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The Story of Pakistan's Surrender in 1971 War

The author is a great enthusiast of swimming and his passion has driven him to explore many such places in the city.

The surrender of East Pakistan has indeed been a tragic blow to the nation of Pakistan. With it Pakistan stood dismembered and the image of Armed Forces as a competent fighting force also stood shattered. Yet what was not brought into light was the gross weakness, incompetence and neglect of professional duties of senior army commanders including the ruling military junta of Yahya Khan.

Gen. Niazi signing Instrument of Surrender.

Gen. Niazi signing Instrument of Surrender.

Now that the Hamoodur Rehman Commission Report has been declassified (only a small part of it) we can piece together the causes and events which led to the capitulation of Army Eastern Command leading to a painfully humiliating surrender, which is perhaps the first and only public surrender in history and the subsequent creation of Bangladesh.

References to Hamoodur Rahman Supplementary Report to back up the authenticity of arguments made and the facts stated have been quoted in square brackets [pg--] where required.

Geographical location of the former East Pakistan. (Kashmir region remains a disputed area.)

Geographical location of the former East Pakistan. (Kashmir region remains a disputed area.)

Reasons of 1971 War.

Seeds of hatred and grievance were sown long ago and nurtured during the two Martial law periods.

  • In selecting Urdu as the only national language, West Pakistanis neglected the rich Bengali culture.
  • East Pakistanis had minimum share in Government jobs, Army, civil services and etc.
  • Budget allocated for East Pakistan gradually reduced in proportion over the years following independence, development occurred in West but East Pakistan lagged behind.
  • Army's prolonged involvement in counter insurgency operation throughout East Pakistan only helped to alienate local people's sympathies.

Inherent Weakness of the Pakistan Army in 1971.

  • Pakistan Army Eastern Command was heavily outnumbered and was clearly not in a position to face the vastly superior Indians. It had only 4 divisions and 2 independent brigades; 2 of which lacked their services arms. Only one armored squadron was available.
  • General Niazi had failed to anticipate the looming threat of an all out Indian invasion in spite of enormous Indian build up around the border and repeated warnings from GHQ. As a result no preparations were made beforehand, Niazi did not even bother to revise his battle strategy. All he did was to hastily raise two ad-hoc divisions namely 36 and 39 by committing his reserves.
  • Foundations of this defeat were already laid in 1958 when army took over the country. Prolonged involvement in Martial Law duties and internal security roles had a devastating impact on the professional capabilities of top ranking officers. Their involvement in civil administration, restoration of law and order and to revive economic activity in provinces detracted them from looking after their units and formations simply because they did not have enough time left.

While learning the art of politics they gradually became distant from their primary function of soldiering.

— Extracts from page 12

  • The Report accuses General Niazi for things as low as smuggling of pan and nocturnal visits to places [pg 15 ] there were other glaring cases of moral lapse among the officers posted in the highest ranks in East, which had a direct impact on qualities of leadership and determination displayed by officers in 1971. Men given such a disreputable way of life could not hardly be expected to lead the army to victory.

Pakistan Air force in 1971 War.

Pakistan Air force in the East only had a single base with a single runway. Only one squadron of 12 F-86 sabres was available and almost the same number of pilots. There was no high level radar, only a low level radar which could see up to 20 - 25 miles, thus PAF only had 4 minutes time to scramble interceptors when it received alert from low level radar. Initially PAF efficiently provided all sort of air support to Pak army during anti insurgency operations. 3 out of 12 aircraft were already down before the outbreak of war thus PAF had only 9 aircraft against India's 10 squadrons. Dhaka runway was protected by light anti aircraft artillery which had a range of 7000 ft and this was not sufficient to provide ample protection against Indian Canberra bombers, consequently Dhaka runway was extensively cratered and the Entire PAF was grounded by 6 December. All pilots were evacuated to Burma.

In all the PAF shot 11 Indian aircrafts during the 3 day combat phase from 3 - 6 December.

F-86 Sabre, same were used by No 14 squadron stationed in Dhaka.

F-86 Sabre, same were used by No 14 squadron stationed in Dhaka.

Blunders of Yahya Khan

Yahya Khan, Chief Martial Law Administrator at that time played a major role in aggravating the worsening political situation in East. Though under Yahya, free and fair elections were held in 1970, their results were astounding. Sheikh Mujib's Awami League had won a complete majority in East Pakistan while Bhutto's PPP had a complete majority in West Pakistan. West Pakistani politicians were not willing to accept a Bengali led government. Yahya should have honored the outcome of elections but swayed by the ill-advice of self centered West Pakistani politicians, he postponed the first national assembly session due to be held in Dhaka on 2nd March. This infuriated East Pakistanis, and subsequently violence ensued throughout the province.

Yahya also abolished the one unit system which revived provincial rivalries. In doing so he undid what was achieved with great effort.

Yahya failed to negotiate with Sheikh Mujib and declared military action on 26 March.

Flawed Military Strategy of the Pakistan Army

Operational Instruction given by Easter Command were to maintain a "forward defensive posture" by building fortresses and strong points consisting of major towns and district headquarters all around the province. These were expected to be made self sufficient in terms of logistics and men. They were also expected to act as jumping off points to attack enemy from flanks or from behind if bypassed. Dhaka was also to be converted into a fortress and defended at all costs.

Thus 25 fortresses and 9 strong points were envisaged around the border. Troops involved in the counter insurgency operation were to fall back to these fortresses in the event of Indian Invasion and were to hold the enemy with delaying actions.

The fortress concept was utterly inappropriate to counter the huge Indian invasion from all sides in the hostile conditions prevailing in East Pakistan at that time on account of following reasons.

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  • Their were neither enough men nor the equipment to properly man all of these fortresses. There were only 29 battalions at Niazi's disposal clearly not enough to fulfill the requirement.
  • Evidence shows that these fortresses did not have protective defenses capable of withstanding armored attacks. [pg 71]
  • Their were no reserves with any of the local commanders to strike the enemy from behind if bypassed.
  • Due to hostile local population and Mukti bahini conducting guerrilla raids and ambushes, it was not possible that tropes could move freely in order to mutually support other fortresses or withdraw to Dhaka triangle if overpowered.
  • In most cases the withdrawal was a disorderly retreat leaving weapons and equipment behind.

Big rivers posed serious hurdles in movement and while all sort of local watercraft was extended for the Indians, our troops couldn't locate their ferries when they retreated across Jamuna river!

Niazi had ordered that no retreat was to take place until 75% casualties are suffered which caused significant loss to the army. Further their were no logistical arrangements made for the troops to fall back to Dhaka if it was threatened by the enemy and consequently none of our brigades could retreat to take up the defenses of Dhaka.

Had General Niazi focused on concentrating its troops around Dhaka behind the big rivers and other natural obstacles he could have defended it for a much longer time.

The Traditional Concept

The traditional concept adopted by Pakistan army was that defense of the East lies in the West.

On 3rd December western front was opened by Pakistan by preemptive air strikes on IAFs froward airfields. It hoped that by gaining territory on the western side it will trade it back to compensate for the territory lost in the East in an event of cease fire.

Unfortunately the delay in opening the western front and the half-hearted and hesitant manner in which it was ultimately opened only hastened the catastrophe in East. India now had the excuse to invade East and Army offensive in West could not even capture Amritsar or Jammu while the Indians had almost captured Dhaka including most of the countryside. Accepting ceasefire without significant captured territory meant nothing next to a surrender.

Events Of 1971 War, Eastern Front

On 21st November 1971 India in collaboration with Mukti Bahni started guerrilla raids inside Pakistani territory and on 3rd December it invaded East Pakistan in naked aggression with 7 divisions, 3 brigades and several Mukti brigades along-with with full complement of service arms.

Map detailing Pakistani fixed fortresses (note the 7 attacking Indian divisions) in 1971 War on the Eastern front.

Map detailing Pakistani fixed fortresses (note the 7 attacking Indian divisions) in 1971 War on the Eastern front.

Indians realizing the importance of Dhaka as the military and political lynch pin advanced orderly towards it from all directions by passing and avoiding confrontations by Pakistani fortresses wherever possible. Main Indian thrust came from the Eastern Sector which provided shortest possible rout to Dhaka.

By 6th December entire PAF was grounded owing to extensive cratering of Dhaka runway by Indian bombers. The enemy had already achieved mastery of air.

On the fourth day of all out war on 7th December major fortresses of Jessore and Jhendiah in western sector and Brahmanbaria in Eastern sector were shamefully abandoned without a fight. 107th brigade withdrew to Khulna thus being isolated from Dhaka, while 57th brigade after abandoning Jhendiah retreated and made no contribution to war. On 8th December Commillia fortress was isolated by encirclement from all sides. On 9th December 2 more fortresses of Laksham and Kushtia were abandoned. 97th brigade remained isolated in Chittagong and made no contribution. Entire 39th division thus disintegrated, the same day Indians had reached the Meghna river after overcoming increasingly sporadic and dispirited resistance, stage was now set for the invasion of Dhaka.

Pakistan's 14th division could do nothing to halt the Indian advance as two of its brigades 313th and 202nd were trapped by encirclement in the remote town of Sylhet, while 27th brigade stood demoralized.

Even Hilli where a determined battle had been fought was abandoned on 10th December though elements of 205th brigade held on to the village of Bogra till the end.

93rd brigade retreating from Meymansingh to protect the capitol Dhaka got entangled with Indian paratroopers and disintegrated along the way.

Pakistani Newspaper: Dawn, 15th December 1971, before this Pakistani media had been fooling public in West by false propaganda of victory. It was after 15 December, when they finally began to admit all round defeat.

Pakistani Newspaper: Dawn, 15th December 1971, before this Pakistani media had been fooling public in West by false propaganda of victory. It was after 15 December, when they finally began to admit all round defeat.

The Final Moments before Surrender

By 14th December Indians had reached within few miles of Dhaka, none of the Pakistani Brigade could arrive to take up the defenses of the Capitol. Only 36th brigade (original garrison) was present.

Indian Forces encircling around Decca by 15 December  1971.

Indian Forces encircling around Decca by 15 December 1971.

General Niazi had been painting a desperate picture of the situation in his messages to president by sending overly exaggerated and unduly pessimistic reports. GHQ Rawalpindi however insisted to hold on to Dhaka at least until the United Nations Security Council gave its decision.

On 14th December President sent a signal to Niazi (exact wordings quoted).

"For Governor and General Niazi from President. Governor's flash messages to me refers you have fought a heroic battle against overwhelming odds the nation is proud of you and world full of admiration. I have done all that is humanly possible to find an acceptable solution to the problem. You have now reached a stage where further resistance is no longer humanly possible nor it will serve any useful propose. You should now take all necessary measures to STOP FIGHTING and take all necessary measures to preserve the lives of all armed force personal all those from west and loyal elements meanwhile I have moved UN to URGE India to to stop hostilities in East Pakistan forthwith and guarantee the safety of all armed force and all other people likely to be target of miscreants."

This radio message was sent as unclassified and thus was clearly intercepted by the Indians. With this desperate message our weakness was thoroughly exposed both in front of Indian generals and the rest of the world. It had a very damaging impact on our case in the UN Security Council. It was difficult to see how we could expect to secure any success there with this open confession of our weakness and clear willingness to accept any terms in ceasefire. Even friendly nations could hardly help after this.

General Niazi asserts that this message was an order for him to surrender, however carefully examining the tone of this message it can be concluded that in fact Niazi was only authorized to surrender and not ordered for it (keeping in mind the exaggerated reports sent by him to GHQ) if he in his own judgement felt that it was impossible to fight.

At the time of surrender, Niazi according to his own estimates had 26,400 troops in uniform and he could have held out for no less then two weeks, as the enemy required a week to gather its forces around Dhaka and another week to reduce the fortress. He could have died a hero if he had done so but he had already lost the will to fight and had suffered a complete moral collapse. [pg 74]

Set aside his military failures he instead made history for India! by presenting a guard of honor to victorious Indian general and agreeing to surrender in public.

On 15th December therefore, through US diplomatic channels Niazi proposed a cease fire to Indian General Manekshaw which was accepted and as we had mentioned earlier in those circumstances this equaled an unconditional surrender.

This content is accurate and true to the best of the author’s knowledge and is not meant to substitute for formal and individualized advice from a qualified professional.

© 2012 StormsHalted


Kenneth Avery from Hamilton, Alabama on November 05, 2016:

Good piece. Filled with important information and very insightful.

Keep up the good work.

Preveen on September 15, 2015:

Dear all,I am Kerala state in India working in Dubai Uae, here there is a talk around us "every Indians and Pakistanis live in harmony peace and friendship anywere in the world except India and Pakistan. As per my point of view Pakistani people are very loveable and good .here in dubai indians and pakistani leaving together eating together working together celebreting together. As per my personal experience my pakistani friend have taught me to speak hindi fleuntely which my hindi teather tried for twelve years.So my dear friends we can be friends always, forget about war.

Sanjay Jadhav, Mumbai on June 28, 2015:

Though A A K Niazi proposed cease fire and Pakistan proposed cease fire in UN, Indian Brigadier Jacob, manipulated him to agree for surrender. In one interview, now available in You Tube, he claimed that he carried a draft of instrument of surrender. Under hidden threat that he can not guarantee the safety of Pakistani troops, unless they become prisoners of war and eligible for Geneva convention. Further Indian Army can not guarantee that safety of troops People of East Pakistan, unless Pakistani forces are in custody of Indian Army.

GOLDEN DILLI WALA on September 02, 2014:

hellow every body..... my name is golden dilli wala.. this is not my real name just i have written this name because i am from Delhi and delhi is not less then gold from me it is fullfill of an ancient histories.....

this site ' the story of pakistan's surrender in 1971 war ' really a good site and I proudly say that we Indians have defeat Pakistan in 1971 and liberate Bangladesh. I have visited Bangladesh 2 times one in 2007 and another 2008, really the Bangladeshi peoples love India. The culture and language of Bangladesh and our West Bengal Kolkata ex-calcutta are 100% same there is No difference between them. They both call themselves Bengalis. I visited the Dhaka and Chittagong museums, they were fullfil with memories of Bangladesh liberation war of 1971. i am not muslim nor hindu or sikh but i hate all muslim peoples. Even i also hate muslims living in my country india. because muslims are crazy and silent-devils, you will find them innocent but they are devil by their heart and mind. But Bangladeshi people are different from other muslim peoples.

i have read a debeatable comments of my indian brother pramod gokhale and pakistani friend from k s a. i hate muslims but not the countries or nations or any once culture. i still hope that indians and pakistanis should live friendly.

both countries are fighting for kashmir region since 1948 because of their own claims and view on this beautiful regions. we indians have strong claim that kashmir is the most sacred region for hinduism and buddhism. pakistanis claim that kashmir is a muslim majority state and that pakistan is incomplete without kashmir that's why they want to join kashmir with them.

mr from k s a we indians are not accepting our neighbours !!

no ! that's wrong. india wants very peaceful and friendly relations with its neighbour i.e pakistan or bangladesh or myanmar or nepal or china etc.

mr from k s a specially claimed that we indians are not accepting Pakistan or Pakistani controlled part of kashmir. no that's wrong ! we accept Pakistan as our neighbour country as well as all provinces, states, ethnics, culture of Pakistan. but Pakistanis must also accept our states, culture and all over jammu & kashmir as a part of India...

jay hind.....

pakistan zindabad........


From K S A on September 01, 2014:

Sure ! We must solve our Problems and we don't need any foreign interfare to solve our problems.

We must also start free road-link in both countries ( I mean that any Pakistani family can travel without fear in the roads of India aa well as any Indian Family can travel without fear in the roads of Pakistan ).

Because there are some practical stories in my knowledge. Few years ago My friends Visited India. When they went to long drive on highway the Police caught them and ask them from where you are ? they said: PAKISTAN. Police said show us your Passport and visa. They showed Pakistani Passports and Visit-Visa taken from Indian embassy Islamabad.

My friends told me that they hear the 2 Police officers were saying. Arrest these Pakistani boys. Put them on Jail and make a case on them that they are ISI Agents or Pakistani terrorist. But their guards advised them NO SIR! we can't do that if we will do Their Pakistani Embassy will search them. It will be to long-topic and problem for us. so the police leave them.


In Nov 2012 when your Punjab's chief minister Badal Singh visited PAKISTAN and meet with our Punjab's chief minister Mohammed Shahbaz Sharif. The agreement was signed that we can trade in eachothers Punjab and other states/provinces. I hope their will be no more misunderstanding between us.

pramodgokhale from Pune( India) on September 01, 2014:


I worked in Middle east as blue coollar worker and have Pakistani friend circle and room mates. Everbody was happy and enjoyed.

Indian subcontinent is actaully powerful bloc which balance the world.

If you do not mind, there is a scheme to connect Iran- Vietnam road and railway link to do trade and commerce, but Pakistan and Mynamar are only have shown reservation but in future deadlock will be cleared, if it happpens then we do not need help form European, other developed nation. We will have palenty of resources and self help will do.


thank you pramod gokhale

From K S A on September 01, 2014:

Pramod gokhale ge

Wah ! Kya Baat hai. Dost ! You have your own view on Kashmir and we have Our own view on Kashmir.

Please ! don't think I am angry or Afraid to debate with you. But we should discuss and share Our Views and Believe to each other in Civilzed behaviour. Not Abuse ( Gaali ) to each other. Does we can understand each other and we can solve our Problems since 1947/1948.

Thanks dost i really enjoy debating with you.

Bye and Good luck.

pramodgokhale from Pune( India) on September 01, 2014:

K S A,


Why we waste our time in debates which will go down as a trash better we try to understand. India wants self-relaint Pakistan without foreign help.


From K. S. A on August 31, 2014:

You have No Right to Target Our Government and Our History. I told you before may be you did not get. Your Government is teaching you lie about PAKISTAN and KASHMIR .

For Your Kind information We Didn't Occupied the Kashmir. This is Your an Indian-made theory that in 1948 Pakistan Occupied the Kashmir and based the terrorist camps and sending jihadis on the other side of LoC which you call J & K and we call Indian-occupied Kashmir.

Government of Pakistan and Pakistani people Solidly reject your those Foolish Claims and we Call those claims ' Indian False Claims '.

Now You are asking me Why Pakistan did not Liberate whole Kashmir. My Friend first read the history what happens during 1947 partition how the British make their Evil-plan and gave some Pakistani areas to India that India could reach Kashmir and Occupy it. The Kashmir You got is Not your success but it was a British support to you.

On 16 August 1947 British Government stopped supplying to Pakistan Army both side in West and East Pakistan. But they keep going to supply weapons to you. Officially they Forcliy draw an International Map in which some Pakistani areas and J & K was Shown to India, and India is still following that Fake map until today. Wow! even you are Not using your own sense you are following that old british guide.

And Don't worry soon you will LOSE Kashmir. ( NOW DON'T SAY US THAT THIS IS YOUR DREAM ).

Pakistan is NOT using imported weapons. We buy some Weapons from USA and CHINA. But it dosent mean that we are weak country! Don't think about us like you. Pakistan himslef is making weapons and exporting it to some Arab states and Srilanka, malaysia, turkey, Bangladesh etc.

First Wash/Clean Your Brain about PAKISTAN, Indians Like you are sperading that 'Pakistan is Failed nation. Soon u will find who is failed nation.'


From K S A on August 31, 2014:

MR. pramod gokhale

We will Only listen to Our Government ! We will believe on our History. NOT on Your hypocrite claims or Your Fake Histories.

You INDIANS have a Negative and Criminal View about PAKISTAN and KASHMIR.

You Write " You say that you occupied Kashmir then why did n't liberated fully when you boast best army in the world ".

My Friend, I Didn't say that we Occupied Kashmir. ( That is Your Indian-Made History that Pakistan has illegaly Occupied Half Kashmir & Pakistan has based a Terrorist camps on its Controlled Kashmir to attack on another side Kashmir ). ' Our Pakistani Government and Peoples Reject Your Those Claims as a False Claim of India '. We Have Liberated Half Kashmir from Your Illegal Indian Occupation in 1948. Just wait for a time ! Soon we will Liberate the Whole Kashmir. You make DHAKA a dark-symbol for Pakistani forces in 1971. Soon SRINAGAR will be Dark-Symbol for your Indian Occupation forces. FOREVER and FOREVER. We will Kick Out all Cruel Indian Occupation forces from J & K ( Indian-Occupied Kashmir ). ( Now Don't say that this is Your dream ).

We PAKISTANIS Trust on God's Will, We Believe on his Mighty Power.

You also Write " Still you have chance to liberate Kashmir with imported weapons and your own indigenous " .

The whole world know that India is the Great Dealer of weapons from western states. Why you are joining PAKISTAN with western countries they are not supporting us much as they are supporting you too much in defence, economic etc. If PAKISTAN is getting some Help from USA or CHINA or from other countries why you feel Jealousy. You go get help from your friend countries. We have No objection on that !

Thank You.

pramodgokhale from Pune( India) on August 30, 2014:

From K S A


Your government taught fabricated history. You say that you occupied Kashmir then why did n't liberated fully when you boast best army in the world. 1971 war they had ammunition to continue war for 6 months in east Pakistan, But Pakistani army surrendered en mass. You can tell hundred of stories . Have you liberated Kashmir? when? Late. .Z A.Bhutto vowed to fight India 1000 years to liberate Kashmir. Alas he is no more to fight.

Still you have chance to liberate Kashmir with imported weapons and your own indigenous? weapons . great army you can achieve. i think

thank you for enriching my knowledge about Kashmir war and Pakistan!!!

pramod gokhale

From K S A on August 30, 2014:


pramod gokhale

* Your View Has always show that you Never accepted Your Neighbour Countries.

*You Wrote that PAKISTAN did Not win 1965 war !! 96% Indians are claming that and Every Pakistani is Laughing on that Claim. Can You prove us that PAKISTAN did not win a 1965 war. Wait ! I will prove you it is recorded in history that on 6 September 1965 Indian Army gathered on PAKISTAN'S Border and start attacking on the villages of PAKISTANI province PUNJAB. Specilally on LAHORE Region, SIALKOT Region, OKARA Region, RAHIM YAR KHAN Region. PAKISTAN ARMY also replied you they attack on AMRITSRAR, FEROZPUR, JAISALMER'S Regions ( But only that region where Indian Armies Bases were made to attack on PAKISTAN, Not on Population ) .

* SIKKH Reigement ! Known as Indian army's Most Brave reigement. More then 400 SIKH Soilders surrender to PAKISTAN ARMY by saying " Why we will fight with PAKISTAN, What PAKISTAN has done with us ? Many of Our Sikh Gurus were born in the Land of PAKISTAN. We both are Speaking same Languages the PUNJABI " . Read Carefully the truth about 1965 war You will Discover the Crimes and Devil-Conspiracy of Your Indian Government and army.

*You Wrote that PAKISTAN did Not win a war in JAMMU & KASHMIR in 1948 is a Very Funny and Stupid claim. In Your Country the truth is Hidden about KASHMIR by your government. I have seen the Map of India in an indian book. The Whole J & K is shown to India ! Even the PAKISTAN-CONTROLLED part of JAMMU & KASHMIR are shown to INDIA. Why ? Why Your government, electronic media, education department are hiding the Georaphically & Phsically truth about J & K from your people.

* If PAKISTAN did not Liberated any Part of J & K then how did the LOC is made in the Center Part of J & K ? Then where did PAKISTAN get Northern Areas of J & K ' GILGIT-BALTISTAN ' and South-western Part ' AZAD KASHMIR '

* Maharaja of Kashmir was Nothing ! He did Not ask any wish or view of Kashmiri people that whom they would like to join India or Pakistan.

British government was full supporting India for Kashmir even they gave some PAKISTANI Districts to India (Gurdaspur, Pathankot) that Indian Occupation forces can reach on J & K.

* You also wrote that You are proud that Your country was never under military regimes. Read Your history GANDHI Family and Your Other Corrupted Leader what have they done with your Country. You accept or Not

pramodgokhale from Pune( India) on August 29, 2014:


I have read your writing. 1965 war was not won by Pakistan and after 20 days there was ceasefire , agreed by both sides. Pakistan has spent ammunition within 15 days, Pakistan could not liberate Kashmir despite advance weaponary from USA if it is so then why they agree for truce, they could have continued war but it did not happen. . 1948 also, Nehru's mistake we could not respond to Maharaja of Kashmir in time and Nehru took Kashmir to UNO and war was stopped and / territory remained with Pakistan forcibly occupied.In 1971 war East Pakistan was liberated from Pakistani military junta and their torture and massacre of Bangladeshi. Bangladesh was formed, India intervened when millions of bengali refugees entered India and it became India's problem.On 3 rd December Gen Yahakhan declared war and om 17 th December Dacca fallen and Pakistani army surrendered . I was young and i experienced this war and USA, England and France were about attck India to rescue Pakistani army in East Pakistan but presence

Russian navy , they did not.

Friend our economy was bleeding because of these wars and it is western plot to damage India. Pakistan is under control of military and they do not want peace for their own survival. international aid was diverted for Arms purchase.poor Pakistanis are suffering. Pakistan is an international fraud.

India is democratic nation and never was under military regimes and secular and peace loving masses.

pramod gokhale

StormsHalted (author) from Pullman, Washington, United States on August 29, 2014:

Here you go Mr Pramadgokhale ....

From KSA on August 28, 2014:

MR. Pramodgokhale From PUNE INDIA.

No 1 - PAKISTAN didn't lost any war specially 1948 and 1965 war and The Proof is that in 1948 PAKISTAN Liberated/Freed 48% Part of JAMMU & KASHMIR from your you, Known as GILGIT-BALTISTAN and AZAD KASHMIR. In 1965 INDIA suddenly attack on PAKISTAN by blamming that PAKISTAN is interfarring in KASHMIR VALLEY. But ALMIGHTY GOD always support Truth. Pakistan win a Successful war against India.

NO 2 - You forget Actual 1998. When u tested 5 Atomic Bombs. PAKISTAN also Test 6 Atomic Bombs then You. By the Grace of ALMIGHTY GOD! PAKISTAN,S ATOMIC WEAPONS and PAKISTAN ARMED FORCES are able to Defend Our Country and Protect Our Borders.

NO 3 - PLEASE ! Don't Blame PAKISTAN for that what happened in your MUMBAI City. It is Your Own Indian Muslim Jihadi groups. Before Blaming Pakistan 1st Control Your own Indian-Muslim minority. PAKISTAN Himself is Suffering from Terrorism.

NO 4 -If PAKISTAN is involve in every Terrorist Activities in India. Then Who is Responsible for Bloody Terrorism Happeining in PAKISTANI city KARACHI ? Who is Responsible for bad situation in PAKISTANI province BALOCHISTAN ?

Who is responsible for Terrorism in FATA the PAKISTANI TRIBAL AREAS ?

NO 5 -In 1971 PAKISTAN was Broken is Very Very Sad for PAKISTANI People and in the History of Pakistan 1971 is known as 'DARK ERA'.

The Main thing that Broke PAKISTAN in 1971 was a Language Problem and some of Your Interfarring.

In 1955 When some Pakistani Leader Announce for 'ONE UNIT ACT OF PAKISTAN' was the Beginning of Problem because in WEST PAKISTAN (PAKISTAN) the main Languages were spoken:


As well as in EAST PAKISTAN (BANGLA DESH) Only one Language was Spoke the BANGLA (BENGALI).

Some Indian-muslim Migrated Leaders in Pakistan was trying to Finish all those Pakistani Provincial languages and wants to introduced URDU. Many Pakistani Local leaders understood that URDU is an Indian islamic Language the Local Languages of Pakistan are those languages mention above. Urdu can be language of unity but Not provincial language of Pakistan.

So Please before blamming us see your own.............

pramodgokhale from Pune( India) on July 06, 2014:

To ,

Grand old lady,

I am an Indian and wish to tell Pakistan story. Pakistan was formed for Muslims and British divided India and after division millions of Hindus butchered or killed, women rapeseed and lost property etc.

At present Pakistan is under military and civilian government is just a puppet. Pakistan is a proxy of Superpower and and runs under their instruction.

Hatred of Hindus was basic of Pakistan's establishment and Islamic state and constitution was imposed on people.

We had four conflicts with Pakistan on one issue and that is Kashmir. Unfortunately Nehru our first prime minister took issue to UNO and it became Internationale affair.

Pakistan lost all wars and importing expensive weapons to fight against India and with help of Chinese they built Atom bomb and tested in 1998

after India's nuclear test.

What is Pakistan today, it is degraded community and no forward thinking.Pakistani Taliban banned Polio vaccination and killed nurses and medical professionals near border city.

In 2008 November they sent terrorists in India in Mumbai and that was a carnage and hundreds of people died.

Yes there are peace loving people in Pakistan, if they influence their government then there will be peace in subcontinent, but all such efforts failed so far.


Mona Sabalones Gonzalez from Philippines on July 05, 2014:

This is a very interesting hub, as I know very little about Pakistan history and would like to learn. Why was Pakistan so angry in the first place? And do you suppose that by choosing Urdu as the national language, this led to the divide between East and West Pakistan, as well as the uneven participation in government and the availability of jobs? I wonder why they did not try to settle this through negotiation. I think 60 years is a long time for hatred and war, and peaceful coexistence is an achievable reality if it is believed possible by those involved. I have a friend who is Pakistan, his best friend is Indian. They never talk politics together. This is why I believe peace is possible. Perhaps you should consider giving diplomacy a try. Compromise is a necessary reality, but think of all the years of peace and progress that can come from it. But then, I am not as knowledgeable as you in these areas, so I respect your ideas and will continue to read and to learn about Pakistan.

pramodgokhale from Pune( India) on October 20, 2013:


i mentioned psyche of Pakistani people, nation was built on hatred and no other business to their leadership then they look for issues whether they can capitalize , eyewash and nothing more.

I stop it here

pramod gokhale

StormsHalted (author) from Pullman, Washington, United States on October 20, 2013:

Now what should we do with Kashmir ........ you clarify your position first.....

pramodgokhale from Pune( India) on October 19, 2013:


When we talk Pakistani people after peace and prosperity , sudden they talk of Kashmir, Siachen. It is irrelevant to debate , it is not in hand of common people and waste of time only.

Mr. Barrister Hamid Bashani spoke on Pakistani TV that When we Pakistani citizens are under military dictatorship and restriction on freedom the how can we release others . It's hypocrisy he says.


Ashutosh Tiwari from Lucknow, India on October 19, 2013:

@ alikhan3 :)

Have a nice day.

StormsHalted (author) from Pullman, Washington, United States on October 19, 2013:

Okay so you have correctly identified a mistake on my part, will change map if I find good alternative which might show the green part as disputed area

Ashutosh Tiwari from Lucknow, India on October 18, 2013:

alikhan3 no. you check the one in which you depicted Kashmir as the part of Pakistan.

StormsHalted (author) from Pullman, Washington, United States on October 17, 2013:

there should be a caption under that map indicating that its purpose was only to show the former location of East Pakistan.

Ashutosh Tiwari from Lucknow, India on October 16, 2013:

@Alikhan3 So. Mr. you are not supposed to upload the new map of Pakistan. You should respect international border and history.

StormsHalted (author) from Pullman, Washington, United States on October 16, 2013:

No final decision is to be taken until both sides agree .... but what if they don't agree .....

Ashutosh Tiwari from Lucknow, India on October 16, 2013:

@alikhan3 So when there is dispute, can you make the final decision without dispute being solved ?

StormsHalted (author) from Pullman, Washington, United States on October 16, 2013:

of course yes everyone has to respect them but only where they are clearly demarcated without any dispute

Ashutosh Tiwari from Lucknow, India on October 16, 2013:

@alikhan3 I just want to ask you a simple question.

Do you respect international laws and boundaries ?

StormsHalted (author) from Pullman, Washington, United States on February 27, 2013:

Ofcourse we shall keep on interacting .........

However being overly optimistic is not the way to sideline realities ..... negotiations are going on for 60 years on Kashmir but of no avail and the same on Siachen

pramodgokhale from Pune( India) on February 25, 2013:


Thank you so much ,in future we continue share and interact.

At present India is engaged in huge development process and nobody has time to react as you say anti Pakistan feelings.

Military leadership of Pakistan is not doing for the welfare of people.I worked in middle east , most of my colleagues were Indians, Pakistanis, Bangladeshis in our company, we never had controversial talks and everybody knows there is no sense in infighting in foreign land.

We buy weapons from western countries and spill our blood for nothing.

Water sharing,we have problems with Nepal, Myanmar,Bangladesh, China also, but we settle by negotiations ,of course give and take.

Paid media can spread hatred against any one.

I read your articles and expecting more on socio economic issues.

Thank you for reply.

pramod gokhale

StormsHalted (author) from Pullman, Washington, United States on February 25, 2013:

I should Respect your moderate approach but this is not the case with every Indian .....

pramodgokhale from Pune( India) on February 24, 2013:

Dear Alikhan3

Friend why are you so hot and intolerant?

Russia and America closed their differences, Trade and commerce is always a process to come closer.Pakistan can sell items to India which India demands.There is no question of one way benefit.

Indus water treaty is signed by both the nations in 1960 and we have also similar problem with Bangladesh but by negotiations we settle the issues.We run trade deficit with China also. we have to continue because we made agreement and binding on both countries.

Kishen ganga dam recently Pakistani team and international teams visited and India won the case in Hague intentional court.

Hatred and prejudice never bring peace but create more differences.

I think Friendship is worship.

pramod gokhale

StormsHalted (author) from Pullman, Washington, United States on February 23, 2013:

Indians want to trade bcos it works out to be in their own benefit.........they don't send their cricket team..recently they did threaten our women team.........all bcos of hatred .........they stop our water by building kishen ganga dam they don't want to solve either siachen or Kashmir issue .....? these Indians were the ones who harassed the boundary commission into surrendering jallandhar and gurdaspur to India .......... They supported Bengalis against us.......?

Now Where Do You Fit All This....?

pramodgokhale from Pune( India) on February 22, 2013:


unfortunately you are away from basic things.Once country divided into two then it was duty of governments to govern and not to go in any confrontation.

Indians want peaceful co-existence and development of subcontinent.

Many Pakistani patients are getting treated in Indian hospitals across India.

They never think that they are in alien country, even pay thanks!!

People to people interact is more important and we keep away from western influence, Anti India agitation promoted by government it is all surprising me.

Indian corporates wants to do trading and commerce with Pakistan but Pakistani government does not allow to happen.

thank you.

pramod gokhale

StormsHalted (author) from Pullman, Washington, United States on February 22, 2013:

peaceful co-existence....?

hatred if once instilled in ones heart is hard to eliminate ... i do feel that largely public opinion in India is against such peaceful co existence

pramodgokhale from Pune( India) on February 22, 2013:

Pakistan again tried in kargil, if it is long term war then it could have turned to nuclear even.Pakistani people are paying price for that.

Peaceful co-existence is only way to stay otherwise Indian subcontinent will keep bleeding as it was in 1947.

Pramod gokhale.

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