just as the clans fought among themselves, yet we may assume that a Jahve-worshipper of that time would never have dreamt of doubting the existence of the gods of Canaan,Moab, Amalek and so on, anymore than he would the existence of the people who believed in them. The monotheistic idea, which had blazed up in Akhenaton's time, was again obscured and was to remain in darkness for a long time to come. The Jews as they were separated form their mother country had not gone through the same religious development. The Persians government in the fifth century B.C. Communicated to them the new ceremonial regulations of Jerusalem. Jahve was different from Mosaic god Aton who was a pacifist and model on earth, like his deputy Akhenaton, who looked on with arms folded as the empire of his ancestors fell apart in pieces. As we have observed above, the governors went to Akhenaton to warn him about the enemies of Egypt massing on her borders preparing for wars, and he ignored them. The folowers of Moses who were preparing s to conquer new lands through violence, Jahve was certainly better suited for that mission than the honor that was accorded the Mosaic God and its attributes - which the primitive people could not comprehend in their wandering and exile."(Auerbach)

Freud continues to discuss how Aten evolved into Jahve and intellectually retaining the attributes of Aton, but morphing into a hard, relentless 'wrapped in gloom'. He continues: "He retained the character of a Universal God who reigned over all lands and peoples; the fact, however, that his worship had passed from the Egyptians to the Jews found its expression in the added doctrine that the Jews were his chosen people to reconcile their belief in their being preferred to all others by an all-powerful God with the dire experiences of their sad fate. But they did not let doubts assail them, they increased their own feelings of guilt to silence their mistrust and perhaps in the end they referred to "God's unfathomable will," as religious people do to this day." This creation and changing of a God to suit the the religious perspectives and needs of the day, as we have learned from the raising of Amoun/Amen to being the 'King of the Gods', and Aten, the sun and its symbols elevated to the most powerful and hymns to go with it, and that Aten is within the symbol and cannot be beheld nor known. With the Jews we are beginning to see the morphing of the God Aten to Jahve with the attributes of violence and 'a vengeful god', as was the case of Moses had been discussed when he ignored the circumcision custom and was to be punished for his digressions. and belief inlaid within its core beliefs. "In another instance we see it identical with the the old Mosaic God The first and decisive point is that he was really recognized as the Only God, beside whom another god was unthinkable. Akhenaton's monotheism was taken seriously by an entire people; indeed, this people clung to it to such an extent that it became the principal content of their intellectual life and displaced all other interests. The people and the priesthood, now the dominating part of it, were unanimous on that point; but the priests, in confining their activities to elaborating the ceremonial for his worship, found themselves in opposition to strong tendencies within the people which endeavored to revive tow other doctrines of Moses about his God. Moses proclaimed in his prophetical manner that 'God disdained ceremony and sacrifice and asked for nothing but belief in him and a life in truth and justice. Whenever they praised the simplicity and holiness of their life in the desert, they surely stood under the influence of Mosaic ideals." Freud)

Freud delves down in a psychoanalytical-historical mode to explain what he call the 'incubation period' between the "the time that elapsed between the accident and the first appearance of the symptoms, say car or train crash, is congruent to the problem of of the traumatic neurosis and that of Jewish monotheism. Freud points out that this is the best way of thinking about the Jewish religion because after it broke from the Moses religion, and no trace of monotheism can be found, i.e., the condemnation of ceremonial, and the emphasis on the ethical side." Freud says that he has traced in Qades, two components of the later Jewish people combined in the acceptance of a new religion. 'With those who had been in Egypt,the memory of the Exodus and of the figure of Moses was still so strong and vivid that it insisted on being incorporated into any account of their early history. There might have been among them grandsons of persons who themselves had known Moses,and some of them still felt themselves to be Egyptians and bore Egytpian names. They glorified the new God and and denied his foreignness; they also had to deny that there had been an earlier religion and especially what it contained. The compromise came about in a way that in the end it was codified into wring; the people from Egypt had brought with them the art of writing and the fondness of writing history. A long time was to elapse, however, before historians came to develop an ideal of objective truth. At first they shaped their accounts according to the needs and tendencies of the moment, with an easy conscience, as if they had not yet understood what falsification signified. In consequence, a difference began to develop between the written version and the oral report - that is, the tradition - of the same subject matter. What has been preserved uninjured in the tradition. Tradition was the complement an at the same time the contradistinction of the written history." (Freud) It was less subject to distorting influences - perhaps in part entirely free from them - and therefore might be more truthful than the account set down in writing.

The One God Realization

Incomplete and dim memories of the past, which we call tradition, are a great incentive to the artist, for he is free to fill in the gaps in the memories according to the behest of his imagination and to form after his own purpose the image of the time he has undertaken to produce. With the Jews it was the tradition of Moses that turned the Jahve-worship in the direction of the old Mosaic religion.

The idea of a Highest Being seems to have appeared early; at first it was shadowy and devoid of any connection to the daily interests of humankind. As the clans and peoples were knit together into larger ujnities, the gods also became organized into families of hierarchies. Often one of them was elevated to be the overlord of gods and men(Amoun/Aton, and Jahve) The next step was taken hesitatingly, and at long last the decision was made to concede all power to one God only and not to suffer any other gods beside him. Only then was the grandeur of the primeval father restored(Amoun/Amen)the emotions belonging to him could be restored. thus, a transport of devotion to god is the first response to the return of the Great Father, with the Jews and some religions in the world(Christianity and so forth). Today, as we all pay to 'Our Father, who art in heven, hallowed be thy name, thy Kingdom Come...... we end up confirming our historical unconsciousness relayed consciously and knowledgeably and with understanding that we ask of all this salvation as embedded in our prayers and hoping to reach through to whoever we are praying to, be mediated and go through and to 'Amen': thus we say "AMEN". We recall a primodial God unconsciously yet consciously, because our historical memory has been devoured by the vicissitudes of the eons and the substance of the times. If in the times that we live in the popular psychology and philosophy is to be a Christian, Moslem or Jewish, the prayers we say in our beliefs in the Higher Power, in whatever language, we tap into our historical memory to always say Amen, and in the final analysis, this hub was about the historical reality about Amoun, Amun, Amon, that Amen, is not only a salutation to the prayers we make to our Gods, but again as a reminder of a historical narrative written to recall connection and recollection of the greatness of the one we conclude our prayer with and by referring to Him in his final and original name, "Amen".

History will always reward all research, and in the process one is humbled by the vast information available, and different opinions prevailing in trying to reconnect such vast time-lines. The point herein was to try and trace the origins of Amon/Amen, and link it, if possible, to the present understanding of the usage of such a name. The history as to what happened for us to have the "Our Father Prayer" might be for another time.

Moses: African Influence On Judaism - African-Centered Point Of View

I would like to look at Monotheism from an African-centered historical perspective. Becasue of colonialism, we have come at point when we young African historians are going to celarly and forcefully write our own African people's history and story as African people would like to have it written.

Too long we have been listening to lies and stories, and along with the histories of other ethnick froups, and I think it should stay that way: It is the story and history of those people who are not African. But as an African person, and a student of history, I am going to use all the available material to get my point through, viz., African people have given girth to and edified other religions, and it is from there, on the African historical paradigm, that I am going to discuss monotheism, and most things about that concept.

One things that I posses and have as a human being and African, is that, I fear no charlatans and inn-informed persons who really have not much to say in this Hub. I reiterate: Christianity, Judaism and Islam are derivatives of African History. to put it more plainly, they are all of the a plagiarized version of African history and spiritualism. I will back up what I am saying here without fear of attack form anyone, but know very well that I will use the Master Teachers of African history, along with my experience to make this point as real as it is, as I am onot this piece. Dr. Ben's Lecture above would fill-in the gaps that I have left out below in my paltry discourse.

I am going to use the best African Master Teacher to make my point clearly, and this will help anchor the Whole Hub into an African centered historical perspective.

According to Dr. Ben Joachan:

"To speak of an "ALMIGHTY God" in the context used by Jews, Christians, and Moslems, is impossible without going back to the roots of said belief.. In so doing, one has to delve beyond the origin of Jadaism (the Hebrew religion and peoples) - the parent of the three religions mentioned, Christianity - the child, and Islam - the grandchild.

"All eyes have to be centered on the indgenous African religions of the Nile Valley from whence all three derived; that is, from religions which are today called "Egyptian Religion" and/or "Mysteries." But, in order to delve into the depths of the study of traditional African religions of Egypt and other lands along the banks of the more than 4,100 miles length of the Nile River, this will take a lot of work. Nevertheless, a frew basic citation on the main African religion upon which Judaism, Christianity, and Islam - the so-called "Western Religions" - rest are hereby entered into and examined.

"For example: The concept of the making of man (Creation) by "ONE" - The Sun-God Ra, who was sometines identified with the God Osiris, was in fact dealing with a "Monotheistic God" even though polytheism seemed to be the basic foundation of the African religion of Sais (Later called Egypt by the Hebrews, Greeks and Romans). Yet one sees, in the Book Of The Dead - as translated from Hieroglyphics to English by Sir E.A. Wallis-Budge, Sisris shsown as the only god wo could make man inherit "everlasting and eternal life;" also that he alone had the power to: "...cause men and women to be born again...."

The same God, Osiris, was responsible to represent "ONE" - the "Supreme Being," as He "...loved life and hated death...;" This can be found the Book of the Dead:'"...HOmage to thee, O my divine father Ositris, thou hast thy being with thy members. Thou didst not decay, thou didst not turn into worms, though didst not rot away, though didst not become corruption, though didst not putrefy.... I shall have my being, I shall live, I shall germinate, I shall wake up in peace.... Mu body shall be established, and it shall neither fall into ruin nor be destroyed off this earth."

I briefly would like to look at the concept of Moses and Monotheism in this part of the Hug much more concretely and definitively:

Jackson writes:

"The death of Amenhotep III, in 1501 B.C., ended a brilliant reign of thirty-six years and five months. He was succeeded by his son, the boy Amenhoep IV. Queen Ti, mother of the young king, acted as regent until her son reached his majority. The new monarch inaugurated a religious revolution which brought him fame and, at the same time ended the Golden Age established by his father. The young pharaoh betook himself from Thebes and established a new city, Tell el Amarna, as his capital.

"He repudiated the numerous gods fo the Egyptian pantheon, and recognized only one god, Aton, whose symbol was the flaming disk of the Sun; and he even renamed himself Ikhnaton (devoted to Aton). The monarchs (Provincial governronrs) had wrned him that hostile armies were gathering on the borders planning to invade the nation, but he heeded them not. The priests of the disestablished cults finally revelled and Ihknaton, the Herietic king, died ignominously, probably poisoned by his enemies; and the Aton cult was abolished.

"On the entrhonement of his youthful son-in-law, Tutankhamen, the capitol was moved back to Thebes, and the old religious cults were restored to power. The career of King Tut was ended by his early death, at the age of seventeed years. Then the throne ws seized by a priest named Eye, whose reign brought ruin to the country; for, during his brief rule, nearly all the foreign territories annexed by the great kings of Dynasy XVIII were lost(One can read my Hub palshed about Dynasties XVIII to XX, here on HubPages. Harmhab, a general from the North, ascended the river and toppled the usurper Evye from the throne, and brought a period of decline to an end.

"The Monotheistic Aton cult was crushed in Egypt, but it did not perish entirely; since there was a young priest Moshe(Moses), who had received his theological Education in the Temple of Heliopolis, and who became a disciple of Inkknaton. When Atonism was suppressed in Egypt, Moses led a group of heretics out of the country and reestablished the cult in Palestine. The Egyptian historian, Manetho, is our authority for sayaing that Moses was an Egyptian Egyptian priest. His opinion was endorsed by Strabo, who wrote: "Moses who was one of the Egyptian Priests, taught his followers that it was an egrigious error to represent the diety under the form of animals as the Egyptians did, or in the shape of man, as was the practice of the Greeks and Africans.

... It is for this reason, that, rejecting every species of images or idols, Moses wished the deity to be worshipped without emblems and according to his proper nature; and he accordingly ordered a temple worthy of him to be erected(Volney)

Moses, as we know, did not enjoy an unqualified success in his promulgation of the new religion, since many of is followers still recognized the old gods.

"But in vain did he proscribe the worship of the symbols which prevailed in Lower Egypt and Phoenicia: As Volney observed, "For his god was, nevertheless, an Egyptian God invented by those priests of whom Moses had been disciple. ... In vain did Moses wish to blot from his religion eveuything which had relation to the stars; many traits call them timing in spite of all he has done. The seven planetary luminaties of the great candlestick; the twelve stones, or signs in the Urim of the high priests; the feasts of the two equinoxes (entrances and gates of the two hemispheres); the ceremny of the lamb (the celestial ram, then in the fifteenth degree), ... all remain as so many witnesses of the filiation of his ideas, and of their extraction from the common source."(Volney)

We learn the following from Professor Ben:

"The indigenous Africans' of Egypt (Black(African) people from Central East Africa's Great Lakes) religious belief in "ONE" was cited as follows by C.P. Thile in the Encyclopedia Britannica, Vol. XX:

"...the adoration of one god above all others as the specific tribal god or as the lord over a particular people, a national or relative monotheism, likee that of the ancient Israelites, the worship of an absolute sovereign exacts passive obedience. This particular monotheism is totally different from the theoretical monotheism, to which the Aryans, with their monistic speculative idea of the godhead, are much nearer."

Dr Ben adds:

"However, it must be also noted that Professor Tiele was not dealing with the Africans of Egypt (Egyptians), but the Haribu (Hebrews, today called erroneously "Jews") - who had already left Egypt (Sais) and established their own national culture and religion upon the principles they learnt while they were in Egypt, and in fact, what they were born under. At least their ancestors were in fact native-born Africans of Egypt, of the Hebrew faith. Nevertheless Professor Tiele, in his work, Histoire Compare Des Anciennes Religions in 1882, stated that there were two contradictory and irreconcilable phenomena in the Africans' of Egypt Philosophy"

1. A lively sentiment of spirituality of God united to the coarsest materialistic representations of different divinities;

2. A sentiment, not less lively, of the unity of God, united to an extremely great multiplicity of divine persons

"Between the declaration of Max Muller's work, Hibbert Lectures, in which he inciated that the qulaity of "ONE" - as the creator of heaven and earth - was only a "... phase of religious thought" among the ancient Nile Valley Africans of Egypt, and that of Professor Tiele, already shown above; yet, the fact remain in the explanation given by Professor J Liebman's book, Egyptian Religion, 1884, in which he held the following:

"When we, for instance, take the Indo-Europeans, what do we find there? The Sanskrit word DEVA is identical with Latin DEUS, and the northern TIVI, TIVAR; as now the word in Latin and northern language signifies God, it must also in Sanskrit from the beginning have had the same signification.

"That is to say, the Arians, or Indo-Europeans, must have combined the idea of God with this word, as early as when they still lived together, in their original home. Because, if the word in their pre-historic home had had another more primitive signification, the wonder would have happened, that the word had accidentally gone through the same development of signification with all these people after separation. As this is quite improbable, the word must have had the signification of God in the original Indo-European language. One could go even further......," etc., etc., etc."

"These concepts were not new when the first Haribu (Hebrews) - as they were then called - entered Sais (Egypt) with Abraham and his family (around c1640 B.C.E.[Before theChristian Era]) - as show in the book of Genesis, Chapt. 13, Verses 1:18. They were in existence a very long perid before the building of the first major pyramid of Saqqara by Pharaoh Djoser (whom the Greeks called "Zozer") and the other other major works, those by Pharaoh Khufu (whom the Greeks called "Cheops" or "Kheops"), Mycerenius, and Khafra (whom the Greeks called "Cephren"), in a period covering from 3,100 to 2,258 B.C.E, more than 618 years the last one was built before the birth of the first Haribu (Hebrew of Jew). Abram (Avra, or Abraham) was born, more than 1,500 years before the concept of "Adam and Eve" was developed by the Hebrews.

"Therefore, one can safely say that "monotheism was indeed the prime factor of the religion of the African of the Nile Valley, especially in the Egyptian "Mystery System, thousands of years before the existence of the Hebrew God YAHWwH (jehovah), and of course, thousands more before the creation of the Christian and Moslem gods - Jesus Christ and Allah.

""Immortality" was also a very basic concept within the same system, during the same period. giving rise to the "Nehter World" described so eloquently in the Book of the Dead. The "Book Of The Dead being the name given the works of the ancient indigenous Africans of Egypt (The Egyptians and other Nile Valley Africans) outline and recording of man's "Life After Death", which the ancient haribu copied and distorted under the name of "Hereafter".It is suggested that a copy of each of the following works - "Book Of The Dead;" "Osiris;" "The Gods Of The Egyptians;" "and "The First Book Of Egypt," become part of the collection of each reader's library; especially with respect to the origin of the basic religious concepts most Jews, Christians, and Moslems still believe originated with the so -called "inspired men of the cloth."

"These works are translated from original Coffin and Pyramid Texts in Hieroglyphics into English by scholars called "Egyptologists." However, another of the major works needed in the set is "Man And His Gods;"

"With the above background and understanding from whence the concept of "monotheism first came, one can readily enter the following discussion with much greater insight and appreciation for the role the indigenous Africans and their traditional religions had, still have, in Judaism (or Hebrewism) - the religion the African Haribus adopted from their brother and sister Africans of the traditional religion of the worship of "ONE" or "RA," as represented by the God - OSIRIS.

"\G. Wells wrote:

"Three main regions and three kinds o f wandering and imperfectly settled people there were in those remote days of the first civilization in Sumeria and Early Egypt. Away in the forests of Europe were the blond Nordic peoples, hunters and herdsmen, a lowly race. The primitive civilizations saw very little of this race before 1,500 B.C."

What Is Africa And Its History To Me? Everything!

Below, I would like to post the lecture of African History Master Teacher, and my intentions here is to approach and broach most historical discourses within the African centered perspective. For approaching my subjects from an African Centered perspective, I am not apologizing to no one. If anyone had any qualms about the subject being discussed, I would like to respond, if there is merit for me to respond to those comments.. But, when I speak wearing my African History cap, I will do so from an African centered-Perspective without apologies to nobody.

These are the times and the age when the dsicipline of African History has had its over five decades of asserting and taking its place in the table of all human efforts and history in this planet during this contemporary epoch. The African history Master Teachers delineate for us, clearly and concisley the historical timelines, the migrations, and the origins of what we cal civilizations without any doubt. Many people have a knee-jerk reaction to the information in thiese lectures and Hub, but I am non-plussed. I believe that there is enough material in the world today, everyone is welcome to provide scholarly and well reserached alteernatives, I may then entertain their repsonses.

But to dismiss he Historiography of African history with all their points and cases proven as untrue, well, the response should meet the depth and breadth of the Hub above. Otherwise, I am more interested in the true history of the world which is called World history. It is in this academic cavern that African history has been igonored and not represented. In this Hub, as am onto it, I will utilize the relevant references and audio/visual material and then some, to make my point of The African Origins Of Everything.

It is in African history-centered that I believe lies the human face that is non-existant today. The history, as it is is being laid out in this Hub, is important for a voice that has its eye and mind on Africation historical transmission and propagation of our story, culture, customs and so forth, for the benefit of Africans and humanity, is my sole goal and aim. Understanding African history is enssential in brining back the humanity in Man and Women. We must ot only claim our African centered history, we must talk, write and propagate it as we see fit.

We Should Tell And Write Our Own Stories and Histories

Becasue the Theme of this Hub is "Monotheism", it is also important that I give some form of historical background to what is in line with the Hub's topic. As we speak more and more about the spiritual matters and religious experiences, there are many who are going to be ticked-off on both sides of the divide.. To be honest, those are the least of my worries, but, what I am concerned with, is to see to it that records are kept by Africans people for African children and African nations.

Our story and history should be told by us becasue we can and should. There is no way we are going to ask for permision from outside people when we can do it ourselves. My aim in writing African history, I reiterate, is to srite it as I see fit from an African-cnetered perspective. That is what I charged myself with doing, and will not stop now.

Dr. John Henrik Clarke- Christianity Before Christ in Africa

Looking Beyond The Present Way Of seeing Or Talking About Monotheism: African Perspectives

Whenever issue are talked about concerning religion, god, faith and so on, too many things happen and arguments ensue. But in our life and day, there is what we call research papers, and one need not believe in nor blong to any religious belief to do so. I use history to relay my ideas, perceptions and perspectives. The Hebrew prophet, Nahum, predicting the destruction of Nineveh, half a century later, refers to the fall of Thebes in the following passage from the Old Testament: "Art though better than No-Amon [Thebes], that was situate among the rivers, that had the waters round about her; whose rampart was the sea, and her wall was of the sea?

Ethiopia and Egypt were her strength and it was infinite. ... Yet, was she carried away, she went into captivity; her young children also were dashed to pieces at the top of all the streets: and they cast lots for honorable men, and all her great men were bound in chains.(Breasted)

After the days of Julius Caesar, the Library of Alexander was rebuilt and enlarged, and as far as possible the lost manuscripts were restored. Then came the rise to power of the early Chrisitan Church. The leaders of the primitive Christian Church were, for the most part, ignorant and bigoted religious fanatics who embarked on a course of promoting faith and destroying knowledge.

"The leader of the Christian party in alexandria in 839 A,D. was Bishop Theophilus, who at the head of a mob of Christian monks destroyed what was left of the great Library of Alexander. On the death of Theophilus, he was succeeded in the bishopric of Alexandria by his nephew, St. Cyril, who was even worse than his late uncle.

In the early part of the fifth century of the Christian era, Hypatia, the daughter of Theon, the mathematician, conducted an academy in Alexandria. this talented lady gave lectures on the Philosophies of Plato and Aristotle, and instructed her students on the works of Appolonius and other geometers. Bishop Cyril decided that such knowledge must be suppressed, and he proceeded to take the necessary steps to achieve that objective.

If one were to read the accounts, stories and histories of the battle between the Moors and Christian France and the Christans of the day. one would be left looking at the pages, agape. It is a horrendous history of murder, mayhem and sheer barabarity between the Muslims and the Christians of the day. That is partly covered in one of my Hubs I have written about How The Moors Civilized Europe.

In the final analysis, there are many stories told about the actions of the Christians during slavry. Chapman Cohen writes:

"The peculiar and damning fact in the history of slavery [as is pointed out by a careful student of the institution], so far as the Christian Church is concerned is this. ,,, It was created by Christians, it was continued by Christians, It was in some respects more barbarous than anything the world had yet seen, and its worst feature were to be witnessed in countries that were most ostentatious in their parade of Christianity. It iss this that provides the final and unanswerable indictment of the Christian Church. ... It should be added that, according to Livingstone, slavery was unknown to the African until it was introduced by Christians - the Portuguese."

Writing this Hub has taught me that not too many people really understanding many things about man and his enviroment and so on. Mnay have a knee-jerk reaction to what they really do not know, instead of learning. I am a perpertual student no matter what I cannot or do achieve in life as long as I am alive. Bring out or fleshing out the truth and embedding it within the historical core within an Africancentered perspective, is what I will continue dong and adding to this article above.

Dr. John Henrik Clarke - The Rise of Islam

The Teachings Of Ptah Hotep - The Papyrus If Ptah Hotep The Vizier

The teaching of the Overseer of the City and Vizier Ptahhotep
before the power of the dual king Isesi living for ever and eternity.
The Overseer of the City and Vizier Ptahhotep declares:
O my sovereign,
Old age has struck, age has descended,
Feebleness has arrived, weakness is here again.
Sleep is upon him in discomfort all day.

Papyrus 1
Eyes are grown small, ears deaf,
Mouth silent, unable to speak,
Heart emptied, unable to recall yesterday.
Bones ache his whole length.
Goodness has turned to evil,
All taste is gone.
What old age does to people is evil in every way.
Nose is blocked, unable to breathe,
how old (it feels) standing or sitting.
Let a staff of old age be decreed to be made for this humble servant.
Let him be told the speech of those who assess,
the advice of the ancestors once heard by the gods.
Then the same may be done for you,
strife may be removed from the populace,
and the Two Shores may toil for you.

Papyrus 2

Then the Power of this god said:
Teach him then the speech from the past
that he may provide the example for the children of the great.
May hearing enter into him, the measure of every heart.
Speak to him. For noone can be born wise.

Papyrus 3

Beginning of the collection of fine words
Said by the man of the elite, foremost of arm
god's father and beloved of the god
eldest son of the king of his body
overseer of the city, vizier Ptahhotep
in teaching the ignorant to be wise
according to the rules of fine words,
something useful to whoever heeds,
and something harmful to whoever transgresses it.

Papyrus 4

Then he addressed his son:
Do not be proud on account of your knowledge,
but discuss with the ignorant as with the wise.
The limits of art cannot be delivered;
there is no artist whose talent is fulfilled.
Fine words are more sought after than greenstone,
but can be found with the women at the grindstone.

Papyrus 5

If you meet an opponent in his moment
A director of heart who is superior to you,
bend your arms and bow;
do not take up your heart against him,
for he will not be swayed for you.
You can belittle bad speaking
by not clashing with him in his moment;
it will mean he is called a fool,
when your self-restraint has subdued his excess.

Papyrus 6

If you meet an opponent in his moment
Your equal, a man from your levels,
silence is how you establish your superiority over him,
while he is bad mouthing,
greatly to the disgust of the assessors,
and your name is the good one in the mind of the officials.

Papyrus 7

If you meet an opponent in his moment
Who is a poor man, and not your equal,
do not vent your hear on him by his wretchedness.
Put him on land for him to oppose himself.
Do not pour out your heart at the man facing you.
The demolition of a wretched heart is a difficult matter.
What you wish will be done;
beat him with the hostility of the officials.

Papyrus 9

Do not cause fear among people
God punishes with the same.
Anyone who says 'I can live by it'
will lack bread for his statement.
Anyone who say 'I can be powerful'
will have to say 'I snare against myself by my cleverness'.
Anyone who says he will strike another,
will end by being given to a stranger.

Papyrus 10

If you are a man at a sitting
at the table place of one greater than you,
take whatever he causes to be set before you,
do not stare at what is before him,
do not pierce it with many glances
Pressing it is an offence to the ka.
Do not speak to him until he has requested:
you never know what may displease.
Speak when he questions you,
and your speech will please.
A great man, when he is at a meal,
behaviour following the command of his ka,
he will give to the one he favours,
that is the night-time behaviour that happens
- only a fool complains about it.

Papyrus 11

If you are a man of entry
sent by official to official,
be precise in the form he sent you
carry out the mission for him as he says.
Guard against harming with words,
embroiling official with official.
Grasp what is right by its likeness;
an outburst of the heart is not repeated
from the speech of all people.

Papyrus 12

If you plough for plants on the margins,
the god grants it to be great by your hand
Do not inflate your mouth beside your neighbours;
to inspire awe by being silent is greater.
A master of character who is master of wealth,
he seizes like a crocodile in the council.
Do not scorn the childless man,
do not bemean by boasting over it.
Even a father can have his plenty of grief;
a mother who has given birth may be less happy than a maid.
It is the lone man that the god fosters,
while the lord of a clan may beg to be followed.

The Origin Of Things(Gods And Virgin Mothers and Children)=Egyptian Odyssey..

I have above cited Ptah Hotep just to edify my Hub with his Maxims which I will utilize later in my article. For now, the article or Hub above attempts to address the Origins of Amun and what that means for us {Those who are steeped in religious beliefs).

It is important for the readers of this article to listen to the Video of Dr Ben below.

Below I explore the concept of the Immaculate Conception as researched by Jackson.

Jackson writes:

"The belief in miracalous births was common in antiquity," the reverend Vail noted. "Nearly every nation had a festival at or near the 25th of Deemberin honor of the birth of a Divine Being.

'The incarnations were generally referred to as immaculate conceptions and the persons thus born were saviors. The advent of the saviors here mentioned preceded the Christian Era, some of them by thousands of years((225, p 130).

Jackson further adds:

Gods and heroes, born of virgins were quite common in the olden times, nd the source of most, if not all of these divinities, seems to have been Egypt. Below Jackson cites from Rhys and further writes....

Rhys has an instructive discourse on this fact:

"Horus was said to be the parthenogenetic child of of the Virgin Mother, Isis. In the catacombs of Rome, black statues of this Egyptian divine Mother and Infant still survive from the early Christian worship of the Virgin and Child to which they were converted.

"In these the Virgin Mary is represented as a black Negress and often wit the face veiled in the true Isis fashion ... Statues of the goddess His with the child Horus in her arms were common in Egypt, and they were exported to all neighboring and many respite countries, where they are still to be found with new names attached to them-Christian in Europe, Budhist in Turkestan,Taoist in China and Japan. Figures of the Vigin Isis do duty as representations of Mary, of Haiti, of Kuan Yin, and other Virgin Mothers of Gods.(206. pp. 115-160.


ixwa (author) on July 11, 2021:

Have fixed most typos... Thanks for the response too...

ixwa (author) on June 29, 2021:

I have been working on the typos and have added some videos and much more information. Thanks for the comment. It might come late, but one gets caught -up with various issues. The article has been refreshed and some stuff has been added to expand the piece. Thanks...

Amajen on April 07, 2019:

I find your Hubpages very educational. I crossed paths with Dr. Ben at City University way back. He was and still is a light in the darkness. I think Abraham is the key to understanding. From Ur also came the Sumerians, who were the ones who also settled in Egypt, Sudan, Aethiopia, Atlantis ( and other places) and brought their religion and way of life with them. The Sumerians were the first to write and encrypt for posterity, so the hieroglyphs started there.

A cousin of mine, Jane Scott, also worked at Temple for years. I would have been grateful for the opportunity to help proof these papers as there are several typos that detract from full clarity.

But thank you so much, in these days of Pinterest, for your vital information. I am indeed blessed.

ixwa (author) on January 24, 2013:

Dawn Klehm: Thanks for responding to the Hub above, albeit it in unusual way. Anyway, what you call hieroglyphics and tattoo marks, is not merely that, nor a religious encryption only, but a record of a people's culture, history, tradition, science, and mediology with its writing and communication systems, which has below or underneath it another sort of writing (this can be discussed as to what I meant). So that, even if there's a conception that we have forgotten about the past of what hieroglyphics is about, it is now readable and imparts more that can and does remind us of the true history of humans, going as far back as 20,000 BC and beyond. As to the "God" Concept of which the Egyptians to them, it was conceptualized as the "Primodial Soup", that too can be found and understood through reading Hieroglyphics. I think the Hub above covers areas that need to be addressed, too, in our understanding what we are all about... Thanks for the comment.

Dawn Klehm on January 23, 2013:

In my life time I have seen signs on people that are from the hieroglyphs and no the signs weren't what we call tattoos. One woman that I saw in black on the upper upper arm of hers was a C then a black rectangle (god) and a S and these letters were over the mark of a slave the black band around the upper arm. This sign read to me "wickedness and betrayal against god". So yes to me there is no denying that hieroglyphs are real and not just some language we forgot.

ixwa (author) on October 09, 2012:

Redefine: Thank you for visiting, reading and commenting kindly on the Hub above. I know that Isis, and Ra are of Egyptian origin, and as of 'el', I have read it somewhere in one rare book by Godfrey Higgins, Esq., he titled "Anacalypsis, Vol II. A very obscure volume and wherein he discusses the origin of Languages, Nations Religions. I have seen, somewhere in my researches, some of he works of Robert Lomas on some of books on Archeao-astronomy, Freemasonry, etc. I will look up the book you mention wherein he writes with Christopher Knight on Freemasonry... I really appreciate your input and comments very much..

Redefine on October 08, 2012:

Thank you very much for the article ixwa. I find it very interesting to see the influence of Egypt on Judaism and Christianity. Have you come across anything in your search of the history of Egypt that Israel might stand for the trinity of Isis, Ra, and El?

I also found it very interesting that you mentioned Masonic ritual. Have you heard of The Hiram Key by Christopher Knight and Robert Lomas?

ixwa (author) on June 11, 2012:

fifi: Welcome to the Hub above and thanks for the succinct comment. I appreciate it very much... Thanks...

fifi on June 11, 2012:


ixwa (author) on June 07, 2012:

Martinho: Welcome to the Hub above and thnak you for the comment. Well, I do not really know what to make of your comment except to say that we all see and understand information in many different and various ways. As to what you are saying Moses raising his arms and that action in relation to the Hub above. Well, I will simply say your take is what you choose it to mean. But the Hub above is way more than that, but, I will accept your leap in belief and connection, but the Hub was about what the salutation "Amen" means and whence it originates from. Anyway. Thank you for the response, and I appreciate it very much...

Martinho on June 07, 2012:

There is a passage in the Bible where Moses needs to keep the arms up in order that his people gain a battle. When he got tired, the arms went down, his people got in trouble in the battle. So the brother of Moses put a rock under his arms in order to keep the arms up. (So it seems to me that Moses needs to keep the arms up so that he can receive the (sun?) energy of God )

ixwa (author) on May 29, 2012:

Polosho: Welcome to the Hub above, and am glad you read it and are asking if whether "Amon was considered a pagan god. Well, One cannot, first of all regard what the Egyptians did as being backward or pagan. They were the forerunners of what we know of as 'civilization' today, and they originated too many things: writing, papers, technology, architecture, art, medicine, study of the universe(stars and their galaxies and the whole bit. so that, the Pharaoh, in Egypt, being the incarnation of the divine "Ka", legitimately exercised the power that he received from the God-Amon-Ra, creator of the universe, in order to maintain justice, peace, and law among mortals. The theory of individual will as a source of authority never existed in Egypt. all the peoples had to obey Pharaoh, to the divine will of Amon-Ra, who was not only the national Egyptian God, but God of the Whole universe, his creation. The narrative of creation, of the coming into being of the universe as we know it, of the story of The creator God, was started by none other than theEgyptian. so that, the Egyptians in their deification of the sun, considered the luminary in its different aspects separating the light from the heat of the sun and the orb from the rays. Egyptian sun worship was therefore polytheistic, and several deities were worshiped as sun gods. Thus, there were sun gods representing the physical orb, the intellectual sun, the sun considered as the source of the heat, and the source of light, the power of the sun, the sun in the firmament, and the sun in his resting place(Olcott)

The greatest of the Nilotic sun gods was "Ra" or "Re", who was the personification of the physical sun; for indeed, Ra was the ordinary everyday Egyptian name for the sun. Ra was part of a solar trinity, the other members being Osiris and Horus. Osiris was symbolic of the setting sun; Horus was the rising sun who slew the the Dragon of Darkness with a spear (ray). Another among the Egyptian solar divinities was Amen(Amon/Amun), and he was the personification of the sun after it had descended below the horizon, and was hidden from sight. Amen was imaged as a man with the head and horns of a ram, and his pictures and statues were painted blue, the sacred dolor of the source of life. In the Egyptian language, the word 'ram' means concealment, and the solar god, Amen, was called the "concealed One" - an appropriate title for the sun after it had disappeared in the Western sky and descended into the the underworld.

In Thebes, the religion of Ammon and Ra were consolidated,and the sun was there worshipped under the the name of Amen-Ra. The religion of the sun(Solarism) reached its zenith in Egypt during the reign of Ikhnaton(Akhenaton)(or Amenhotep), for this sovereign forbade the worship of all gods except the great living disk of the sun(He came up with What we call today Monotheism). The worship of the solar disk was under the name of Aton, and came to the end when Akhenaton(called the heretic King-for destroying the religious practices of Amon), came to an end.

I will just tae a pice from the Hub to give us a sense of what Akhenaton did:

"Akhenaton realized that he needed to have a symbol of is new God, something that even the less enlightened could see, he selected the Sun, source of all life. God to him was the unseen and yet ever-present Father of Mankind made manifest in sunshine, the Creator of the Universe and the Bestower of all Good. And his God, unlike that of Moses, was not a jealous God, but a God of Perfect love, a God who was compassionate even toward the chicken that "crieth in the eggshell," a God who gives the manchild a mother to 'soothe him that he may not weep."Nowhere in his writings does Akhenaton make mention of an avenging God.He moved his court to from the magnificent city of Thebes, home of Amon/Amen and his ancestors, and went down the Nile where he built the beautiful city of Akhenaton, (Tell el' Armana) - a city "great in loveliness, mistress of pleasant ceremonies. ... At the sight of her beauty, there is rejoicing. She is lovely and beautiful; when one sees her, it is like a glimpse of heaven. "(J.H. Breasted).

So that, when we speak about Egyptian religion, one has to remember that the so-called Big Bag. was spoken of by Egyptians and the 'Primodial Soup' which was before the Big Bang. Studying that part of egyptian history will begin to give you a sense of who really came about with the narrative of the Universe, who came first-long before any nation about the God the creator of the Universe (Amon), you still come across the fact that it was the Egyptian who begun the story. so, if you wondering if Amon was considered a pagan, well, ask yourself who pagans can originate the story of creation, and the god who ruled the universe, more than 10,000 years before the birth of Christ and Christianity, are we right in thinking that origination of what we see now was done by Pagan worship? No, anyway, I do not want to belabor the point. If you want more and much better clarification, I am at you service and will try to answer you fully. go back and re-read the article, and you will find more historical gems from antiquity. I am very appreciative of your question and interst, and you are welcome anytime to delve as much deeper as you want, and will attempt to give you fuller answers. thanks, again. Polosho...

Polosho on May 28, 2012:

I am very pleased with the extent of your article but i must ask , is/was Amon considered a pagan god.

ixwa (author) on May 14, 2012:

No, It was Zoser with his Vizier, Imhotep(the architect who designed the first pyramid. Amen or Amon, was a personification of the sun after setting, and thus hidden from view. Amen was depicted as a man with the head and horns of a ram.; and his figure was painted blue, the sacred color of the source of life. The word 'ram' means "concealment" in the Egyptian language, and Amen as the sun-god was called, "the Concealed One," an appropriate title for the solar orb after it had disappeared in the West, and hence descended into the Underworld. Mr George St. Clair, after considering the principal gods of ancient Egypt, directs our attention "to a little group of divinities standing apart. these are Amen, Mut and Khonsu, often spoken of as the Triad of Thebes, or the Trinity of Ethiopia. ... Budge tell us that the Theban Triad had nothing whatever to do with the "Book of the Dead," and from this we may suspect that they were either gods newly come up, or gods of foreign derivation. for some good reason the orthodox Egyptian of the old school kept them out of his sacred books. They were divinities of Thebes, and that was hundreds of miles south of Heliopolis; they were the Trinity of Ethiopia and not Egypt." I would suggest that you look up Imhotep and you will find that this world's first Multi Genius and his achievement in architecture, Medicine and many other achievements are so astounding that no man can match him, to date. Anyway, I hope I have clarified of answered your query. If you are still not not satisfied, you can write me back and I can expand much more with the hope that it will answer your questions. Thank you for visiting and reading the Hub, and I appreciate your concern and feedback...

numo blafo III on May 14, 2012:

i wish to get this issue very clear. was Amon the man who costructed the step pyramid which is beleved to be the first pyramid in egypt?

ixwa (author) on April 10, 2012:

Illumind: Thank you very much for the comments and observations you are making which are cajoling and egging me to either Add to the Hub above or write a new Hub about history of religion and attempt to offer perspective tracing the real origins of Christianity, Judaism and Islam in that order. I am leaning more towards and am inclined to write the latter. You comments make me aware that it would be well received were I to write one. Your enthusiasm and your motivation through your comments on this post makes me to answer you that, 'Yes, I have much more I can write about 'about the history of Religion(s) today', and I will take up that gargantuan but nonetheless a doable task. Please give me a few months and I will surely create and post a hub that will deal with these three major religions and their origins and history. I already have some relevant information ready, and will try and find some few pieces of the data and information, and hope that you will come back in a few months to see if I had done it, and if so, I hope you like it and find it very informative. Yes, Amon's story is unique and very tough to write about, but I learned a lot myself too in that process. I do not think the followers will ever go away because as the Hub points out, they have the ability to keep on coming back time and again over the millennia, and their come back seems possible since they are still around, albeit in a reduced capacity- but I think still strong in some ways. I think if I ever write the hub you asked about above and the one I say I will write, it might become even much more clearer in the Hub why it is that Amon(Amun) persists within the three major religions you have alluded to. You have got my writing juices flowing and after I finnish the three writing projects I am onto, I will work on the Hub, and hope to bring even much more information. I am very grateful for the engaging, kind and motivational feedback and comments you have posted on this Hub... This now makes me want to write more knowing there are readers and people like you in the world who find this information important.. thank you 'Illumind', and your comments have really made my day.... and have got me fired up to wok harder.... I am going to look for the documentary ""Ring of Power" and learn from it.... Thanks...

Illumind from Infinity on April 10, 2012:

Your last line leaves me wanting more. I wonder what else you know about the history of religion(s) today. I recommend the documentary "Ring of Power" which discusses how the "Cult of Amen" is still active in the world today. Going through the bible I see Amen firmly entrenched there. The same is found in Islam and Judaism. I suppose he never really went away and his followers are still in control on earth. I would not call it a bad thing, per se - it is what it is. Your exhaustive post sheds even more light for me about the history of Amen as pertains to origins other than from Egypt alone, which is very cool. Thanks again, great post.

ixwa (author) on April 10, 2012:

Illumind: I am very thankful to learn that you loved the Hub above, and you are welcome anytime to reading and commenting on any of the Hubs. I hope the information is to your liking and has helped or increased somethings you know. What I am very appreciative is that you have shared it elsewhere, thank you for that and happy to learn that this hub was worth sharing. Please visit anytime and comment if you could on any of the Hubs above.. Again, thank you very much and this is very much appreciated...

Illumind from Infinity on April 10, 2012:

Thank you, ixwa - I found this post informative and shared it elsewhere as well.

ixwa (author) on April 10, 2012:

Illumind: Thanks for the comment, and I appreciate it...

Illumind from Infinity on April 09, 2012:

"These things saith the Amen, the faithful and true witness, the beginning of the creation of God" Rev. 3:14

ixwa (author) on July 29, 2011:

conmac: Welcome to HubPages and thank you for the response to the Hub above. I hope you enjoy your writing hubs. I am very grateful that you read the hub and rave given it high praises and accolades. One of the things I was writing the Hub for was that the readers would mull on the origins of some of the things we take for 'Granted'. The concept of Monotheism has left many unaware of its origins and the Messiah status of Akhenaton. I will consider writing a much more in-depth research on this remarkable man. Thank you for your uplifting praises and hope to be hearing from you(your articles) and your comments upon some of the Hubs I have written. Welcome again and thank you very much. I appreciate your comments.

conmac on July 29, 2011:

Facinating article it makes you think about the origins

of monotheism,did not Akhnaton state "no one comes to the

aton(sun god) except through me.Where did we hear that said before.

brillant article thanks


ixwa (author) on February 09, 2011:

Multiman: Welcome to HubPages and to the Hub above. Thank you for the accolades you have heaped upon the article above. I am thankful for your thoughtful and kind comments above. Thanks!

Multiman on February 09, 2011:

Great Article!

ixwa (author) on November 19, 2010:

Raman Aurora: Thank you for the very kind comment and I appreciate it very much. I hope to be hearing more from you. Thanks!

Raman Aurora on November 08, 2010:

God Bless you!

ixwa (author) on June 27, 2010:

Trionfo: Welcome again to the comment box and thank you for posting your comments and I will attempt to give you some references. As to what happened to you and Neferkaptah, wherever, is no concern of mine. I think you should get access to authors who have studied and written about the Te al-Amarna Tablets, nonetheless, James H. Breasted's "Ancient Records of Egypt", 1906 and reprinted 1962; A. Abu Bakr who was a specialist in Ancient History of Egypt and Nubia; J.A Rogers's "Great men of Color" - Vol. 1; Lichtheim, M. "Ancient "Egyptian Literature", 1973, 1976, 1980; R. David A.E David's "A Biographical Dictionary of Ancient Egypt", 1992; John G. Jackson's "Ages of gold and Silver"; Dr. Ben Joachanan's "Black Man of the Nile", and finally, A. Aldred's "Akhenaten King of Egypt, London and New York, 1988, is a good resource to the quotes you want answered and the history of Akhanaton. Breasted is really good, because the quote you want to know whence it comes form, can be found there too, as well as in all the books cited above. To be honest with you, it is true that the identity of Moses is in question in a lot of literature on that subject, but I think you should be able to understand that the material culture of Egypt is surpassed by no other in its self-explanation, perpetuation and edification and recording.. You will have to utilize a lot of materials to come around or wrap your brain around some historical issues. I could give you more references, but you need to go over the ones already provided. There is ample historical, archeological material, paintings, and you name it to establish the reign of Akhanaton and the connection of Moses to his Aton religion. Historical research will reward all endeavors. Well good luck and thank you for reading and commenting on my Hub. There are a myriad sources on this subject, keep on looking you might find what you are looking for. Anyway, the Hub above was About Amun or Amen, and working on showing the origins of Monotheism and how Moses was a student of the one who derived the religion, theosophy and so forth, but the article also goes to show how principles of the worshipers of Monotheism were not the founders but were doing something that had been done for eons.

Remember, Akhanaton lived centuries before King David and wrote psalms as beautiful as those of David. Thirteen hundred years before Christ he preached and lived a gospel of perfect love, brotherhood and truth. Two thousand years before Muhammed he taught the doctrine of the one God. Three thousand years before Darwin, he sensed the unity that runs through all things; Budge, the Egyptologist would be another one you can consult. Thank you.

Trionfo on June 26, 2010:

"It is my contention that the years that Jesus lived-in, are not covered by the time-period and time-line alluded to in this article." ... ixwa

I did not say that it was. I was referring to the comment posted by Neferkaptah.

"Jesus Christ for me is none other than, A'aferti Twt-Ankh-Amun who was born and was given the name of Twt-Ankh-Aten." ... Neferkaptah

It is the contention of Charles Pope ( that the bible (the Old Testament) is really the history of Egypt during the time of Akhnaton, who he considers to be the Moses of the Bible.

I tried to join his forum to find out more about this but it was locked so I joined this one since your article talks about the same subject.

It is my contention that even the New Testament can shed light on "Akhnaton, Moses, and the Origins of Monotheism."

If you take the dates for the reign of Solomon and the birth of Jesus as benchmarks you can determine the average generation of the patriarchs in Matthew’s genealogy of Christ. This works out to be about 40 years per patriarch.

Backward dating using this chronology places the time of Moses (who was a contemporary of Esrom) to around 1306 BC. This is only 28 years from the end of Akenaten’s reign (1334 BC). This, to me, is extremely interesting since Akenaten’s mummy has never been found.

I am not familiar with the historical or archaeological literature, but I am familiar with the scientific literature in the biological and physical sciences. In these disciplines, it is customary to cite references when contentious issues arise (such as the identity of the Moses of the Bible). Could you give me the reference for this statement?

"The monotheistic Aton religion was crushed in Egypt, but it did not perish entirely; since there was a young priest Moshe(Moses) who had received his theological education at the Temple of Heliopolis, and who became the disciple of Akhenaton. When Atonism was was suppressed in Egypt, Moses led a group of heretics out of the country and reestablished the religion in Palestine. "

ixwa (author) on June 24, 2010:

Trionfo: Welcome to the Hub above. With due respect, the Hub is not really concerned with what you are posting here in this comment box. I think you should re-read it again and take note of the references utilized in the article, and the slant is nowhere near what you are discussing. Anyway, I think you should re-read the Hub, and maybe you did not really understand it. As a historian, I did not make use of the Bible as my reference point, and I would hope when re-reading the Hub you observe that. This is a serious historical piece, and reading it brings to the reader a more in-depth look at the history of Amen(Amun), Moses, Akhanaten and the issues of monotheism. These are covered in a very rare manner that ushers another understanding of the people and issues I have just highlighted in this comment box. Look over the article and re-rad it again, you will find that those are the issues under discussion. As for the History of Egypt, well..., the piece above is about some part of the history of Egypt. It is my contention that the years that Jesus lived-in, are not covered by the time-period and time-line alluded to in this article.

Trionfo on June 24, 2010:

The speculation about Moses being Akhenaten or one of his priests is convincing, but trying to place the life of Jesus into the history of Egypt is erroneous.

The Old Testament is a compilation of stories written by a priestly caste wanting to legitimize the authority of their Kings and of the Levites.

The New Testament was written by ordinary people: a fisherman (Peter), a despised tax collector for the Romans (Matthew), a Greek physician (Luke), a tent maker (Paul) etc.

If you listen to (not just read) the Old and New Testaments on tape you come away with a very different feeling about these two compilations of books.

I must have listened to the New Testament on tape over hundred times. I have listened to the Old Testament all the way through but once, and I don't care to listen to it again.

ixwa (author) on June 11, 2010:

Neferkaptah: All faith is False, all Faith is True. Truth is the shattered mirrors strewn in myriad bits; while each believes his little bit the whole to own. Africans are the creators of the "mysteries of Sais (Kmt) in and the originators of civilization in Alkebu-lan, and they are the ones who have written that they originated from the beginning of the Nile(Uganda) where the God Hapu dwells, they said. I have written several Hubs which delve into much detail about the aforementioned origins of the people of Kmt(Africans) as written and narrated by them. In my Hub about Amen(Amun), I have given a thumb-nail sketch of the origins of the Hebrew religion and I hope you read that too. I would be very happy to see how you have read what I have already written on the Subject, from religion of the Egyptians, their Art, Architecture, religious philosophy and history. I am only replying you to make you to understand that the subjects and topics you are talking about, I have covered in my analysis and narration of Dynasties I to V, thus laying ground work for the anchoring of African History. Within the mix, I wrote a Hub on the Dogon, which describes African people's perception of the creation of the cosmos, and all that we know about it from the Hubbel Telescope, to date, that, the Dogon, knew about thousands of years ago, and it is only now that the contemporary world is catching up with them through the use of the celestial telescopes now orbiting in the ether and the open skies. My point is that, the work I have so far produced on HubPages, covers all the areas and narratives and religious philosophies and history of the Egyptians in-depth and a very simplified way, as you expound on them. As I have noted in this comment box, I would appreciate it if you would read some of the articles I have have already published which deal extensively with the issues you raise above. There is an Article/Hub that I am busy composing on Egypt and it extensively covers a very broad timeline in Egyptian history. After that I will work on a Hub that addresses the issues of "Religion" as we know it today and whence it originates - in the process attempting to answer your question which you suggested I should write a Hub about. I am grateful you answered twice in this Hub before I could answer, but, nonetheless, I am very appreciative of your contribution to what I have written about. Check out some of my articles on Egypt and African History, and there too, would appreciate your comments. Thank you very much.

Neferkaptah on June 11, 2010:

The Theosophy of Twt-Mos Djoser

For me, Amenhotep the 3rd married the daughter of A'aferti of Kemet by the name of Sitamun and she begot Nefertiti and then, he married Tiye, the daughter of Yuya, which for me was Iose ben Yaakov and she begot Amenhotep the 4th who change his name to Ankh-Aten and whose epithet was Mos, which is the Semtic Hebrew, Moshe.

In other words, A'aferti Ankh-Aten is for me the historical Moses of the Hebrew Torat and A'aferti Thutmose the 3rd is King Dawud "David", A'aferti Amenhotep the 3rd for me is King Solomon and Jesus Christ for me is none other than, A'aferti Twt-Ankh-Amun who was born and was given the name of Twt-Ankh-Aten.

The Aten was the only neter god, which no physical representation was acceptable, the heaven of heavens couldn't contain it and it didn't manifest in any way or form to its followers and it is my personal opinion, that the Semetic Hbrews came out of Kemet with an African religion, which they transformed to better fit their needs and in the process they defamed by beloved Kemet and her neteroo.

Neferkaptah on June 11, 2010:

I am the neter "Neither with form or appearance" G-d Amun, Amon, Amen, Ammon "The Hidden" and I am the most powerful neter G-d of Kemet and I am Twt-Ankh-Amun "The Living Image of the L-rd, Amun", and I am the priestly scribe the Son of G-d who return to the, G-d of Kemet and of the Primordial water of Nun in order to be reborn from infinitude and return again to my terrestrial vessel and thank you for answering my questions dear friend.

The Theosophy of Twt-Mos Djoser

Related Articles