In the Genes, Not Blood
“The heart has eyes which the brain knows nothing of” by Charles H. Perkhurst. There are many Americans that have the misconception that they are ‘white’. There are other Americans that are misinformed about skin tones of African-Americans/Blacks. White Supremacy groups who are seeking the ultimate “white race” are going to be surprised at what this really means. According to answers.com white supremacy is the conviction that components of the Caucasian race are better in all ways to other groups or races in the world. In the history of the United States, white supremacy survived as a resource of mitigating and safeguarding the nation as a white Christian country. The history of white supremacy is closely associated to the existence of slavery and the appearance, in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, of the conjectures and classifications of groups and nations into races. In the United States the existence of slavery and its persistence and escalation in the South served as a tough basis for white supremacy. The significant immigration of the Irish and later of the eastern and Mediterranean Europeans finely tuned the conviction in the dominance of whiteness, defined as White Anglo-Saxon Protestant. Alas white men like Thomas Jefferson whose four surviving "natural" children by his mixed-race slave Sally Hemings were 7/8 European in ancestry and so they were legally white although they were born slaves. Three entered white society as adults, two married white persons, and all their descendants identified as white.
White Anglo-Saxon Protestant is normally abbreviated to the acronym WASP, not like the wasp a predatory, flying, stinging insect, with a stinger and membranous forewings and hind wings. The WASP is a sociological and cultural ethnic group created in the United States. The expression originated in orientation to White Americans of English, Irish, Welsh, and Scottish descent, which had Protestant religious affiliation. WASP at first referred to populace with histories in the upper class Northeastern institution, the powerful elite. Working class whites in the United States are usually not referred to as WASPs, even if they are of Protestants of Anglo-Saxon background. White supremacy groups from the south do not meet the WASP description. They are not Northeastern upper class powerful elite.
Out of Africa
The Human Genome Project
The Human Genome Project (HGP) was one of the great deeds of investigation in history; an international study attempt to sequence and map all of the genes, collectively known as the genome, of our species - Homo sapiens. The HGP gave us the capability to read nature's entire genetic blueprint for construction a human being. Thanks to the genetics upheaval we know that there is no such thing as race. The Human Genome Project (HGP) determined indisputably there is the same amount of genetic distinction among persons within a so called racial group as there is between individuals in dissimilar racial groups. The conclusion is that there is no real genetic distinction involving blacks and whites. The only race is the human race.
Africa is called the motherland for a reason. According to both genetic and fossil verification, archaic Homo sapiens developed to anatomically modern humans solely in Africa, between 200,000 and 100,000 years ago. Members of one branch left Africa by 60,000 years ago and eventually replaced previous human populations such as Neanderthals and Homo erectus. Humans adapt to their environment along with all other life forms. The theory is known generally as the (Recent) Out-of-Africa model, and academically as the recent single-origin hypothesis (RSOH), Replacement Hypothesis or Recent African Origin (RAO) model. Changes in climate are thought to clarify mankind’s exodus from Africa to colonize other parts of the world. A change from drought to damper environment led to a populace growth and the expansion of early humans to other continents about 70,000 years ago. We are all Black. White people are adaptations of Black people that evolved during the past 140,000 years. According to the Science Daily article researchers produced new DNA verification that positively proves the assumption that all modern humans have a common ancestry.
Adam Clayton Powell, Jr.
Skin tones developed from dark to light. Darker skin tones are a protection from UV radiation and toxic levels of Vitamin D for people living at lower latitudes. As the migration to higher latitudes occurred, there was less need to protect against UV radiation. The compromise clarification for the evolution of light hair is related to the requirement for Vitamin D synthesis and northern Europe's seasonal deficiency of sunlight. Lighter skin is due to a low concentration in pigmentation, thus allowing more sunlight to trigger the production of Vitamin D. As defined by wikipedia natural selection is the method by which heritable traits make it more likely for a human being to endure and effectively reproduce become more frequent in a population over consecutive generations. It is a key mechanism of evolution. The natural genetic deviation within a population means that some persons will continue to exist and replicate more productively than others in their current environment. On the other hand, genetic drift is one of several evolutionary developments which lead to alteration in allele frequencies after a while. It may cause gene variants to disappear completely, and thereby reduce genetic variability. In 1968 Motoo Kimura rekindled the debate with his neutral theory of molecular evolution which claims that most of the changes in the genetic material are caused by genetic drift.
Population genetics studies the diverse factors that might lead to alteration in the allocation and regularities of alleles - in other words, to evolution. The factors include selection, genetic drift, mutation and migration. White people are a mutation. Mutations can be caused by copying errors in the genetic material during cell division, by degrees in exposure to UV, chemical mutagens, or viruses.
Mutations that are evolutionarily beneficial survive. Northern European noses that are long moisten and warm the air before it reaches lungs. The short noses noted in Africa remain because the air is already moist and warm. The Asian's eyelid folds protect their eyes against dry sandy desert winds and wind driven snow. The long hair of people in colder climates helps to keep the neck warm. All these varied physical features support the proliferation of diverse groups.
According to Wikipedia, latest genetic studies carried out at three Japanese universities, state the date of the genetic mutation that resulted in blonde hair in Europe has been isolated to about 11,000 years ago during the last ice age. Prior Europeans typically had black hair and eyes, which is principal in the rest of the world. It turns out that about one-third of White Americans have between two and twenty percent recent African genetic admixture, as measured by the ancestry-informative markers in their DNA. This comes to about 74 million White Americans. Black Americans ha.ve European admixture averaging about 75 percent African and 25 percent European. That sounds like a conservatived number. Black people come in a multitude of skin tones all the way to near white. Only very light skinned Blacks that admitted to being Black would be included.
White Women with Full Lip and Butts
Who Is Black?
How are white supremacy groups going to find those 74 million whites? There leader could be one or any member of the group or family members – aunt, uncle, cousin – the ones with the “olive skin”. What of all the mixing of the races during slavery when slaves were raped and produced off springs so pale, they passed for Caucasian. Black people with white/pink skin tone have been accepted as Caucasian, and married into white families. So many generations may have passed, that great-grandchildren or great-great grandchildren have no knowledge of Black relatives. These children continue to marry Caucasians and dilute the gene pool. There may be much more than the 74 million estimated. African-Americans people come in all skin tones, hair texture and body shape. Angelina Jolie is applauded for having full, thick lips; black women have always had full lips. The beauty trend now is for Caucasian women to get injections in their lips to make them full. Jennifer Lopez and Kim Kardashian are famous for their buttocks. Black women historically have been well rounded.
Are the children that “look” Caucasian white or Black? Remember only American Blacks are forced to go by the ‘one-drop rule.’ One drop of Black blood and you’re Black... The PBS article Who Is Black? One Nation’s Definitiondiscussed the arbitrary one drop of blood rule. Quoting the article that attempts to explain mixed blood people, “We must also pay attention to the terms "mulatto" and "colored." The term "mulatto" was originally used to mean the offspring of a "pure African Negro" and a "pure white." Although the root meaning of mulatto, in Spanish, is "hybrid," "mulatto" came to include the children of unions between whites and so-called "mixed Negroes.” Sounds more like breed animals than the reproduction of human beings. The article goes on to say, “The phenomenon known as "passing as white" is difficult to explain in other countries or to foreign students. Typical questions are: "Shouldn't Americans say that a person who is passing as white is white, or nearly all white, and has previously been passing as black?" or "To be consistent, shouldn't you say that someone who is one-eighth white is passing as black?" or "Why is there so much concern, since the so-called blacks who pass take so little negroid ancestry with them?" Those who ask such questions need to realize that "passing" is much more a social phenomenon than a biological one, reflecting the nation's unique definition of what makes a person black. The concept of "passing" rests on the one-drop rule and on folk beliefs about race and miscegenation, not on biological or historical fact.” The one drop rule, white supremacy augment shows deep ignorance since the races are groupings of human beings based on average differences in physical qualities that are transmitted by the genes - not by blood.
One Blond and One Brown Twin
The UK Daily Mail reported the birth of twin girls – one blond the other darker skin tone. Their parents are biracial. Reported by MSNBC last July 2008, twin boys were born to German couple, Ryan has light skin and blue eyes. His brother, Leo, is dark-skinned with brown eyes.
The blog reported other twins such as in 2006, Kerry Richardson, who is of Nigerian and English descent, and her partner, who is white, gave birth to twins who were both born light-skinned. As they got older, one got darker while the other got lighter.
Natasha Knight, of Australia, greeted a blue-eyed blond baby girl and her sister, who has brown hair, eyes and dark skin in 2006. Knight’s older daughter has blond hair, blue eyes and light olive skin. Knight is of Jamaican and English descent; the father is German. The notion that two brown eyed-people cannot have a blue-eyed child is proved incorrect.
The Internet and modern means of communication makes it seem that giving birth to one blond and one brown child is unusual. We have no way of knowing how many times such births have occurred in remote areas. As shades of people reproduce, this will happen unless the gene pool is completely diluted.
Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (2007, July 19). New Research Proves Single Origin Of Humans In Africa. ScienceDaily. Retrieved July 10, 2009, from http://www.sciencedaily.com /releases/2007/07/070718140829.htm
Harvard Medical School (2009, January 2). Ancient African Exodus Mostly Involved Men, Geneticists Find. ScienceDaily. Retrieved July 11, 2009, from http://www.sciencedaily.com /releases/2008/12/081221210201.htm
Public Library of Science (2009, June 7). Geography And History Shape Genetic Differences In Humans. ScienceDaily. Retrieved July 10, 2009, from http://www.sciencedaily.com /releases/2009/06/090605091157.htm
University of Washington (2009, May 18). Genome-wide Insights Into Patterns Of The World's Human Population Structures. ScienceDaily. Retrieved July 11, 2009, from http://www.sciencedaily.com /releases/2009/05/090514130631.htm
Washington University in St. Louis (2006, February 10). New Analysis Shows Three Human Migrations Out Of Africa. ScienceDaily. Retrieved July 11, 2009, from http://www.sciencedaily.com /releases/2006/02/060209184558.htm
- File:Neighbor-joining Tree.svg - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
This genetic distance map made in 2002 is an estimate of 18 world human groups by a neighbour-joining method based on 23 kinds of genetic information.
- Family Tree
One Caucasian couple discovers the deep secrets that genetics can hide when their baby is born with African American features. FAMILY TREE is the thought-provoking book by Barbara Delinsky that explores race and family.
- LIFE Goes Inside Today's KKK
The Department of Homeland Security recently issued a chilling report: Americans, it said, can expect an upsurge in "rightwing extremism" from White nationalists, militias, and groups like the Ku Klux Klan. The Klan, of course, has had a hand in some
- Were There Other Afican-American Presidents?
According to the Chancellor's created family tree, Harding was the great-grandson of a black woman. Under the one-drop rule of American race relations, Chancellor claimed, the country had inadvertently elected its "first Negro president."
- The Negro-Indian
The Seminole of Florida married many Negro runaways, whose position seems to have been in all respects like that of other members of the tribe. There were, indeed, among the Seminole several settlements of runaway Negro slaves who had their own chief
- One-drop rule - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Definition of One Drop Rule
Multivitamin on February 01, 2020:
again @Veasey.. I know you were brainwashed to believe people decades older than you are morons but you honestly believe But many of the poor and working class whites did believe "because the intellectual elites used the theory of evolution to make this belief seem "scientific".": People weren't born yesterday and believe it or not someone from the 1940's developed a nuclear bomb something you couldn't reproduce if you tried
Multivitamin on February 01, 2020:
"The Internet and modern means of communication makes it seem that giving birth to one blond and one brown child is unusual." I think your assessment is quite inaccurate as the internet has birthed a home to many 'unusual' things as you would call it.
BTW most blonds tend to get a tan or a 'darker skin' tone and in your article this would give them a lesser social standing but the antithesis couldn't be more true. Care to explain this paradox to your science-based theory?
B-Dawg on November 13, 2012:
I would like to share my opinion on race. I think the white man should spray tan his skin black cut of his hair and live as a black man. Black skin would be an insurance policy for the white man. Black skin would be like a shield. The white man would have more flexibility on what he can say. Black skin would be a gift for today's white man. PEACE!
dashingclaire (author) from United States on June 29, 2012:
Yes vveasey there are different ways to get to the bottom line. It was nice chatting with you. Liked your hub. Thanks for commenting
VC L Veasey from Detroit,MI on June 28, 2012:
We're basically saying the same thing. I'm not in disagreement with you.
I agree with you. I was just giving my view of the subject.
We're expressing different but complementary views of the same subject
dashingclaire (author) from United States on June 28, 2012:
Thanks for the running dialogue vveasey and the reference hub for clarification. I’m saying that people who believe that Black people past or present are less than human as defined by being white, can’t have it both ways. These people are using the ape-evolution as a justification for slavery, and turn around and have sex/rape with the same slaves can expect to be called perverts. Slave owners who really expected to be upstanding examples of the “educated elite” community, set themselves up for failure. The general population does not stay ignorant forever. Just because it’s written in a history does not make the information correct – there’s more than one way of looking at the data.
VC L Veasey from Detroit,MI on June 28, 2012:
for a better understanding of where I'm coming from read my hub "How White People Became White"
VC L Veasey from Detroit,MI on June 28, 2012:
You say "“Human-like but not quite human, closer to apes than humans, who of course were white,according to your quote vveasey, then slave owners were participating in bestiality."
I'm saying that many of them used this as a justification for enslaving Africans. Not that all of them believed it
But many of the poor and working class whites did believe it because the intellectual elites used the theory of evolution to make this belief seem "scientific".
Apes most primitive, Africans almost as primitive as apes, White Europeans, the most recent people are the most developed on evolutionary scale.
But it's all B.S.
dashingclaire (author) from United States on June 27, 2012:
Interesting thought ptosis
dashingclaire (author) from United States on June 27, 2012:
White slave owners often fathered children by their slave women. If in fact African slaves were considered “Human-like but not quite human, closer to apes than humans, who of course were white,” according to your quote vveasey, then slave owners were participating in bestiality. “Therefore when you enslaved these Africans there was no need to feel guilty because you weren't really enslaving humans but subhuman animals” another one of your quotes, would mean slave owners exhibited deviant behavior for having sex with slaves. Thanks for comment vveasey
ptosis from Arizona on June 27, 2012:
I keep telling people that the Presidential electoral college is an artifact of the 3/4 rule (Black slave counted as 3/4 of a white) and NOT a compromise between large & small states as taught in high schools.
VC L Veasey from Detroit,MI on June 27, 2012:
There is no such thing as races of people if by races one means different species.
Which is the way it was used during the African slave trade and currently by the most radical racists.
It was "scientifically" proven during the slave trade ( to justify it) that Africans were of a different species or a sub species of humans.
They were Human-like but not quite human, closer to apes than humans, who of course were white.
Therefore when you enslaved these Africans there was no need to feel quilty because you weren't really enslaving humans but subhuman animals.
dashingclaire (author) from United States on January 10, 2012:
PenmanZee thanks for the gracious comment.
PenmanZee on January 10, 2012:
Great research and information. I will certainly use this article in my classes. Thank you for sharing.
AllPeople (AP) Gifts on December 25, 2011:
There is absolutely NO SUCH THING as
a so-called 'Light-Skinned Black' person.
The term of 'Light-Skinned Black' is simply a racist
oxymoron that was created by racial supremacists
in an effort to deny people who are of a Mixed-Race
Lineage the right to embrace their full-Lineage and
to have said lineage publicly acknowledged as well.
The very term of 'Light-Skinned Black' is based
on the application of the 'black-lineage mocking',
non-scientific and racist 'One Drop Rule' (ODR).
In it’s decision in the 1967 "Loving" case, the U.S.
Supreme Court stated that the racist-'One-Drop Rule'
(ODR) was UN-Constitutional (i.e. illegal, outlawed,
banned, unenforceable, non-applicable, etc.) and in
this decision, the high court also described the vile
ODR by such terms as 'odious' and as 'repugnant'.
Here are a few 'Reference' Links for any
and everyone who refuses to accept vile
views of the racist-'One-Drop Rule' (ODR)
dashingclaire (author) from United States on October 30, 2010:
The inhabitants of the United States co-exist in bogus mutualistic symbiotic relationships. We are all together in one country here but live separately. The government just keeps track of how separate we are.
paul fiquet on October 30, 2010:
IN A COUNTRY THAT PRIDES ITSELF TO ABOLISH RACIAL DISCRIMINATION WHY IS THE "RACE" QUESTION ALWAYS ON ANY AND ALL OFFICIAL PAPERS OR DOCUMENTS ? ; HUMAN BEING IS THE ONLY ANSWER AND SHOULD NOT EVER BE A QUESTION TO ANSWER.AS OF NOW...NO ONE IN GOVERNMENT IN THE USA HAS HAD THE COURAGE AND DETERMINATION TO ABOLISH THAT QUESTION ON ALL DOCUMENTS.THAT IS NOT SAYING A LOT FOR OUR COUNTRY' LEADERS SADLY.
masmasika on September 02, 2010:
Great share. You elaborated your article well.
Tien Kai on August 02, 2009:
Its cool. I know that the comment was rather lengthy, but, sometimes I just flow like that. Oh, by the way "jxb7076" has some really interesting hubs - I mean really good stuff. Take care dashingclaire!
dashingclaire (author) from United States on August 01, 2009:
Thank you both for your personalized 'indepth' comments. Looking forward to developing a relationship.
Tien Kai on July 31, 2009:
I really like this. Very well thought out. But, I am not sure about your "conclusion" that race doesn't exist because all human beings share the same "genetics." The fact is is that there are some fish, "primates," and even plants that are "similar," genetically, to human beings; but here's my point.
Physiologically based "differences" are indeed "adaptogenic" or evolutionary. Of course these "differences" are not superficial in natural environments, but in "civilization" where the "environment is artificially fabricated, such "differences" are rendered superficial by this aspect of human survivability alone.
Additionally, the word "mutation" applied to human evolution is only "mutagenic" if its prevelence in adaptation does not ensure succesive generation survival. In the strictest sense of this, cancer would be considered a crucial standard for the conceptualization of what is mutant. If a human being is developing traits and characteristics that allow it to survive, those "new" physiological traits really should not be considered "scientifically"- a mutation.
So what is race? Race is a term that is a convenience of naming differentiation -physiologically- that can clearly be identified as distinct or divergent. Phenotypical considerations are used for this type of of understanding. That is to say, that you would be hard pressed to say that the "Aryan phenotype" is similar to the "Afro-asiatic phenotype" simply because they share the same genetic substrates.
Moreover, race relates to cultural divergences attactched to phenotypical difference. For example most Buddhist are "Asian." Buddhism is in fact fundamentally "universal" but this universality is oriented culturally, whereas the cultural orientation has clearly identifiable human beings that actually are physiologically different. Of course the same can be said for Western culture where Christianity has considerable indentification with European/Eurocentric phenotypical aesthetics. African religions are also connected to certain types of people that are dissimilar physiologically to Europeans and Asians.
Race is a term that was indeed born out of Eurocentric intellectualism tainted by "supremists" conceptualizations and rationalizations; but race as an understanding cannot be dismissed and invalidated as a term of linguistic convenience, simply because of this fact.
Philosophically, it is erroneous to deduce that all flowers are the same because they are all similar genetically by a ratio preponderence of 99.9%. All flowers are obviously not the same. An artic crillion flower is not a rose and in fact live in ways that are completely different; so different, that if they were physically switched to survive in their respective environments, they would quite naturally die. This is connotation of the use of the term race. A connotation that can be explored broadly to include psychological considerations.
The use of the word race is multifaceted and has a lot to do with how groups of people who share obvious physiological traits commune together to form associations that bring distinction to communal reality; communal reality being culture. Race does exists, as, human thought exists to express it because such understanding is intimately connected to how humans group and define each other. The "definitive" - involving culture - is not arbitrary, "things" that difine physiological/cultural/psychologies exist for a reason, and we should be careful to temper our rationalizations with bearing in mind, that distinctiveness, even if it "seems" superficial, is in fact uniquely and fundamentally natural. We should not dissolve these things away; these differences away into homogeneity through universalistic conceptualizations. The universal is a very seductive and compelling argument, but is flawed because it basically tells the mind, that, perceived self-evident divergences are not "real." Such "all-encompassing" arguments can only do this as a result of the fact that we can prove, what we can't "naturally experience mind you, that we all posses "subatomic" sameness.
Again, this is some great stuff that you presented. But, please excuse me for my invasive treatment of the certain rationalization that you made of the term "race." Talk to you soon!
James Brown from United States of America on July 31, 2009:
excellent article - thanks for sharing.