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How Much Do You Know About American Presidents?

Kathleen Cochran is a writer & former newspaper reporter/editor who traveled the world as a soldier's better half. Her works are on Amazon.


How well do you know your presidential factoids?

We have had 46 presidents in the United States. We have elected only 44 of them. Which one was not elected?

Forty-three presidents have either finished two terms, been defeated for re-election, or died. Which one left office for other reasons?

What was unique about the presidency of Franklin Delano Roosevelt?

Which have we had more of: Republican or Democrat presidents?


Gerald Ford was the only commander in chief not elected president or vice president. He was appointed vice president after Spiro Agnew resigned in October 1973. He became president when Richard Nixon resigned in August 1974, the only president to leave office by resignation.

FDR was elected for four terms. In 1951 the 22nd Amendment was ratified stating no president may serve longer than a decade (two terms plus a maximum of two years of another president's term).

There have been 19 Republican and 14 Democrat presidents. Other parties to win the highest office are two Federalist and four Whig. John Quincy Adams was our only chief with no party affiliation.

But there have been more one-term Republican presidents than Democrat. The U.S. has technically had 11 one term presidents: Donald Trump (R), George H.W. Bush (R), Jimmy Carter (D), Gerald Ford (R), Herbert Hoover (R), William H. Taft (R), Benjamin Harrison (R ), Martin Van Buren (D), John Quincy Adams (Whig), and John Adams (Federalist).

Technically Grover Cleveland (D) was a one term president because he lost after his first term to Benjamin Harrison (R). But he won the presidency again in 1893. He is the only president to serve two non-consecutive four-year terms.

Only four vice presidents who stepped into the presidency to complete someone else’s term won election to the office on their own later. Theodore Roosevelt, Calvin Coolidge, Harry Truman and Lyndon Johnson were those four.

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For all those senators, representatives, and governors who have dreamed of the presidency and see being added to the ticket as a VP as their chance at the Oval Office, the odds are not good. Only four VPs have been elected president at the end of their term as the ultimate bridesmaid: John Adams, Thomas Jefferson, Martin Van Buren and George H.W. Bush. But then, there is always the hope of being another John Tyler who only served one month as vice president before assuming the presidency upon the death of William Henry Harrison. (Harrison, by the way, gave the longest inauguration speech in history – 8,445 words. That fact might have told those who came after him something about the winters in Washington, D.C.) Joe Biden won the presidency in 2020 after sitting out the 2016 election following his eight years as vice president.

The longest streak in the Oval Office by a political party was the Republicans who gained the office for Lincoln, Grant, Hayes, Garfield and Arthur in succession. Of course these presidents served during and following the Civil War when voting rights were heavily restricted in the defeated South, which was heavily Democratic. The GOP had two other streaks with McKinley, Theodore Roosevelt and Taft, then again with Harding, Coolidge and Hoover. The Democrats have never had more than two presidents successively in the White House, but they’ve accomplished it four times.

For more fun facts to know and tell, Google U.S. Presidents.

From "The American President"


Kathleen Cochran (author) from Atlanta, Georgia on January 10, 2017:

Might be a good time to take another look at the men who have been our presidents in the past. Do you see any encouraging trends?

Kathleen Cochran (author) from Atlanta, Georgia on November 06, 2016:

Thanks for this interesting addition to this hub. Feel free to keep the little known facts coming!

Credence2 from Florida (Space Coast) on November 06, 2016:

BTW, Martha Washington had died in 1802.

Credence2 from Florida (Space Coast) on November 06, 2016:

I am disappointed, no takers?

Well, here it is.


March 4, 1789-December 14, 1799

Begins with inauguration of George Washington as President with Martha as First Lady.

Followed in March 1797, with the election of John Adams with his wife Abigail.

The period ends with the death of George Washington, making Martha a widow.

2. This was a little trickier

JULY 4, 1826-March 4, 1829

The period begins with the deaths of Thomas Jefferson and John Adams, both widowers by this time

The following first couples were intact during this period:

James and Dolley Madison

James and Elizabeth Monroe

John Quincy Adams and Louise

The period ends with the inauguration of Andrew Jackson, who by this time was already a widower having lost his wife during the previous year.

For the life of me, I could not find any further incidents of this most unique circumstance.

Kathleen Cochran (author) from Atlanta, Georgia on November 01, 2016:

Credence2: Keep those challenges coming. Someone will probably beat to this one - it's going to take some time!

Credence2 from Florida (Space Coast) on October 31, 2016:

By Jove, I found it! There are two distinct if brief periods in AMERICAN history when only intact First Couples, former Presidents and their First Ladies, were living.

For the prize, I need the month and year providing the parameters of when the periods began and ended.

Credence2 from Florida (Space Coast) on October 31, 2016:

Hi, Kathleen, another interesting factoid and question for your readers. This can be nerve racking, so it is an 'open book' test question.

I have noticed that with the death of Nancy Reagan last March, there remain no surviving widows of former presidents nor former presidents as widowers. This is a unique moment in time, I am scratching my head to see if there was a comparable time when this situation had occurred in the past?

Assuming that your audience does not have anything better to do.....

Kathleen Cochran (author) from Atlanta, Georgia on October 26, 2016:

About par for my course!

Credence2 from Florida (Space Coast) on October 26, 2016:

Greetings Kathleen, you get a passing mark.

1. T. Roosevelt

2. G. Ford

Yes, indeed Tyler has 2 grandsons born in 1924 and 1928 that are still alive, today. How many people can say that they had a grandfather who was born in 1790?

Kathleen Cochran (author) from Atlanta, Georgia on October 25, 2016:

writejt: And I'm from Georgia. Definitely must add first to wear jeans! He also brought porch rocking chairs from my own home town to the White House!

Credence: 1-LBJ and 2-Ford Factoid: Do you mean the grandsons survive to this day? How many greats would that be?

Thanks to you two for adding to this hub!!

Credence2 from Florida (Space Coast) on October 24, 2016:

Your questions are:

And no googling, I will give you 5 minutes each

Before this Vice President there were no other Vice Presidents, succeeding a President who did not complete his term of office, yet ran for and was elected to the Presidency in his own right.


Also, oddly enough, in the 20th century there was only one man who through succession acquired the Presidency, but never was elected to a term in his own right.


Factoid: did you know that the 10th President, John Tyler (1791-1862) has two surviving grandsons? That is quite a record!!!

ROY T JAMES from chennai, india on October 24, 2016:

Good hub, I thought Jimmy Carter could also be in this as the only president to wear jeans to oval office.

Kathleen Cochran (author) from Atlanta, Georgia on April 08, 2015:

Paul: Glad you enjoyed this one. I kind of did a series of "Fun Facts" on a variety of historical/presidential topics. Hope you like those too. They were fun to do!

Paul Richard Kuehn from Udorn City, Thailand on April 08, 2015:

These are some very interesting facts about the Presidents. When I was in eight grade, my parents had a very interesting book which included anecdotes about many of our earlier presidents. I also learned on a trip to Washington when I was 13 that President Taft who is buried in Arlington National Cemetery was so big that he needed a special casket made for his burial. Voted up and sharing with Hubpages followers.

Devika Primić from Dubrovnik, Croatia on September 01, 2014:

Brilliantly researched! I learned something new from you that is my goal for each day.

Kathleen Cochran (author) from Atlanta, Georgia on March 27, 2013:

Aunt Jimi: Glad you found this one and welcome to my hubs. Hope you enjoy more of them.

Aunt Jimi from The reddest of the Red states! on March 27, 2013:

Excellent article! Knew the answers to Nixon and Ford, but all the rest was a reminder or completely new. Really enjoyed the results of your hard work researching.

Kathleen Cochran (author) from Atlanta, Georgia on October 22, 2012:

Thanks billdo1603! I thought with the election coming up there might be some renewed interest in this subject.

billd01603 from Worcester on October 21, 2012:

Very interesting Hub Katherine! I love trivial.

Kathleen Cochran (author) from Atlanta, Georgia on August 05, 2012:

Thanks for the links. I'll take a look.

I am passionate about reading and can't resist sharing a good book especially when I find someone with similar interests.

Credence2 from Florida (Space Coast) on August 04, 2012:

Hi, Kathleen, I can provide the links to both the inauguration of James Buchanan and the execution of the Lincoln assassination conspirators.

Sounds like you got a bit of passion yourself! The reading material you recommend sound like a winner.

Kathleen Cochran (author) from Atlanta, Georgia on August 04, 2012:

Are you in a position to post any of your old photos? Would be fascinating to see them.

The movie, The Conspirators, is a wonderful version of this history concerning Mary Surratt. It was filmed at Fort Pulaski on Tybee Island, GA, which is a place that I write about often and where I spend a great deal of time.

You must read Killing Lincoln. There is too much in to cover in these comments. Someone with your passion for history would consume it!

Credence2 from Florida (Space Coast) on August 03, 2012:

Hi, Kathleen, planning to drop you a line a couple of days ago but had a power outage here in paradise, right in the middle of everything.

Fortunately for Bush, he happened to be out of the area when 9/11 mayhem was taking place.

I confess that I am unfamiliar with “Killing Lincoln”, I will have to check into it. I did know that Mary Surratt was the first woman officially executed in this way. There is an 1865 photo of the conspirators on the gallows, most interesting. They all hanged in July, 1865, hardly 3 months after the assassination. I guess that justice was swift in those days. I have a thing for the old photographs, I found photos of James Buchanan’s inauguration dated March, 1857.

I did not know that dereliction of duty was involved by the guard at his post at the Ford’s theatre on that fateful evening. If he had have remained there, the outcome would have well been different. Historians would say that under Lincoln’s influence, the subsequent Reconstruction terms imposed upon the vanquished South may not have been as difficult or as harsh. All the resentment between the regions for the years to come may well have been avoided. Lincoln's successor, Andrew Johnson, was far less capable. We could only speculate.

Clint Hill of the Secret Service felt that he was slow in reaction time getting to Kennedy and the First Lady, after he was certain that shots were fired. It is hard to live with such an oversight, considering that you may have been a position to prevent it. Security over the entire motorcade route was dangerously lax anyway. History has carefully concealed the guilty parties in this crime for all time.

Kathleen Cochran (author) from Atlanta, Georgia on July 30, 2012:

You are exactly right about Bush on 9/11 - and on his brother's chances too.

Tom Koecke from Tacoma, Washington on July 29, 2012:

The Kennedys would have been the only brothers, if it were to have been. Jeb has the best chance at it now, but it's a longshot. Not quite as long as Bill Clinton's brother getting elected, though!

I think Bush was in Florida on 9/11/01. If I recall correctly, he was at a school when he got the news.

Kathleen Cochran (author) from Atlanta, Georgia on July 29, 2012:


William Henry Harrison and Benjamin Harrison - Grandfather and Grandson.

Teddy Roosevelt was Eleanor's uncle. Eleanor and Franklin were third cousins.

Didn't know either of these fun facts! If Robert Kennedy had won instead of being killed, those would have been the only brothers, right? Think the Bush's have a shot at father, brother and brother?

Nick: Mary Todd Lincoln wasn't the only "piece of work". I have some experience with military general's wives and I'll bet they can't hold a candle to president's wives. I'm sure you are familiar with "the ditch story." Anybody remember it?

Credence: The year ending in O might have held true for George Bush elected in 2000 had those brave passengers not crashed that plane in the PA field!

I've read many of the similarities between Lincoln and Kennedy. Have you read "Killing Lincoln" by O'Reily (misspelled). There was a great deal in that book I never knew. Did you know Booth had a romantic dalliance with a girl Lincoln's son was also pursuing? Did you know the woman hung as a conspirator was the first woman the U.S. ever hanged and she didn't weigh enough for the fall on the scaffold the break her neck and took several minutes to strangle? Did you know the son she died protecting was never punished for his involvement even after returning to the U.S. on his own? Did you know the secret service agent assigned to guard the door of Lincoln's theather booth abandoned his post to drink in the pub next door and was never punished for his direliction of duty? (I'm not double-checking these bits from my memory of the book, so if anyone knows differently, speak up.)

Tom Koecke from Tacoma, Washington on July 29, 2012:

Only one President has died in office who was not elected in a year ending in zero. That was Zachary Taylor, who was elected in 1848.

Kathleen Cochran (author) from Atlanta, Georgia on July 29, 2012:

OK. It's Sunday morning and I can't keep up with the inmates. I'll be back this afternoon and give y'all a run for your money! Too much good information!

Nick Hanlon from Chiang Mai on July 28, 2012:

Difference between Kennedy and Lincoln was with their wives.Jackie was beautiful,eloquent and educated.Mary Todd Lincoln was short,fat and mad as a cut snake.What is called today a ''real piece of work".

Credence2 from Florida (Space Coast) on July 28, 2012:

Yeah, Kathleen, we taken over, the inmates are in charge now!

Now that we are on a roll, what is to be made of the uncanny similarities between the assassinations of Abraham Lincoln and John Kennedy? Within the realm of American history, this is of cosmic proportion.

Most presidential history buffs are probably aware of these tidbits and many others could care less, but what about all those in the middle?

Both Kennedy and Lincoln were assassinated on a Friday

Both men, Lincoln and Kennedy, suffered gun shot wounds to the head

Both Kennedy and Lincoln were accompanied by their wives during their assassinations

Lincoln was killed at Ford’s Theatre, Kennedy was killed in a Lincoln Limousine ( a Product of Ford Motor CO.)

Lee Harvey Oswald, shot Kennedy from a warehouse and was subsequently captured in a theatre. John Wilkes Booth killed Lincoln in a theatre and was captured in a warehouse (maybe more of barn).

Neither John Wilkes Booth nor Lee Harvey Oswald survived to stand trial for his crime.

Lincoln was elected in 1860, Kennedy in 1960

Lee Harvey Oswald and John Wilkes Booth have the same number of letters in their names.

Lincoln’s successor and Kennedy’s successor were both southern men named Johnson.

Andrew Johnson was born in 1808, Lyndon Baines Johnson was born in 1908.

Lincoln was elected to congress in 1846, Kennedy in 1946


Every president elected in a year ending in 0, died in office. This was true for:

WH Harrison-elected 1840

Abe Lincoln-elected 1860

James Garfield elected 1880

William McKinley elected 1900

Warren Harding elected 1920

FDR elected 1940

John Kennedy elected 1960

The curse ended in 1980 with Ronald Reagan, but he was lucky in narrowingly escaping death from an attempted assassination in 1981

ThoughtSandwiches from Reno, Nevada on July 28, 2012:


I do remember something being mentioned about that with Grant. Also, something similar happened to Eisenhower...West Point switched him around and he was actually born David Dwight Eisenhower but it got flipped during enrollment and (being the good soldier he was) he just kept it. I had completely forgotten about the Harrisons!


PS...hi Kathleen! You pick fun topics!

Tom Koecke from Tacoma, Washington on July 28, 2012:

Added to the Grant bit, the Congressman nominated Grant to Westpoint using Ulysses S. rather than Hiram Ulysses.

Tom Koecke from Tacoma, Washington on July 28, 2012:

Stephen was James Garfield's first name.

You are correct on the others, although Grant dropped Hiram because a Congressman his family knew thought his first name was Ulysses and his middle name was his mother's maiden name, Sampson.

Tom Koecke from Tacoma, Washington on July 28, 2012:

William Henry Harrison and Benjamin Harrison - Grandfather and Grandson.

Teddy Roosevelt was Eleanor's uncle. Eleanor and Franklin were third cousins.

ThoughtSandwiches from Reno, Nevada on July 28, 2012:


George H.W. Bush and George W. Bush--father and son

John Adams and John Quincy Adams--father and son

Theodore Roosevelt--Franklin Roosevelt--uncle and nephew.


Kathleen Cochran (author) from Atlanta, Georgia on July 28, 2012:

I think the inmates have definitely taken control of the asylum!! This is the kind of conversation a hub writer dreams of! Thanks to all of you. Tom Koecke, thanks for the correction. As soon as I read it, I knew you were right. Inaugurations haven't always been in January.

We've had two fathers and sons serve as president and one uncle and nephew. GO!

ThoughtSandwiches from Reno, Nevada on July 27, 2012:


If I recall correctly...Leslie would be Gerald R. Ford (He was adopted and took his new father's name). and I believe Hiram was actually Grant's first name and we can guess why he dropped I think Woodrow Wilson's first name was Thomas (not sure why he would want to drop that though...Thomas is a great name!) Stephen has me stumped.


Credence2 from Florida (Space Coast) on July 27, 2012:

Tom, thanks for pointing out the oversite, the GW and J Adams scenario is correct, of course.Even though you caught me on the 1799-1801 circumstance, I did not say that the two examples of 'no surviving presidents were the only ones. While they are rare there are a couple of others

June 1908-March 1909

T Rosevelt- incumbent

Taft inaugurated in March, 1909

Former President Grover Cleveland dies in June 1908, no one else during that period who held the office survives.

July, 1875-March 1877

INcumbent US Grant

Hayes inaugurated March 1877

Death of A. Johnson in July 1875 makes Grant a President with no living successors for that period.

I am stumped, without looking it up I cannot answer the question you pose. the term Hiram does ring a bell though...

Tom Koecke from Tacoma, Washington on July 27, 2012:

This is a fun read, but there are a couple of things I will point out.

First, when W.H. Harrison gave his inauguration speech, the inauguration was in March, not January.

Credence said there were two times in history that all former Presidents were dead. He forgot about December 1799, when Washington died, to March 1801, when Jefferson was inaugurated.

We have had Presidents named Stephen, Hiram, and Leslie. Can you name them? Besides Jefferson, we had a second President named Thomas. Can you name him?

Kathleen Cochran (author) from Atlanta, Georgia on July 27, 2012:

Are you kidding me? Is there something in the water up there? How did I not know this. Somebody (I wonder who) should write a hub on this!

Credence2 from Florida (Space Coast) on July 27, 2012:

Hi, Kathleen, there are bunch of these fellows from OH

WH harrison





Benjamin Harrison


WH Taft

Kathleen Cochran (author) from Atlanta, Georgia on July 27, 2012:

Credence2: We can't look up the answers? Oh well, it was fun playing for a while! I couldn't spell George Bush without looking it up!!! I'm impressed with your off the cuff knowledge. My strength is knowing how to Google.

My best guess pre 1914 would be Virginia along with ThoughtSandwiches, an obvious choice so probably wrong. Ohio? Really? I can't name one POTUS from Ohio? Grover Cleveland?

Credence2 from Florida (Space Coast) on July 27, 2012:

Hi, TS, for the period after the first world War, I was looking at birthplaces of these guys. GW Bush was born in CN. As to prior to WWI, Virginia is a strong contender, but when you look you will see that Ohio trumps it

ThoughtSandwiches from Reno, Nevada on July 27, 2012:

Hey Kathleen,

Good question. I would have to disagree with MA being the biggest contributor to the post-1914 presidency. At the very least, Texas would be tied with MA with LBJ and George W. Bush. (That however, is only a tie...not a victory). Prior to WW1, I would pick probably Virginia.


Credence2 from Florida (Space Coast) on July 27, 2012:

Interesting question, Kathleen, without peeking I wanted to see if memory still served. At least for the period after WWI, what stands out is how diverse the points of origin of the Presidents that served actual were. I had almost forgot that GW Bush was born in CT and not MA, like his dad.

MA has the distinction of the state being the launch point of the greatest number of presidents after 1914. (2)

The men are


GHW Bush

I will come back and what I can remember without looking it up as to which states fit the bill prior to WWI After pondering a minute, that state is Ohio.

Jenn from Pennsylvania on July 27, 2012:

I enjoy fun facts on various subjects. Interesting hub!

Justsilvie on July 27, 2012:

Fun and interesting Hub and Comments section... Have to share this one.

Kathleen Cochran (author) from Atlanta, Georgia on July 27, 2012:

jainismus. ThoughtSandiches and Credence2: Thanks for playing! Glad you are enjoying this one. Credence2 is taking the hub to a whole other level. C: I think I owe you a shared byline.

How about this one? Which state produced the most presidents before WWI and after? Go -

Credence2 from Florida (Space Coast) on July 27, 2012:

So, you are having fun, ThoughtSandwich, I thought that I would drop in and see if anyone could come up with the answer regarding.

How about the period(s) of time when the greatest number of former presidents were still living? It has been the incumbent and 5 surviving former presidents. It has never been exceeded throughout the history of the presidency.

1. March 1861-January 1862

8th President: Martin Van Buren dies July, 1862

10th President John Tyler dies

january, 1862

13th President: Millard Fillmore dies 1874

14th President Franklin Pierce dies 1869

15th President James Buchanan dies 1868

16th President Abraham Lincoln, incumbent.

This was the only time in the 19th century where we were witness to this.

In the 20th Century this had occurred once, 1/1993-4/1994

William Clinton- incumbent

George HW Bush-living

Ronald Reagan died 2004

Jimmy Carter -living

Gerald Ford died 2006

Richard Nixon died April, 1994

It also has occurred once in the current century....

January, 2001-June, 2004

GW Bush- Incumbent


GHW Bush-living

Reagan died June, 2004

Jimmy Carter-living

Gerald Ford- dies December, 2006

Great fun, folks, until next time!

Mahaveer Sanglikar from Pune, India on July 27, 2012:

Interesting information..... Shared with followers

ThoughtSandwiches from Reno, Nevada on July 27, 2012:


What an awesomely fun list of facts! (Creedence seems incredibly on his game!)

It seems that of the four VPs who assumed the mantle, three of them seemed just an attempt to extend a popular presidency into a third term by proxy (Adams for George Washington, Van Buren for Andrew Jackson, and George H.W. Bush for Ronald Reagan. Obviously, Jefferson would fall out side of this phenomena).

I would think that Secretary of State would historically be a better platform?

This WAS fun!


Kathleen Cochran (author) from Atlanta, Georgia on May 15, 2012:

If I've woken the beast and Credence treats us to more of his great work, I will have done HP a great service!

Theresa Ast from Atlanta, Georgia on May 14, 2012:

Fun and informative at the same time. Wait a minute...are you trying to educate us on the sly while we just think we are having a good time. If so, you are doing a great job!

And you did wake a sleeping beast. Credence may know more about the presidents than all the rest of us put together. :) Great Hub.

Kathleen Cochran (author) from Atlanta, Georgia on April 25, 2012:

High praise coming from a teacher. History was my minor and I love tidbits of information from our collective past. Thanks for reading and commenting.

Bill Holland from Olympia, WA on April 25, 2012:

I always like hubs like this; as a former history teacher that should come as no surprise. Very good hub and I agree with Teaches, your style of writing is very good.

Kathleen Cochran (author) from Atlanta, Georgia on April 19, 2012:

You'll have to give me a Mulligan on that one! Need to do some research to keep playing! Unless other hubbers can help me?

Credence2 from Florida (Space Coast) on April 18, 2012:

Hi, Kathleen, I was looking for the time period where this condition was true, The most recent was from January 1973-August 1974, reflecting the death of Truman in December, 1972 and that of LBJ in January 1973. So for that period 1/73-8/74 (Nixon's resignation in 8/74) Richard Nixon was president and there were no former presidents alive during that time.

Prior to that the next time this situation occurred was for the period beginning Jan 5, 1933-March 4, 1933. Herbert Hoover was president, the last surviving presidential predecessor at the time, Calvin Coolidge died January 5, 1933.So between that date and the time FDR took office, March 4th, Herbert Hoover was in office with all his predecessors deceased.

I am an idiot savant about this stuff as when I was a little boy I memorized all presidents, life dates and terms of office, so I may have a bit of an advantage.

This is fun can we do it again?

How about the period(s) of time when the greatest number of former presidents were still living?

Kathleen Cochran (author) from Atlanta, Georgia on April 18, 2012:

You said the last time - everybody back to Reagan is still alive, so I'd think it has to be pre-Carter. If not Nixon, Ford?

Credence2 from Florida (Space Coast) on April 17, 2012:

Kathleen, you are warm what years are we talking about?

Kathleen Cochran (author) from Atlanta, Georgia on April 17, 2012:


I waked the beast! I'm just a beginner at this!!!

Kathleen Cochran (author) from Atlanta, Georgia on April 17, 2012:


I waked the beast! I'm just a beginner at this!!!

Credence2 from Florida (Space Coast) on April 17, 2012:

I have a passion for Presidential trivia, Kathleen, your questions were too easy. He is one for the studio audience.

With an accuracy of within 2 years, can anyone tell me )without looking it up) the last time we had a sitting president with all his predecessors deceased. As a clue, it is a 1-2 year period.

If you are good at that then tell me the next period, going backwards, when this situation was the case. In this case however the situation lasted approximatley 2 months. Remember, no cheating!!

Thanks Kathleen, have fun....

Kathleen Cochran (author) from Atlanta, Georgia on April 10, 2012:

Thanks for the encouragement. I love research but it can be kind of dry. Glad you enjoyed this.

Dianna Mendez on April 10, 2012:

Your style of writing here is very good, love the way you posted questions followed by the facts. It makes for an interesting read. I didn't know that we only had one president "not elected". Althought, I remember when this happened.

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