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South African Apartheid: Soweto (South Western Eastern Townships) - So Where To?

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Hugh Masekela ~ Soweto Blues

SOuthern WEstern TOwnships - (SOWETO)

south-african-apartheid-soweto-so-where-to
James Sofasonke Mpanza led 20,000 people to Occupy vacant council land due to overcrowding in Orlando East and West-long before there was "Occupy Anything... This led to the formation of Soweto. He is Known as the The Father Of Soweto..

James Sofasonke Mpanza led 20,000 people to Occupy vacant council land due to overcrowding in Orlando East and West-long before there was "Occupy Anything... This led to the formation of Soweto. He is Known as the The Father Of Soweto..

Mpanza riding one of his "Racing horses" of which he owned several and he fought for squatters to eventually create what we now See today as SOWETO

Mpanza riding one of his "Racing horses" of which he owned several and he fought for squatters to eventually create what we now See today as SOWETO

Part of Mpanza's house in 957 Phinyela Street in Orlando East. His family only got their Title Deed in 2010

Part of Mpanza's house in 957 Phinyela Street in Orlando East. His family only got their Title Deed in 2010

Ernest Oppenheimer who donated R6-million to help start build what is today known as SOWETO, because the Apartheid government would not do it and was hoping the squatters would 'melt away' into their Apartheid designated Homelands...

Ernest Oppenheimer who donated R6-million to help start build what is today known as SOWETO, because the Apartheid government would not do it and was hoping the squatters would 'melt away' into their Apartheid designated Homelands...

1976 Students Protesting Afrikaans and Apartheid

1976 Students Protesting Afrikaans and Apartheid

June 1976 Revolution - Mbuyiselo carrying the limp body of Hector Pietersen among the first victims shot by the police at the start of the students march in 1976

June 1976 Revolution - Mbuyiselo carrying the limp body of Hector Pietersen among the first victims shot by the police at the start of the students march in 1976

Already Soweto's attractions, the former Power Station signifies and Marks-out Soweto for tourist and is also now a famous landmark.

Already Soweto's attractions, the former Power Station signifies and Marks-out Soweto for tourist and is also now a famous landmark.

Forced Removals in Apartheid South Africa

Forced Removals in Apartheid South Africa

Known Hostels, built for migrant workers and built throughout Soweto. Only men were allowed in these premises

Known Hostels, built for migrant workers and built throughout Soweto. Only men were allowed in these premises

The Regina Mundi Church in the Township of Rockville in Soweto, south Africa. This church became a symbol of resistance during the Apartheid era

The Regina Mundi Church in the Township of Rockville in Soweto, south Africa. This church became a symbol of resistance during the Apartheid era

The Map of SOWETO's Townships

The Map of SOWETO's Townships

South Africa has a vast and advanced network of Highways and this sign on the the Golden Highway, which partly passes through Soweto in a tangent

South Africa has a vast and advanced network of Highways and this sign on the the Golden Highway, which partly passes through Soweto in a tangent

Newly introduced WesBank Street Race with drivers from different categories racing the 2.2 KM 'L-Shaped track along the Chris Hani Road (Opp. the UJ Campus) and Nicholas Street. 20,000 attended

Newly introduced WesBank Street Race with drivers from different categories racing the 2.2 KM 'L-Shaped track along the Chris Hani Road (Opp. the UJ Campus) and Nicholas Street. 20,000 attended

A View of the City of Johannesburg in South Africa

A View of the City of Johannesburg in South Africa

Part of Soweto's Sprawl

Part of Soweto's Sprawl

Newly rebuilt Orlando East Stadium, in one of Soweto's Oldest Township known as Orlando East, near the City of Johannesburg

Newly rebuilt Orlando East Stadium, in one of Soweto's Oldest Township known as Orlando East, near the City of Johannesburg

FNB or Soccer City City modelled like an African Calabash being prepared for 2010 next to Soweto Highway

FNB or Soccer City City modelled like an African Calabash being prepared for 2010 next to Soweto Highway

Jan Van Riebeeck with the Khoi/San 1652

Jan Van Riebeeck with the Khoi/San 1652

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Nazis in South Africa

Nazis in South Africa

Checking an African's pass: South African Apartheid Pass Laws

Checking an African's pass: South African Apartheid Pass Laws

Last Boer War

Last Boer War

Afrikaner WeerstaandBeweging(Afrikaner Resistance Movement) AWB

Afrikaner WeerstaandBeweging(Afrikaner Resistance Movement) AWB

South African AWB Nazi Sign

South African AWB Nazi Sign

Vooertrekker Hoogte Boer/Afrikaner Museum commemorating the Great Trek, in Pretoria

Vooertrekker Hoogte Boer/Afrikaner Museum commemorating the Great Trek, in Pretoria

Dr. Hendrik Frensch Verwoerd  said: We call ourselves Europeans, but Actually we represent the white men of Africa!

Dr. Hendrik Frensch Verwoerd said: We call ourselves Europeans, but Actually we represent the white men of Africa!

The Hector Pietersen Museum in Orlando West, Soweto, South Africa

The Hector Pietersen Museum in Orlando West, Soweto, South Africa

South Africa's 2010 World Cup Stadiums

South Africa's 2010 World Cup Stadiums

The now transformed Orlando Power station in Orlando, Soweto, into a tourist attraction symbol

The now transformed Orlando Power station in Orlando, Soweto, into a tourist attraction symbol

Welcome to Soweto Sign in Soweto, South Africa

Welcome to Soweto Sign in Soweto, South Africa

Nelson  Rolihlahla Madiba Mandela holding a model of the World Cup

Nelson Rolihlahla Madiba Mandela holding a model of the World Cup

The provinces throughout South Africa where the stadiums for the World Cup will be held fro June 11 to July 11

The provinces throughout South Africa where the stadiums for the World Cup will be held fro June 11 to July 11

Soweto Tennis Open paid in the newly revamped Arthur Ashe Stadium inside the bowels of Soweto

Soweto Tennis Open paid in the newly revamped Arthur Ashe Stadium inside the bowels of Soweto

Squatters seen here erecting their ramshackle shack house which Mpanza found deplorable and went out to fight against

Squatters seen here erecting their ramshackle shack house which Mpanza found deplorable and went out to fight against

Apartheid's Forced Removals

south-african-apartheid-soweto-so-where-to
Boer Nazis

Boer Nazis

Soweto

south-african-apartheid-soweto-so-where-to

The Vulture Culture: The Changing of Mzantsi....

Nazism Apartheid Style

Early White Settlers and Separate Development

The Europeans attitude toward the Africans can be traced back to the arrival of White settlers in South Africa. Van Riebeeck and his and his crew on the orders of the Dutch East India Company in 1652, they were to keep their establishment as small as possible to limit it to a refreshment station which could service ships passing by on their way to India. The remnants of the hedge built by Van Riebeeck marking the outer limits of the station can still be discerned in the botanical gardens at Kirstenbosch, Cape Town.

After five years, the Dutch East India Company allowed to set up as independent colonists, and this was when the White Supremacist mentality was created. M. F. Katzens writes: "Slaves were imported on a small scale from the beginning of the settlement and they gradually became part of the permanent feature of the settled new White society; also, this happened once private agriculture was part of the south-west of the Cape colony."

Whites and the Khoi exchanged cattle and goods; smallpox and other epidemics caused great mortality; some groups retreated inland, and accepted the Dutch Company's authority. In 1785, the San, who had lost their hunting lands and game, that this resulted in a guerrilla warfare between the San and the settlers. The displacement of the Khoi, some of them were incorporated into the new society as servile dependents of the white farmers as herdsmen, domestic servants. As the cultural barriers broke down in the Cape, due to widespread miscegenation between whites, slaves, and the Khoi Khoi, this gave rise to the emergence of the Cape Colored people.

The attitude of the White settlers toward the indigenous and the slaves, was unhealthy that Van Riebeeck's successor, Wagenaar, issued and instruction in 1662: "The Hottentots(Khoi) and the Capemans, with whom a free access has been hitherto allowed, shall still continue to enjoy the same; and you will on no account suffer them, out of wantonness, or upon trifling causes, to be called by the garrison, the cattle herds, or the sailors, 'black stinking dogs', still less to be kicked, pushed or beaten..."

According to historical account, the expression "black stinking dogs" originated with Van Riebeeck himself. Professor C. W. Kiewiet has this to say about the attitude of the colonists towards the locals: 'According to their belief it was more than their arms that made them prevail over the natives, and their superiority depended on more than their intelligence or their institutions.'

Their superiority was born of race and faith, a quality divinely given which could not be transmitted to other races or acquired by them. 'The stinking black dogs', as van Riebeeck already called them, suffered from an inferiority, predestined and irreparable complex, which fixed their place in a society of white men.

A Hundred years after Jan Van Riebeeck landed in the Cape, the colonists, who came to be known as the Afrikaners or Boers, evolved their way of life in isolation. They lived a life of subsistence, not much different from the life of the local inhabitants, but they developed self-sufficient and independence of outlook contradicted by the slave ownership.

Their life was grim, and were facing a multitude of human and natural obstacles. The Bible was their anchor and faith, but otherwise lived a bleak existence. Economically they had their place in the field, and the kitchen; socially and politically they stood outside the circle of the rights and privileges of white men; even legally they existed in an ambiguous region between law and the arbitrary will of their master. This has remained the attitude to present day 21 century South Africa.

The history of South Africa, since 1652 has undergone more changes than all of which cannot be talked about in this limited article. But it should be borne in mind that the British and the Afrikaners' relationship was antagonistic and in constant opposition. Trade, cheap labor and land were some of the most contested issues of the day. W. M. Freund wrote:

"The Final transfer from Dutch to British rule did not in itself precipitate a revolution in government.

"The reformist impulses of the Early British and Batavian administration were so submerged by the right of established Cape practice to the extent that by 1814, the transitional governments had simply reaffirmed the essentials of Cape social structure as it had existed prior to 1795. In 1814, Lord Charles Somerset assumed office as governor of the Cape. It was his misfortune to govern the Cape at the time when the new social forces generated in a rapidly industrializing Great Britain engulfed the colony.

"Somerset entrenched power of local oligarchy and then established rhythms of the local economy. The couple explosion of the 1820 Settlers at the periphery of the colony and the 'revolution in government' at its center reverberated far beyond the borders of the Cape, exposing the peoples of the interior to a dual invasion by the British Settlers, apostles of free enterprise and free trade, and the Afrikaner Voortrekkers, bearers of a racial ideology precipitated on a system of coerced labor."

The Commission of Eastern Inquiry in 1822 investigated all aspects of Cape Administration and make specific recommendations for regulation and practical improvement. This Commission recommended that creation of an Independent legal system to guard against both arbitrary misuse of power and erase corruption within the ranks of administration.

They sought to create an efficient civil service able to overcome the inequities associated with the patronage system. They also wanted to remove the last of the economic restraint associated with the old mercantile system, and to stimulate prosperity through free enterprise. Given personal liberties and security of property, it was hoped that the Khoikhoi would eventually become 'industrious framers and respectable members of the community.(Barrow)

The Great Trek was a name given to the deliberate immigration from the Cape by some 15,000 Afrikaners, almost all of them came from the eastern districts , and were moving into the interior where they could search and find a place to go into the interior where they could govern themselves according to the "old Burgher" and regulations and duties. Their recommendations towards the Anglicization of the colony was lined to the first two recommendations, and their recommendations with regard to the Khoikhoi were lined with the third recommendations.

The Commissioners considered the servile conditions of the Khoi and free Africans further inhibited their energies towards frivolous pursuits. The Commission concluded that, by restraining free competition, the existing system drove up the prices of provision and prevented growth of the internal market, limited economic demand of the colonist to the acquirement of a few articles of the first necessity and deprived the Cape of the solid Prosperity of a thriving and industrious population.(RCC, Reports).

By the early 1830s the new land and labor regulations, imperfectly enforced though they may have been, were beginning to bite,and the more astute amongst the Afrikaners were able to predict their loss of control already. Sentiments for the great Trek were founded on statements made by the Afrikaners such as this one: "Now we have a Civil Commissioner to receive our money for Government and for Land Surveyors, a magistrate to punish us, a Clerk of the Peace to prosecute us, and get us in the "Tronk"[prison], but no Heemraad to tell us whether things are right or wrong ... The Englishman is very learned ... They and the Hottentots will squeeze us all out by degrees."(Stockenstrom)

The Trek

The fact of the radical shift in colonial policy through the recommendations of the Commissioners of Inquiry, raises no doubts that the immigration of the Afrikaners was a response to certain specific policies of the colonial government rather than an Afrikaner reaction to British rule or a response to the breakdown of black and white relations on the Eastern Frontier.

Either than the Slagters(Slaughters) Neck Rebellion in 1815, the Afrikaners were satisfied with the English government. But After 1828, in the critical areas of labor, land and local administration,The Commission's 'revolution in government' overturned Somerset's practices and installed a new system inimical to the needs of the Afrikaner. This was at a time when the farmers, squeezed by depression and tempted by the new goods offered by the settler traders, needed their laborers, and it was at the time when the colonial government intervened and freed this labor from the involuntary servitude.

The colonists had always been resentful of authority, and they disliked it doubly if the authority was British. The manifesto of the Trekker leader Piet Retief, giving reasons why his party intended to leave the Cape , whilst proclaiming "we will take care that no one is brought into a condition of slavery; we will establish such regulations as may suppress crime and preserve proper relations between master and servant ...

We will complain of the severe losses which we have been forced to sustain by emancipation of our slaves, and the vexatious laws which have been enacted respecting them." R.E. Simons goes on to point out that: "Few settlers in the Cape accepted the humanitarian's ideal of racial equality. Emancipation opened a new stage in the relations between White and Colored; but it did not revolutionize the society or abolish discrimination.

The fact that the British government was unwilling to make land grants to Afrikaners whereas it was more than generous to make land grants to British Settlers and Khoikhoi caused widespread resentment in the district, and the practical steps towards slave emancipation proved the last straw. A man called Louis Trichardt and thirty other families of his district sold their property and left the colony vowing never to come back.

Trichardt was eventually given 12,000 morgen of land by a Xhosa King called Hintsa. There's suspicion by the British that Trichardt supplied Hintsa with fire arms. A guy named Christian Muller suggested that the Boers(Afrikaners) side with the Xhosas against the Boers.(Muller). It is interesting to note that the Son of Trichardt, was willing to remain under the sovereign of the Xhosa King, but the other emigrants could not accept the equalization of the colored and Africans and the whites.

Piet Retief, another Boer leader said that:

"The Afrikaners were neither willing nor able to change our color for the sake of temporary happiness." Anna Steenkamp declared that placing slaves on an equal footing with 'Christians' was 'contrary to the laws of God and the natural distinction of race and religion.' The Constitution of the later South African Republic[Transvaal] proclaimed that "The people desire to permit no equality between colored people and the white inhabitants either in church or state."(E. Eybers)

The Dutch desire to be rid of the British was also prompted by their wish to own slaves, to be able to discriminate between White and Non-White, to re-establish the patriarchal relationship between master and servant, which had existed from the time of Riebeeck and was being destroyed forever in the Cape. The Boers recreated new republics of the Orange Free State and Transvaal.

This enabled the Afrikaners to fashion a life-style for themselves and their old ways. The Boer Republics eventually set up by the Trekkers were based on constitutions which permitted of "no equality between colored people and the White inhabitants, either in Sate or Church. The Boer President of the Transvaal colony, Paul Kruger, insisted as strenuously as Riebeeck and Reties that, "The black man had to be taught that he came second, that he belonged to the inferior class which must must be obeyed and be learned.

The British crushed similar attempt in Natal because they wanted to control the port of Durban. The British regularly harassed the Boer Republics and were always intervening. The British annexed the Transvaal in 1877 and these clashes ultimately led to the First War of Independence by the Boers in 1880. But the discovery of diamonds in Kimberley in 1867, and gold in the Transvaal, Witwatersrand area in 1886 transformed the British Imperialist attitude towards South Africa.

The shores of South Africa suddenly became a land of opportunity for the entrepreneurs, profit, Capital, adventurers who made their way into the diggings and the mines. In 1899 this led to the Second War of Independence. The British committed some war atrocities against the Boers who were fighting to preserve their freedom, their language, their possessions, their racial supremacy, their very existence as an independent people. The British won the war, but it was very expensive and the Boers signed the Peace of Vereeniging.

Then there was the occupation of the Boer states, Transvaal and the Orange Free State. At the end British concentration Camps held 200,000 Boers in segregated Camp and 80,000 Africans. It has been speculated that more than 26,000 women and children perished in the camps… In the war itself 6,000 Boers were killed and 22,000 British soldiers died. In the 1900s talks were held to form a union. The Union of South Africa was set up in 1910 with each of the four provinces with special segregatory policies where non-whites were concerned.

The union was under the British and was a member of the British Commonwealth. The union's first prime minister was a former Boer War general Louis Botha, a moderate Boer who wanted to cooperate with the British. The first parliament, meeting in 1913, set up 'tribal reserves'(later known as Homelands) and formally prohibited Africans - except those in the Cape - from buying land outside them.

The new law forced thousands to pack their belongings and move off the farms they thought they owned. Africans at that time were 78% of the population; the reserves made up just slightly more than 7% of the land. Alan Paton described in 'Cry the Beloved Country' the disastrous effects of this policy in and on the land in the African Areas:

"To many cattle feed upon the grass, and too many fires have burned it. Stand shod upon it is coarse and sharp, and the stones cut under the feet …

"The great red hills stand desolate, and the earth has torn away like flesh. The lightning flashes over them, the clouds pour down upon them, the dead streams come to life, full of red blood or the earth. Down in the valleys women scratch the soil that is left, and the maize hardly reaches the height of a man."

The South African Reich

"The history of the Afrikaner reveals a determination and a definiteness of purpose which makes one feel that Afrikanerdom is not the work of man but a creation of God. We have a Divine right to be Afrikaners.

"Our history is the highest work of art of the architects of the Centuries" by D. F. Malan. And this is what Hitler wrote in the Mein Kampf: "It was the Aryan alone who founded a superior type of humanity; therefore he represents the archetype of what we understand by the term: MAN. ... It was not by mere chance that the first forms of civilization arose there where the Aryan came into contact with inferior races, subjugated them ad forced them to obey his command."(Mzimela)

The Nationalist Party underwent a considerable change during its years wandering in the wilderness. It became more bitter, more exclusive, more aggressive — and it gained steadily in strength. It began to work not only the political realm, it put a great effort into extra-parliamentary activities, social and economic sphere. They paid attention to the all development of the Afrikaner people, to church affairs and social welfare, worked among the growing army of the poor whites, to education, sports, culture, trade and industry.

The guiding force of this nationalist spirit was a secret society known as the Broederbond, formed in 1918 and maintained an open existence until 1924, then it went underground. In 1944 its membership were estimated to be at 2,672, as given by the Nederduitse Reformed Church's Rev. de Vos as follows: 357 clergymen, 2,039 teachers, 905 farmers, 159 lawyers, and 60 Members of Parliament. By the 1960s it had grown to 7,000 members. Its modus operandi was to coordinate activities among Afrikaners and to ensure that Broederbonders are placed in key positions which can then be utilized for the advancement of the Volk(The Boers).

Mrs Janie Malherbe described the forces that were at work in the 1930s Broederbond as follows:

"This terrifying, octopus-like grip on the South African way of life was made possible by reorganizing the Broederbond on the pattern of Hitler's highly successful Nazi State: complete with Fuehrer, Gauleiters, group and cell leaders, spread in a sinister network over the whole of South Africa.

"This was initially planned by high-ranking Nationalist and two Stellenbosch students who were sent to Germany, at Nazi expense, to study the Nazi cell system. The man who planned this consultation with the then Nationalist leader, Dr. Malan was Graf von Durckheim Montmartin."

Montmartin was sent to South Africa by the Nazi government in 1934 to attend an educational conference, but in reality, he was to consult secretly with the Broederbond elders, attempting to ensure that South Africa would side with Germany in the war which Hitler was about to be involved in.

Mrs. Malherbe reports:

"The immediate result of his visit was the reorganization of the Nationalist Broederbond on the Nazi system, the main difference being that where Hitler re-invoked the rites of the German Pagan Gods to promote his ideologies, the Nationalists Broederbond declared that their plan of complete domination of white South Africa, and absolute subjugation of the non-whites, was an implementation of South Africa's God-given destiny."

This was a clever ruse, for by its means, the powerful Dutch Reformed Churches could be roped in; a speech by Hertzog was reported in the Star newspaper in 1935 where he described the Broerbond by stating that:

"It's members were a grave menace to the rest and peace of our social community, even where it operates in the economic-cultural sphere. It's members are sworn not to entertain any cooperation with the English speaking population and thereby they stand in direct racial conflict with our fellow English Afrikaners, and are striving by way of domination on the part of the Afrikaans-speaking section to put their foot on the neck of English-speaking South Africa.

I.M. Lombard wrote several articles in the Transvaaler newspaper in 1944 wherein he stipulated seven ideals for which the Broederbond was striving for:

(1) The removal of everything in conflict with South Africa 's full international independence;

(2) the ending of the inferiority of the Afrikaans-speaking and their language in the organization of the State;

(3) separation of all non-White races in South Africa, leaving them free to pursue independent development under the guardianship of Whites;

(4) putting a stop to the exploitation of the resources and population of South Africa by strangers, including the more intensive industrial development;

(5) the rehabilitation of the farming community and the assurance of civilized self-support through work for all White citizens;

(6) the nationalization of the money market and the systematic coordination of economic policies;

(7) the Afrikanerization of public life and teaching and education in a Christian-National spirit. while leaving free the internal development of all sections in so far as it is not dangerous to the State.

Dr Malan warned that:

"The Broederbond was nothing more than a non-political Afrikaans society which, where necessary, will take action for Afrikaans interests and will positively help up the Afrikaner, just as there are many societies, each in its own sphere."

In 1944 General Smuts banned the membership of the Broederbond by civil servants and called it 'a dangerous, cunning, political Fascist Organization'. So far, we are beginning to see the roughened outline of the creation and makings of Apartheid demonic policies as we got to know it in the World over up to today.

As this article has consistently pointed out that since the 1700s to the present day, the Boers or Afrikaners, have worked very hard to cling to their beliefs and ideal social structure which according to them was preserving their racial purity, dominance, their language and the subjugation of all those that were non-White.

The Nationalist Party had been waiting for this time since the Great Trek to the forming of the Union of South Africa until the Nationalist take-over of the governance of South Africa. Now the Afrikaners were in a position to implement their Apartheid rule when they took power in 1948.

Grand Apartheid

The real architect of Apartheid was Hendrik Verwoerd, who too was one of those Boers who went to Germany in the mid 1920s where he studied psychology and whilst there he had close contact with the architects of Naziism. When he returned to South Africa,he became a professor of psychology in the exclusively Afrikaner university of Stellenbosch. In 1937, has appointed as the first editor of the newly formed Afrikaner Nationalist mouthpiece, Die Transvaaler newspaper, by Jan Strijdom, a leading Afrikaner figure.

In one of his first editorial, Verwoerd stated: "Both in Italy and in Germany, the systems have done much that is good for these countries, although of course they are not without fault ... The Nationalists would be very remiss if they did not study the conditions existing in Europe, where new methods of state organization and new objectives are born out of the pressures of nation building."

This word, Apartheid, was first used in parliament by in January of 1944, which, according to Dr. Malan, "It meant to ensure the safety of the white race and of Christian civilization by the maintenance of the principles of apartheid and guardianship.

In 1947 The Nationalist Party appointed a commission whose conclusions were issued by the Head Office of the National Party.

It said:

"The policy of our country should encourage total apartheid as the ultimate goal of a natural process of separate development. It is the primary task and calling of the State to seek the welfare of South Africa, and to promote the happiness and well-being of it's citizens, non-White as well as White."(Mzimela)

Realizing that such a task can best be accomplished by preserving and safeguarding the White Race. The Nationalist Party professes this as the fundamental guiding principle of its policy.

Dr. Malan as Prime Minister put his apartheid belief in this manner:

"The purpose of the Apartheid policy is that, by separating the races in every field in so far as it is practically possible, one can prevent clashes and friction between Whites and non-Whites.

"At the same time, in fairness to the non-Whites, they must be given the opportunity of developing in their own areas and in accordance with their own nature and abilities under the guardianship of the Whites; and, in so far as they develop in accordance with the systems which are best adapted to their nature and traditions, to govern themselves there and serve their community at all various levels of their national life."(Verwoerd)

Apartheid Vitriol

Dr. Frensch Verwoerd

Mr Strijdom was succeeded by Dr. Verwoerd, who, as has been noted above, was the architect of Grand Apartheid described the apartheid policy on his visit to London 1961 as follows: "We want each of our population groups to control and govern itself as is the case with other nations. Then all can co-operate as in a commonwealth — in an economic association with the Republic and with each other ... South Africa will proceed in all honest and fairness to secure peace, prosperity and justice for all by means of political independence coupled with economic interdependence."

And then Dr. Verwoerd speaking in the House of Assembly in January 1963 said: