Wael El-Manzalawy is an Egyptian writer who writes in English. He has published 30 ebooks. His books have been translated into more than 20
We all want to know what will happen in Ukraine. A new world war is a catastrophe that we want to evade. We should understand who is Vladimir Putin and the context of Russia and the Soviet Union in the last decades. How many wars has Vladimir Putin led? What was the results of these wars? This article tries to spotlight Vladimir Putin and his wars.
The Collapse of the Soviet Union
As regards economy, communism was a great failure. Even China which is still adopting communism politically abandoned communism economically. Mikhail Gorbachev found that the Soviet Union's economy cannot continue: he could see the end of the Soviet Union's economy in the near future. Mikhail Gorbachev new policies led to the collapse of the Soviet Union. Mikhail Gorbachev and his glasnost (meaning "openness") and perestroika (meaning "reconstruction") couldn't save the Soviet Union. Perestroika introduced many market-like reforms and gave more independence to the various ministries. Perestroika didn't aim to end command economy but rather to make socialism more efficient. Although Mikhail Gorbachev won Nobel Peace Prize and was widely praised for his role in ending the Cold War, he was the final leader of the Soviet Union. Together with the American president Ronald Reagan, he limited nuclear weapons and ended the Cold War. During his era, Germany was unified. Mikhail Gorbachev, who was born on March 2nd, 1931, is still one of the most controversial politicians.
Boris Yeltsin's Era
Boris Yeltsin (1 February 1931- 23 April 2007) was the first president of the Russian Federation from 1991 to 1999. For a short time, Boris Yeltsin was a supporter of the perestroika reforms of Mikhail Gorbachev but he criticized perestroika as being too moderate. He declared that the only solution is multi-part representative democracy. Boris Yeltsin allied with many non-Russian politicians and leaders in order to dissolve the Soviet Union. Yeltsin was instrumental in the formal dissolution of the Soviet Union. His era was an era of political and economic crises. During his era, there were three wars: First Chechen War, War of Dagestan and Second Chechen War. Boris Yeltsin resigned by the end of 1999. He chose his successor, Prime Minister Vladimir Putin.
Vladimir Putin's Wars
Vladimir Putin has enjoyed high domestic approval ratings. He was was chosen No. 1 in Time 100 in 2007. He was chosen No.1 in Time 100, Time magazine's list of the top 100 most influential people in the world. He was No. 1 on Forbes list of the World's Most Powerful People from 2013 to 2016. Vladimir Putin, the current president of Russia, is a Russian politician and former intelligence officer. He led the following wars: Second Chechen War, Russo-Georgian War, Russo-Ukrainian War in 2014 and Syrian War. The Second Chechen War from August 1999 to April 2009 was between the Russian Federation and the Chechen Republic of Ichkeria. The last war of the Soviet Union ended by withdrawal from Afghanistan. The first Chechen War was not a Russian victory. Vladimir Putin led the first Russian victory after many years despite the estimations that declare that there were many civil victims. To understand the Russo-Georgian War, you should know that there are two republics in Georgia named South Ossetia and Abkhazia that have Russian majorities. The war took place in August 2008 between Georgia, Russia and Russian backed self-proclaimed republics of South Ossetia and Abkhazia. This war was another victory for Vladimir Putin. As regards the Russo-Ukrainian War in 2014, it followed the Euromaidan protests and the subsequent removal of the Ukrainian President Victor Yankukovych on February 22. Russian soldiers took control of many strategic positions within the Ukrainian territory of Crimea. The Federation Concil of the Russian Federation adopted a resolution to petition Vladimir Putin to use military force in Ukraine. Few days, the Russian Army started the "Returning of Crimea" military operation. Russia organised a referendum in Crimea whose outcome was for the Autonomous Republic of Crimea to join the Russian Federation. Then, there was a war between the Ukrainian Government, the Russian-backed separatist forces of the self-declared Donetsk and Luhansk People's Republics and Russia. Again, Vladimir was victorious. As regards the Syrian war, it is one of the most complicated wars in the modern history. We could see America, Britain, France, other European countries, Russia, Iran, Turkey, Israel and ISIS participating in the war. Vladimir Putin could prevent the removal of the Syrian President Al-Asd though Al-Asd is accused of commuting war crimes.
I'm writing this article on February 11th, 2022. No one knows what will happen in the next few days. Will be another Russo-Ukrainian war? I think that Vladimir Putin doesn't want war but he doesn't want to be the loser. Similarly, America doesn't want the war but it doesn't want to be the loser. To sum up, a new cold war has started.