Skip to main content

Egypt (Kemet): The Egyptian Book of the Dead-Admissions of Faith & Purity(the So-Called Negative Confessions)-Part 1

  • Author:
  • Updated date:

Admissions Of Faith And Purity: African Origins Of Spirituality, Religion And Philosophy

Found on the original papyrus,  of  the Book of the Dead is the Weighing of the Heart scene representing the individual judgement of the deceased

Found on the original papyrus, of the Book of the Dead is the Weighing of the Heart scene representing the individual judgement of the deceased

The weighing of the heart  of the deceased painted rendition

The weighing of the heart of the deceased painted rendition

Egyptians believed that their soul had to be judged by Osiris and many other Gods before they could enter eternal life. In this illustrations, souls stand before Osiris at the moment of judgement.

Egyptians believed that their soul had to be judged by Osiris and many other Gods before they could enter eternal life. In this illustrations, souls stand before Osiris at the moment of judgement.

An image from the Book of the Dead shows Horus leading the soul of a dead person to judgment by Osiris.

An image from the Book of the Dead shows Horus leading the soul of a dead person to judgment by Osiris.

The Egyptian God of the Underworld and of Vegetation

The Egyptian God of the Underworld and of Vegetation

Osiris, God of the Dead, was represented by the stars of the modern-day constellation Orion.

Osiris, God of the Dead, was represented by the stars of the modern-day constellation Orion.

Both God and man, Osiris suffered a terrible death,but his subsequent resurrection held the promise of eternal life for ordinary Egyptians.

Both God and man, Osiris suffered a terrible death,but his subsequent resurrection held the promise of eternal life for ordinary Egyptians.

Judgement of souls before Osiris

Judgement of souls before Osiris

Osiris, the god of Fertility

Osiris, the god of Fertility

Book of the Coming Forth by Day and Night - Admission Of Faith And Purity To The Ancestors

"There are many Humorous things in the world; among them, the White Man's notion that he is less savage than other savages." (Mark Twain)

In writing this Hub below, I am going to utilize the sage words of the Elder, Prof. Clarke to attempt to illuminate the topic in its broader ramifications. This is a very important topic that I want to discuss below, and I am going to the Master Teacher for my preface to the Hub.

Prof Clarke Writes:

"Now, I'm going to talk about the contribution of Nile Valley civilization to the world civilization. I have spoken on this subject many time over the years. I am no longer argumentative about the subject. The evidence of the Aficanness of Nile Valley civilization, the evidence of Egypt being solely and purely African is so clear. The argument is an offense to my intelligence and yours.

I will proceed with the assumption that you know what I am talking about. When I say Egypt, I am talking about a country in Africa that the Greeks called Aegyptus and the Africans never called Egypt. I'm talking about the Nile Valley civilization and I'm talking about a river that stretches four thousand miles into the body of Africa. It related to all the people along that fiver valley.

"Egypt was not a singular civilization, but a composite civilization which was composed of all the cultures and ethnic elements of that entire valley. Egypt was a civilization in itself, but a culmination of a number of civilizations all of them originally coming from the South.

"In their own literature, The Papyrus of Henefer," they said, "we came from the foothills of the mountains of the Moon, where the Great God Hapi dwells." Happy was one of the early Gods of the Nile civilization. Translated, "Mountains of the Moon" means Kilimanjaro. The Nile Valley is a contradiction as a river. It starts in the South and flows to the North. Since it starts in the South and flows to the North, what you think is the first cataract, is really the sixth cataract. You are moving into Egypt down the Nile Valley. The foreigners got it exactly backwards because they were 'beholden' to Europe, and Europe gets a whole lot of things backwards.

"Hear me well, the main contribution of Nile Valley civilization to world civilization contributed organized societies, social order, the concept of coming together, the concept of the village uniting with other villages, creating the cities, the concept of cities uniting with other cities, creating a state, and the concept of other areas(states) uniting with other areas creating a concept that would later be called diplomacy.

Scroll to Continue

"Nile Valley civilization continued the idea of getting together, one to the other, creating a concept of human relationships and survival. In early agriculture we created something after the radical nature of the river calmed down and stopped overflowing irregular and begin to overflow at a specific time. We knew when to get out of the way of the river and when to come back and plant in the rich earth of its banks. They created the worlds first massive agriculture.

"By creating the first massive agriculture, they could develop a technical class and a laboring class which could be taken of. People down this valley would gravitate toward the end of the river and bring their technical skills, goods, and services.Therefore, they made the river the world's first cultural highway.

"To build a basic civilization, you've got to have enough resources, food and the ability to pay craftsmen and technicians,to sustain yourself. When you've got enough and some left over, you build an intellectual civilization that explains and preserves the original civilization. Since they had time to sit some men down and let them think for a living, they created literature. Out of this literature came spirituality. Out of this spirituality came all of the elements that went into the making of the three major religions. Spirituality is real. Organized religion is a formation of man.

"Nearly everything that is a formation of man has some defect. If you create a formation out of someone else's spirituality which you do not understand and say, "I am a chosen people," you are saying someone else is not chosen, therefore making god ungodly. If you create from that spirituality-the elements created-and say, "I have the true faith," you are saying other people's faith must be false. If you create another religion which says that my religion gives some the right to enslave you because you are an infidel, you are making God an accessory to murder.

"The misunderstanding of the spirituality extracted from Africa and the opportunistic remolding of it into something which rationalizes someone's donation over another people has made all organized religions, to some degree, atheistic because they deny by their actions that God is love and that God is kind and merciful.

"... One thing hat is so inconceivable to you, because of the success of massive propaganda, is that over half of human history was over before anyone knew that the European was in the world. Because of massive propaganda, assumptions, and a change which occurred in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries (the juncture of our enslavement and the beginning of European dominance), they had to make people believe that the world waited in darkness for them to bring the light. According to them, everything good came from them. Yet they put out more lights than they ever lit. They destroyed more civilizations than they ever created. We need to understand that fact inorder to put history in proper focus.

"When you look at the chronology of history, you will know there no European in ancient times. When the ancient world emerged, there was no Europe. Europe emerged at the end of the ancient world, at the beginning of the modern worked. It took advantage of the all of the ancient world. It copied from ancient peoples and it put its name on things it did not develop. It was like a faker, a liar, and a murderer who discovered absolutely nothing … he is being celebrated now five hundred years after the mass murder he set in motion. Such genocide would make Hitler look like a Sunday school boy.

"How then did we get a reputation as a people who needed to be led into the light by a "civilized" people who thought we were primitive? How did we become primitive when we knew long before they wore shoes and lived in a house that had a window? We had created an honorable way of life and had every element that went into the making of Socialism and Christianity? We had no word for jail because nobody ever gone to one. There was no word for oprhanage because no one had ever thrown away any children. There were no old people's homes because nobody threw away because nobody ever threw away, grandma and grandpa.

"The literature of the Nile Valley was already intact. The Book of The Coming Home By Night" was already intact, out of which others would copy a lot of the elements that would go into the Bible. Out of which others would copy the basis of the Ten Commandments from the Forty aTwo Confessions.

"You should never use the word "Negative" in relation to those confessions, that's a European interpretation. They weren't n'negative' at all. These were admissions of faith and purity. You would stand before your master teacher and say, "I have not done this.' Not, "Though shalt not," but "I have Not." I have not violated my neighbors wife. I have not done this. If you had not done all those things you were qualified for something. The European changed the language around to "thou shall not." The Africans originally did not say, "Thou halt no." The said, "I have not."

"Every organized religion is the African's true religion because every element that went into the making of it came out of Africa."

In this excerpt there's no attempt to undermine or challenge nor compare any religion or belief in any manner whatsoever to what is being discussed here. This is also not an attempt to argue nor settle the issue of 'racial ' and or "indigenous" physical characteristics of the Ancient Egyptians or Nubians. The reasons for emphasizing the indigenous Southern African origin of the ancient Egyptians, is because of the message based upon a historical message taken from the most highly respected "Papyrus of Hunefer" found in Egypt and the Nile River and amongst the indigenous Africans', "Book of the Coming Forth by Day and Night" .

In it, the Egyptians clearly state: "We came from the beginning of the Nile where the God Hapi dwells, at the foothills of the Mountain of the Moon," (Kilimanjaro- between Kenya and Tanzania, or Rwenzori in Uganda). This article is more focused on the spirituality and religiousness of the ancient Egyptians and how they accounted and comported themselves throughout the eons, in life and after-life. (Budge.)

Budge says: "The pre-historic native of Egypt, both in the old and the new Stone Ages, was African and there is every reason for saying that the earliest settlers came from the South". Budge further states that :"There are many things in the manners and customs and religions of the historic Egyptians that suggests that the original home of their prehistoric ancestors was in a country in the neighborhood of Uganda and Punt".

(Some historians believe that the Biblical land of Punt was in the area known on modern maps as Somalia) The great historian, Diodorus Siculus, observed that 'the Kushites were of the opinion that their country was not only the birthplace of the human race and the cradle land of the world's earliest civilization, but that it was the primal Eden where living things first appeared on Earth, as reported by the Scriptures'. It is the spiritual and religious practices and comportment of the Egyptians in their daily life and in death that concerns us here. In learning about this practices, there's some hope that we might look at ourselves in relation to the Confession, in this day and era.

Osiris was one of the first gods to live as a human being, died and was resurrected to life again. In those days and times, every man hoped to rise from the dead and enjoy the immortal life just like Osiris did. Early Egyptians realized and accepted the fact that not everyone will be raised from the dead to live an immortal life, as they all believed that good and evil deeds of men were to be taken into account, somewhere, and by someone who had the power to punish the wicked and reward the just.

Before we dig deeper into the nature and form of the So-called 'Negative concession,' it will be appropriate to view some short background as to what contributed to their rise and usage. In the VI dynasty, Osiris became known as a god and judge of all the dead of Egypt. Osiris had great power as an ancestor god, and his role was, as a judge of human conduct, illimitable.

When he was murdered by his brother Set, he was helped to rise from the dead by Horus and Toth, and was allowed to rule over the kingdom of heaven by virtue of his innocence and freedom from the defects of sinful human nature. So, the Egyptians believed that Osiris died on their behalf and rose again in order that they must rise from the dead.

This belief goes way beyond the VIth dynasty, and I might say, from my researches, this goes as far back as, and beyond, 10 to 20,000 BC. I hope to go deeper into the most remote civilizations of the past in the up-coming articles. So, we are really talking about a time in antiquity and in this case, it would tedious to digress and fill-in some gaps, so we will contend ourselves with the topic at hand.

Judgement Scene - Ani's Heart Being Weighed In The Balance

Judgement Scene - Ani's Heart Being Weighed In The Balance

Admission Of Faith And Purity...

The confessions above are made when the deceased entered the Hall of Osiris, when his heart had braved the ordeal of being weighed in Balance(Maat). Social balance and spiritual balance were in tandem with the functioning and well-being of that society. The recitation of these confessions were not only done in the after-life, but on earthly life too. Egyptians always provided elaborate resting places for the deceased. They mummified the bodies which would ensure reincarnation in the body upon the soul being weighed in the Hall of judgment by Osiris, god of the Dead.

It is worth noting that among the Calabar people, before a man undergoes the ordeal of drinking the great juju drink 'Mbiam', which is made of filth and blood, he says:

"If I have been guilty of this crime,

"If I have gone and sought the sick one's hurt,

"If I have sent another to seek the sick one's hurt,

"If I have employed any one to make charms, or to cook bush.

"Or to put anything in the road,

"Or touch his cloth,

"Or touch his yams,

"Or to touch his goats,

"Or to touch his fowl,

"Or to touch his chilren,

"If I have prayed for his hurt,

"If I have thought to hurt him in my heart,

"If I have any intention to heurt him,

"If I ever, at any time, do any of these things,(recite in full)

"Or employ others to do these things(recite in full)

"Then, Mbiam! thou deal with me."

The Egyptian acted as does the modern African. The former made his declaration of innocence of a series of offenses, and his heart was by the gods to test the truth of his words; the latter makes his declaration of innocence, and the action of the juju drink tests the truth of his words.

The Second Form of The Negative Confessions

Gods of the 42 Nomes

We now look at the second type of the Negative Confessions.. In this case, the deceased addressed a series of Two and forty gods by their names one after the other, and asserted before each, that he had not committed a certain sin. These gods were the forty-two nomes of Upper and Lower Egypt. He had already told Osiris that he knew their names, and proceeded to prove it by saying the following:

1. Hail, Usekh - nemmet, coming forth from Anu(Heliopolis), I have not done iniquity.

2. Hail, Heprshet, coming from Kher-aha[A Large City between Fustat and Matariyah), I have not committed robbery.

3. Hail, Fenti, coming forth forth from Khemenu (hermopolis), I have not stolen with violence.

4. Hail, Am-khitabu, coming from Qerrt'(The Circle- perhaps a place in the other world), I have not committed theft.

5. Hail, Neha-hau. comng forth from Re-stau(A region in the other World of Memphis), I have not killed men.

6. Hail, Lion and Lioness god, coming forth from heaven, I have not made light the bushel of corn.

7. Hail, Merti-f-em-tes, coming froth from Sekhem(Letopolis), I have not acted deceitfully.

8. Hail, Neba, coming forth from Khetkhet, I have not robbed the property of god.

9. Hail, Set-qesu, coming forth from Suten-henen(Herakleopolis), I have not uttered falsehood.

10. Hail Uatch-Nesert, coming forth from Het-ka-Ptah(Memphis), I have not stolen food.

11. Hail, Qerti, coming forth from Ament, I have not cursed.

12. Hail, Hetch-abehu, coming forth from Ta-he(Fayyum), I have not attacked any man.

13. Hail, Am-senf, coming forth from the slaughter-house, I have not slain the cattle of god.

14. Hail, Am besek, coming forth from Mabit, I have not used deceit

15. Hail, Neb-Maat, coming forth from Maati, I have not stolen grain.

16. Hail, Thenemi, coming from Bast(Bubastis),I have not acted the part of the spy (eavesdropper).

17. Hail,Asti (or Anti), coming forth from Anu, I have not slandered.

18. Hail, Tutu-f, coming forth from Ati(?), I have not been angry without cause.

19.Hail, Uamenti, coming forth from the House of the Block, I have not lain with another man's wife.

20. Hail Maa-anuf, coming forth from Per-Menu, I have not abused myself.

21. Hail, Her-seru, coming forth from Nehatu, Ihave made no man to be afraid.

22. Hail, Khemi, coming forth from Ahaui, I have attacked no man.

23. Hail, Shetkheru, coming forth from Urit, I have no been a man of wrath.

24. Hail, Nekhen, coming forth from Heq-at, I have not been deaf to the words of truth.

25. Hail, Ser-Kheru, coming forth from Unes, I have not stirred up strife.

26. Hail, Basti, coming from Shetait, I have made no one weep.

27. Hail, Her-f-ha-f, (was the ferryman of the Other World. He loved ruth and hated sin, and because of his integrity, became a leader of the gods), coming forth from the place of sailing, I have neither acted impurely, nor lain with men.

28. Hail, Ta-re, coming out of the night, I have not eaten my heart.

29. Hail, Kenemti, coming forth from Kenmet, I have not cursed any man.

30. Hail, An-hetep-f, coming forth from Sau, I have not done deeds of violence.

31. Hail,Nebheru, coming forth from Tchefet, I have not acted hastily.

32. Hail, Serekhi, coming forth form Unth, I have not ... my skin, I have not ... the god.

33. Hail, Neb-abui, coming forth from Sauti, I have not made loud my voice in speaking.

34. Hail, Nefer-Tem, coming forth from Het-ka-Ptah (Memphis), I have not acted deceitfully, I have not acted wickedly.

35. Hail, Tem-sep, coming forth from Tetu, I have not cursed the king.

36. Hail, Ari-em-ab-f, coming forth from Tebti, I have not fouled water.

37. Hail, Ahi, ..., coming forth from Nu, I have not made my voice loud.

38. Hail, Utu-rekhit, coming forth from they house, I have not dursed the god.

39. Hail, Neheb,-nefert, coming forth from ..., I have not acted insolently.

40. Hail, Neheb-kau, coming forth from [thy] city, I have not worked for honors.

41. Hail, Tcheser-tep, coming forth from the carven, I have not increased my possessions except through my own goods.

42. Hail, An-a-f, coming forth from Auker, I have not treated with contempt the god of my city.

The deceased, after his confession, concludes by saying to the Forty-two gods:

Homage to you, O gods who dwell in your hall of Maati. I indeed know you, I know your names. Let me not fall under your knives and slaughter,and bring ye not my wickedness before the god whom ye serve. Ye have no charge against me. Speak ye truth on my behalf before Neb-er-tcher, for I have worked righteousness in Ta--mera(Egypt), Ihave not ursed the god, and the king who reigned in his day had no charge[to bring] against me.(Budge)

The form of Negative confessions above is interesting because it supplies us with the names of several spirits or gods that were worshipped in the very early time, in fact, long before the cult of Osiris became common in Egypt. Taken as whole, thee forty two gods in that time period the spiritual gurus of all of Egypt and anyone who can satisfy them with his/her innocence in the Hall of Judgment, had a chance of being proclaimed "just" or "true" before the whole nation.

It has not yet become particularly clear as to why a particular god was connected with a particular sin. This is ancient stuff which, because of the paucity of records explaining the process, we will aver that there was a good reason for the association. The second part of the Negative Confession is of interests because it shows us that the idea of judgment is very old and ancient; also, that the importance of life of truth-diong and truth-speaking was recongized earrlier in Egyptian society and history, even though they believed in the plurality of the Gods.

Note that this "Drama" took place approximately more than one-thousand three-hundred years to one-thousand three-hundred and fifty years (1,300-1,350) before Moses was supposedly driven out of Western Sais (Egypt) to the eastern limits - Mt. Sinai - by Pharaoh Rameses II between c1225 and 1232 B.C.E. An account of this document was discovered written on a black basalt-slab (stone) in the ruins of the Temple of Ptah at Memphis, Sais(renamed Egypt by the Hebrews and the Greeks). This stone, itself only dates back to the 8th century B.C.E It was prepared by Shabaka - the Ethiopian (Kushite) Pharaoh of Egypt - founder of the Temple of Ptah. It was Pharaoh Shabaka's attempt to preserve the words of his very much more indigenous African ancestory whose descendants are today called "negroes, Bantus, Pygmies(Twa), Nilotes" and other such names. It is estimated (by Egyptologists) that the original script was written around 1,3000 years before Moses(Moshe) - the messenger of Yahweh (Jehovah), 2575 years before the the birth of the Christians' Gpd - Jesus Chris, and 3,197 years before the Moslem (Muslim) prophet of Allah - Mohamet. Why, then is it told that the first time man was given only "Ten" of these one-hundred and forty-seven (147) "CONFESSIONS" - called "COMMANDMENTS" - was when God allegedly "gave them to Moshe at Mt. Sinai?" Because each religion that followed the other in this region co-opted most of the myths and traditional dogmas of the former - Judaism, through Moses, being no exception to this rule of historical tradition.

Left Picture - Osiris and his Wife Isis Right Picture - Anubis, The God Of The Dead

Left Picture - Osiris and his Wife Isis Right Picture - Anubis, The God Of The Dead

A Cursory Glance at the Gods of the Egyptians

Wallis Budge informs us thus: "The Egyptians, however, acted in a perfectly logical manner, for they believed that they were a divine nation,and that they were ruled by kings who were themselves gods incarnate; their earliest kings, they asserted, were actually gods, who did not disdain to live upon the earth, and to go about and up and down through it, , and to mingle with men.

Other ancient nations were content to believe that they had been brought into being by the power of their gods operating upon matter, but the Egyptian believed that they were of directly divine origin. When the gods ceased to reign in their proper persons upon earth, they were succeeded by a series of demi-gods, who were in turn succeeded by the Manes, and these were duly followed by kings in whom was enshrined a divine nature with characteristic attributes.

When the physical or natural body of a king died, the divine portion of his being, i.e., the spiritual body, returned to its original abode with the gods, and it was duly worshiped by men upon earth as a god with the gods. This happy result was partly brought about by the performance of certain ceremonies, which were at first wholly magical, but later partly magical and partly religious, and by the recital of appropriate words uttered in the duly prescribed ton and manner, and by the keeping of festivals at the tombs at stated seasons when the appointed offerings were made, and the prayers for the welfare of the dead were said."

Budge continues: "From the earliest times the worship of the gods went hand in hand with the deification of dead kings and other royal personages, and the worship of departed monarchs from some aspects may be regarded as meritorious as the worship of the gods. From one point of view Egypt was as much a land of gods as of men, the the inhabitants of the country wherein the gods lived and moved naturally devoted a considerable portion of their time upon earth to the worship of divine beings and of their ancestors who had departed the land of the gods. In the matter of religion, and all that appertains thereto, the Egyptians were a "peculiar people," and in all ages they have exhibited a tenacity of belief and a conservation which distinguished them from all the other great nations of antiquity.

The Egyptians were not only renowned for their religious observances, they were famous as much for the variety as for the number of their gods. Animals, birds, fishes and reptiles were worshipped by them in all ages, but in addition to these they adored the great powers of nature as well as a large number of beings with which they peopled the heavens, the air, the earth, the sky, the sun, the moon, the stars, and the water. In the earliest times the predynastic Egyptians , in common with the [otter Africans or non-africans] people, believed that all the various operations of nature were the result of the actions of beings which were for the most part unfriendly to man.

The inundation which rose too high and flooded the primitive village, and drowned their cattle, and destroyed their stock of grain, was regarded as the result of the working of an unfriendly and unseen power; and when the river rose just high enough to irrigate the land which had been prepared, they either thought that a friendly power, which was stronger than that which caused the destroying flood, had kept the hostile in check, or that the spirit of the river was on that occasion pleased with them. They believed in the existence of spirits of the air, and in spirits of mountains, streams, and trees, and all these had to be propitiated with gifts, or cajoled and wheedled into bestowing their favor and protection upon their supplicants."

We further on learn from Budge that: "There is no doubt that at a very early period in the predynastic history the Egyptians distinguished between great gods and little gods, just as they did between friendly gods and hostile gods, but either their poverty of expression, or their inflexibility of their language [or maybe that which we do not fully understand-my addition] prevented them[or us-addition mine] from making a distinction apparent in writing, and thus it happens that in dynastic times, when the lofty conception of monotheism prevailed among the priesthood(see my Hub on "Amen"), the scribe found himself obliged to call both God and the lowest of the beings that were supposed to possess some attribute of divinity by one and the same name, i.e., NETER.

The inferior gods of the Egyptians were supposed to suffer from many of the defects of mortal beings, and they were even thought to grow old and to die, and the same ideas about the angels were held by Mhammadans and Hebrews. According to the former, the angels will perish when heaven, their abode, is made to pass away at the Day of Judgment.

According to the latter, one of the two great classes of angles, i.e., those which were created on the fifth day of creation, is mortal; on the other hand, the angels which were created on the second day of creation endure for ever, and these may be fitly compared with the unfailing and unvarying powers of nature which were personified and worshipped by the Egyptians; of the angels which perish, some spring from fire, some from water, and some from wind.

The angels are grouped into ten classes, i.e., the Erelim, the Ishim, the Bene Elohim, the Melachim, the Hashmalim, the Tarshishim, the shishanim, the Cherubim, the Ophannim, the Seraphim; among these wee divided al the deities connected with the ordering of the heavens and the earth , and they, according to their position of importance, became the interpreters of the Will of the Deity.

A comparison of the passage in Rabbinic literature which describe these similar matters connected with the angels, spirits, etc., of ancient Hebrew mythology with Egyptian texts shows that both the Egyptians and Jews possessed many ideas in common, and all the evidence goes to prove that the latter(Hebrews) borrowed from the former(Egyptians), in the earliest period."

Budge finally sums up the narrative about the origins of the Egyptian gods as follows: "In comparatively late historical times the Egyptians introduced into their company of gods a few deities from Western Asia, but these had no effect in modifying the general character either of their religion or of their worship.

The subject of comparative Egyptian and Semitic mythology is one which has yet to be worked thoroughly, not because it would supply us with the original forms of Egyptian myth and legends, but because it would show what modifications such things underwent when adopted by Semitic peoples, or at least by peoples who hadSemitic blood in their veins.

Some would compare Egyptian andSemitic mythologies on the ground that the Egyptians and Semitic were kinsfolk, but it must be quite clearly understood that this is pure assumption, and is only based on the statements of those who declare that the Egyptian and Semitic languages area akin. Others again have sought to explain the mythology of the Egyptians by appeals to Aryan mythology, and to illustrate the meanings of important Egyptian words in religious texts by means of Aryan etymologies.

But the results are wholly unsatisfactory, and they only serve to show the futility of comparing the mythologies of two peoples of different race occupying quite different grades in the ladder of civilization. It cannot be too strongly insisted on that all the oldest gods of Egypt are of Egyptian origin, and that the fundamental religious beliefs of the Egyptians also are of Egyptian origin, and that both the gods and the beliefs date from predynastic times, and have nothing whatever to do do with the Semites or Aryans of history."

The Nile was the cultural and spiritual highway on which elements of civilization came into and out of inner Africa. Most ancient civilizations were built alongside big rivers. How one behaved in these civilizations was according to laws and rules like the Negative confessions and how they conceived of the Gods. What would have been life like in todays' civilization with some of the rules listed above, will remain a wonder.

But I cannot help but notice how these confessions and the conceptions and beliefs in the various gods affect and effect ones soul and conscience. Some of the confessions really take a dig at the shenanigans that we see being carried out by many people in different spheres and religious institutions of life today.

Osiris was also a fertility-god. This and other attributes of Osiris will be delved into in the second part of this deposition. Right now, it is important to read the Negative confessions and begin to look at our contemporary and fledgeling civilization, how it has compared to them in the past and match-up with them today. We also need to dig deeper into issues pertaining to the soul and spirit in this rat-race society.

We need to mull over the things that add some correction to our world which glorifies wealth and efforts towards that end. In the time when we are dealing with our souls and spirits, we need a much more deeper and well informed alternative take and perspective. If we teach ourselves to look backwards, we will be in a position to order to make sense of the present, , finally, we will be well armed to predict and formulate the future.

Left - Amen-Ra - King Of The gods ~ The Lord Of Heaven.. Right - The Goddess MUT Pouring out Water From The Sycamore Tree Over The Deceased And His Soul

Left - Amen-Ra - King Of The gods ~ The Lord Of Heaven.. Right - The Goddess MUT Pouring out Water From The Sycamore Tree Over The Deceased And His Soul

Gods Of TheGods: Egyptian Deities

The African Origins Of The Egyptian Gods

According to Wallis Budge"

"It is now a known fact that the Egyptian Gods are of African rather than Asiatic origins, as has been suggested over the millennia by so many. But acceptance of this view was that the chief egyptian literature contained the numerous hymns to the Sun-god under his various forms, e.g., Remu, Ra, Horus,, and Khepera, and frequent allusions to a heaven in which Ra is the King and Lord of all Gods.

"On the other hand, there is sparse evidence that the great bulk of the people of Egypt adopted the religion of Ra and in the Book of the Dead there is ample proof that the Moon-god was one of their chief and favorite object of worship.

"Many African peoples, especially those who live in the great forests and on the Nile, Congo, Niger, Limpopo and other rivers, not only regard the Sun with indifference, but with positive dislike; on the other hand, the Moon and its spirit are venerated devoutly. Proofs of this fact are found in the writings of many travelers, whose works are quoted inn many instances and writings and in many countries.

Taking into consideration all the information available on the subject, it is tolerably clear that the religion of the Sun-god was introduced into Egypt by the priests of Heliopolis, under the Vth Dynasty, when they assumed the rule of the country, and began to nominate their favorite warriors to the throne of Egypt." (You can read about this saga and history in my Hub dubbed: "Egyptian God, Amon(Amen)-The Invisible Creative Power - Hidden From view: Akhnaton, Moses and the Origins of Monotheism.")

In order to understand African Origins of Egyptian we learn from Budge that , "In early Dynastic period, through the Egyptians texts now available enable us to trace the history of the religion of Osiris from the Archaic to the Roman period with completeness. Osiris was an African and his religion was founded in Upper Egypt.. some attribute the meaning of his name to mean "The Sea-maker," and this is suggested in the Pyramid Texts. this came about because "early in the Dynastic Period his(Osiris's) priests succeeded in incorporating in in his worship al that was best in the local cults, and the ideals of morality, justice and righteousness which they designed such that it appealed to the people of every part of Egypt.

"This religion spread rapidly both in Upper Egypt and theDelta, because there was no other religion in Egypt that offered its adherents the hope of the ressurection and immortality.." so that, according to the information provided by Budge, African Origins of Egyptian religion, the various religious groups of Egypt made him their divine ancestor. "His human nature, they thought and believed, enabled Him to understand the needs, troubles, and the griefs of men, and to listen sympathetically to their prayers, and his divine nature gave him powers to help them in this world and in the next, which no other Ancestor-god ever possessed. Osiris, the Divine Ancestor, became the Father of the should of the Egyptians, and the symbol of their hope of resurrection and immortality." (Budge)

The statement above helps to put into context and better framework the 42 Negative Confessions above, and why the people of Egypt relied and believed in them. so that, "according to the priests of Osiris, immortality could only be attained by belief in his Kingdom; they had, to all intents and purposes, no hope of resurrection and therefore could have no existence in the Other World."

It is also better to understand much more clearly that "What the fate of the body of an Osirian was, ultimately mattered very little, provided that the sacred words of the liturgy of the dead had been said over it(this can be read in detail above), for through these genesis of the spirit-body and its union with its soul in Abydos or Busiris were assured.

"The costly tombs, and elaborate mummification and funerary ceremonies, and splendid copies of the Book of the Dead, and inscribed amulets, with which the great and wealthy provided themselves, availed their owners nothing in the Judgment Hall of Osiris, and the true Osirian regarded them as evidences of wealth and power than as effectual means of salvations.

"For the [believers] knew that in the Judgment Hall the hearts of Kings and peasants alike were weighed in the Balance before a just Judge, and that the sentence, and that the sentence pronounced was in accordance with the evidence given by the Warder of the Balance.

"The pleadings of Thoth, who had acted as advocate for Osiris on a memorable occasion, were heard by Osiris, and his recommendations appear to have been generally adopted by the god. As no man could possibly fulfill the demands of the Law, it was the mercy of Osiris of Osiris which ultimately decided the fate of the soul in the Other World, and not the splendor of a tomb, or the magnificence of a funeral procession.

"The King who was declared justified in the Judgment lived presumably with the rank and state of a king in the Other World, the noble as a noble, and the poor man as a poor man; but for all there was only the same hope, and that hope was Osiris. Osiris the God became this hope because he had lived in a body which had suffered, and died, been raised from the dead by the God incarnate in it, and had passed into heaven." (Budge)

All what has been said, the reader needs to remember, predated modern Christianity by thousands of millennia, and it is worth noting the principles and protocol of belief and the acceptance of immortality and hope to be be judged fairly by Osiris, has been been approved by all, and all this was from an African Perspective.

In order to begin to understand the African Origins of the Egyptian religions and belief systems, we shall have to study much more in detail other forms of African religions throughout Africa, of which the Hub I have suggested above, attempted to do so, and another Hub is still in the works, that will trace the African Origins of Egyptian religion more in-depth and in a much more historical detailed acount.

The picture of King Munza, of the Bayanzi supplies a good typical example of the Crowns which great African Kings wore

The picture of King Munza, of the Bayanzi supplies a good typical example of the Crowns which great African Kings wore

Egyptian Symbols and Religion are African in Origin and practice

Encyclopedia Britannica 1984 ed. Macropedia Article, Vol 6: "Egyptian Religion" , pg 506-508
"A large number of gods go back to prehistoric times. The images of a cow and star goddess (Hathor), the falcon (Horus), and the human-shaped figures of the fertility god (Min) can be traced back to that period. Some rites, such as the "running of the Apil-bull," the "hoeing of the ground," and other fertility and hunting rites (e.g., the hippopotamus hunt) presumably date from early times.. Connections with the religions in southwest Asia cannot be traced with certainty."

"It is doubtful whether Osiris can be regarded as equal to Tammuz or Adonis, or whether Hathor is related to the "Great Mother." There are closer relations with northeast African religions. The numerous animal cults (especially bovine cults and panther gods) and details of ritual dresses (animal tails, masks, grass aprons, etc) probably are of African origin. The kinship in particular shows some African elements, such as the king as the head ritualist (i.e., medicine man), the limitations and renewal of the reign (jubilees, regicide), and the position of the king's mother (a matriarchal element). Some of them can be found among the Ethiopians in Napata and Meroe, others among the Prenilotic tribes (Shilluk)." Encyclopedia Britannica, 1984)

Now, we take a much more concrete and closer look at the link of Egyptian civilization and religion as it I have already stated that it is of African origin. The following account is to concretely point out to the sameness of the Osirian gabardine and other elements of his apparel, furniture, poise and posture, which are the same as these of King Munza as shown in the picture above. According to Budge:

"Osiris is seated upon a throne(as can be seen in the Photo Gallery above) or chair, the side of which has doors with bolts, similar to those of a sepulchral shrine of coffer, This throne is believed to contain portions of the God's body, and was therefore made in the form of a funerary chest. Osiris wears the White Crown, to which are attached two feathers, one on each side. The White Crown was originally the crown of the God Khenti Amenti and when it was adopted as the head-covering of Osiris, the two feathers were added to it to indicate Truth, which was his chief characteristic.

"It is possible that two feathers were placed on the ancestral figures with which Osiris was identified at a later period, and that they were merely transferred to the crown of Khenti Amenti when Osiris was identified with him. What the original crown was made of cannot be said, but it was probably woven basketwork or white skin.

"The Bayanzi Kings used to war tall hats made of basketwork, and the Imbangala of the Middle Kwango used to war striking head-dresses made of Black and White Colobus monkey skin, as did also the Lomami, Lulongo-Maringo, Bangala, and Northern Ngombe.

"Another cron often worn by Osiris in the Judgment scene is the "Atef," which is the ordinary crown of the God, with the addition of a pair of horns. This calls to mind the head-gear of the Alunda men, with their excrescent tufts and horns. The picture of King Munza supplies a good typical example of the crowns which great Africans Kings wore."The feathers on the crown of Osiris are from the Ostrich, presumably those of a male bird, but of which of the three great types, East African, South African, or noNorth African,is not a matter of concern here, but are nonetheless, African.

Anyway, all the mentioned peoples above, the type of feathers from those countries could be found right across the Sahara from the Sudan and Nigeria to Tunis and Algeria, and from Senegal eastwards to Syria and Arabia. One of more feathers were worn by many African peoples and Kings of the South of Africa with whom the Egyptians came in contact, and among the Egyptians "bearer of the feather" was a title of honor. Head-dresses madeof feathers are frequently worn by the peoples of the forest region between the West coast o f Tanganyika and the Lualaba Congo, and the Zulus of South Africa at the present day"

This is just a smattering of the historical link of the Egyptian God and the African Kings, and one cannot fail to see the similarities and importance attached to the same symbols throughout Africa, as discussed briefly above. this issue is still going to be expanded upon and showing the commonalities in the religion of Africa and that of the Egyptian in much more detail.

Atheists, and European Meandering About Religion And Science(Philosophy)

I have written the Hub above to highlight the orgins of Admissions Of Faith And Purity to establish the fact that what we see as the basic doctrines of Christianity, have their anteecedents in Egyt. What I want to do in this part of the Hub, in a diffeent theme but same vein, is to demonstrate the changes and shift in belief that charactherizes those that happened to the Confessions as demosnstrated above.

The basic tenets of the Confessions have been altred, and those that believe today had long been set up too. This is part of the discourses that do not really take place in academia, except that many people only want to take what they find in Hubs such as tis one and use fr themselves, without bothering to do the necessary homework to produce such perpsectives and dialogues. Nonetheless, I will continue to add to the Hub, but begin to talk about the way, in our history, Christianity and belief systems were manipulated, how and why.

It is at this point in the Hub I point out to the Atheists. The inclusion of the atheists in this part will be interesting to know, for they believed in something, but not God, and they forced their detractors to formulate the Christian religion as we know it today.It is also important to bring out, and flesh out these truth, so that the knowledge about African spirituality is explained and expanded on as many fronts there are.

I have used Bdge in order to unearth forgotten spiritual and religious(today) aspects which form the basis of the belief its adherents cling to. It would be better to get to better know these fact much clearly, and from an African-centered pepsective and narrative.There's a wide berth of literature that addresses the conflict between religion and science, that I will try and indulge the readers henceforth as to what took place.

This genre of literature has largely bee been forgotten in this phase of history. White writes and informs us that A movement toward secularism began in Europe as early as the twelfth century, and reached its zenith in eighteenth century France. Historians have largely ignored this movement, Which was that the French eighteenth century is one of the grand climacterics in the history of human growth. all the seeds which had been geminating in Europe since the twelfth century ripped into fruit. A new era began, in its significance one of the epochs of most concentrated glory in the evolution of a race...

Our attenton has for a hundred years been trained upon its defects and imperfections. Much in the theories of the philosophies (contemptuously so referred to by Pierre, to avoid desecration of the appellation of philosopher) was crude and a priori, and lacking in a sufficient basis for induction; their generalizations were superficial, their shibboleths and abstractions trivial, their rhetoric declamatory.

In all inteelectual life and activity of that active time ... a new quality, a terrible new dangerous virtue became awake. It was by men such as Bayle, Montesquieu, Voltair, Didero and Volley that helped cast aside all conventional formals, resolved to think for themselves, and, what is more, to speak out boldly what they thought, to own no other sanction or criterion than rational thought, that the world has been transformed. Behind them and around them stood mediavalism in all its ignorance and darkness, and tyranny over life and mind ... After them is a changed world the modern world. It was these men who threw the portals from the some into the other.(Antonie Jean)

"In all advanced civilizations, the intellectuals were, as a rule, skeptics, whereas the untutored masses were deeply religious. In ancient Greece and Romme some of the greatest thinkers were atheists. Men like Epictetus, Lucian, Lucretius, and Epicurus laughed at the Godss.In the Middle ages, this tradition was carried on, especially among the freethinkers of Islam. The poet Marri of Baghdad, held religion up to ridicule in his poetry.

The Baghdad caliphate in the tenth century was a highly civilized state(I have written a Hub About The Spors And The Civilizing Of Europe and published it here on HubPages), which fostered science and rational thought, and even tolerated atheism. Even on the papal throne in in Rome, religion was represented. Pope Leo X ws a member of the Mdici family, fabulously rich, and also a skeptic. When a visiting scholar expressed doubt as to the historicity of Jesus and praised the pontiff for his opulent life-style, it is that the pope replied: "we owe all this to the fable ofJesus Christ."

As long as the Roman Catholic Church could make philosophy the handmaiden of theology, it could keep atheism under cover. By the seventeenth-century, Atheism had come into the open, and the churches were on the defensive. The first great Atheisti philospher was Spinoza...(Benedict)

According to Bury:

Spinoza conceived ultimate reality, which he called God, as an absolutely perfect, 'impersonal Being,' a substance whose nature is constituted by two attributes - thought and spatial extension.... If Atheism means, as I suppose in ordinary use it si generally taken to mean, rejection of a personal god, Spinoza was an Atheist."

We learn from Hervey that:

"The ruling church state set up in the eighteenth-century Westrn Europe was in a state of crisis. The feudal regime and the Chrisitan religion were linked together in mutual aid, and the fall of one seemed to involve the doom of the other. The aristocracy and the iddle class were anti religious, but they strove to keep the masses in a state of religion, poverty, and ignorance. Karl Marx did not discover that religion was the opium of the people in the nineteenth century. The skeptical classes throughout the ages used religion as a weapon against the ignorant and destitute masses. When Montesquie visited England, and that:

"There is no religion in England," and that, "If religion is spoken of, everybody laughs." Hervey endorsed this view thusly:

"The fable of Christianity .. was now (1728) so exploded in England that any man of fashion or condition would have been almost as much ashamed to won himself a Christian as formely he would have been to profess himself none. Even women who prided themselves at all on their understanding, took care to let people know that Christian prejudices were that they despise beign bound by."

Philosophy was to the eighteenth century as science was to become in the ninetieth centuries. The theologians based the belief in god on blind faith; the philosophers subjected theidea to the test of reaso and concluded that it had no validity.The rulers of state went along with this verdict, but decided to keep this intelligence from the masses. religion was rejected by the classes, but was a good opiate for the masses. This was encapsulated marvelously by Joad:

"Sicity is at bottom based upon force which the exploiters employ to maintain and to perpetuate the inequalities upon which they thrive. But exploitees who lend themselves contentedly to the porpose of the expoiters are more saatisfactory subjects to exploitation than a working class which must be driven by the whip.

"To ensure the desired contentment, the exploiters invoke the assistance of religion; for religion is not only a means to reconcile the individual to society; it is also a device for inducing the poor and oppresssed to tolerate the particular order of society wich impoverishes and oppresses them.

"Thus, religion, the instrument of the rich, is also the briddle of the poor.. ... The Christian religion goes further, and makes a virtue out of poverty. It is only, we are assured, with the greatest difficulty that the rich man will enter the Kingdom of heaven, which opens its gates to the humble and the needy. Poverty and insignificance are not, therefore, as they appear to be, and as the world insists on regarding them disabilities to be avoided at al costs."

"The Christian religion, indeed, expressly encourage men to cultivate them, exhorting them to workday improvidence and inertia by bidding them to take not thought of tomorrow, and to be content with that state of life into which it shall lease God to call them. As it pleased him to call ninety-nine out of every hundred to a state of extremel lowliness, religion, so far as it is taken seriously, assists the governing class to keep the poor in their place.

"The governing classes have been quick to seize the opportunity Christianity has offered them, of not only exploiting the workers, but representing the effects of their exploitation as a positive asset to the exploiters."(Matthew)

The Deistic aatack on Christianity began with Herbert in 1624, and piekaed in 1730, by Matthew. Teir works on Christianity raised interesting questions. Matthew asked why god punished Adam and Eve for the pursuit of knowledge, and their posterity just for being born? Why also, did this same god establish a religion which promoted prosecution, terror, strife and immortality?"

Steven Bantu Biko adddressed the same question when talking about religion in his writings.

Viscount was a harsh critic of both philosophers and theologians. He considered Plato as theologically mendacious, St. Paul a visionary fanatic, and Leibniz as a chimeral quack. Metaphysicians were learned lunatics. the Old Testament was a farrago of lies and nonsense; all knowledge was relative and uncertain; and hes convinced that Jesus Christ never existed. He opined that all established belief in philosophy, religion and bgeovernment should be distrusted.."(Viscount)

Berkely warned Deist that would become atheist, and that would lead to immoral conduct. He conceded that there a a few good Atheists; but unbelief, if transmitted to the masses, would end up in libertinism. Religious skeptics should also be skeptical of science, especially in mathematics. Certainly the doctrine of the Trinity is not more incomprehensible that the square roo of (-1).

Philo observes:

"Examime the religious principles which have, in fact, prevailed in the world. You will scarcely be persuaded that they have anything but sick men's dreams; or perhaps you will regard them more as the playsome shimsiys of monkeys in human shape, than the serious, positive, dogmatical observations of a bein