In this article we should all plan for emissions. Therefore, our goal will be achieved by 2050.
It reducing the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere while meeting the energy demands of a growing population is a huge task for countries like India. This requires strategies, long-term planning and implementation to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. It reducing the production of carbon dioxide from fossil fuels to renewable energy, obtaining and storing carbon dioxide (Carbon Capture and Store - CCS), obtaining and using carbon dioxide (carbon capture and utilize - CCU) There are potential areas for reduction. They are important for achieving the goal of reducing carbon dioxide emissions.
This objective can be achieved by producing energy, fuel and chemicals in response to increasing demand. In the CCU concept, carbon dioxide is obtained and separated from the emitted gases and then converted into valuable products. Thus, synthetic fuels can be developed by a specific chemical process from a mixture of carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Therefore, carbon dioxide could be an important factor in future oil production. In this way carbon dioxide can have the potential to control high levels of energy storage, renewable energy. But developing this industry requires new catalytic processes and chemical projects.
Flue gas from fossil fuel-fired power plants is India's main source of carbon dioxide. If carbon dioxide was to be isolated, it would require a coal-fired power plant with a capacity of 100 to 500 megawatts, based on today's technology of absorbing chemical elements called alkanol amines. Therefore, it would be advisable to use a mixture of flue gas for the conversion of carbon dioxide without pre-separation. Therefore, even though the amount of carbon dioxide used to make industrial chemicals is less than that of flue gas, carbon dioxide conversion and use should be an integral part of its management.
At the economic and environmental level, it seems to be more beneficial to use flue gas directly than to use pre-isolated and pure carbon dioxide. The specific flue gas in a natural gas power plant can have the following quantity or quantity percentage. There are 8-10 carbon dioxide, 18-20 water, 2-3 oxygen and 67-72 nitrogen. The flue gas of a coal-fired boiler can contain 12-14 carbon dioxide, 8-10 water, 3-5 oxygen and 72-77 nitrogen.
The outside temperature of a flue gas furnace is usually around 1200 degrees Celsius. It gradually decreases along the heat transfer path, while the temperature of the flue gas emitted is about 150 degrees Celsius. Pollution control technologies can remove SOx, NOx and particulate matter, but carbon dioxide, water and oxygen remain unchanged.
The use of carbon dioxide as a raw material for the manufacture of chemicals not only reduces the effects of global climate change but also catalyzes the discovery of new concepts and new opportunities for catalysts as well as industrial development. Carbon dioxide can be converted to methane, methanol, dimethyl ether, liquid hydrocarbons, formic acids, gaseous hydrocarbons, urea, organic cabernets etc. Methanol can be obtained from methane either through steam reforming (SR) or directly through partial oxidation (DPOM) or dry reforming (DR). While SR and DPOM are relatively economical, SR is at an advanced stage of technological maturity.
It has higher thermodynamic and carbon efficiency than DPOM. The use of methane as a raw material for the production of methanol lays the foundation for a future methanol based economy. Methanol based economy is the concept of the policy commission. Methanol can be converted to a number of important chemicals, including olefin, to boost this so-called economy. Dimethyl ether (DME) has many attractive properties as a fuel.
They can be made from carbon dioxide using innovative catalysts, reactors and separators. Only if there is a DME synthesis plant with a capacity of 3000-7500 TPD can the economy of CCS plant survive and thrive. DME is a compression ignition fuel that is an alternative to high quality, clean diesel. Its auto-ignition properties and high-octane numbers (55 to 60) are beneficial and DME should be allowed to be used as an alternative to propane and butane in LPG as cooking fuel.
Well established LPG industry infrastructure, that’s why it can be used for DME. The conversion of carbon dioxide into gaseous or liquid hydrocarbons requires high temperature (250-450 degrees Celsius) and pressure (20-40 bar), but the conversion rate is low due to difficulties in the chemical activation of carbon dioxide. Therefore, the available technology is not financially affordable.
Active testing of various catalysts is required to increase the conversion of carbon dioxide and to control specific products. Hydrogen can play an important role in this regard. Hydrogen is known as an energy carrier and is produced using energy from other sources. Indian Chemical Technology has developed an innovative Cu-Cl cycle for thermochemical hydrogen production. It can produce a vast amount of hydrogen. It can be used in hydrogenation of carbon dioxide fuels and chemicals.
Steel production emits more than three billion metric tons of carbon dioxide every year. To reduce global warming, the steel industry needs to significantly reduce its carbon emissions. At such times hydrogen can replace fossil fuels in steel, chemical and some related carbon-based industrial processes based on it. All types of wet biomass (which cannot be used for most other biofuels) from anaerobic fermentation as well as vegetable and livestock waste, manure, harvest surplus, oil residues etc. Biogas produced typically contains 50-75% methane and 25-50% carbon dioxide.
It called Renewable Natural Gas (RNG) or Sustainable Natural Gas (SNG), which is separated from biogas, biomethane is the most efficient biofuel available today and burns without producing carbon dioxide. Biomethane contains 90 percent or more of methane, making it possible to deliver gas to customers through existing gas grids in existing equipment. Biomethane has all the same properties as fossil natural gas. Furthermore, the use of biogas containing carbon dioxide as a co-reactant for methane conversion in the so-called dry reforming process is very promising, as carbon dioxide can provide extra carbon atoms for methane conversion, while carbon dioxide also acts as a better oxidant than oxygen or air.
Carbon dioxide will also increase methane conversion and related production. However, the use of carbon dioxide in the feed can lead to increased production complications. In addition to the liquefied gas, syngas, gaseous hydrocarbons (C2 to C4), liquid hydrocarbons (C5 to C11 +) and oxygenated substances can be produced in methane conversion with the co-feed of carbon dioxide. Liquid hydrocarbons represent high-octane numbers, while oxygenates consist mainly of a series of alcohols and acids. Using a new production catalytic system to develop production technology for direct conversion of methane and carbon dioxide directly into hydrocarbons and oxygenate would probably be more economically viable. It is important to note that carbon should not be used as a source of fuel.
But hydrogen from solar energy, wind power, geothermal, tidal, and nuclear energy from all carbon-free energy sources, chemicals and materials and the separation of water all meet the terms of the Paris Agreement. So, the bottom line is that carbon dioxide refineries are not far off. In the lifetime of many readers of this article, Net Zero will come into existence before 2050.
Reducing CO2 Emissions
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