Unemployment as defined by ILO (international labor organization) occurs when people are without job and they have actively sought work within past four weeks. Unemployment is a worldwide curse. It is not only prevalent in underdeveloped countries but also in developing and developed countries.
Pakistan is facing plenty of problems currently and unemployment is one of the major problem. According to one survey about 8.2% Pakistani youth is unemployed and rate of unemployment has increased 8% during past five years. This growing rate of unemployment is a result of population explosion, poor law and order situation, bad economic situation, corruption, terrorism and defective education system.
The problem of unemployment has long existed in Pakistan. Today, it is one of the main problem of Pakistani youth. Youth unemployment is giving rise to many social havocs. Social delinquencies are increasing rapidly due to unemployment. Youth are compelled to do any kind of work to earn money including criminal activities such as robbery, illegal drug trade, terrorism etc. We can say that unemployment in youth is also responsible for increasing rate of terrorism in country which is the main problem of Pakistan now a days.
So what are the reasons behind that increasing rate of educated unemployment among youth of Pakistan?
Educated unemployment is a type of unemployment in which educated people are unable to find job, they have a degree but that degree does not get them a job. It has ample social, behavioral and psychological impacts. Educated unemployment is due to insufficient job vacancies, deficient economic plans, nepotism and defective education system.
Education system of Pakistan has many faults and it does not match international standards. There is no uniform system of education in Pakistan .It is divided into Urdu medium and English medium. It is not only a difference between two languages but it has wide spread effects. It is a very common notion that a person who has been schooled from an Urdu medium institute cannot compete with one who got his education from an English medium school. This typical mind set of our society is the reason behind low self-esteem of graduate of Urdu medium schools which leads to their poor performance in jobs related tests and interviews which are generally in English language. Urdu medium graduates are not fluent in English which is now a days considered an important requirement to seek a job. Similarly our educational institutions are divided into two sectors, private and government sectors. Government institutions are often accessible but they have poor facilities and low quality of education due to which the graduates of them are not able to secure a job which needs proper skills. Private sectors institutions are though well-equipped but they are expensive and majority of students cannot afford them. This uneven system of education is responsible for unemployment in Pakistan at some level.
In Pakistan, there is no concept of counselling service for students so many students opt wrong subjects which does not ensure better career opportunities .Some students are forced by parents or societies norms to study subjects in which they have no interest. So their lack of interest causes failure and even if they succeed in securing degree by cramming they do not do well in their jobs due to lack of interest, their performance drops and eventually they lose job. This is due to defective education system in Pakistan in which students are not given career advice during their student life.
In Pakistan education system is not that efficient to prepare the youth for marked demands. Education is theoretical not practical type. Students are not prepared according to the challenges of new era. They are not taught about new technologies and their applications, the knowledge of which is necessary to seek a job.
Lack of technical education is another reason of unemployment in Pakistan. Technical and vocational institutes are less in number and are not promoted. So students are not trained practically which leads to their unemployment.
Teachers are not trained properly. Mostly they come to institution, deliver their prepared lecture without clarifying the concepts and then how students get the lesson is none of their business. They do not take interest in student’s matters or their personalities. They do not discuss career aspects of their subjects .Teachers promotes cramming rather than encouraging new ideas, they promote those who get good marks in exam by cramming. So those students who get degree by mere cramming of course fail in practical field. Faulty habit of cramming and the iniquitous thing like favoritism is appreciated greatly by our educational system which is the major reason behind disqualification of youth for many jobs.
Pakistan devotes only 1.5 to 2.0 GDP on education. It is the reason behind lack of facilities in educational institution so students are not trained properly and are not able to get proper job.
There is hardly any provision of technical or vocational education in Pakistan. This drawback makes the students dislike the manual work. Therefore, majority rushes to the cities and increases unemployment. Pakistan is an agricultural country and majority of its population lives in villages. But when a villager goes to city for education and gets a university degree instead of revolutionizing its family profession, he strives to get a job in city increasing population of city leading to unemployment.
Students lack certain skills for jobs such as communication skills, analytical skills, knowledge in their respective domains because our education system does not teach these skills. In our institutions teachers teach what they want, not according to requirement of industries.
It can be concluded from above mentioned facts that education is not responsible for unemployment .It is the education system and ways in which education is provided which are responsible for unemployment in Pakistan. The education system of Pakistan is not up to date and needs modifications including uniform education system throughout the country, revision of syllabus, student counselling facilities, setup of new vocational and technical institutions and training workshops for teachers. These modification certainly can reduce the rate of unemployment in Pakistan.