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South African Apartheid: Soweto (South Western Eastern Townships) - So Where To?

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Hugh Masekela ~ Soweto Blues

SOuthern WEstern TOwnships - (SOWETO)

south-african-apartheid-soweto-so-where-to
James Sofasonke Mpanza led 20,000 people to Occupy vacant council land due to overcrowding in Orlando East and West-long before there was "Occupy Anything... This led to the formation of Soweto. He is Known as the The Father Of Soweto..

James Sofasonke Mpanza led 20,000 people to Occupy vacant council land due to overcrowding in Orlando East and West-long before there was "Occupy Anything... This led to the formation of Soweto. He is Known as the The Father Of Soweto..

Mpanza riding one of his "Racing horses" of which he owned several and he fought for squatters to eventually create what we now See today as SOWETO

Mpanza riding one of his "Racing horses" of which he owned several and he fought for squatters to eventually create what we now See today as SOWETO

Part of Mpanza's house in 957 Phinyela Street in Orlando East. His family only got their Title Deed in 2010

Part of Mpanza's house in 957 Phinyela Street in Orlando East. His family only got their Title Deed in 2010

Ernest Oppenheimer who donated R6-million to help start build what is today known as SOWETO, because the Apartheid government would not do it and was hoping the squatters would 'melt away' into their Apartheid designated Homelands...

Ernest Oppenheimer who donated R6-million to help start build what is today known as SOWETO, because the Apartheid government would not do it and was hoping the squatters would 'melt away' into their Apartheid designated Homelands...

1976 Students Protesting Afrikaans and Apartheid

1976 Students Protesting Afrikaans and Apartheid

June 1976 Revolution - Mbuyiselo carrying the limp body of Hector Pietersen among the first victims shot by the police at the start of the students march in 1976

June 1976 Revolution - Mbuyiselo carrying the limp body of Hector Pietersen among the first victims shot by the police at the start of the students march in 1976

Already Soweto's attractions, the former Power Station signifies and Marks-out Soweto for tourist and is also now a famous landmark.

Already Soweto's attractions, the former Power Station signifies and Marks-out Soweto for tourist and is also now a famous landmark.

Forced Removals in Apartheid South Africa

Forced Removals in Apartheid South Africa

Known Hostels, built for migrant workers and built throughout Soweto. Only men were allowed in these premises

Known Hostels, built for migrant workers and built throughout Soweto. Only men were allowed in these premises

The Regina Mundi Church in the Township of Rockville in Soweto, south Africa. This church became a symbol of resistance during the Apartheid era

The Regina Mundi Church in the Township of Rockville in Soweto, south Africa. This church became a symbol of resistance during the Apartheid era

The Map of SOWETO's Townships

The Map of SOWETO's Townships

South Africa has a vast and advanced network of Highways and this sign on the the Golden Highway, which partly passes through Soweto in a tangent

South Africa has a vast and advanced network of Highways and this sign on the the Golden Highway, which partly passes through Soweto in a tangent

Newly introduced WesBank Street Race with drivers from different categories racing the 2.2 KM 'L-Shaped track along the Chris Hani Road (Opp. the UJ Campus) and Nicholas Street. 20,000 attended

Newly introduced WesBank Street Race with drivers from different categories racing the 2.2 KM 'L-Shaped track along the Chris Hani Road (Opp. the UJ Campus) and Nicholas Street. 20,000 attended

A View of the City of Johannesburg in South Africa

A View of the City of Johannesburg in South Africa

Part of Soweto's Sprawl

Part of Soweto's Sprawl

Newly rebuilt Orlando East Stadium, in one of Soweto's Oldest Township known as Orlando East, near the City of Johannesburg

Newly rebuilt Orlando East Stadium, in one of Soweto's Oldest Township known as Orlando East, near the City of Johannesburg

FNB or Soccer City City modelled like an African Calabash being prepared for 2010 next to Soweto Highway

FNB or Soccer City City modelled like an African Calabash being prepared for 2010 next to Soweto Highway

Jan Van Riebeeck with the Khoi/San 1652

Jan Van Riebeeck with the Khoi/San 1652

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Nazis in South Africa

Nazis in South Africa

Checking an African's pass: South African Apartheid Pass Laws

Checking an African's pass: South African Apartheid Pass Laws

Last Boer War

Last Boer War

Afrikaner WeerstaandBeweging(Afrikaner Resistance Movement) AWB

Afrikaner WeerstaandBeweging(Afrikaner Resistance Movement) AWB

South African AWB Nazi Sign

South African AWB Nazi Sign

Vooertrekker Hoogte Boer/Afrikaner Museum commemorating the Great Trek, in Pretoria

Vooertrekker Hoogte Boer/Afrikaner Museum commemorating the Great Trek, in Pretoria

Dr. Hendrik Frensch Verwoerd  said: We call ourselves Europeans, but Actually we represent the white men of Africa!

Dr. Hendrik Frensch Verwoerd said: We call ourselves Europeans, but Actually we represent the white men of Africa!

The Hector Pietersen Museum in Orlando West, Soweto, South Africa

The Hector Pietersen Museum in Orlando West, Soweto, South Africa

South Africa's 2010 World Cup Stadiums

South Africa's 2010 World Cup Stadiums

The now transformed Orlando Power station in Orlando, Soweto, into a tourist attraction symbol

The now transformed Orlando Power station in Orlando, Soweto, into a tourist attraction symbol

Welcome to Soweto Sign in Soweto, South Africa

Welcome to Soweto Sign in Soweto, South Africa

Nelson  Rolihlahla Madiba Mandela holding a model of the World Cup

Nelson Rolihlahla Madiba Mandela holding a model of the World Cup

The provinces throughout South Africa where the stadiums for the World Cup will be held fro June 11 to July 11

The provinces throughout South Africa where the stadiums for the World Cup will be held fro June 11 to July 11

Soweto Tennis Open paid in the newly revamped Arthur Ashe Stadium inside the bowels of Soweto

Soweto Tennis Open paid in the newly revamped Arthur Ashe Stadium inside the bowels of Soweto

Squatters seen here erecting their ramshackle shack house which Mpanza found deplorable and went out to fight against

Squatters seen here erecting their ramshackle shack house which Mpanza found deplorable and went out to fight against

Apartheid's Forced Removals

south-african-apartheid-soweto-so-where-to
Boer Nazis

Boer Nazis

Soweto

south-african-apartheid-soweto-so-where-to

The Vulture Culture: The Changing of Mzantsi....

Nazism Apartheid Style

Early White Settlers and Separate Development

The Europeans attitude toward the Africans can be traced back to the arrival of White settlers in South Africa. Van Riebeeck and his and his crew on the orders of the Dutch East India Company in 1652, they were to keep their establishment as small as possible to limit it to a refreshment station which could service ships passing by on their way to India. The remnants of the hedge built by Van Riebeeck marking the outer limits of the station can still be discerned in the botanical gardens at Kirstenbosch, Cape Town.

After five years, the Dutch East India Company allowed to set up as independent colonists, and this was when the White Supremacist mentality was created. M. F. Katzens writes: "Slaves were imported on a small scale from the beginning of the settlement and they gradually became part of the permanent feature of the settled new White society; also, this happened once private agriculture was part of the south-west of the Cape colony."

Whites and the Khoi exchanged cattle and goods; smallpox and other epidemics caused great mortality; some groups retreated inland, and accepted the Dutch Company's authority. In 1785, the San, who had lost their hunting lands and game, that this resulted in a guerrilla warfare between the San and the settlers. The displacement of the Khoi, some of them were incorporated into the new society as servile dependents of the white farmers as herdsmen, domestic servants. As the cultural barriers broke down in the Cape, due to widespread miscegenation between whites, slaves, and the Khoi Khoi, this gave rise to the emergence of the Cape Colored people.

The attitude of the White settlers toward the indigenous and the slaves, was unhealthy that Van Riebeeck's successor, Wagenaar, issued and instruction in 1662: "The Hottentots(Khoi) and the Capemans, with whom a free access has been hitherto allowed, shall still continue to enjoy the same; and you will on no account suffer them, out of wantonness, or upon trifling causes, to be called by the garrison, the cattle herds, or the sailors, 'black stinking dogs', still less to be kicked, pushed or beaten..."

According to historical account, the expression "black stinking dogs" originated with Van Riebeeck himself. Professor C. W. Kiewiet has this to say about the attitude of the colonists towards the locals: 'According to their belief it was more than their arms that made them prevail over the natives, and their superiority depended on more than their intelligence or their institutions.'

Their superiority was born of race and faith, a quality divinely given which could not be transmitted to other races or acquired by them. 'The stinking black dogs', as van Riebeeck already called them, suffered from an inferiority, predestined and irreparable complex, which fixed their place in a society of white men.

A Hundred years after Jan Van Riebeeck landed in the Cape, the colonists, who came to be known as the Afrikaners or Boers, evolved their way of life in isolation. They lived a life of subsistence, not much different from the life of the local inhabitants, but they developed self-sufficient and independence of outlook contradicted by the slave ownership.

Their life was grim, and were facing a multitude of human and natural obstacles. The Bible was their anchor and faith, but otherwise lived a bleak existence. Economically they had their place in the field, and the kitchen; socially and politically they stood outside the circle of the rights and privileges of white men; even legally they existed in an ambiguous region between law and the arbitrary will of their master. This has remained the attitude to present day 21 century South Africa.

The history of South Africa, since 1652 has undergone more changes than all of which cannot be talked about in this limited article. But it should be borne in mind that the British and the Afrikaners' relationship was antagonistic and in constant opposition. Trade, cheap labor and land were some of the most contested issues of the day. W. M. Freund wrote:

"The Final transfer from Dutch to British rule did not in itself precipitate a revolution in government.

"The reformist impulses of the Early British and Batavian administration were so submerged by the right of established Cape practice to the extent that by 1814, the transitional governments had simply reaffirmed the essentials of Cape social structure as it had existed prior to 1795. In 1814, Lord Charles Somerset assumed office as governor of the Cape. It was his misfortune to govern the Cape at the time when the new social forces generated in a rapidly industrializing Great Britain engulfed the colony.

"Somerset entrenched power of local oligarchy and then established rhythms of the local economy. The couple explosion of the 1820 Settlers at the periphery of the colony and the 'revolution in government' at its center reverberated far beyond the borders of the Cape, exposing the peoples of the interior to a dual invasion by the British Settlers, apostles of free enterprise and free trade, and the Afrikaner Voortrekkers, bearers of a racial ideology precipitated on a system of coerced labor."

The Commission of Eastern Inquiry in 1822 investigated all aspects of Cape Administration and make specific recommendations for regulation and practical improvement. This Commission recommended that creation of an Independent legal system to guard against both arbitrary misuse of power and erase corruption within the ranks of administration.

They sought to create an efficient civil service able to overcome the inequities associated with the patronage system. They also wanted to remove the last of the economic restraint associated with the old mercantile system, and to stimulate prosperity through free enterprise. Given personal liberties and security of property, it was hoped that the Khoikhoi would eventually become 'industrious framers and respectable members of the community.(Barrow)

The Great Trek was a name given to the deliberate immigration from the Cape by some 15,000 Afrikaners, almost all of them came from the eastern districts , and were moving into the interior where they could search and find a place to go into the interior where they could govern themselves according to the "old Burgher" and regulations and duties. Their recommendations towards the Anglicization of the colony was lined to the first two recommendations, and their recommendations with regard to the Khoikhoi were lined with the third recommendations.

The Commissioners considered the servile conditions of the Khoi and free Africans further inhibited their energies towards frivolous pursuits. The Commission concluded that, by restraining free competition, the existing system drove up the prices of provision and prevented growth of the internal market, limited economic demand of the colonist to the acquirement of a few articles of the first necessity and deprived the Cape of the solid Prosperity of a thriving and industrious population.(RCC, Reports).

By the early 1830s the new land and labor regulations, imperfectly enforced though they may have been, were beginning to bite,and the more astute amongst the Afrikaners were able to predict their loss of control already. Sentiments for the great Trek were founded on statements made by the Afrikaners such as this one: "Now we have a Civil Commissioner to receive our money for Government and for Land Surveyors, a magistrate to punish us, a Clerk of the Peace to prosecute us, and get us in the "Tronk"[prison], but no Heemraad to tell us whether things are right or wrong ... The Englishman is very learned ... They and the Hottentots will squeeze us all out by degrees."(Stockenstrom)

The Trek

The fact of the radical shift in colonial policy through the recommendations of the Commissioners of Inquiry, raises no doubts that the immigration of the Afrikaners was a response to certain specific policies of the colonial government rather than an Afrikaner reaction to British rule or a response to the breakdown of black and white relations on the Eastern Frontier.

Either than the Slagters(Slaughters) Neck Rebellion in 1815, the Afrikaners were satisfied with the English government. But After 1828, in the critical areas of labor, land and local administration,The Commission's 'revolution in government' overturned Somerset's practices and installed a new system inimical to the needs of the Afrikaner. This was at a time when the farmers, squeezed by depression and tempted by the new goods offered by the settler traders, needed their laborers, and it was at the time when the colonial government intervened and freed this labor from the involuntary servitude.

The colonists had always been resentful of authority, and they disliked it doubly if the authority was British. The manifesto of the Trekker leader Piet Retief, giving reasons why his party intended to leave the Cape , whilst proclaiming "we will take care that no one is brought into a condition of slavery; we will establish such regulations as may suppress crime and preserve proper relations between master and servant ...

We will complain of the severe losses which we have been forced to sustain by emancipation of our slaves, and the vexatious laws which have been enacted respecting them." R.E. Simons goes on to point out that: "Few settlers in the Cape accepted the humanitarian's ideal of racial equality. Emancipation opened a new stage in the relations between White and Colored; but it did not revolutionize the society or abolish discrimination.

The fact that the British government was unwilling to make land grants to Afrikaners whereas it was more than generous to make land grants to British Settlers and Khoikhoi caused widespread resentment in the district, and the practical steps towards slave emancipation proved the last straw. A man called Louis Trichardt and thirty other families of his district sold their property and left the colony vowing never to come back.

Trichardt was eventually given 12,000 morgen of land by a Xhosa King called Hintsa. There's suspicion by the British that Trichardt supplied Hintsa with fire arms. A guy named Christian Muller suggested that the Boers(Afrikaners) side with the Xhosas against the Boers.(Muller). It is interesting to note that the Son of Trichardt, was willing to remain under the sovereign of the Xhosa King, but the other emigrants could not accept the equalization of the colored and Africans and the whites.

Piet Retief, another Boer leader said that:

"The Afrikaners were neither willing nor able to change our color for the sake of temporary happiness." Anna Steenkamp declared that placing slaves on an equal footing with 'Christians' was 'contrary to the laws of God and the natural distinction of race and religion.' The Constitution of the later South African Republic[Transvaal] proclaimed that "The people desire to permit no equality between colored people and the white inhabitants either in church or state."(E. Eybers)

The Dutch desire to be rid of the British was also prompted by their wish to own slaves, to be able to discriminate between White and Non-White, to re-establish the patriarchal relationship between master and servant, which had existed from the time of Riebeeck and was being destroyed forever in the Cape. The Boers recreated new republics of the Orange Free State and Transvaal.

This enabled the Afrikaners to fashion a life-style for themselves and their old ways. The Boer Republics eventually set up by the Trekkers were based on constitutions which permitted of "no equality between colored people and the White inhabitants, either in Sate or Church. The Boer President of the Transvaal colony, Paul Kruger, insisted as strenuously as Riebeeck and Reties that, "The black man had to be taught that he came second, that he belonged to the inferior class which must must be obeyed and be learned.

The British crushed similar attempt in Natal because they wanted to control the port of Durban. The British regularly harassed the Boer Republics and were always intervening. The British annexed the Transvaal in 1877 and these clashes ultimately led to the First War of Independence by the Boers in 1880. But the discovery of diamonds in Kimberley in 1867, and gold in the Transvaal, Witwatersrand area in 1886 transformed the British Imperialist attitude towards South Africa.

The shores of South Africa suddenly became a land of opportunity for the entrepreneurs, profit, Capital, adventurers who made their way into the diggings and the mines. In 1899 this led to the Second War of Independence. The British committed some war atrocities against the Boers who were fighting to preserve their freedom, their language, their possessions, their racial supremacy, their very existence as an independent people. The British won the war, but it was very expensive and the Boers signed the Peace of Vereeniging.

Then there was the occupation of the Boer states, Transvaal and the Orange Free State. At the end British concentration Camps held 200,000 Boers in segregated Camp and 80,000 Africans. It has been speculated that more than 26,000 women and children perished in the camps… In the war itself 6,000 Boers were killed and 22,000 British soldiers died. In the 1900s talks were held to form a union. The Union of South Africa was set up in 1910 with each of the four provinces with special segregatory policies where non-whites were concerned.

The union was under the British and was a member of the British Commonwealth. The union's first prime minister was a former Boer War general Louis Botha, a moderate Boer who wanted to cooperate with the British. The first parliament, meeting in 1913, set up 'tribal reserves'(later known as Homelands) and formally prohibited Africans - except those in the Cape - from buying land outside them.

The new law forced thousands to pack their belongings and move off the farms they thought they owned. Africans at that time were 78% of the population; the reserves made up just slightly more than 7% of the land. Alan Paton described in 'Cry the Beloved Country' the disastrous effects of this policy in and on the land in the African Areas:

"To many cattle feed upon the grass, and too many fires have burned it. Stand shod upon it is coarse and sharp, and the stones cut under the feet …

"The great red hills stand desolate, and the earth has torn away like flesh. The lightning flashes over them, the clouds pour down upon them, the dead streams come to life, full of red blood or the earth. Down in the valleys women scratch the soil that is left, and the maize hardly reaches the height of a man."

The South African Reich

"The history of the Afrikaner reveals a determination and a definiteness of purpose which makes one feel that Afrikanerdom is not the work of man but a creation of God. We have a Divine right to be Afrikaners.

"Our history is the highest work of art of the architects of the Centuries" by D. F. Malan. And this is what Hitler wrote in the Mein Kampf: "It was the Aryan alone who founded a superior type of humanity; therefore he represents the archetype of what we understand by the term: MAN. ... It was not by mere chance that the first forms of civilization arose there where the Aryan came into contact with inferior races, subjugated them ad forced them to obey his command."(Mzimela)

The Nationalist Party underwent a considerable change during its years wandering in the wilderness. It became more bitter, more exclusive, more aggressive — and it gained steadily in strength. It began to work not only the political realm, it put a great effort into extra-parliamentary activities, social and economic sphere. They paid attention to the all development of the Afrikaner people, to church affairs and social welfare, worked among the growing army of the poor whites, to education, sports, culture, trade and industry.

The guiding force of this nationalist spirit was a secret society known as the Broederbond, formed in 1918 and maintained an open existence until 1924, then it went underground. In 1944 its membership were estimated to be at 2,672, as given by the Nederduitse Reformed Church's Rev. de Vos as follows: 357 clergymen, 2,039 teachers, 905 farmers, 159 lawyers, and 60 Members of Parliament. By the 1960s it had grown to 7,000 members. Its modus operandi was to coordinate activities among Afrikaners and to ensure that Broederbonders are placed in key positions which can then be utilized for the advancement of the Volk(The Boers).

Mrs Janie Malherbe described the forces that were at work in the 1930s Broederbond as follows:

"This terrifying, octopus-like grip on the South African way of life was made possible by reorganizing the Broederbond on the pattern of Hitler's highly successful Nazi State: complete with Fuehrer, Gauleiters, group and cell leaders, spread in a sinister network over the whole of South Africa.

"This was initially planned by high-ranking Nationalist and two Stellenbosch students who were sent to Germany, at Nazi expense, to study the Nazi cell system. The man who planned this consultation with the then Nationalist leader, Dr. Malan was Graf von Durckheim Montmartin."

Montmartin was sent to South Africa by the Nazi government in 1934 to attend an educational conference, but in reality, he was to consult secretly with the Broederbond elders, attempting to ensure that South Africa would side with Germany in the war which Hitler was about to be involved in.

Mrs. Malherbe reports:

"The immediate result of his visit was the reorganization of the Nationalist Broederbond on the Nazi system, the main difference being that where Hitler re-invoked the rites of the German Pagan Gods to promote his ideologies, the Nationalists Broederbond declared that their plan of complete domination of white South Africa, and absolute subjugation of the non-whites, was an implementation of South Africa's God-given destiny."

This was a clever ruse, for by its means, the powerful Dutch Reformed Churches could be roped in; a speech by Hertzog was reported in the Star newspaper in 1935 where he described the Broerbond by stating that:

"It's members were a grave menace to the rest and peace of our social community, even where it operates in the economic-cultural sphere. It's members are sworn not to entertain any cooperation with the English speaking population and thereby they stand in direct racial conflict with our fellow English Afrikaners, and are striving by way of domination on the part of the Afrikaans-speaking section to put their foot on the neck of English-speaking South Africa.

I.M. Lombard wrote several articles in the Transvaaler newspaper in 1944 wherein he stipulated seven ideals for which the Broederbond was striving for:

(1) The removal of everything in conflict with South Africa 's full international independence;

(2) the ending of the inferiority of the Afrikaans-speaking and their language in the organization of the State;

(3) separation of all non-White races in South Africa, leaving them free to pursue independent development under the guardianship of Whites;

(4) putting a stop to the exploitation of the resources and population of South Africa by strangers, including the more intensive industrial development;

(5) the rehabilitation of the farming community and the assurance of civilized self-support through work for all White citizens;

(6) the nationalization of the money market and the systematic coordination of economic policies;

(7) the Afrikanerization of public life and teaching and education in a Christian-National spirit. while leaving free the internal development of all sections in so far as it is not dangerous to the State.

Dr Malan warned that:

"The Broederbond was nothing more than a non-political Afrikaans society which, where necessary, will take action for Afrikaans interests and will positively help up the Afrikaner, just as there are many societies, each in its own sphere."

In 1944 General Smuts banned the membership of the Broederbond by civil servants and called it 'a dangerous, cunning, political Fascist Organization'. So far, we are beginning to see the roughened outline of the creation and makings of Apartheid demonic policies as we got to know it in the World over up to today.

As this article has consistently pointed out that since the 1700s to the present day, the Boers or Afrikaners, have worked very hard to cling to their beliefs and ideal social structure which according to them was preserving their racial purity, dominance, their language and the subjugation of all those that were non-White.

The Nationalist Party had been waiting for this time since the Great Trek to the forming of the Union of South Africa until the Nationalist take-over of the governance of South Africa. Now the Afrikaners were in a position to implement their Apartheid rule when they took power in 1948.

Grand Apartheid

The real architect of Apartheid was Hendrik Verwoerd, who too was one of those Boers who went to Germany in the mid 1920s where he studied psychology and whilst there he had close contact with the architects of Naziism. When he returned to South Africa,he became a professor of psychology in the exclusively Afrikaner university of Stellenbosch. In 1937, has appointed as the first editor of the newly formed Afrikaner Nationalist mouthpiece, Die Transvaaler newspaper, by Jan Strijdom, a leading Afrikaner figure.

In one of his first editorial, Verwoerd stated: "Both in Italy and in Germany, the systems have done much that is good for these countries, although of course they are not without fault ... The Nationalists would be very remiss if they did not study the conditions existing in Europe, where new methods of state organization and new objectives are born out of the pressures of nation building."

This word, Apartheid, was first used in parliament by in January of 1944, which, according to Dr. Malan, "It meant to ensure the safety of the white race and of Christian civilization by the maintenance of the principles of apartheid and guardianship.

In 1947 The Nationalist Party appointed a commission whose conclusions were issued by the Head Office of the National Party.

It said:

"The policy of our country should encourage total apartheid as the ultimate goal of a natural process of separate development. It is the primary task and calling of the State to seek the welfare of South Africa, and to promote the happiness and well-being of it's citizens, non-White as well as White."(Mzimela)

Realizing that such a task can best be accomplished by preserving and safeguarding the White Race. The Nationalist Party professes this as the fundamental guiding principle of its policy.

Dr. Malan as Prime Minister put his apartheid belief in this manner:

"The purpose of the Apartheid policy is that, by separating the races in every field in so far as it is practically possible, one can prevent clashes and friction between Whites and non-Whites.

"At the same time, in fairness to the non-Whites, they must be given the opportunity of developing in their own areas and in accordance with their own nature and abilities under the guardianship of the Whites; and, in so far as they develop in accordance with the systems which are best adapted to their nature and traditions, to govern themselves there and serve their community at all various levels of their national life."(Verwoerd)

Apartheid Vitriol

Dr. Frensch Verwoerd

Mr Strijdom was succeeded by Dr. Verwoerd, who, as has been noted above, was the architect of Grand Apartheid described the apartheid policy on his visit to London 1961 as follows: "We want each of our population groups to control and govern itself as is the case with other nations. Then all can co-operate as in a commonwealth — in an economic association with the Republic and with each other ... South Africa will proceed in all honest and fairness to secure peace, prosperity and justice for all by means of political independence coupled with economic interdependence."

And then Dr. Verwoerd speaking in the House of Assembly in January 1963 said:

"Reduced to it\s simplest form the problem is nothing else than this:

"We want to keep South Africa White ... 'keeping it white' can only mean one thing, namely, White domination, not 'leadership,' not 'guidance,' but 'control,' 'supremacy'. If we are agreed that it is the desire of the people that the White man should be able to continue to protect himself by retaining White domination, we say that it can be achieved by separate development. South African nationhood is for the Whites only."(Verwoerd)

That is how I see it today, that is how he(Verwoerd) saw it for the future." (addition mine). Dr. Verwoerd, as Prime Minister, went on ahead and instituted the apartheid blueprint.

Dr. Verwoerd's policy of separate Development was supposedly an effort to "form a peaceful multicultural society," with each society or community exercising its right of political and economical self-determination under White tutelage, so argue the apologists of Apartheid today. In fact Verwoerd was responsible for African genocide in hospitals, Technikons, building of homelands, brutal and burdensome taxes on Africans, enforcement of the most outrageous segregated and poor type of education, domiciles anywhere in the country of South Africa for African South Africans.

White South Africans today still maintain the fallacy and lie that, Africans in South Africa and in particular, in the Black Homelands, were economically and educationally more developed than Free African states of Africa during the dark days of Apartheid. And white in South Africa are now maintaining that these Apartheidized Bantu Education centered schools were the training grounds for todays black leaders. What in fact this sorry intellectual racists are saying, is that what Apartheid under Verwoerd did, was benefit Africans today. In one of the internet apologetic sites for Apartheid, one reads the following which is from this site- notmytribe.com/tag/genocide:

"... The development corporations have been disbanded, (Not because of disinvestment of Apartheid-my addition) and the estates have been allowed to go to ruin. Millions of jobless and roofless people are flocking to the cities and towns and live in abject poverty conditions in tin shacks, posing serious health and security problems in[?] breeding grounds for crime....

A high prize paid for a "Simplistic Democratic System," now recognized by those familiar with the situation as a majoritarian tyranny(meaning, the authoritative rule of Nazi apartheid was the best for "Simplistic majoritarian Democracy"?!?!) An untenable social engineering process of nation building in a country with its deep historical ethnic fault line(well, nicely put: Blame the victims of apartheid abuse as they try to resuscitate their decimated people, and call them a majority of tyranny and bad social engineering.

Afrikaners are a crucial element to ensure the development of South Africa and the African Continent. (Well,... this is interesting because this is the Verwoerdian principle and nothing is new here, except the rehashing of old and tired Apartheid philosophy which has decimated the African population and no one has been held accountable.)

I am going to write a hub on these issues and expose the hidden and shredded history of Apartheid abuse of Africans and the consequences thereof today. This is the type of trite rhetoric that flourishes in today's media and blogs within South Africa, and it is time it is now exposed.

Prime Minister Vorster, in a speech he gave on the radio in September 1966, after he came into power following the assassination of Verwoerd, said:

"I believe in the policy of separate development, not only as a philosophy but also as the only practical solution in the interest of everyone to eliminate frictions, and to do justice to every population group as well as every individual. I say to the colored people, as well as to the Indians and the Bantu(Indigenous Africans) that the policy of separate development is not a policy which rests upon jealousy, fear or hatred. It is not a denial of the human dignity to anyone, nor is it so intended.

"On the contrary, it gives the opportunity to every individual, within his own sphere, not only to be a man or woman in every sense, but it also creates the opportunity for them to develop and advance without restriction or frustration as circumstances justify, and in accordance with the demands of development achieved."(Newspaper)

This is what the whole rule and policies of apartheid is all about - It means a life of privilege and plenty for the Whites, based on the exploitation of cheap African labor.

"This fact can only be perpetuated through white domination becomes apparent whenever Nationalist Party leaders speak to their supporters. Mr Strijdom said that their policy is that the European must stand their ground and must remain Baas(Boss/Master) in South Africa. If we reject the Herrenvolk idea and the principle and the idea that the White man cannot remain Baas, if the franchise is to be extended to the non-Europeans, and if the Africans are given representation and the vote and the Africans are developed on the same basis as the Europeans, how can the European remain Baas ... Our view is that in every sphere the Europeans must retain the right to rule the country and to 'keep it a White man's country'."(Vorster)

Ever since 1948, The Nationalist Part propounded the policy of separate development, and they designed an economy that is more dependent on Black labor. They planned on converting this Black labor into a migratory labor force, this was in order to prevent a permanently settled Black proletariat o the midst of White-dominated society.

This then became the raison d'être for the creation of the policy of Bantustan, of homelands, of border industries, of the pass laws,of the Group Areas Act and the mass movement of Africans for one area to the other: in this case they were removing Africans living next to white areas, or lands that Whites coveted, which they called the "Black Spots".{Vorater)

The mythical creation of a 'native state somewhere for Natives' was perpetuated as their possible moral justification for the maintenance of White domination over the rest of the country, and all the areas dubbed White South Africa, which is were the riches of the Country are concentrated. The Afrikaners began legislating for separate development and making apartheid a reality.

South African Concentration Camp Laws

Draconian Legislature

Today there are more or less than 40 million South Africans, and, as has been noted above throughout their history, the Afrikaners has not yet ever envisaged that they will ever Constitute one nation, even though today there is talk about South Africa being a rainbow nation. The whites panned it such that economically there is a pyramid that has Whites at the apex, coloreds and Asians in the middle, and Africans at the bottom. On the political and social front, the different races must never meet, and they instituted impenetrable legal and physical boundaries, imponderable force of custom barriers. Here is a list of some of the laws set and passed by the Nationalist Party in laying down a secure and solid foundation for the Apartheid State:

1948

Asiatic Laws Amendment Act: Withdrew Indian Representation in Parliament. What scared the whites was the actual voting strength of the whole non-white people, if the principle of non-White franchise were permitted, and educational policies were extended to the whole South African population.

Electoral Laws Amendment Act: Made stringent the conditions for registering. This was done by the Nationalist to strengthened its position amongst White voters, and the vote was extended to persons of eighteen years and over. By 1951 the Afrikaner birth rate was one-third that of the British, with the median Afrikaner age being twenty-three, compared with thirty for the English speaking people.

1949

Citizenship Act: Lengthened the period of residence to five years for British subjects and six for aliens before South African citizenship could be granted. This act also provided for withdrawal of acquired citizenship by the Minister of Interior under certain circumstances.

Prohibition of Mixed Marriages Act: This law made marriages between White and non-Whites illegal. If a person lived in South Africa married a person of mixed descent outside South Africa, the marriage was to be voided in South Africa.

Asiatic Land Tenure Amendment Act: All who made less than one hundred and eighty-two pounds a year(the majority of African workers), and all migratory workers, irrespective of earnings, were excluded. By another further Amendment, the income eligibility was raised from one hundred and eighty-two pounds to two hundred and seventy-three pounds in 1957.

Native Laws Amendment Act: This act create a special labor bureaux, not to benefit workers, but to restrict the flow of African workers to the cities and towns, to make certain that abundant labor is always available for the mines and the farms.

Asiatic Land Tenure Amendment Act: Gave strength to stopping Indian "penetration" of urban areas in Natal and Transvaal, prevented Indian "penetration" of the Cape. This was a law that prohibited Indians in the Orange Free State and South West Africa.

South-West Africa Affairs Amendment . This act provided for the representation of South-West Africa's White citizens in the South African Parliament.

1950

Population Registration Act: They established a racial register of the population compiled by the 1951 census. The population was classified into Europeans,Colored Peoples and Africans. Some difficulties arose, whereby dark-looking people who have never been classified as White, and light-skinned people who have been officially classified as non-Whites. This law was bound to fail because it wanted to keep the White community White.

Suppression of Communism Act: This was an act the Nationalist utilized to attack civil liberties of all sections of the population, communist or non-Communists. This meant any doctrine or scheme that was establishing despotic system of governance based on the dictatorship of the proletariat; a scheme that aims bringing about any political, industrial, social or economic change within the Union through threat and promotion of disturbances and disorder. An organization which aims at the encouragement and feelings of hostility against Europeans and non-Europeans of the Union calculated to further the achievement of dictatorship, and so on.

Immorality Amendment Act: This act prohibited illicit carnal intercourse between White and non-White(the original one in 1927 Act prohibited intercourse only between White and African). This act condoned immorality between people of the same race, but converts it into a criminal offense from the moment that the race groups are different.

Group Areas Act. The act established racial ghettoes which required ownership and occupation of land was restricted to a specific population group. To achieve racial separation, hundreds of thousands of people had to give up their homes and move to areas designated by the regime.

The aim to remove non-Whites from the central areas they have lived in for centuries and to settle them in segregated areas far away from the cities and towns. There have been reports of many cases of suicide by many Africans whose homes and savings have been threatened by the Application of the act

Privy Councils Appeals Act: The act abolished the right of appeal to the Privy Council from the South African courts.

1951

Separate Representation of Voters Act: This Act provided for the removal of colored voters from the common roll.

Bantu Authorities Act: The establishment of 'tribal,' regional and territorial Bantu Authorities in the reserves(later, the homelands. These 'Bantu' authorities are not elected by a popular mandate, but are appointed by, also, dismissed by the Minister of Bantu Administration and Development. The word had come to be in use from black being called "Kaffirs," "Natives". "Bantus," up to "Plurals" in South Africa.

Native Building Workers' Act: This act provided for training and registration of Africans as skilled building workers, but for work in African Areas alone. This law prohibits Africans from working as odd-jobbers in urban areas, while whites are prohibited from placing any contract with an African builder.

Prevention of Illegal Squatting Act: This act prohibited anyone entering upon any land or building, or any African location, or village without permission. Under this law, millions of so-called illegal-squatters were ordered to remove themselves, the structures or buildings erected by them, eventually destroyed by the regime.

1952

Criminal Sentences Amendment Act: Under this act, certain offenses, including robbery and house-breaking with intent to commit an offense, were entered to whipping not exceeding ten strokes, with or without imprisonment, and the courts were empowered to suspend the sentence in whole or in part. The criminal Procedure Amendment Act was introduced in 1965 wherein compulsory whipping was stopped, and corporal punishment was restored into the courts .

High Court of Parliament: This act was passed in order to assist in the removal of colored voters from the common role.

Natives (Abolition of passes and Coordination of Documents) Act. Its fanciful name does not hide the fact that the consolidation of passes into single document to be known as the reference book and issued to all Africans over the age of sixteen. As these books are issue, finger prints are taken and recorded in a central bureau.

The reference or pass book was to be carried on the person of the holder and produced on demand, failing which the offender maybe arrested on the spot. Under this Act, African women have been subjected to the pass for the first time through passage of this Act.

Native Laws Amendment Act: This Act provided that no African would be permitted to remain in an urban area for longer than seventy-two hours without permit unless he had been born and was a permanent resident there.

The Native Services Levy Act: This Act was laid down that urban employers of male Africans aged eighteen year and over should pay to the local authority a levy of 2s.6d. a week for the provision and maintenance of water, sanitation, lighting, or road services outside an African township.

1953

Bantu Education Act: The education of Africans was transferred to Bantu Education Department, not to the Union Department of Education, but from the provinces to the Department of Native Affairs in 1953. The Act contained no details of the type of education to be purveyed. But Dr. Verwoerd provided its blue print by stating thus: "Racial relations cannot improve if the wrong type of education is given to the Natives."

"They cannot improve if the result of Native education is the creation of a frustrated people who, as a result of the education they received, have expectations in life which circumstances in South Africa do not allow to be fulfilled immediately, when it creates people who are trained for professions not open to them, when there are people who have received a form of cultural training which strengthens their desire for white-collar occupations to such an extent that there are more such people than openings available."(Verwoerd)

"Therefore, good race relations are spoilt when the correct education is not given. Above all, good racial relations cannot exist when the education is given under control of people who create wrong expectations on the part of the Native himself, if such people believe in a policy of equity, if, let me say, for example, a Communist gives his training to the 'natives."

"Such a person will, by the very nature of the education he gives, both as regards the content of that education and as regards its spirit, create expectations in the minds of the Bantu(Africans) which clash with the possibilities of this country, it is therefore necessary that Native Education should be controlled in such a way that it should be in accord with the policy of the state."(Verwoerd}

In a later statement, Dr. Verwoerd elucidated what he was saying above as follows:

"I just want to remind Hon. Members that if the native in South Africa today in any kind of school in existence is being taught to expect that he will live his adult life under a policy of equal rights, his is making a big mistake. This law gave the Minister powers to decide what the content of African education should be, and classroom conduct must be approved by the Minister's permission."(Verwoerd)

In 1954, Verwoerd said:

"The general aims of Bantu Education Act is to transform education for natives into Bantu Education. A Bantu pupil must obtain knowledge, skills, attitudes which will be useful and advantageous to him and at the same time beneficial to his [Bamtu] community … The school must equip him to meet the demand which the economic life in South Africa will impose on him... There is no place for him [the Bantu] in the European community above the level of certain forms of labor....

"For that reason, it is of no avail for him to receive a training which has as its aim absorption in the European community. ... Until now he has been subject to a school system which drew him away from his own community and misled him by showing him the green pastures of European society in which he is not allowed to graze. What is the use of teaching a Bantu child mathematics when he[Bantu child] cannot use it in practice? ...

"That is absurd. Education is not after all something that hangs up in the air. Education must train and teach people in accordance with the opportunities in life[His African Community]. ... It is therefore necessary that native education should be controlled in such a way that it should be in accordance with the policy of the State."

Verwoerd believed that Bantu teachers must be integrated as active agents in the development of the Bantu community. The Black teacher must not try to rise above his community, and must not be integrated into the White community. A whole new Hub is going to be dedicated to Bantu Education in South Africa, wherein we will fully explore the ramification and changes brought about by this type of educational system.

Immigration Regulation Amendment Act: This Act permit or public vehicle to reserve such charged any person in charge of any public premises or vehicle for the exclusive use of any race or class. The doctrine of separate but unequal was enshrined in South African Law.

Native labor(Settlement of Disputes) Act: This Act outlawed strikes by African Workers and established a complicated machinery for the settlement of industrial disputes involving Africans.

Criminal Law Amendment Act: This law prescribed very severe penalties for the breaking of any law as a political protest.

Public Safety Act: Provided for rule by decree in an emergency.

1954

Natives Resettlement Act: This provided for the establishment of a Resettlement Board to undertake the forcible removal of 57,000 Africans from Sophiatown, Martinadale, Newclare and Pageview, the so-called 'black spots' in the western area of central Johannesburg, to Meadowlands and Diepkloof,over ten miles south west of the city of Johannesburg. The population of this western area was taken on military lines at gun-point. The Afrikaners, to mark their conquest of Sophiatown they renamed it 'Triomf'(Triumph). These areas became what is known as "Soweto," today. This is worthy of noting from whence Soweto emerged from as a concept and Reality today.

Native Trust and Land Amendment Act: This removed the obligation on the government to find alternative land for displaced squatters, approximately over one million people.

Riotous Assemblies and Suppression of Communism Amendment Act: It removed the ones on the Minister to give hearing to any person he proposed to ban, and rendered all 'named' Communists ineligible for election to Parliament or Provincial Councils.

South-West Africa Native Affairs Administration Act. The Act transferred the administration of African Affairs in South-West Africa from the Administrator of the territory to the South African Minister of Native Affairs.

1955

Departure from the Union Regulation Act: This Act laid down that no South African over the age of sixteen years should leave the Union unless in possession of a valid passport or permit, and those who criticized the government policies had their passport withdrawn.

Appellate Division Quorum Act: It enlarged the Appeal Court and qualified its right to pronounce on the validity of Act of Parliament.

Senate Act: Enlarged the Senate to facilitate the passage of the Separate Representation of votersBill.

Criminal Procedure and evidence Amendment Act. This empowered the police to enter and search premises without a warrant. In the debate about this measure, the Minister of Justice made it clear that the Bill was aimed at extra-parliamentary political opposition.

Natives (Urban Areas) Amendment Act: The Act prohibited owners of buildings in an urban area from allowing more than five Africans to reside in any one building at any time except with special permission from the Minister of Native Affairs. The Act was aimed domestic servants housed at the top of blocks of flats. It's estimated that 20,000 Africans, in Johannesburg alone, had to move out and were expected to pay increased rent and the transport costs of their removal.

Motor Carrier Transportation Amendment Act. The National Transport Board or local boards were given the power to enforce apartheid on transport services.

Criminal Procedure Act: It extended the powers of the police to kill someone suspected of committing an offense who was fleeing or resisting arrest.

1956

Industrial Conciliation Act. This Act provided for the splitting of the trade union movement on racial lines and for the reservation of jobs on a racial basis.

Native Amendment Act: Permitted the banishment orders to be served without prior notice to the person concerned.

Natives (Prohibition of Interdicts) Act: Laid down that , when an African was in receipt of a removal or banishment order, no court may issue and interdict which would have the effect of suspending execution, or suspend the order until the outcome of review proceedings or an appeal. For the African - even if he were the wrong man and had had a notice served on him by mistake — was to remove himself first and argue his case afterwards, even though irreparable damage might have been caused to him and his family.

Natives (Urban Areas) Amendment Act: This Act empowered an urban local authority — if it considered the presence of any African under its jurisdiction to be detrimental to the maintenance of peace and order. The Act was specifically aimed at so-called 'political agitators'.

South Africa Act Amendment Act: Revalidated the separate Representation of voters Act of 1951.

Riotous Assembly Act: Consolidated the laws relating to control of riotous assemblies and provided, inter alia, that persons found guilty of intimidating others to stay from work or to join ay association or society(like a trade union), or picketing, or breaking a contract of employment, would be liable to pay a fifty pounds fine or six months in jail or both.

1957.

Natives Law Amendment Act: This Act contained the 'church clause' which the Minister of Native Affairs was empowered to direct that the attendance of Africans at any church service in a White area should cease. This Act made it an offense for a non resident to enter or remain in an African Location, village or hostel without permission of the managing official.

Group Areas Amendment Act: This particular Act prohibited members of a disqualified racial group from attending a public cinema, or partaking of refreshment in a licensed restaurant or refreshment room, or tea room or eating house, or visiting any club, in a particular group or controlled area except under permit.

Native Laws Further Amendment Act: This Act gave the Minister power to deport so-called 'foreign natives', whose presence in South Africa was considered by the Minister not to be in the public interest.

Nursing Act: Provided for the introduction of Apartheid into the nursing profession. Separate registers and rolls were to be kept of White, Colored and African Nurses, while the Nursing Council in control of the profession was to consist of White persons only.

Immorality Act: This increased the maximum penalty for illicit carnal intercourse between Whites and non-Whites to seven years imprisonment, while making it an offense not only for a White and non-White together to commit an indecent or immoral act, but also to solicit one another to the commitment of any such act.

1958

Criminal Procedure Amendment Act: It empowered the Supreme Court to apply the death penalty in cases of robbery or attempted robbery where the accused was proved to have carried a dangerous weapon,or to have threatened or to have committed assault.

Electoral Laws Amendment Act: Extended Franchise to White persons over eighteen years of age.

Natives Taxation and Development Act: Made a provision that every African male over eighteen years old should pay basic general tax of one pound and fifteen shillings instead of one pound. Under this Act, women were liable to pay general tax for the first time.

1959

Bantu Investment Corporation Act: A corporate body was established known as Bantu investment Corporation of SA Ltd to promote and encourage the economic development of Bantu persons in Bantu areas, by provision of money, technical, or other assistance, and expert advice. The affairs of the corporation were to managed by board of directors appointed by the Minister and consisting of whites only.

Criminal Law Amendment Act: This provided for 'week-end' periodical imprisonment and laid down minimum sentences for certain categories of offense.

Prisons Act . This Act made it an offense to sketch or photograph or publish sketch or photograph a prison or prisoner or to publish false information about a prisoner or ex-prisoner or the administration of any prison with the onus paced on the publisher to prove he had taken reasonable steps to ascertain the veracity of his story. The effect of this has been to discourage the Press from exposing jail atrocities.

Extension of University Education Act: The Act provided for the exclusion of non-White students from the hitherto open universities and the establishment of segregated colleges on ethnic lines for the various non-White races.

University College of Fort Hare Transfer Act: This Act transferred control of the college to the Minister of Bantu Education, to change an open University of high academic standards into a 'tribal' college of low ones, with staff carefully purged of all liberal elements.

Industrial Conciliation Amendment Act: The Act gave the Minister of Labor to outlaw strikes in the canning industry.

Motor Carrier Transportation Amendment Act. This enabled Transportation Boards to enforce apartheid taxi services through-out the Cape and Natal. In the other two provinces(Transvaal and range Free State), such discrimination already existed.

Promotion of Self-Government Act: This Act abolished African representation in Parliament and outlined procedures for the establishment of so-called 'self-government' in the Reserves.

1960

Factories, Machinery, and Building Work Amendment Act: This empowered the government to order the provision in factories of separate entrances, clocking in devices, pay offices, first-Aid rooms, protective clothing, crockery, cutlery and work rooms for the various races. The government had separate sanitary conveniences, washrooms, changing rooms, rest rooms, dining rooms and work places where the employees of different races worked in the sane room.

Referendum Act: The Act provided for the holding of a referendum on the establishment of a republic.

Reservation of Separate Amenities Act: This Act provided for and facilitated for the enforcement of apartheid on the beaches in South Africa.

Senate Act: This law reduced the size of the Senate, which had been enlarged in 1955 to facilitate the passage if the Senate Representation of Voters Bill.

Unlawful Organization Act: This law empowered the Minister of Defense to order any person or class of persons to evacuate or assemble in any particular building or premises or area in time of war or during operations for the prevention or suppression of internal disorder.

1961

Urban Bantu Councils Act: This law permitted an urban local authority to establish an Urban Bantu Council for any African residential area under its jurisdiction, such a council consisted of elected and selected members, with the number of selected members not exceeding the number elected.

The councils are intended as a substitute for the direct representation of Africans on the urban local authorities themselves, a policy that was contrary to the policy of the government. Representation was based on ethnic bases of the African people, with separate representation for the Zulu, Xhosas, Sothos, Tswanas, Pedis, Vendas, Shangaans, Ndebeles, Swazis; all of which are the nine(9) ethnic groupings comprising the African peoples of South Africa.

Defense Amendment Act: The Minister of Defense was given the power to order anyone to evacuate, assemble in any building or area in time of war or during operations for the prevention or suppression of internal uprising. To avoid the suspicion that he was aiming at the establishment of Concentration Camps, and the Act made such an order to remain for four days, although the order may be renewed.

Defense Further Amendment Act: This law allowed for the extension of military training for White youths selected by ballot.

Police Amendment. This Act or law allowed and provided for the recruitment of a White police reserve.

General Law Amendment Act: This Act provided for detention without trial/bail for up to twelve days.

Indemnity Act: This law was created that no proceedings, whether civil or criminal, arising from acts committed during the 1960 state of emergency, could be brought in any court of law against the government and its officers. The Press announced that because of the consequences of the Sharpeville shootings, the 244 claimants of police murder and brutality, were suing for two-hundred and fifty-thousand pounds, for the murder of their breadwinners, personal injury and unlawful arrest. As a result of this Act, none of the victims could sue nor claim anything.

Liquor Amendment Act: This law removed all restrictions on the purchase of alcohol by Colored people and Asians for off-consumption, and it gave power to holders of consumption licenses to sell liquor to any African aged eighteen or older. This law has created an army of alcoholics in the African community form 1961 to the present.

Republic of South Africa Constitution Act: This Act established the Republic, headed by the State President, and outside the commonwealth since the Prime Ministers' Conference f March 1961. South Africa stopped being a Union and became known as the Republic of South Africa.

1960

Colored Development Corporation Act: The Act established a colored Development Corporation to encourage and promote the economic development of the colored people. The Board of the Corporation consisted of Whites only.

General Law Amendment Act: The law, the so-called 'Sabotage Act,' laid down a minimum penalty of five years and a maximum of death for sabotage, and provided for the placing of government opponents under house arrest. Winnie Mandela was subjected to these draconian measures and exiled from her house she lived in, in Soweto.

General Law Further Amendment Act: This law made painting slogans on walls to be punishable by six months in Jail and other penalties that might be imposed under another law.

National Education Advisory Council Act: The National Education Council was established and its fifteen members were elected by the Minister of Education. This centralized control of education by the government was finalized through the legislation of the National Education Policy Act of 1967.

1963

Aliens Control Act: Provided, inter alia, Africans from foreign countries without legal papers may be detained and deported without trial. Pending their deportation order, these Africans were made to work as required.

Constitution Amendment Act: This Act provided for the recognition of African languages as additional official languages in the proposed Bantustans.

Explosives Amendment Act: This law increased the maximum penalties prescribed in the principal Act of 1956. If anyone was arrested for causing explosions endangering life, was sentenced to three years.

Higher Education Amendment Act: This enabled that the Indian University Education from the Department of Education to the Department of Indian Affairs.

Liquor Amendment Act: Stated that liquor could not be supplied to workers as part of their wages, but that companies could supply their employees free liquor to any African over the age of eighteen for their personal consumption.

Rural Colored Areas Act: This law amended conditions for the occupation of land and provided for the establishment of advisory boards in colored reserves.

Extension of University Education Amendment Act: Provided for Ministerial control of staff appointments at Fort Hare university college.

Births, Marriages and Deaths Registration Act. This Act provided for compulsory registration of African Births, marriages and deaths, to take effect when proclaimed by the State President on the Government Gazette.

National Film Board Act: Provided for the establishment of a National Film Board to produce propaganda films for the government.

Defense Amendment Act: This law enabled members of the Citizen force and Commandos to be called out in support of the police to suppress internal disorder.

Better Administration of Designated Areas Act. Provides for a mass evacuation or removal of population and the elimination freehold land ownership rights for Africans in Alexandra Township, very near Johannesburg.

General Law Amendment Act: Provided for the detention of persons without trial for the purpose of interrogation.

Bantu Laws Amendment Act: Restricted Africans' rights of residence in the Urban Areas - should be read together with the Bantu Laws Amendment Act, 1964.

Transkei Constitution Act: This Act was passed in order to provide for so-called 'self-government' on the Transkei(Southeast Coast of South Africa.

Colored Persons Education Act. This Act surrendered the control of education for Colored persons to the Department of Colored Affairs.

Publications and Entertainments Act: Provided for the censorship of newspapers, books,films,state shows, and art exhibitions.

1964

Bantu Laws Amendment Act: This law tightened restrictions on Africans' rights of entry, residence and employment in urban areas.

Bantu labor Act: This Act consolidates the laws to the recruiting, employment, accommodation, feeding and health conditions of African laborers(There was no change in principle taken into account).

Colored Persons Representative Council Act. This Act provided for the establishment of a Council to come into being after the planned abolition of Colored representation in the Central Parliament.

General laws Amendment Act: This law tightened security las that any person refusing to give evidence in a criminal trial can be jailed u to twelve months, and alleged accomplices can be compelled to give evidence, even if they incriminated themselves in the process.

1965

Bantu Homelands Development Corporation Act: The minister of Bantu Administration was empowered a development Corporation in each African Homeland to promote economic development. The management of this entity was placed in the hands of Whites.

Criminal Amendment Act: This Act provided the state with the power to detain political activists and certain classes of criminal cases to held for 180 days for repeated periods without bail.

Community Development Amendment Act: The group Areas Development Board was renamed the Community Development Board and provided with additional powers.

Suppression of Communism Amendment Act: This act prohibited the publication of speeches or writings by banned persons who had left South Africa, it also empowered the State President to ban any publication deemed to be a continuation, even if in another name, of one already prohibited.

Constitution Amendment Act: This law increased the number of seats representing White voters in the House of Assembly would hold office for five years from the date of their election, from 150 to 160, with six seats for White voters of South West Africa and the remaining four for White representatives of the Colored Voters!

Separate Representation of voters Amendment Act. This Act laid down that Colored Representatives in the House of Assembly would hold office for five years from the date of their election. The Bill mad it clear that the views of the Colored voters need not be taken into account if Parliament should be dissolved at any time for the purpose of consulting with the White Voters.

Group Areas Amendment Ac: This law made the Minister of Planning responsible for the planning of group areas for Whites, Coloreds and Asians, and for permit control up to the time that group areas are proclaimed. The development and permit control fell under the Minister of Community Development.

Official Secrets Amendment Act: This Act made it an offense to communicate or publish any information relating to any military or police matter in any manner or for any purpose prejudicial to the safety or interests of the State. This law was passed in part to curtail the freedom of the Press completely.

Police Amendment Act. It empowered any policeman, at any place within a mile of the South African Border, to search anybody, vehicle or premises without warrant. This was done in order to thwart saboteurs form abroad.

Prisons Amendment Act. The Act tightened up restrictions on the publication of information about prison conditions and prisoners.

Indians Education Act: This law transferred all Indian education from the Department of Education to the Department of Indian Affairs.

Copyright Act. The State President was empowered to authorize or prohibit the publication or presentation of any work or production. The Act was designed to stave-of boycotts of South Africa by overseas authors, artists, many of whom were prohibit production of their works before a segregated audience.

1966

Bantu Laws Amendment Act: This law laid down that only citizens of the territories of the homelands can live there, and no one else, without a permit, and this included Whites, Coloreds, Indians and Africans were barred from the homeland of the Transkei, in the Eastern Cape, unless the Minister gives the permission.

Rand Afrikaans University Act: Provided for the establishment of an Afrikaans university in Johannesburg. They omitted the 'conscience clause' that guaranteed the freedom of religious belief.

Civil Defense Act: This law gave the Minister of Justice sweeping powers over persons and property in the event of an emergency or threat of an emergency.

General Law Amendment Act: This sabotage Act was extended to South West-Africa and provided for the detention of political prisoners dubbed "terrorists" without trial for fourteen days.

Suppression of Communism Amendment Act: It contained a clause that authorized the continued detention of political prisoners who have completed their sentence. Robert 'Prof' Sobukwe, the Leader of the Pan African Congress, was detained under this clause.

Separate Representation of Voters Amendment Act: This law extended the terms of office of he Colored representative in the House of Assembly to October 1967.

Industrial Conciliation Amendment Act: This Act provided for the compulsory deduction of trade-union dues from workers' wage packets Those White workers who did not want to belong to a mainly non-White Union, opted for the formation of a separate union.

Industrial Conciliation Further Amendment Act: This Act prohibited strikes and lockouts for any purpose for any purpose not connected with the relations between employers and employees.

1967

Terrorism Act: This law or Act. This law made terrorism a crime punishable by five years imprisonment and a maximum sentence of death. Suspected terrorists were detained for indefinite periods, and this included someone who was in possession of information about terrorist activity.

Training Centers for Colored Cadets Act: The Act provided for compulsory registration and training on military lines of Colored males between the ages of eighteen to twenty-four. It was a move to replace Africans with the Coloreds because africans were being endorsed out of Western Cape in terms of the government's policy of separate development.

Suppression of Communism Amendment Act: This law prohibited persons convicted or listed under the suppression of Communism Act from practicing as Advocates or attorneys.

Border Control Act. The Act tightened the provisions on entry to and departure from the Republic of South Africa.

Separate Representation of Voters Amendment Act: The term of office of the for the Colored Representative in Parliament to October was extended to October 1969.

Defense Amendment Act: All White youth who turned seventeen were now liable for service in the Citizen Force for ten years, and the Commandos for sixteen years. This Act made it an offense to publish information about military matters either in peace or war, unless the permission by the Minister of defense.

National Education Policy Act: The Minister got the power(Previously held by Provincial Councils) to determine the policy to be followed in the education of White Children in their schools.

Educational Services Act: This Act laid the rule that the Department of Education will control education for whites in universities and technical colleges.

Physical Planning and Utilization of Resources Act. the Minister of Planning had complete control over future industrial development, and had power to veto establishment in urban areas industries based on African labor

Mining Rights Act: This Act gave the Minister increased control over the granting of mining rights in the African reserves.

Pension Laws Amendment Act. This bill increased pensions for all races, and war pension increases for Whites, Coloreds and Indians.

Population Registration Amendment Act: This law made ones racial descent determined race classification. This Bill aimed at stopping racial integration between the races.

General Law Amendment Act: This law was passed and extended the detention of Mr. Robert Sobukwe, leader of the Pan African Congress, on Robben Island for a further year.

Immorality Amendment Act: The Provisions of the Immorality Act were tightened.

Foreign Affairs Special Account Act: Provided for a fund to be used for 'services of a confidential nature' by the Minister of Foreign Affairs. The Minister said that he would not use it on foreign espionage. The Nationalist said: "The Likelihood is that the sums are intended to buy sympathy from African countries of dubious loyalty to the cause of African liberation. The other likely object would be to align South Africa." !967)

1968

Criminal Procedure Amendment Act: This Bill provided that a magistrate may, in mitigating circumstances , impose lighter sentences because this Act enable them to grant bail to persons accused of murder or high treason. It also prohibited publication of any information relating to charges of extortion or indecency.

Prohibition of Mixed Marriages Amendment Act: Any person who domiciled in South Africa, but enters into marriage outside the country, and cannot be solemnized inside the country, this kind of marriage will be void in South Africa.

Universities Amendment Act: The Minister was empowered to withdraw funding to the university if it fail to comply with the conditions laid down by him. The South African Indian council was converted into a statutory body with a minimum of twenty-five members. They were appointed and dismissed by the Minister.

Births, marriages and Deaths Registration Amendment Act. This Bill stated that children born after December 1967 should be registered. Births,Deaths had confirmed race classification of the parents or child. This Bill was to ensure that the race classification on a birth certificate was the same as that on the Popular Register.

Community Development Amendment Act: Licenses were not issues to anyone who, in terms of Group Areas Act, is not qualified to occupy the trading premises, unless having an exemption form the Minister of Community Development.

Promotion of the Economic Development of Bantu Homelands Act: This Act provided for the continuation of the Bantu Investment Corporation, and Xhosa Development Corporation, and the creation of similar Corporations in other homelands.

Development of Self-Government For Native Nations in South-West Africa Act: This Act provided for the establishment of six Bantustans in South-West Africa -- Ovamboland, Damaraland, Hereroland, Okavangoland, Eastern Caprivi and Kaokoland.

Separate Representation of Voters Amendment Act: This Act abolished the of Separate Representation of the Cape Colored voters in the Assembly, the Provincial Council of the senate, established by the original Act of 1951.

Colored Persons' Representative Council Amendment Act. Provided for the establishment of a Colored Council of sixty members-forty elected and twenty nominated

Prohibition of Political Interference Act: Prohibited multi racial political parties and meetings.

General Law Amendment Act: It included a clause providing for the detention of PAC leader Robert Sobukwe for a further year.

Economic Cooperation Promotion Loan Fund Act. This law provided for the granting of loans to aid the economies of 'friendly' developing countries.

Armaments Development and Production Act: Established a state-owned armaments industry with and initial capital of R100 million('R' for Rands, south African currency).

The Apartheid regime can be characterized in this way: It is a unified White minority subjugating and denying an undifferentiated African majority any meaningful rights by means of a combination of overtly racist legislation, a powerful administrative machine and the use of brutal military and police force. The White controlled South Africa easily pointed out to the threat that was threatening White culture, poser and rule.

Black Dominance - the Black peril — fueled apartheid authoritarianism, justified and legitimized it for Whites, and made the concentration of power in few hands. Separate development remained the official dogma despite a widespread feeling that granting local independence to a handful of homelands, and the intention to make all Africans, no matter where they really resided and worked, putative citizens of the homelands, only obscured the demographic and political realities: blacks would continue to constitute a majority in all the urban centers of the country, and in the rural, white farmed areas as well.

No legislated fiction could eliminate their preponderance, their economic relevance to modern South Africa, their political salience, their ability, regardless of age, of being mobilized against prevailing norms, their antagonism to separate development, their distrust of homeland options, the increasing radicalization and nationalism of their politics, their new refusal to prefer the option of embourgeoisement to shift in political fortunes, and their determination to share power instead of merely demanding relaxations of social Apartheid.

The history of Afrikaner politics is marked more by pragmatic responses to the realities of power than by ideological autarky. When it was time to cooperate with the English, the Afrikaners did so. When they were defeated in war, they made most of the resulting bitterness, bided their time, and returned victorious and determined never again to be denied political primacy. With the dawn of modern and contemporary politics no matter how begrudgingly they handled it, most Afrikaners knew that eventually, Africans will take over the country and its political, economic and social power; they new it was inevitable and could no longer be dismissed nor would the problem disappear. It did not, and Africans are the majority rulers in South Africa, and have been now in control for the past 26+ years.

SOWETO

Erudite Historical Memorial Struggles:

The Father Of Soweto

The history of the formation of Soweto is one that has not yet been fully told, and at this point we begin where it all originated from. This was all set in motion by James Sofasonke Mpanza who was an activist who laid ground for Civic struggles and he created the first Civic Movement in the country. Without the late James Sofasonke Mpanza, there would be no Soweto.

James Sofasonke Mpanza was born in 1889 in Georgedale, in KwaZulu-Natal, and was schooled in Amanzimtoti. He was once imprisoned when he was in his 20's for burning an Indian merchant inside his shop after allegations that the man was abusing African women. Mpanza was imprisoned and sentenced to death and imprisoned at Pretoria Central Prison whilst awaiting his execution.

During his time in prison he converted to Christianity and wrote a book called "The Christian Pathways". He was pardoned by the visiting Duke of Kent in 1927 after being imprisoned for nine(9) years. Mpanza was granted clemency after writing a letter to the British Royal.

After his release Mpanza settled in Bertrams, in Eastern Johannesburg, until he was moved to Orlando. At that time, what was later to be known as Orlando East and later Orlando west, across the Klip Rivier, at that time it was a farm of south west-Johannesburg and named after Orlando Leak, the administrator of the township

Due to the urban Areas Act, which prevented African South Africans from owning houses or land in the city, Orlando quickly became over-crowded. As a member of the Orlando East Advisory board, Mpanza appealed to the then minister of "Native Affairs" for adequate housing, but was unsuccessful. In 1944, he decided to actively address the situation on his own by leading a group of 20,000 homeless people to a vacant land next to the Klip Rivier and set up a squatter camp there.

The new settlement was called -Masakeni- named after the sack materials that were used to build these ramshackle dwellings and informal dwellings/houses. Mpanza separated the site into four blocks and administered them without assistance from the authorities. His fight for basic human rights and decent housing etched Mpanza into the historical record and memory of South Africa. Legislation was passed later in 1944 to remove the squatters, and this resulted in a violent confrontation and two deaths.

In 1945 Ernest Oppenheimer loaned the city R6-million (now equivalent to US$ 758,000 to provide adequate housing to the squatters of 'eMasakeni,' and today the place is known as Orlando East/West and Jabavu townships [The story about Oppenheimer will be fleshed out a bit below on this Hub].

This marked the start of SOWETO(South Eastern/Western Townships), now one of the biggest and most famous Townships in the World. This is where Mpanza furnished and created his Party called the "Sofasonke Party" which addressed problems the people of Orlando East/ West and Jabavu had with the autohrities and with each other. Mpanza passed away in 1970...

Houses of Bondage

Soweto is not a Zulu, Pedi, Xhosa, Tswana, Ndebele, Shangaan, Venda, Sotho or Swazi/Tsonga name maybe meaning Peace or name of some great leader. It is simply and Acronym and an amalgam of words cobbled together by the Johannesburg City Council into The GHETTO of SOWETO or South Western-Eastern Townships.

This was an appropriate bureaucratic designation for this realization of the relentless bureaucratic idea that Whites and Africans must live apart. Officially; the Nationalist Government considered Soweto a temporarily unavoidable social aberration in what has now been declared a "White area".

Eventually - or so the Theory of apartheid postulated, at its most preposterous, holds — the entire urban African population will melt into the "Tribal Reserves" or "Bantustans" or "Native Reserves" or "Tribal Homelands"(which they attempted in the later years of their rule and called them Bantustans or Homelands-and they failed dismally).

The Afrikaner Government held that if they can allow Africans of Soweto to acquire free hold rights, that would be the anchor for Africans to settle permanently in the midst of White Society, and according to the Boers, that was against the policies of their Government.

As has been extensively noted with the Apartheid draconian laws, all were strictly and specifically designed to separate all races inside South Africa, and the regime spent a lot of money and power to actualize Apartheid reality of divided, separate and unequal society, dominated by Whites.

Ernest Oppeheimer was keenly aware of the need to amalgamate his mining companies with the United States capitalists. He met with American mining engineers in an effort to combine the Eastern Rand Mining and other companies with financial and political communities in the United States.

He met with a man called Herbert Hoover. A former Finance Minister Henry Hull, and Ernest said: "If American capital wishes to obtain a footing in South Africa, the easiest course would be to acquire an interest in our company. JP Morgan was among the considered investors in this new government of Apartheid's endeavor. The name, Anglo American Corporation was used to indicate American connections. In September 1917, the Anglo-American Corporation of South Africa, Ltd. was registered

It was at this time when Sol Plaatjie came into the picture and began to write about the plight of Africans in this way:

"You will see Africans, both men and women driven away from their homes, their homes broken up, with no hope of redress, on the mandate of a government to which they had loyally paid taxation without representation — driven from their homes, because they do not want to become servants ..."

Sol Plaatjie was referring to the Native Land Act which prohibited all blacks from buying or leasing any land outside designated territories known as the 'Reserves'. As indicated above with the passages of so many draconian laws, Africans were henceforth forbidden to settle in areas marked for Whites; they could stay there only as laborers, even though more than a million of them had been working as productive tenant farmers and sharecroppers.

Houses in the 'Veld'

Africans were relegated to useless and harsh parts of the country, which comprised 13% of the total land mass of Africa. The rest of the 87% was reserved for whites (Same today during ANC rule). In a false way, the Act was meant to create "parallel institutions" for Africans and Whites, but in effect it was known more as the principle of separate but equal (in reality, unequal/segregated facilities).

General Smuts put it this way: "The races should be kept apart in our institutions, land ownership, in forms of government, and in may other ways. As far as possible the forms of political government will be such that each will be satisfied and developed according to his own proper lines.

"It was during this time that the mines were suffering huge labor shortages. The government and the Randlords, and the Act made it possible for Blacks to go and look for work in the mines, digging up the gold and diamonds, and this is what the owners and investors of the mines were hoping for."

Sol Plaatjie spoke indignantly about this issue: "If anyone had told us at the beginning that a majority of members of the Union parliament was capable of passing a law … whose object is to prevent natives from ever rising above the position of servants to white, we would have regarded that person as a fit subject for the lunatic asylum."

Life in the Shacks

This Act had tragic consequences because hardly anyone finds were set aside for the adjustment period, and African farm system totally collapsed. Poverty with all its affects, was the norm. Infant mortality rose: every fifth child died in its first year. Crime became rampant, Black could neither go forward nor backward; their customs from eons ago, and common laws were shattered, yet their education was left to the ill-equipped missionary societies. Untrained, geographically limited, hampered by selective pass laws and taxes, the Africans crowded back into the mine compounds.

Life had dealt an uneven and unimaginable blow onto the Africans of South Africa, and this left Africans with an unrecoverable culture shock: the weather was strange and cold: the Sun was seething in December and snowed in the winter; the sanitation in the compounds was primitive and terrible, and that easily spread diseases; there were fortune tellers and spider fights; the women were auctioning themselves off to the highest bidder; the thefts and beatings in a place without laws or regulations, was perplexing and devastating.

For Africans to leave their farms and ride in on the trains to Johannesburg was as if they have been transported in time. The City of gold presented a different scene. According to a visiting Australian Journalist: "Ancient Nineveh and Babylon have been revived. Johannesburg is their twentieth-century prototype. It is a city of unbridled squander and unfathomable squalor."For Africans, it was as if they entered into the tenth century with their intense culture, village life and age old rites, and exited into the twentieth century city of technology and segregation.

At nighttime, the gold digging African miners lived in all male hostel mining compounds; during the day they tunneled deep(some are now more or less two miles into the ground) into the earth, which was a dark and hazardous explosions and cave-ins. Whatever age they were, they were addressed as 'boys', and the mine owners made sure that they never matured to adults. They could not bargain for higher wages and better working conditions. Africans were not allowed to go on strikes, to hold office, to become managers of any kind.

Schools were very poor in every sense of the word. Early adolescents were expected to leave school earlier and join the African miners labor force of cheap labor. Every African knew that he could be replaced very quickly because there were hundreds vying for his position. The over-supply of labor affected Johannesburg greatly.

The African work-seeker took any menial job without any fuss. Oliver Schreiner commented thus: "if, blinded by the gain of the moment, we see nothing in our dark man but a vast engine of labor; if to us he is not a man, but only a tool, [if] we reduce this vast mass to the condition of a vast, seething, ignorant proletariat — then I would rather draw a veil over the future of this land." Oliver saw all the drudgery from a white persons perspective, and it is very moving, Sol Plaatjie, an African stated it this way:

"Native mothers, evicted from their homes shivered with their babies by their sides. When we saw on that night the teeth of the little children chattering through the cold ... we wondered what their little mites had done that a home should suddenly become to them a thing of the past."

One family ejected in the same manner, Plaatjie witnessed them burying their child at night so that the proprietor must not see them, and he wrote that: "Even criminals, dropping straight from the gallows, have an undisputed claim to six feet underground in which to rest their criminal remains."

But under the cruel operation of Native Land Act, little children, whose only crime is that God did not make them White, are sometimes denied that right in their ancestral home. When the ANC was formed, John Dube became its President, and Sol Plaatjie became the Secretary General and continued to oppose the injustice Africans suffered from being forced out of their houses and put in treeless, rock ridden/filled empty spaces in the middle of nowhere.

Matchbox Houses

As the Afrikaner Nationalist Part implemented their strategy of Grand Apartheid, they were sounding of its policies and rhetoric. In 1955, Johannes G. Strijdom declared: "I am being as blunt as I can. I am not making any excuses. Either the White man dominates or the Black takes over. I say that the non-European will not accept leadership — if he has a choice. The only way the Europeans can maintain supremacy is by domination."

People were subjected to division by race and the Group Areas Act was applied to lord over them, and this was the main pillar of apartheid. This Act condemned mixed as 'deathbeds' of the European race. Other regulations forbade entry of Africans into universities.

Ernest Oppenheimer provided his employees with electricity and water-borne sanitation facilities which today, are still not even available to about half the population of Europe. At this time, black miners were earning five pounds a month and their families were not allowed to live with them. The White mine worker made fifteen times more than what African miners earned, and they did not have the problems of dual residence: living in the mine compounds and with their families.

They did the latter. Oppenheimer maintained that they had to up the standard of living for the White people, and at the same time he saw no sense in lowering the standards of the lives of Africans either. Ernest and Harry Oppenheimer proposed to build new African towns where Anglo's Black workers could live with their families. The Boer Prime Minister, Verwoerd, who was against the quarters, answered him as follows and complained:

"Then every mine can establish its own Native towns with married quarters. That will mean a series of Native towns in the vicinity of the big cities. What about the inevitable day when the vein of gold ran out? A large number of towns will remain... They may amount to 20, or 30 or 40 within that area." Verwoerd loathed to envision the hideous proximity to whites, and they rejected and condemned the plans as out of hand.

Oppenheimer , after reading a book written by Father Huddleston, called "Naught For Your Comfort" in which he wrote about the forced removals of Africans as follows: "In the morning they had gone to work as usual, leaving their wives and children still asleep under the blankets. They had returned in the dark evening to find the roofs stripped from their shacks: their families squatting in the open round a brazier: their children crying with cold and the desire for sleep."

And Father Huddleston wrote what he witnessed for himself:"I found a woman in labor amongst those around the Brazier(Mbaola/Paola), and her baby was born under the winter stars at night. In that dejected little group ... the picture of Bethlehem and the rejection there, came to life." Father Huddleston saw the crimes of murder in the Sophiatown and concluded that the murderers, those murdered had no value in themselves as persons.

Both of them were about Africans: a different category, another species living in a world apart. His critics responded with a piece entitled "Without Fear or Favor" written by a conservative politician: "Without fear or Favor" stated: "I would say that it is men like ... Huddlestone who cause mischief and mistrust among countries. Should trouble indeed arise, they would have contributed greatly to it through their unjust criticism."

After reading the book, and skeptical about Father Huddleston's assertion that Verwoerd-Strijdom policies are like those of Hitler. Oppenheimer had never been to the Shantytown on the outskirts of Johannesburg and was warned, as a White man, not to attempt to go there. He is reportedly to have remarked: "Never mind, there were some things one had to see firsthand. No guards, thank you; no priest, no company officials, Just myself and Ina serving as our own witnesses to Bantu life."

No one attacked, reviled or remarked very much to Oppenheimer when he went to the Shantytown nestled next to a rivulet named Kliprivier. They were bothered by what they saw: a place of aimlessness and despair, with occasional religious celebrations and other social and family distractions. The law, as stated above under the 'Concentration Camp Laws' heading above, demanded that Africans be removed from their 'illegal squatting' next to White areas and sent to 'prescribed' areas in specific African areas-Apartheid government and designated.

These areas were present and supposed to equal to White areas. The government insisted that were vacant acres with water taps, and the Africans can assemble their own shacks there, until that day, whenever that will be, the Government decided to shovel some scrap funds their way for their relief.

THE GHETTO

Ernest Oppenheimer concluded that Father Huddleston was right, because the Johannesburg City Council had objected and used [Illegal law on new plans for housing plans for Africans]. Throughout the three years, Africans had set up a maze of shanties and shacks built of whatever they could scavenge: packing crates, cardboard, plastic, some corrugated iron(material used a hundred years earlier by Cecil Rhodes and other diamond diggers). It is estimated that Shantytown had more than 10,000 African living in sordid conditions of squalor, filth and diseases.

Oppenheimer started speaking out: "Anyone who has visited the Native areas on the outskirts of this city, as I have done, would be impressed by the urgency of the need for action in clearing away the slums[Ghetto?!] that have grown almost as rapidly as the industrial development of Johannesburg. The Native people are the employees of European citizens. Improving on the living conditions of Africans should make for healthy, efficient, law-abiding and contented service." Oppenheimer went ahead and badgered his fellow mining executives and arranged for the building of some 15,000 houses over the next three years.

The Ghetto of Soweto Today

On November 27, 1957, Ernest Oppenheimer passed away. A salute of his passing away came from the African quarters, where he had new housing built replacing the battered and rotten shanties people had to live-in. The occupants, Africans, wanted the name of their new place to be called after their benefactor, Sir Ernest Oppenheimer, but the Johannesburg City Council, because the