Precis Of The Post Apartheid, and Post 1976 Historical , Contemporary And Educational Views
The Struggle of theAfrican Student in June 1976, was an accumulation of events over the centuries, and in particular, those events from the 1970s to the present-day. In the 1970s, there was a huge mass walk out of Black/African workers in they factories throughout South Africa. This mass walk out, was part a strategy gains the Vicious Apartheid forces, and a groundwork for the social and educational Revolution we, and many of our cohorts were part of in June 1976.
This preface, is in part to put the recent part(past 40 years) of commemorating June 1976, and an examination in a moderate quarry, the schooling of our children, under the ANC government. This Hub is starts with the tail-end of the article titled: "African South Africans' June 16, 1976, Revolt" that has already been published here on HubPages. The following part to this piece here on this Hub, is an opening, at the same time, closing of the story and History of June 16, and a Hub on the present state of African students' education under the ANC, with the 2016 ANC ruling era.
One other thing I will be doing in this Hub is to discuss the abandoned Freedom Charter Of The ANC. This I am doing in part to show how the ANC reneges on its promises, so long as there's money involved, and their power guaranteed by foreign powers and fiscal interest of those Countries. The tenets of the Freedom Charter, make more sense than the convoluted and very long South African Constitution. What it was going to deliver for the African people, was what they envisioned in Kliptown in the 1950s. The 1996 South African Constitution is remote and unknown to the masses of the people
Over the years, ordinary, and now, mostly the elderly and aging populace of Africans in South Africa, knew about the Freedom Charter. In exile, arguments erupted when discussing the Freedom Charter and a future new South Africa. Today, inside the country, only a paltry few engage in these exchanges, and the Freedom Charter has all but been forgotten, except when time comes and the ruling African elite tout it is legit. In furtherance of the objective of educating ourselves as a People, I revisit the some of the tenets of the Freedom Charter, just so that they youth will have a sense of what it is all about... Not some written words painted on some obscure buildings in a dead Johannesburg city-far from the masses in the Townships.
In order to juxtapose the themes of June 16 to the dysfunction of African education above, I have added features that are about the students, themselves, and their education, and the blundering and blustering education, and their tired educational policies. The failure of African students abound. As I have discussed fully in the Hub titled: "Pedagogy Of Ignorance Post Apartheid," already published here on HubPages, in it I have outlined some historical accounts as to why our education is as it is today. In this Hub, I am looking at and talking about African education, "post-Bantu Education," which to many people, was far more better than our Anglicized children in Private Schools, know as Model C schools, which have further alienated us and our children, and has made our children more dumb.
In this Hub, I keep the youth in check and informing them about their role, today, in south Africa. I am not talking about the elitist movements of "Fees Must Fall"(Aping American civili disorder tactics), "Zuma must fall," or the "Marikana" fiasco and debacle, on the part of the government, and now made into an alcoholic binging spree by your present youth in their get-togethers. I am writing this Hub for the youth to begin to learn how to take off the chains off that are wrapped around their heads, and begin to learn the right way of what this whole struggle is about.
This is a toll order, but only time will tell… Our children will have seriously written articles that are dealing with our present concrete and decrepit reality. How our government has been formulated and is controlled is one other important thing that our youth need to be exposed and taught about. This I address in this Hub in various ways the reader will come across. Hub like this one keep the critical eye on the struggle in many fronts, and this education front as well.
The problem I am trying to deal with is the level of ignorance that is displayed by many of my country-men. Many are political and economical opportunistic and vultures, subsequently… As I have alluded to in the Hub, "Pedagogy Ignorance, Post Apartheid," in this Hub, I am at presently talking about it directly. I live in my enclave of the Ghetto of Soweto, and it is debilitating to see how much we have regressed as a people. Some might measure success and freedom about the amount of material wealth they have amassed, many may point out to their international connections, and so on.
I gauge ourselves as to how smarter have we gotten since the June 16, 1976, Revolution. I am sadly admitting that we have dropped below levels that I hardly recognize. We are not reading, and we do not know how to go about it, as a nation, educating our people and ourselves, seriously. I am aghast at ourselves today, in South African, how thoroughly ignorant and dependent on our master we are, whilst pretending to be autonomously free. I consider that bogus and a farce and one thing that is going to have to change if we are going to take steps towards cohesive nation-building, and world class education of our making and choice.
The upcoming local elections votes, political killings(which have not abated), the new political challenges by the EFF and DA, rising people's anxieties, mis-education of the Poor, Looking at our dumbed-down education, and why the New Ignorant reality and existence should not be the 'new normal', is followed in this Hub by Asa teachings about African Education; Jose Marti is utilized with his brief blueprint for National education followed by messages and information feed for the youth in contemporary society. A much more closer look into the life for the youth and their parents in present-day South Africa will be in order here. At some point in the Hub I take a much serious look at the mental illnesses that affect and effect the African people today in Mzantsi.
Another important aspect of our struggle is to begin to teach the youth about the stories of shack-dwellers and those ho are houseless and homeless. This too is included in this Hub for readers to indulge. It is also at this juncture in the Hub that I address the Grassroots issue a bit more, and hope to delve as much as I can into issues arising from that side of the struggle. The Grassroots Struggle have never abated, and there is one historical account pertaining to them has not yet been addressed, and I hope to be delivering some Hub that traces the history of contemporary struggle by the grassroots in order to put this issue into proper perspective.
What I wanted to add for this Hub is a piece I wrote about Youth and African Consciousness. My thing writing this piece is to question our youth, "Whither, our brothers and sisters?" I hope to help they young ones begin to understand what consciousness for themselves and their people means and is all about. These are the material that our youth should learn and know and apply in their daily lives. But it all starts with reading, and this is what I want to see our youth do very well, first: "Read"! A further critique on and for the youth and their nation is what I have utilized in order to begin to build up some form of base for the youth to begin to mull upon and ponder.
The following Hub is an exercise in many aspects of our struggles, and other might do it better than I have presented it here, but my closing thoughts at the end of the Hub will be basically about education, youth, nation-building and upgrading our people by any means necessary. My hope is that Hubs like this one will begin to fill the yawning gap of historical material for Africans and written by Africans from an African-centered perspective
Mandarin Is our Present Realty And Struggle That Has Begun
A Intensive Look At the Mandarin Debacle...
The ANC has really destroyed itself and the African people. Okay, let's stick to education as one area where we see and learn more about the actions of the ANC, and the stories that will follow will show how much we are still lagging behind, and here comes the ANC introducing All these languages. Our children can hardly talk and write our own mother tongue proficiently and eloquently. The reader should consider this:
"Last year(2015), the government announced plans to introduce Mandarin as an elective in Public schools. Also approved were German, Serbian, Italian, Latin, Portuguese, Spanish, Tamil, Telegu, and Urdu, but this fact was almost lost in the ensuing uproar. The Teachers Union, (SADTU), called it tantamount to a new form of colonization. Others argue it will give our Kids a global advantage and strengthening ties with economic ties with China."
Now, this is what the ANC has done thus far, and now they have agreed with the Chinese to bring in a hundred teachers for the next five hears, and who will be presenting and injecting a Chinese Culture and Tradition to our children, for as long as this will be allowed to go on…
We better understand that speaking and learning Mandarin requires more than remembering its structure.
[Learning Chinese is] a work for men with bodies of brass, lungs of steel, heads of oak, hands of spring-steel, hearts of apostles, memories of Angels, and lives of Methuselah - (Missionary William Milne, 1785-1822)
We learn form Teagle and Chiu that:
"The language dismantles more [un]naturally[for African people] into a way of thinking and viewing the world than it does into logical grammatical rules. Everyday dialogue is sewn with idioms, values and cultural references, sometimes referring to obscure episodes in China's history."
Our African children, I know that some Whites kids are affected, too-by Mandarin-but for now, I am focusing on African children, who do not know nor understand neither have a realistic historiographical know-how and understanding about us, their own parents, and here we go teaching them Mandarin which requires a different and total strange way of speaking and understanding Chinese, and yet, the kids are ignorant of their own languages and cultural history... This is wrong.
"Consider the stories behind two common phrases. One refers to a long-ago king called Gou Jian who, for 10 years from BC 492-482 slept every night on brushwood and drank gal (from an animal’s gallbladder) to feed the bitterness he would need to take revenge on someone who had wronged him. “Sleeping on brushwood and tasting gall” means doing whatever it takes — generally a good dollop of self-discipline — to achieve a goal.
"Another casual sentence refers to the time when Zhuge Liang, the 'Hidden Dragon,' a brilliant strategist who lived during the period of the Three Kingdoms [AD 220-280] was faced with an impossible mission. His superior, Zhou Yu, jealous of Liang’s talent, commanded him to produce 100,000 arrows within three days. Zhuge waited until fog and darkness descended over the river and sent a boat manned by more than 1,000 straw men across to enemy territory. The enemy took the scarecrows for soldiers and rained arrows down upon them. The boat turned around triumphantly, carrying the fresh ammunition straight to Yu. All of this is summarized in just a few characters (草船借箭 or “cǎochuánjièjiàn”), and means achieving one’s goal by wisely making use of others’ resources.
"Except that even the building blocks are different. Mandarin doesn’t have an alphabet. It is based on characters that represent words rather than component sounds. There are more than 50,000 Chinese characters in total, although modern dictionaries typically contain about20,000. Being able to make sense of a newspaper requires knowing about 2000-3000 characters.
"In China, characters are typically taught through rote learning — for example, kids will be given essays of increasing complexity to memorize and then write out word for word, thus gradually improving their vocabulary and grasp of sentence structure. In Western schooling systems, which favor learning through experiential enquiry, kids are not used to learning in this way. This is believed to be a key reason that Mandarin programs in Australian schools have had limited success: school-leavers with 13 years under their belts typically know only 500 characters.
"Cantonese has six tones; Mandarin four; English and Afrikaans none. IsiZulu, iso-Xhosa and most of the other Bantu languages are also tonal, which means speakers of these tongues might find learning Mandarin slightly easier. In addition, people who can speak two or more languages, as most black South Africans can, generally find it easier to learn another one."
This is false for both writers of this articles are not African, first of all, and they do not really speak our languages here in Mzantsi, and do not understand the fact that we have never lived with or side-beside with Chinese people, and we can neither hear nor understand their totalization, inasmuch as they will never understand ours-we are totally different people in all aspects of life, culture and history.
I also disagree with the authors of the piece above when they venture and say that African children have an advantage in learning Mandarin… this is not true, and as has been see, in Australia this has been tried and has failed, what will make our children, from poor families, know how to deal with the mammoth task of learning Mandarin?. This is Preposterous!
Our children do not have to learn our African languages like they have to go to school for that. They grow up with us, speaking our African languages, but, since the ANC came back, they have done everything to debase and discard of our own African languages, and we still have a crisis of our children not really knowing our languages, but try to speak English which they learn, as children, form TV.
In learning English, and Afrikaans, and not knowing our own African languages, what more could be worse for our children, Ms. Motshega? You even point out somewhere that you do not really know if there's a need for Mandarin in the African community because you have never found out about that fact… Going on further to say that the Chinese will do the research as to whether there is a need for Mandarin in the African communities or wherever? This is garbage, and we have puppets for leaders who are Pons in Chinese Checkers.
"For example, the Chinese government-funded Confucius Institutes, which partner with universities around the world to teach Chinese, have been criticized for political influence and inhibiting academic freedom, and in some parts of the US were closed last year for this reason. Because of China’s central economic position in South Africa, any perceived attempts to project “soft power” are likely to be received particularly badly, as the strongly worded response of the South African Democratic Teachers Union (SADTU) demonstrates. There are five Confucius.
"As it stands — and as has been emphasized ad infinitum — ours is a country in which there is insufficient capacity to teach even our own languages; where the standard of maths and science is so low in some schools that even exceptional students stand little chance of getting through; where textbooks — and furniture — still aren’t a guarantee.(Teagle.Chiu)
Why is the ANC selling us out so blatantly and without regard to what we, as the poor people, have to say about this? They are simply serving their masters whom they claim are in trade with them. With our own natural resources, we are beholden to the Chinese and their so-called Soft Power… It is power, nonetheless-It has ANC in its grip, and we are watching this, haplessly and hopelessly…
Whilst we are at it, it would be better to take a much more deeper ad intimate look at our education in Mzantsi, below.
So, Mandarin Is Now Better Than Afrikaans?.. Really!
The Fight Against The Afrikaans Language, And Today, Mandarin, in 1976 And Today in 2016 For The next 5 Years - Part Deux...
The following Hub is a follow-up on the Hub written before it called, "African South Africans' June 16th 1976 Revolution", already published and one can read it. In this Hub, I begin to talk about the different issues related to the Education of African South Africans in contemporary ANC ruled South Africa.
The Hub below is mostly about the aftermath of the 1976 Revolution, the opening salvo will be about Language and Power today in South and dumbing-down education dispensed to our children.
Below I would like to post an article I wrote recently about the issue of foreign language rammed-down our children throats and brains that I think I will start of this article with the following piece:
"Mandarin Has Been Introduced in 43 South African Schools in 2016"
Basic Education Minister, Angie Motshekga, says 43 schools across the country have introduced Mandarin at schools in this academic year.
In a parliamentary reply, she says 11 of these schools are in Gauteng, 27 in the Western Cape, three in the Eastern Cape and three in KwaZulu-Natal.
The department has a vision to introduce Mandarin in 500 schools over the next five years.
Motshekga says two teachers have been brought from China to teach the language and all relocation costs and salaries are paid for by the Chinese government. Only one South African teacher is qualified to teach the language.
Ultimately 100 teachers will be trained for this year and 500 will be trained over the next five years.
Motshekga says South African teachers will undergo a three week long training programme, which is sponsored by the Institute of Global Chinese Language Teacher Education.
From Afrikaans To Mandarin....We Are Not Self Confident As a People And Nation Here in Mzantsi
What's Happening? - "Di Ntshang?", "Zikhiphani"?
What we were fighting for in June 16th 1976, was the imposition of a foreign language on us as children, and against the jagged intolerable edges of Apartheidom. This was a very important thing to us, and it was important to the communities we lived in. It is not that we did not speak Afrikaans at all, but it was the fact that it was forced down our gullets with disregard to any protestations we made-was unconscionable... This was in June 1976.
Anyone can read the article I have written about this matter, albeit brief, if one were to scroll down this timeline. Now, the Education honcho and oaf, Motshega is presenting us with another same problem. she has proudly decreed that our children are now learning Chinese Mandarin, and that they had said, some time ago, this is going to happen. Well it's happening now, Chinese culture and history.
All this is happening in the year and time when we are now celebrating our 40th commemoration of the 1976 fight against the imposition of a foreign language, and Motshega proudly pronounces her carreer achievement of beginning to teach our children, at the lower grades, and phasing this throughout the years and over to higher standards-The learning of Chinese Mandarin and Culture! Really!!!
This is serious, now... The apologists of and for this move inform us that this is being for better .relations with the emerging Super power, China, and so that in the future we can have our children handling our affairs better with their Chinese counterparts.
Now, earlier reports on this move are articulating the discomfort and toughness on our children are facing learning Chinese Calligraphy and the spoken Mandarin, which by the way, is not a common nor spoken, neither known form of language among us African people of Mzantsi.
Our children scarcely know nor understand our diverse African culture and philosophies/languages of their parents, here comes Motshega, with a very brilliant idea, to teach our children how to read and write Mandarin. I call that the Chinafication of our African children, and now, for real, we are "LOST"!
What is going on here, for real... Why is is not the case of the Chinese learning and speaking and talking our 10 different languages here in Mzantsi? Why is this not the point of contention and issue? What is happening to us that we end up have numb-skull pseudo-politicians destroying our African children's education, and we are watching this and doing nothing about it? On the 40th Anniversary of the June 16th Revolution of 1976?
What has happened to us? What is happening to us? Of all the dreaded things we are experiencing, we seem to be sitting idly by and allowing the likes of Motshega to take us 40 years ago and back to the Dark days of Apartheid rule.
Why is it important for our children to be thoroughly more confused by them being sent to Germany, Europe, China, Russia and everywhere else, through education, sports, badly managed and not controlled by us? Why is it important to impress the emerging Chinese superpowers by sacrificing our children at the linguistic, cultural and social mores of these cultures, and our children knowing nothing about our own languages, culture, history and the whole bit about us? Why?!
How come we are all taking a back seat as if this is a noble thing that has ever befallen us who are non-people here in Mzantsi? That is, to the extent that we go begging the Chinese to send their army of teachers to come and indoctrinate our children, right under our noses and in front of our eyes, in our houses, and we stay mum!
We were carrying on in many ways throughout our abodes/Townships, speechifying about the sacrifice of the students of 1976, and here we are today, more silent than our filling up graveyards when we are simply told that our children are going to be learning Mandarin. Our children speak a lot of English, and in rare cases speak our own languages, and here we are, on the commemoration of the rejection of Afrikaans, we are welcoming Mandarin and Calligraphy!
This is Insanity As A Model Of Sanity.. Big Time!!
Language And Power
When we get ready to create a revolution, we must redefine the world, and redefine words; there's no way around it. In Genesis, Adam was given the power to name things(if we are to speak about this matter from a Biblical point of view-I am neither a Christian for that matter-just a spiritual African).. He was also given dominion.
The connection between dominion and naming, between naming and bringing into reality, is the most important point being made by the article above. Nations use their mother tongues to rule and run their national business. Where do we get off and do the imposing, on our children, of this Mandarin language, and go and sleep soundly in our mansions?
When we permit another people to name and define, we permit another people to gain dominion and control over us.
"The languages that people learn and speak are most frequently directly related to the power relations between them. Many people will now learn Japanese(Chinese in our case today), as for a while they learned Russian(We have sent a whole load of children to Russia under the pretext its for IT learning purposes!!..
"And for a while people learned German, Latin, Spanish, Italian, etc. Why? Because the people who speak of spoke these languages were or are ascendance or in power at that or this time.
"There is no "good" English or "bad" English, nor "good" language or "bad" language; there is language that's connected to Power. People tend to learn first after their native tongue, whatever language is spoken by the people in power.
"There's a connection between the capacity to have other people speak your language and to call things by the names you give them, and Power. If we wish to assume Power, then we must assume the capacity to name and define things."
This precisely what we did in 1976.. We assumed the Power to name and decide our own future, at great risk, but we did not cower into our job positions and social statuses and unfocused timidity to make our point clear.. We did not want Afrikaans and its imposers and imposters, and we fought and many died because of that-I am still writing about it 40 years after June 16th 1976...
No To Mandarin and Chinese Philosophies!
We are further instructed by Wilson that:
"The psychology of a culture is to a great extent a symoblic precipitant of the kinds of experiences forced upon a group of people by their history."
This is what we are going to have to pay attention to as the last line intimates.
Wilson further teaches us that:
"We must recognize the intimate relationship between culture, history and personality. If we do not know our history, then we do not know our personality And if the only history we know is other people's history/language, then our personality has been created by that history/language.
"We must recognize that in European/[and Chinese history]. It is not so much that we know [and will know Chinese History/language], (because 90 percent of us do not know European history and have not read it), but that we are left with some residue of it - that we have a sense of it - is all the hegemonic European"[Chinese about to be], needs to begin to dominate and control Africans in Mzantsi.
In the absence of knowledge of African history, we will keep on hallucinating every night. These hallucinations are called dreams, and they occur at the point where we become detached from reality. We maintain our mental balance and sense of self by input into our senses.
It is necessary that for human beings to maintain sanity that they receive random input (and changing input) from the world. That is why we suffer so much when we are put into solitary confinement - where we can't see or hear anything - we may begin to have visions and hallucinations as a result thereof.
In some article to come, I will address the point above much more fully. Right now, our loss of ourselves in this decrepit Mzantsi, has to be addressed.
Wilson says we must keep this in mind:
I do not care what institutions we may talk about: whether we talk about the family institution, the criminal justice institution, the economic institution, the religious institution, the health establishment, the educational institutions; they all have one thing in common in a Eurocentric(Chinese are taking over) oppressive system(s) - to maintain the 'status quo' and to maintain African people in oppression.
The gendarme element that is our present-day government here in Mzantsi is quick to kow-tow to foreign master whims and wishes, and trample on our Human and Bill of Rights with impunity.
It is interesting to note that many people, during the commemoration of the 40th anniversary of the Revolution, seem to think and behave like it only took that one day.
What many do not know is the fact that the next day, on Thursday and the weeks and months/years that followed, everything got worse, and fighting grew and spread like wildfire throughout the country of South Africa in all the different communities oppressed by Apartheid.
So that, when Motshega proudly trumpets that Mandarin has now been introduced in our children's schools, those are the fighting words. It is time we began thinking like we ought to. We are going to have to act, in the coming months and years, fight like hell to stop this form of colonization.
We say this with a finality unsurpassed:
"No to Mandarin" Come what may and it should be stopped by any means necessary
Educating The Nation Is The Upper Most Priority
A lot has happened after the June 16th African Students Of Soweto's Revolution that will need to be put in context. But, going further than the article, or, adding more historical perspective into the lead to the 1976 Revolution, will be given some redress here.
What I am talking about here is that, there are historical facts and events that led to the type of education we are seeing here in South Africa. It was roughly during the historical era of Sir George Grey that attitudes of Europeans were shaped and cast in hideous laws that continue to plague us today in south of 2016.
The way the present education system is and has been set up, it has guaranteed failure for African people and their children. I am not yet even talking about the fiasco of Mandarin by Motshega, here. Long before this dastardly deed of introducing Mandarin, the Europeans had gotten about the reality that they needed to shape the education of Africans to suit their economical operations and political power.
This is what i will attempt to discuss first. Secondly, how tis is tied to economic power of the ruling Europeans, below in the historical piece on this Hub, I will trace how the ebb and flows of the economic front of the Europeans was designed so that it can allow a few Africans let into the system, and in dire economic needs, this affects the education of Africans, and empowers the White ruling elite along with their African side-kicks.
This historical analysis and its empowerment of White ruling people in South Africa, is going to be important to understanding the depth and breadth of the June 1976 Trilogy of articles that I have already published here, this one being the third, that goes to show that, our present educational malaise, is not an aberration, but a well thought out plan by the White ruling elite of South Africa.
The foregoing forthcoming historical discourse will enable us to better to understand education in contemporary South Africa much more better. Today we are witnessing a broken education system for African with no continuity of educational worth for and townwards our African people. Our schools are ill-equipped to teach ad have our children learn in them, especially in the Townships and many rural areas.
The results that we are churning out are sadly poor and very discouraging. We have educational authorities who are engaged in lining up their pockets at the expense of our children and people. We have Educational authorities in South Africa making educational decisions without consulting on the masses of African people. In fact, they use the system they found Apartheid ruling and boring over, to exploit it for their own children and people, and reinforced Apartheidized schools in the African poor communities, throughout South Africa.
As I have pointed out in short above, the historical narrative that I am going to be delving into below, will begin to make it much more clearer why our schools are dysfunctional and do not or were not designed to serve nor develop/improve us as an African Nation of Mzantsi. The students today, along with some hooligans and people who are trying to serve their own political interests, like Malema, and such African political opportunists/hucksters and economical Pirates.
But plainly speaking, the education of African people has never been controlled and dictated to by African people, to date. Those who are put in positions of power, are only there as workers and not as policymakers. This who determining the policies and theorem the Education of Africans should take today, are foreigners, and this has had a deleterious and adverse effect on education. All are following the age-old protocol of educating Africans to the needs and dictates of the economical potentates in our country.
But if one were to understand the way the education has been set up and controlled by The British, the Boers and the Americans, today, one, in learning from the historical background, will notice that all has been set up to go against the interest and education of Africans in South. No wonder we have an imploding educational system that does not serve nor cater for Africans. Even today as we speak,a lot of ordinary African poor people are perplexed by the amounts of money they have to spend on private schools which are not really educating our children, but dumbing them even more-worse than Apartheid.
The presentation of the history of how African educating was gerrymandered by the foreign rulers who advocated for 'separate development'(English), Apartheid with its Bantu Education(the Boers), and useless and education of confusion. Biko, and Chinweizu have addressed the effects and affects of How Apartheid(Biko), "The West and Rest Of Us"(Chinweizu), have build a system of education that is indoctrinating and mis-educating the Africans, that I suggest people Read their books to g=get to come to grips with this reality of underdeveloped education of Africans in Africa and particularly in South Africa, as per this Hub.
Below I begin to flesh out by party discourses above concerning the shenanigans that were undertaken by foreigners to derail and dumb-down Africans when it comes to their own education and intellectual progress. I will firstly deal with the history of our academic miasma, and will synergies my thoughts about what I think about the history and how we got to be here, and what needs to be done/understoood by Africans tow
The Puppet Minister Of Miseducation Of African Children
The article above is about how students changed South Africa and the articles I have cited below show how the students today have been made to pay a huge price for the radicalism of the 1976 students and beyond. The students of South Africa today are very disorientated, and they need articles like this one in order to reorientate themselves to the role they are supposed to do.
The historical account above, should form a background/backdrop in their attempt to deal with the present situation as it is being described below.What is said the Minister of Higher Education wants the passing rate to remain at 30% for African students, so as to keep them "Dumbed Down" in order to have control and rule over them.
I have written about this issue in my Hub about how Apartheid Murdered Kids, and one lady felt that I should not write about such horrible things since she is teaching a multiracial class, and what is it that these kids can learn from that, and why don't I publish it somewhere in a book, or data place, and not on the Web. The same thing, in so many ways, is being echoed by John Taylor Gatto who narrates it this way:
"A lady named Kathy wrote this to me from Dubois Indiana, the other day:
"What big ideas are important to little kids? Well, the biggest idea I think they need is that what they are learning isn't idiosyncratic - that there is some system to it all and not just raining down on them as they helplessly absorb. That's the task, to understand, to make coherent."
"Kathy has it wrong. "The First Lesson I Teach Is Confusion." 'Everything' I teach is out of context. I teach the unrelating of everything. I teach disconnections. I teach too much; the orbiting of planets, the law of large numbers, slavery, adjectives, architectural drawings, dance, gymnasium, choral singing, assemblies, surprise guests, fire drills, computer languages, parents' nights, staff development days, pull-out programs, guidance with strangers my students may never see again, standardized tests, age segregation unlike anything seen in the outside world ... What do any of these things have to do with each other?
"Even in the best schools a close examination of curriculum and its sequences turns up a lack of coherence, a host of internal contradictions. Fortunately the children have no words to define the panic and anger they feel at "constant violations of natural order and sequence" handed to them as quality education.
"The logic of the school-mind is that it is better to leave school with a tool kit of superficial jargon derived from economics, sociology, natural science, and so on than with one genuine enthusiasm.. but quality in education entails learning about something ind-depth. Confusion is thrust upon kids by too many strange adults, each working alone with only the thinnest relationship with each other, pretending, for the most part, to an expertise they do not possess.
"Meaning, not disconnected facts, is what sane human seek, and education is a set of codes for processing raw data into meaning. Behind the patchwork quilt of school sequence and the school obsession with facts and theories, the age old human search for meaning lies well concealed. This is harder to see in elementary school where the hierarchy of school experience seems to make better sense because of the good-natured simple relationship between "let's do this" and "let's do that" is just assumed to mean something and the clientele has not yet consciously discerned how little substance is behind the play and pretense.
"Think of the great natural sequences - like learning to walk and learn to talk; the progression of light from sunrise to sunset; the ancient procedures of a farmer, a smithy, or a shoemaker; or the preparation of a Thanksgiving feast. All of the parts are in perfect harmony with each other, each action justifying itself and illuminating the past and the future.
"School sequences are crazy. There is no particular reason for any of them, nothing that bears close scrutiny. Few teachers would dare teach the tools whereby dogmas of a school or a teacher would be criticized, since everything must be accepted. School subjects are learned, if they can be learned, like children learn or memorize Thirty-nine Articles of Anglicanism.
"I teach the un-relating of everything, an infinite fragmentation the opposite of cohesion; what I do is more related to television programming than to making a scheme of order. In a world where home is only a ghost because both parents work, or because of too many moves or too many job changes or too much ambition, or because something else has left everybody too confused to maintain a family relation. I teach students how to accept confusion as their destiny. That's the first lesson I teach."
That's what the Hub is teaching, the history of the youth to the youth and those elders of today who have already forgotten that the "Struggle Continues", not as per the ANNC well-fed elites, but for the poor people who the ANC is robbing blind and treating callously. By expanding this article, I am walking the line of education and creating a historical record which I have written above and it goes back to some thirty-eight years since.
In fact, the article of the students revolt covers the history of this revolt far back in the 1700s. What has happened today, is what I am constructing this Hub on, below. The story and history of Education did not end with the june 16th Revolution, but continues under the ANC today The students have become the most confused and miseducated, non-studying, and less reading group in our society. Totally clueless, as Tutu said, "blase", and functionally ignorant. How could I say this, well, if the reader has time, one should read the posts below.
The youth of '76 was targeted by Apartheid to remain slaves through the Bantu Education system, as discussed above in its historical and contemporary sense above. The real-politik today is how are we going to teach our people and Youth to be able to put it together. This will the part I will be dealing with toward the conclusion of the this part of the added section I am dealing with now.
Huffing And Puffing For An Image and The Poor People's Vote: Education At The Crossroads
A Shot Rang Across The Bow - Mzantsi 2014 Elections
As Africa Check discovered, the ASC results, which improved again, are not a reliable barometer of the quality of education in SA, writes Kate Wilkinson.
For the fifth year in a row, South Africa’s education authorities have announced dramatic improvements in the matric pass rate.
“(W)e are sending a strong message that basic education under the new administration has the capacity to improve the quality of education in South Africa,” Minister of Basic Education Angie Motshekga said this week as she made the announcement.[This statement has proven to be a disaster and misinformation]
“(T)his is the best matric class since 1994,” president Jacob Zuma enthused. “We are… pleased to note this consistently upward trend in the matric results, with the pass rate going from 62.6 percent in 2008, dipping to 60.6 percent in 2009, only to rise to 67.8 percent in 2010, 70.2 percent in 2011 and 73.9 percent in 2012.” (Note that it hasn’t been entirely consistent. As Zuma himself pointed out, the pass rate fell by 2 percent in 2009.)
Others have been far less complimentary.
In a scathing opinion piece, Jonathan Jansen, the vice-chancellor of the University of the Free State and a prominent commentator on education, wrote that the country’s education system was a “massive fraud”.
Government “wrongly, but conveniently” used the matric results as “a barometer of the state of the school system," when all other data “reveals we have been stagnating, or doing worse," Jansen argued.
The DA has called on Motshekga to “institute a full-scale independent audit of the 2013 results," citing concerns over the quality of the markers, the process of moderation and the high drop-out rate.
While conceding that there is “still a lot of work that needs to be done," Motshekga remains adamant that education in South Africa is on the “right track”.
Addressing a business briefing yesterday, Motshekga said that the pass rate — which has improved from 60.9 percent in 2009 to 78.2 percent in 2013 – is “an indication that indeed the system is on the right track”.
She also claimed that, “(t)here is overwhelming evidence that we are improving learner performance”.
But is the system really on the right path? And has the quality of education in South Africa improved along with the pass rate?
For starters, Motshekga’s claim that the increase in the pass rate “is an indication that indeed the system is on the right track” is contradicted by her own department.
The Department of Basic Education says on its website that, “(c)ontrary to popular belief, the matric pass rate on its own is not a good measure of academic achievement in the schooling system, (and) nor was the pass rate ever designed for this”. Rather, the pass rate serves as a “measure of the opportunities open to our youths”.
It goes on: “Comparing pass rates in different years is, in fact, not like comparing apples to apples… Examinations like our matric are simply not designed to compare the performance of the schooling system across years. They are designed to test whether the individual learner qualifies for a certificate, based on the subjects the learner has chosen.”
The department suggests that “(i)f one wants to compare how well the system is doing, one should turn to testing systems like the international TIMSS and SACMEQ programmes, where South Africa has participated for some years”.
A further flaw in using the matric pass rate as a barometer of national performance is that thousands of school pupils drop out long before they reach their final year. The drop-out rate is not taken into account in the final pass rate.
For example, when the 2013 matric class started Grade 1 in 2002, there were 1,261,827 pupils. But by the time they sat the final exams, their numbers had fallen to 562,112.
Nicholas Spall, a researcher at Stellenbosch University who focuses on primary education, says that, “Students are pushed through the system until Grade 10, and then schools realize that if they put these kids through, they are not going to pass Grade 12”.
“Getting low pass rates in matric is problematic for schools, so they weed out these students.”
The matric rate is thus bumped up, and gives no indication of how the 50 percent that fall by the wayside are doing. Jansen, in his opinion piece, called it a “culling process” that has left behind half a million people with little or no proper education.
Mary Metcalfe, former head of the University of the Witwatersrand School of Education and a former provincial government minister for education in Gauteng, echoes these concerns. “[The pass rate] doesn’t tell us about the large number of children who didn’t make metric, who didn’t pass Grade 10, who didn’t pass Grade 11, and who failed at Grade 12,” she said.
The drop-out rate has had a significant impact. A 2011 report revealed that, “60 percent of youths are left with no qualification at all beyond the Grade 9 level”.
Also, whether as a result of school pressure or individual choice, pupils are increasingly taking easier subjects.
In 2010, 263,034 full-time pupils wrote maths. This decreased to 241,509 pupils in 2013. Conversely, numbers of full-time pupils writing maths literacy, the easier subject, increased from 280,836 in 2010 to 324,097 in 2013.
The Department of Basic Education acknowledges the impact this has on the final pass rate: “A key factor is the spread of learners across subjects. When this changes, the pass rate can change, even if performance in individual subjects remains the same. In particular, if learners move to easier subjects, more learners pass.”
The matric results also conceal the underperformance of the majority of pupils who write the exam. Strong performances in a minority of schools will mask the poor performance of the majority of schools that are judged as dysfunctional.
This skews the average, and does not present a true reflection of the mean for most pupils. This point was also highlighted in Jansen’s criticism of the matric results: “(I)f you removed the top 20 percent of schools — mainly former white, privileged schools — from the national averages, then a very dark picture emerges of a mainly black and poor school system performing far below what the combined results show,” he wrote.
The improvement in the matric pass rate is good news for those concerned, but it is not a sign that the “system is on the right track," or that the quality of the education system is improving.
An Africa Check report looking at claims made about the 2012 matric results came to the same conclusions.
The matric results are not a good measure of academic achievement in the education system. As the department has acknowledged, they are not designed for yearly comparison, or to be a reflection of academic achievement in the education system. The good performance of a minority of schools can also skew the results, as can pupils electing to take easier subjects.
The results only account for about half of those who entered school together. South Africa’s high drop-out rate means that many young people will never get the chance to write their matric exams, let alone pass them.
"Cosatu president Sidumo Dlamini warned on Saturday that it was cold outside the ANC and people should not run away from the party if they were unhappy.
“Challenges will always be there, but we must engage,” he told African National Congress supporters at the party's election manifesto launch in Nelspruit.
“We call on those who run away to come back. If you run away you can't engage.”
Dlamini said the Congress of SA Trade Unions would always support the ANC.
Last month, the National Union of Metalworkers of SA (Numsa) decided at its special congress not to support the ANC during this year's election. Numsa is Cosatu's largest affiliate.
Earlier this week there were rumors that Numsa was in talks with Julius Malema's Economic Freedom Fighters but this has been denied by both the union's general secretary Irvin Jim and the EFF.
Cosatu has also been dealing with its own internal battles after its general secretary Zwelinzima Vavi was suspended for having an affair with a junior employee, among other things. Both Vavi and Numsa have lodged court applications against Cosatu on the matter.
Dlamini on Saturday warned that Cosatu's unity was not for sale.
“The unity of Cosatu is not a playground... That unity we will defend with the last drop of our blood,” he said.
“Even when leaders go astray, it is workers' responsibility [to call] them to order.”
Dlamini said Cosatu endorsed the ANC's election manifesto and had participated in putting it together.
“We have carried a mandate from Cosatu... that we influence debate. We have engaged, we have fought, we have harassed each other to make sure [we do this].”
He said the trade union federation would help the ANC implement its manifesto.
This manifest has already been question because it demonstrates that the ANC is not going to change anything it has been doing for the past 20 years of its rule. The only difference this time is that the ANC is going to begin its rule without the presence of Mandela. We are beginning to hear the threats and other forms of intimidating talk that is coming from the ANC cadre and their trying to garner the vote.
We also see the ANC trying to defend the failure of students in the recently released under and below par results. The students have been sold out to the wishes and dictates of the IMF/World bank who do not want to see any type of radical students as described above in the Hub. They are working assiduously to confuse the youth and miseducate them. Below I will post some noted historical precedents regarding the attack on students by the ruling authorities of the day.
As we take a look below at the state of edumacation that is taking place in South Africa, below, at the end of the Hub, I will add my own impressions about this sad and confused education train-wreck that afflicts kids and adults in South Africa. The ANC has begun to bellow across the South African talking points and media, it would be worth watching how are they going to present themselves now that Tata is gone.
Contemporary Underdeveloped Education Of The Poor Today
Meaningless Miseducation: Pedagogy of the Poor and Ignored
Despite the concrete and multiple improvements in the quality of education, it boils down to how much confidence the public has in state schooling.
"The government's trashing of anyone who dares to ask what matric pass rates reliably signify about schooling quality is by now a well-established political tradition. As I have noted many-a-times above.
It stretches back to one of Basic Education Minister Angie Motshekga's more gifted predecessors, Kader Asmal (minister from 1999 to 2004): his formidable intellect and scathingly articulate tongue turned such trashing into something of a fine if not constructive art.
We invoke this history urgently now in order to understand why 2013s all-time high 78.2% matric pass rate has sparked such widespread incredulity — and, further, to suggest that this skepticism is solidly justified.
Exactly 10 years ago, in January 2004, Asmal announced a then all-time high matric pass rate: 2003s 73.3%. Public disbelief of the kind we have seen this week erupted, plunging the whole school system into a crisis of credibility.
Despite the concrete and multiple improvements in quality since then, for which Motshekga can indeed take credit, we now have a similar crisis. As in 2004, it boils down to this: how much trust and confidence does the public have in state schooling?
To answer this, we cannot allow ourselves to remain trapped within the parameters of Motshekga's party-political broadcast on TV and radio set this week — the one on Monday night that masqueraded as a speech about education. Her shallow historical narrative centered on the ever-increasing pass rate since she took over in 2009. But, just in case anyone had still failed to get the political point about where the credit lies for all this wondrously sky-high quality, Motshekga then hammered it home (artfully disguised as a query): "The key question remains, though: Why have we improved performance so well over the past four to five years?" (italics added).
In other words: the 2013 matric accomplishments originate wholly from the Zuma administration's accession to power in 2009. Simple. However, this is not only politically dangerous complacency: it is also educationally absurd.
Most of the 2013 cohort began school in 2002. This means they spent more of their 12 years at school — at least their first seven — under Motshekga's two predecessors than under her: first Asmal, then Naledi Pandor.
It is hardly news to say that the foundations laid in the early grades comprise among the most powerful determinants of success in the later grades. So where are the grounds for Motshekga's claim?
Far more objectionably, her narrative of self-congratulation ignored volumes of serious research we now have, but little of which existed when Asmal was minister. This research exposes a huge range of desperate, often illegal and always unethical measures to which officials at all levels, particularly in schools and districts, resort so as to "engineer" high pass rates. These include weeding out before grade 12 those pupils expected to fail matric: by far the highest dropout rate during 12 schooling years occurs after grade nine.
Another is to register weaker pupils as part-time candidates. The results of these pupils are not used to calculate a school's, a district's, a province's or the country's pass rate — indeed, their results get little attention at all. As we note elsewhere in this edition, though, the tiny particles of information on their performance released this week suggest a 40% pass rate.
To these pupils must be added those who fail — this year, more than 122,000. Yes, they can write supplementary exams, but one of the less-publicized statistics here is how well they do (no TV show for them). In May last year, Motshekga's department very quietly released figures suggesting that only 23% of those who wrote the 2013 supplementary exams passed.
And there is yet another marginalized group we must add: those who pass without university-entrance results — about 70% of the 2013 cohort. Yet, as we report this week, pupils themselves regard such a pass as effective failure.
All this (and more) data, and such practices, are perfectly well known to Motshekga and the government — indeed, much of it can be found on the department's own website. Is it any wonder, then, that — before she even began her matric speech — an avalanche of skeptical analyses was published in weekend media? This skepticism precisely echoed that which the public itself angrily expressed back in January 2004, because — rightly — they found Asmal's enormous increases in the pass rate simply not believable.
Pandor's ministry restored a measure of education realism: the pass rate dropped from 70.7% in 2004 to 63.2% in 2008. She took plenty of flak as a result, but for experts such figures more accurately reflected schooling's real levels of quality than Asmal's implausible highs.
Now, however, we are back to those heights — and public incredulity has inevitably followed. This is dangerous: What happens when the public at large stops trusting public schooling?
One dismal answer is that those who can afford it will send their children to quality private or a few high-fee-charging elite public schools. But the rest — the majority — will remain marooned in mediocrity and decrepit and dying schools.
With this week's trashing and demonizing of critics in mind, we repeat: schooling certainly now offers higher quality to more pupils than ever before.
But, by massively and crudely overstating these gains, Motshekga and the administration she loyally serves have unwittingly manufactured a political time bomb: in effect, they have denied the huge education-quality gap between rich and poor and so ensured it will widen. Can we expect a rethink from them?
Well my take is that we are back where we were at prior to the coming to power of the ANC. The thing about the present educational system and opportunities(if there are any) is that the students of Africans in South Africa is divided into the rich students and poor ones. how different is that from the Prefects who got better food and status just because they were able to pay more and those paying less had terrible food and were treated as an underclass" One can read this part on the June 16 article already published here on HubPages.This is no different if one has read the whole Hub up the point that I am writing this piece here.
A Matric Pass Means Nothing by Victoria John
"What do you do with a matric pass? You do nothing," said Koketso Hlongwane, a 2013 matriculant from Alexandra High School in Johannesburg, this week.
Many of the pupils the Mail & Guardian spoke to when they received their results on Tuesday echoed her low regard for the matric certificate.
Their views mirrored several skeptical views from educationists, the business sector and union leaders about the dubious value of the matric certificate even before the pass rate of 78.2% was announced on Monday.
Hlongwane passed, but her marks are not high enough to make her eligible to study at university. She is not happy. "Our standard of education is too low. Thirty percent [as a passing mark]? It's nothing — 40% or 50% is something, at least," she said.
She will try to find a job or "maybe go to one of those [further education and training] colleges … but I wanted to go to university, not a college," she said.
Almost 88% of her school's matric class passed. Many achieved university entrance passes. Hlongwane's classmate Anna-Marie Shabangu was one of them. She has been accepted to study political science at the University of Johannesburg.
"A matric pass means so little," she told the M&G, standing in her school's parking lot with the trash and traffic of the poverty-stricken Alexandra township just outside its walls.
"If you get just a pass, you will have to rewrite matric so you can try to get a university pass."
Boitumelo Kganyago, who matriculated at Allanridge Secondary School in the township of Kaalfontein, near Midrand, is one of those with "just a pass".
"I wouldn't get a good job now if I tried … so I'm going to rewrite matric next year and try to get a university entrance pass".
The pass requirements — 30% in three subjects; 40% in another three — "give us a matric that is too low [in] standard," she said.
"Even 50% is too low, because if you try go to university you will see they want higher than that."
The deputy vice-chancellor of the University of Johannesburg, Tinyiko Maluleke, was one of many who severely criticized the value of a South African matric the day before Basic Education Minister Angie Motshekga announced the country's highest matric pass rate to date.
The matric certificate is in "grave danger" of "meaninglessness, worthlessness and irrelevance", he wrote in the Sunday Independent.
The day after the glittering function at which Motshekga announced the results, the South African Chamber of Commerce and Industry's chief executive, Neren Rau, said the certificate "Should be a fundamental signal to the labor market that a school-leaver can perform in at least a low-skilled position.
"Sadly, this is no longer the case, given a growing body of evidence of ill-equipped school-leavers as reported by the business community."
The M&G's visits to schools in Gauteng suggested at least some pupils share this skepticism.
Allesandro Petrus matriculated from Parktown Boys' High School with a university entrance.
But "the matric certificate is not enough any more," he said. "Companies want to see a degree."
And what about the 30% pass requirement? One of his classmates jogged past and shouted: "I think its rubbish, personally!"
A degree means success
Yannick Ndjibu sat on the pavement outside his school – Barnato Park High School in Berea, Johannesburg – surrounded by friends poring over the lists of names and results in the newspapers laid out on the tar in front of them.
The group of about 10 all achieved university entrance.
"What do you know if you pass with subjects with only 30% or 40%?" Ndjibu said. "You can get that without even hardly studying."
A degree means success, said a friend on his left, Richard Lukalanga. On his right, Daniel Biyekele agreed: "Getting a degree is the best way into the professional world."
Nongovernmental organization Ikamva Youth tutors pupils from grades 10 to matric from Ivory Park and Ebony Park townships outside Johannesburg. Its branch coordinator, Nyasha Mutasa, said pupils who get a non-university matric pass "are so disappointed".
"They see a matric certificate as not being able to get them good jobs or offer opportunity. A lot of them will be rewriting matric to try to get a university entrance pass," Mutasa said.
The constant and regular theme is the drop-out rate and expected drop out of matric levels as it was way back in the 1800 and 1900s-and the students level or pass their matric ill-prepared for anything( a large number of them)and only a few get jobs with their matric or get a university entrance.
The bottle-neck reach the top sieves more and leaves the rest out of the system of becoming educated-literally left in a no man's land vicinity. The thing about present-day education is that it does not even educate students about civic studies and or present them with such articles to help them have a grip on their present reality, through reading about the past of their educational system. Learning and writing our history ourselves from an African centered perspective is very important and critical to our development and nation-building.
Fake Matric Passes Pretensions; Failing And Unerdeveloped Schools and Classrooms..
Nzimande defends 30% matric pass requirement
Minister of Higher Education and Training Blade Nzimande has defended the low matric pass requirement, saying SA is becoming "dangerously elitist".
"Minister of Higher Education and Training Blade Nzimande on Thursday defended the 30% pass requirement for three out of six subjects needed to pass matric, saying young people would miss out on post-school education opportunities if it was raised.
"What do we do with those who don’t get 50%?" he told a press briefing on post-school opportunities for learning in Pretoria.
"There is no dustbin where a human being goes."
He said South Africa was becoming a "dangerously elitist" country if it was considering "throwing away half of our young people" who did not achieve a 50% matric pass.
Nzimande said the higher education system would take a matriculant who had passed metric but did not achieve a university entrance pass "to our further education and training colleges not because you are 'dom' [dumb] but because that might be your inclination".
Education experts, teacher unions and business leaders strongly criticized the quality of the matric certificate before and after Basic Education Minister Angie Motshekga announced the 78% matric pass rate on Monday evening. They said it did not equip matriculants with skills to successfully enter the job market and universities.
DA leader Helen Zille’s even questioned the credibility of the results and called for an independent audit of the matric results. Nzimande said this was "offensive".
" … not because it’s the DA … [but] I find it insensitive and an insult to the effort made by the class of 2013 ... "
The pass rate equates to 439,779 full-time pupils who passed matric, Nzimande said. Of these 171,755 are eligible to apply to study a bachelors degree and 173,292 are eligible to apply to study a diploma — an increase of 20,411 compared to 2012.
There were 92,611 part-time pupils who wrote the exam. So far incomplete data the basic education department has released on their results suggest only 40% passed.
"This significant increase in successful candidates with predominantly bachelor and diploma entrance National Senior Certificates will have implications for the department in relation to enrollments within higher education institutions," Nzimande said.
He announced that there are 396,449 "opportunities available to them within post-school education and training system" at 25 universities, 50 further education and training (FET) colleges.
197,946 new entrant opportunities at universities
93,000 apprenticeship or learner-ship opportunities in collaboration with FET colleges, SETAs and employers 23,000 engineering and business opportunities at FET colleges
44,000 National Certificate Vocational program opportunities at FET colleges 10,000 artisanal opportunities at FET colleges
What happens to the approximately 70,000 pupils who might find they cannot enter the post-school education system because there are not enough places for everyone?
"It is true … that is why we are driving so hard to expand and diversify the post-school system," Nzimande told the Mail & Guardian.
"But we are pushing to change this idea that you must go to university. Learners must know they can go to FET colleges."
After a woman died in a stampede by walk-in applicants at the university of Johannesburg in 2012 Nzimande announced that a Central Application Clearing House (CACH) went live on Tuesday.
The CACH service is for pupils who "qualify for higher education studies but have not been accepted at an institution of their choice at the time the matric results were released".
Pupils looking for spaces at universities can contact CACH which will "verify the learners’ information and forward it to institutions that still have unfilled places".
From reading the article above, one can see how our ministers and those charged with the education of the people are dabbling in statistic to make their point-In a way, attempting to obfuscate the educational mess we are witnessing amongst our children, let alone the fact that they are not even talking about adult education amongst the poor… They are no different from the apartheid Superintendents who came one a year or every two years to see the end test if the Africans knew their ABC's.
It is said, if one were to read the history of schooling and education, that today, far beyond Y@K+, we still not able to stabilize and regulate the education of the Africans properly, and that, as these numbers are churned out above, we are still have a large swath of the poor being uneducated, poorly educated, badly miseducated, exacerbating the already worn out and dysfunctional Bantu Education. Have we learned anything, up to this point and time? Apparently, nothing.
It is also interesting, from the days of Sir George Gray, throughout the missionary schools, then taken over by the Apartheid government, that today, we hear and read from the ANC that kids need not necessarily think college only, because there are not enough places or slots fro everyone.
This sounds like the Boers during the Apartheid era, only this time anAfrican face is trumpeting these tired phrases which are designed to tell the African poor that not all are going into Higher Learning, yet their children, these very officials, attend prestigious and private schools inside South Africa and overseas.
The history in this Hub shows us that we are back into the vinegar bottle, under the ANC and its PR-formed educational protocol. If Jose Marti is anything to go by, we are nowhere close to changing and reforming the Education institution in South Africa. The reader is redirected back to the post of Marti and his take on Education, to see much clearly that we are being sold damaged and spoiled educational good and products, akin to the Apartheid era. Things change to remain worse or less than the same in South Africa.
Education Minister Of Miseducation: Education For Failure
Motshekga's omissions say a lot about The Matriculation Results(Dismal and Failing Results)
David MacFarlane wrote the following article:
Basic Education Minister Angie Motshekga's eloquence on the credibility of the 78.2% matric pass rate for 2013 lay more in what she did not say.
"Releasing the 2013 matric results on Monday evening, Basic Education Minister Angie Motshekga's eloquence on the credibility of the 78.2% pass rate lay, unfortunately, in what she did not say rather than in what she did.
"Similarly, it was into the gaps she left that we had to peer if we wanted to judge how reliable a measure the national pass rate provides regarding the quality in the school system.
"Helpfully, though, she signaled early during her TV extravaganza that it would be more rewarding to listen to her silences than to her words. Ten-seconds in, she revealed how pleased she was that she could announce "definite signs of a stabilizing education system".
"Stabilizing" was the first signal. Motshekga and her predecessors have used this word so many times over so many years about a school system patently crippled by poor quality that its use has moved well beyond cliché to sheer meaninglessness.
"Definite signs" provided the second signal. "Definite"? Education assessment (in any sector, not only schooling) is in reality a minefield of complexity and controversy — one in which the experts themselves move with well-justified caution and carefully weighed nuances.
But there was nary a nuance in sight on Monday night. Aside from a few routine rhetorical gestures, modestly conceding less than divine perfection ("a lot of work is still needed," and the like), her narrative had a fairy-tale simplicity — and a lot of that genre's magical wonder and surrealism too.
The tale was that she inherited a bit of a mess when she became minister in 2009 but, since then, the government's relentless, persistent and tireless efforts (her words) have jet-propelled schooling quality on to a magnificent "upward trajectory".
Her evidence? The first and overriding one was the increase of 17.6 percentage points in the national pass rate since 2009s 60.6% to this year's 78.2%
The silence was nearly deafening: Where was the more nuanced qualification Motshekga expressed when she announced the 2009 results?
Matric 2013: Highs and lows
- 562,112 full-time pupils wrote (only their results are used to calculate the national pass rate), an increase of 50,960 on 2012
- 78.2% of full-time pupils passed;
- 92,611 part-time candidates wrote (up from 81,552 in 2012);
- 30.6% of the full-timers received university-entrance passes (up from 2012s 26.6%);
- Provincial pass rates in ascending order, with 2012 figures in brackets, are: Eastern Cape 64.9% (61.4%), Limpopo 71.8% (66.9%), Northern Cape 74.5% (74.6%), KwaZulu-Natal 77.4% (73.1%), Mpumalanga 77.6% (70%), Western Cape 85.1% (82.8%), Gauteng 87% (83.9%), North West 87.2% (79.5%) and Free State 87.4% (81.1%);
- 59.1% of full-time pupils passed maths (54% in 2012);
- 67.4% of full-time pupils passed physical science (61.3% in 2012);
- For the first time, none of the country’s 81 school districts achieved less than a 50% pass rate; and
- Gauteng’s Sedibeng East district was top, with a 90.7% pass rate.
Matric results are "an important indicator of quality" in the whole system, but we need to place equal emphasis on teaching and learning in the earlier grades as well, she said then. "We cannot only sit up and pay attention" or "begin to concern ourselves" when pupils approach matric, she added.
This sensibly acknowledged that the quality of the system as a whole simply cannot be measured reliably by the matric pass rate. But this week, mere silence on the matter: Why?
An equally suggestive silence lay in Motshekga's breathtaking attempt to dismiss the most scandalous reality of South African education — quality for the rich, mediocrity for the poor.
"Contrary to what some would like the nation and the public to believe — that our results hide inequalities — the facts and evidence show that the top two provinces, Free State and North West, are rural and poor," she said.
The silence here was vast, but two points only must suffice. First, among those who persuasively argue that pass rates are unreliable by themselves is, as it happens, Umalusi, the state's own quality assurer.
"We must guard against any obsession with pass rates, which hide more than they reveal," Umalusi chairperson Sizwe Mabizela said last week. "We must acknowledge that we have an education system that still fails dismally to realize the full potential of the majority of our young people."
And Mabizela didn't need to add that the majority is indeed poor and predominantly rural or peri-urban.
Second, in the 700 pages of data Motshekga's department released on the results, one table provides the "unsaid" in the minister's assertion. It shows that vastly more poor schools achieved pass rates of between 0% and 70% than richer schools did, and that by far the greater concentration of the richer schools' pass rates was in the 80% to 100% category. Equality? No.
Fewer maths pupils
On maths and science, where Umalusi's considered view was that, "The majority of learners still perform at lower levels," Motshekga chose rather to tell us that the pass rates in both subjects were higher this year than in 2012.
The unsaid? About 50,000 fewer pupils wrote maths in 2013 than in 2009; and about 48,000 fewer enrolled for physical science in 2013 than in 2009.
Another deafening silence concerned the part-time candidates. There were more than 92,000, a whoppingly significant number relative to the 562,112 full-timers.
The unsaid? Motshekga had nothing to say about them, presumably because their results are not used to calculate the pass rate.
But among the 700 pages of data, again there was a single table suggesting a bloodbath among these unfortunate 92,000 pupils: based merely on the (incomplete) figures the table provided, nearly 60% appear to have failed.
Well, it is an election year and Motshekga has a lot of face-saving to do — remember Limpopo textbooks? But for a more complete triumph of political over educational interests, her Monday TV show will take some beating.
Semantics and political talking points and jargon along with fudged statistic is the way our officials today talk and misinform us… Meanwhile, in the background, and unseen by the public, are guzzling large amounts of alcohol, and only read what is written for them to say by their foreign consultants and highly paid PR's firms.
It is the unsaid that confirms and buttresses the point I have been making above about the repetition of the same old tricks payed on us, particularly in the day and age of ANc. This time, educational all types of PR's of all stripes are bunching up on the educational carcasses, each gulping down what they can. The end results is an educational system that hides its shortcomings and inadequacies-maladministration by using statistics and omitting some image and credibility damaging to the ruling elite.
To look good, they spin the facts, and repeat often told lies(which end up being the truth to their intended audience), and then we have these handkerchief head administrators huffing and puffing homilies, lying and attempting to confound and compound the facts and the truth: we know that they are aware that they have failed the people who voted them into power, for the last 20 years, and they have nothing to show for it, but try and damage control of the apparent dismal results of the Matriculants poor and failing performances splurged throughout the different media and mediums.
The unsaid things are the most important and devastating for the ruling party, ANC. It is these that we should be talking about today, and analyzing them thoroughly, and put them in their correct African centered perspectives.
Education for Dumbing Down Students
Miseducation Of Africans Of South Africa
They Passed, But Can't Read
The piece below is not just a happenstance, but a carry-over from history of the poor Africans and how it had been handled from the 1700s, 1800s and beyond as described in the Hub above in the beginning. I gave this historical background so that the reader may have a better understanding what is all the hullabaloo about the education of Africans being inferior and designed to make Africans more ignorant and illiterate.
The historical timeline and the process, progression/regression of African history, gives the reader an idea how and why we have a situation of school failures, 20 years into ANC rule, which is not dissimilar, but instead, a follow through of what the Apartheidizers wanted to happen with African education. The article below is a contemporary historical account of what the 'edcumacation' of Africans has wrought. This is what we learn below:
"Many matric students cannot write in paragraphs, do not understand matric exam questions and are unfamiliar with the key terminology used in their subjects.
"In short, many pupils can barely read and write in English.
This was the main finding of the Third National Diagnostic Report into the 2013 matric exams.
Senior markers analysed 100 exam papers from each subject before compiling the report, which is aimed at helping teachers prepare this year's matrics for their final exams. The report also found:
- Pupils fared better responding to questions that required short answers. They battled with questions that required longer, more complex answers, and did not use paragraphs in their answers;
- Pupils struggled to argue points and substantiate their ideas;
- Questions related to the curriculum taught near the end of year were particularly poorly answered, suggesting that teachers had not completed the curriculum; and
- Pupils did not understand terms that are standard in most questions such as "quote", "explain" and "analyse".
In the mathematics exam, poor literacy led to "responses that were far removed from the required answer".
Many pupils were also unable to read graphs and maps.
Markers also concluded that many history pupils did not have access to textbooks.
The report made a number of recommendations to teachers, including teaching "assessment vocabulary" so that pupils could understand words like "identify" or "quote" and answer questions appropriately.
Teachers were urged to teach content in greater detail, and to refer to the provided examination guidelines, which set out what content pupils will be tested on in the final exams.
The report further recommended that regular tests be held in class throughout the year.
National and Professional Teachers of South Africa chairman Basil Manuel said the union was not surprised at the low level of literacy in English.
"We must remember that more than 70% of matric pupils are writing in a second language.
"It has long been known that many teachers switch from English to the vernacular to make themselves better understood.
"Teachers in rural areas need opportunities to improve their English skills."
Minister of Basic Education Angie Motshekga is quoted in the report as saying: "Though the class of 2013 has recorded the highest pass rate in six years, the quality of passes in key subjects such as mathematics, physical sciences and accounting are still below desirable levels."
What she is saying is that during the past 20 years of her party's rule, they can come back and tell us that the quality of passes of these Matriculants are dismal and there seems to be no way of correcting the present state of education. That is what I hear and read her as saying and proclaiming. The training of teachers and building of Teacher's Colleges was and has/still is not a national priority. Teaching and learning is not an embedded culture in the rural, Township and such other schools and related institutions.
We have people in power and administration who are not consulting with the parents of the students and the communities where these backlogs and insufficient pedagogical material, techniques and instruction should be at its finest. I always recall Jose Marti's points above-I still suggest/remind the reader to revisit them above in this Hub posted, on Jose Marti "On Education".
Our present administrators, as pointed out in the Hub above, cannot tell us they have fulfilled what Jose is points to as out to as "Popular" Education. We have an education that is dumbing-down the poor armies of the poor, more specifically: African People of South Africa.
As a chronicler of history, I think the eye of history and our ancestors will not look kindly and forgiving to these quislings and turncoats who are working hard to preserve their crumbs, and subject us to unimaginable human rights abuses, and violating our Bill of rights with impunity and arrogance never before seen from Africans by Africans here in South Africa.
The Business Of Miseducating African Children:The More Things Change, The more They Stay The Same...
How The African Child Was Miseducated
The Revolutionary generation of 1976 were not led nor advised by the pot-bellied old men we now see running in and ruling South Africa today. This was a true and well supported grass-roots revolt and we pulled it off. We made it easier for the ANC to have some clout in the land because some of us chose to belong to it, even though some were not registered nor known-and many of us have not even registered today because there is no reason to.
The talking point of the day had strategy and fully fledged discussions between the students, along with the parents and communities. This led to a tentative, but diverse movement of street committees and the like that were the firm foundation against the marauding police, army and the many death-squads that roamed the land. These street committees were more active and functional in the strikes of the years 1976-'77 uprisings, and they dramatically intensified the struggle post 1976 all the way into the mid-to-late 80s. I have already lined up a Hub and am about to get to the point of putting this research here, which is Contemporary Struggles in South Africa Post 1976 Rebellion.
This is a very interesting and exciting period of the struggles as they unfolded throughout South Africa and in all sectors of public live and engagement. These are the struggles led by street and local committees that defeated Apartheid and ushered-in ANC rule which this Article will apparently have as part of its construction, a very Serious Critique of the AN and its 120 to 24 year rule.
These Street committees went on to transcend the politics of race as the determining feature of ideology and political stance… As Struggle intensified, new organizations and new alliances emerged and they defied analysis along the old and predictable fault-lines of race
With the articles above, one begins to discern an ominous sign of a leadership that is content and is intent on preserving their status quo on the backs, blood and sweat of the depression, oppression and ignorance/powerlessness of the poor Africans.
I have chosen to post the article below I took from the "Black Educator," which I find that it is relevant to the whole article and puts many historical issues into a narrative format that is digestible and buttresses the Hub above, immensely. The Educator opens up with a quote from Dr. Carter G. Woodson wherein he states:
"When you control a man's thinking, you do not have to worry about his actions. He will find his "proper place" and will stay in it. You do not need to send him to the back door. He will go without being told. In fact, if there is no back door, he will protest until one is made for his use. His education demands it."
"As African children head back to school to face another school year I would like to make an attempt to explain to our community and particularly to young parents why and how the African child has been systematically mis-educated in the western world during the last 500 years, so that they can better understand the root causes of some of the aberrations and self destructive forms of behavior they see in our community and to help them realize that if they want a brighter future for their children and for our community.
Then it is imperative that they no longer leave the education of their children solely in the hands of the western educational system, but rather to follow the advice of Malcolm X who told us years ago that, "The black child's education starts when the school bells rings at 4 p.m. in the afternoon." (This may vary depending on what time school ends in your country) We didn't follow his advice then and today our youth are suffering the consequences.
The situation of African children around the planet has considerably deteriorated since the days of Malcolm X, so that we are now forced to follow the advice of Dr Asa Hilliard one of Africa's great educators who died recently and left us these parting words. "The education of African people is an urgent necessity. It is a matter of life and death. We cannot abide another generation of children who have no identity and who are ignorant about Africa."
The late Professor Amos Wilson, another one of Africa's foremost educators of the 20 century, posed a crucial question that all African parents and our community need to ask. What is the purpose of an education? He said that most black people have been 'trained' to think it is 'to get a job with one of the 'Fortune 500' companies". However, according to Dr. Wilson, they are seriously mistaken, because the purpose of an education is to improve and further the interests of one's own group and to ensure its survival.
Obviously the Indians, the Chinese, the Jews and other groups understand this, since that is what they do. Our people often look at them and marvel at their unity and wonder why in contrast our community seems so fragmented and disorganized. Yet, when we study African civilization we can clearly see that it was well organized and group oriented and there is even an African proverb which states "it takes a whole village to raise a child."
If it took a whole village to raise a child, it must have been because our ancestors worked as a group and understood that on reaching adulthood that child would in turn do everything to promote the interests of their group. Our ancestors therefore never left the education of their children to chance because the cohesiveness of their society was of prime importance.
So, how have African people become such a fragmented and disorganized group of people today? "Why can't we be like the Indians and the Japanese?" the question one of my 17-year-old nephews asked me some years ago. The answer is quite simple: "We cannot be like them because we do not have the same historical experience."
We do ourselves a great disservice when we compare ourselves to other people since we can only compare that which is similar, not dissimilar. We are different because Africa was attacked by Arabs and Europeans, and our people were forcefully taken to another land and enslaved. Neither the Indians nor the Japanese have had that experience and therefore it is absolutely pointless to compare ourselves to them.
When slavery and later colonization took place the vision that our ancestors had of educating and raising African children was taken out of their control and a new way was imposed on African people. Worse, this new system of education ran counter to the interests and needs of Africans. As a result, today, as Prof Wilson has again pointed out, "African people have never had so many talented and educated economists, educators, sociologists, doctors, lawyers, artists, etc, yet we suffer the worst health, housing, and education on the planet because our education was never designed to promote our interests but rather the goals and the interests of our oppressors. The self destructive behavior and derogative lyrics of the rap generation is a striking example of children who have not been taught to promote their interests."
Furthermore, our people hold advanced degrees from some of the most prestigious Ivy League schools and universities and can solve any myriad of problems for other groups but since they have not received an African centered education when it comes to their own, all their knowledge is null and void. Sometimes the more educated they become, the more alienated they are from African culture and more of a menace to our group, because in their zeal to promote the interests of others they often end up doing harm to their own people.
So, Colin Powell, who sent African American soldiers to kill other African people in Grenada, should never be considered a good role model for our children, if we want to liberate African people from oppression. If African leaders allow the West to take their wealth to feed Europeans and leave Africans to starve and face death, it is because they too have been taught to work against their own interests.
For example, at the end of apartheid instead of putting reparations and land redistribution as a top priority for South Africa's black victims, reconciliation with whites, the criminals, became the main goal. As a result, Nelson Mandela is feted all over the western world and the British even unveiled a statue of him recently in London, yet the only thing that South African blacks have received to date is some propaganda about living happily in a mythical rainbow colored society. This is one of the reasons why African parents must be extremely careful with the kind of role models they present to their children. Danny Glover is a much better model for our children to emulate than Condoleezza Rice.
This new manner of raising and educating black children however has always posed a problem in the western world. Once again, Dr. Wilson gives us an explanation. It is problematic he says, because African people were not brought to the West to be educated. They were brought to be the slaves and servants of the people who enslaved them, in other words, to work. I used to teach African culture in an after school program several years ago and the first question we asked the children was the reason for our people's presence here in the West.
None of them ever responded by saying that African people were here to work as servants for white people. In fact, most black people will answer this question by a vague "we were brought here as slaves." Have you ever noticed that anything meant for African people is often vague? For example, "Jesus is coming back soon" or "we are going to reduce poverty in Africa" or "we want to help Africa" What date specifically is Jesus coming back?
By what date exactly are they going to reduce poverty and by how much? Or what specific area of activity are they planning to focus on? We don't know. The language is vague because it's not meant to be taken seriously and they know that our people will not demand anything more specific. In return, we are asked to blindly believe, watch and pray and hope for a better day... Also, that is very, very vague.
Yet what black people actually do is very specific. We serve our white masters. In sports and in music all the owners are white and the players and singers are black. This imbalance exists even in countries where the majority of the population is black. For example in the Caribbean most of the business and hotel owners as well as the tourists are white, while the workers are mostly black. In Africa, our people extract the diamonds and gold from the ground while Indians, Jews, Lebanese and Western businessmen sit in their offices all day and reap the benefits.
This inability to understand the real reason for our presence in the West has led our community to the false assumption that we are here to 'live in peace and harmony with whites.' How many times have we heard black people say, "They don't see color" yet when they move into a white neighborhood, the whites move out, so obviously they do. If we are so mistaken about why we are here and our relationship with its inhabitants, is it any wonder that our children and our community are so confused and have so many problems in their daily lives?
In 1888, Ernest Renan, a racist French philosopher described Europe's economic vision of our world when he said, "Nature has given us a race of workers, they are Chinese, a race to till the soil, they are Africans and a race of rulers and soldiers, they are Europeans". This is exactly the world we live in today. Yet, this racially organized economic system has existed for the last 500 years but sadly African people are totally unaware of this fact because they are kept ignorant and uninformed the world over.
It is also this racially segmented economic system which is responsible for the persistent poverty and underdevelopment in Africa and the other countries where our people reside, but because of our ignorance western propaganda has made us believe that it is because our leaders are incompetent and corrupt. We are meant to transfer our hatred to our leaders rather than to the racist economic system that Europeans have willfully put in place to impoverish Africans. Luckily, the masses of poor people are passive if not there would be thousands of revolts every day, everywhere on this planet.
To keep African people impoverished the West intentionally bypasses Africa and the ghettos where many of our people live and invest in the Asian countries. The reason Chinese investment in Africa today terrifies the West is because they fear it may actually help lift Africans out of poverty and thus threaten their racially segmented economic system. To punish the Chinese, the West has simply mounted a propaganda campaign accusing them of selling tainted products and of ignoring human rights in Africa, but when and where in Africa has the West ever respected human rights? In fact, most of the anti democratic leaders in Africa are still in power because of the West.
Corruption in Africa therefore is not the cause of poverty but a consequence of it. People in Africa are corrupt because they do not earn enough money to live decently and therefore must resort to illegal methods to make ends meet. In fact, where ever you see crime take a good look, you will usually find high unemployment and intolerable living conditions because it is a consequence and not the cause. Improve the living conditions and corruption and crime will quickly disappear.
It's a very simple equation but of course no one is interested in this option because the capitalist system, which is really the old Roman slave system under a different name, cannot survive without access to a large number of unpaid workers or people who are barely paid. Under globalization, its modern name, 80% of the world is still exploited by the 20% who still continue to own all the wealth. Changing the name periodically (feudalism, industrialization, capitalism, socialism, communism and now globalization) is simply a strategy that the West uses to make us, the ignorant masses believe that there is genuine change taking place in society.
Now you understand why every country you visit and in every area of activity the owners and those who make money are always white or are close to white, while those who work, serve and are exploited are always black or close to it. This is what African parents must begin to understand so that they can explain to their children why African people are consistently at the bottom of the socio-economic ladder.
This whole Hub is an effort of presenting and preserving a history of Africans of south Africa to better understand their past and present, and maybe they may configure a better future. This is serious work, and it needs to be taught to the children of south Africa, of all races, and it is also important because it has been written by the African author from an African Centered Perspective and historical Mode.
Edumacated Africans Should Read This Book
Retro Ancient History And Its Prejudices: Education For Conscientization
Now that we know that African people were brought to the West exclusively to work and serve whites, and not to "live in peace and harmony" with them, where did the rationale behind the education of black children come from? After Europeans had succeeded in making our ancestors almost as ignorant as the animals they said they were after years of chattel slavery, some of them began to realize that in order to further their commercial interests, it was better for the 'negroes'(Africans) to have at least a minimal amount of education.
A few continued to believe that "negroes"(Africans) should continue to be worked like beasts of burden and be "kept in total ignorance," however, they finally agreed that it was in their best interest to educate our ancestors. In their original plans Europeans had had no intentions of educating African people.
The education of the black child in the western educational system therefore was never designed to develop the individual personality or the intellect of African children and to help them reach their fullest potential. The decision to educate was strictly based on the economic requirements of the day which needed a number of educated Africans in order for the West to achieve its goals.
We would still be uneducated today if Europeans had not deemed it a necessary requirement. In fact, one of the reasons that African children are doing so badly in the educational system is precisely because their education continues to depend on the needs of the western economic system.
If you listen to propaganda, however, you may easily believe it is because they(Africans) are intellectually inferior and lazy. The stark reality is that the business world is linked to education and therefore whatever happens in the economic sphere will have an impact on education. The educational system works like a bottleneck to control the flow of students entering the workforce. This is important to remember.
So, if the economy is experiencing a boom, more students will graduate from college and university in order to enter the work force and if there is a recession, it will do the complete opposite. I.e. fewer students will graduate and thus fewer will enter the workforce.
The western economy has not been doing well for several years now because the new technology has not been able to provide the large numbers of jobs which the old industries like steel and coal did, years ago. This has led economists to conclude that long term unemployment will now be a permanent fixture of the western economy. As a result, universities and colleges have been forced to reduce the number of people entering the workforce.
It is obvious that if the economy is suffering this will have an adverse effect on African people since our education, since the days of slavery, has been intricately linked to the state of the Western economy. This is the real reason why there is very little investment in black education because there is an economic imperative to considerably reduce the flow of African children graduating and entering the workforce, since there are no available jobs for them and thus it is pointless to waste money educating them. Verwoerd was a vehement proponent for this type of education for Africans-Thus, Bantu Education. A great book to read on this subject, titled: "The American slave: From Sundown To Sunup".
Might I remind all and sundry that 400 years ago, Black/African unemployment was totally unheard of in the West since every African man, woman and child was fully employed from sunrise to sunset. In fact, Europeans couldn't build ships fast enough to go to Africa to kidnap Africans and bring them to the West to work. Isn't it ironic that curbing immigration from Africa is the biggest issue in the West today where quotas and fluency in Western languages are requirements for emigrating to the West? In France they are even planning to test the DNA of relatives who simply want to rejoin their families. How unfortunate that Europeans did not enforce these practices 500 years ago because they would have saved Africans a tremendous amount of pain.
If we accept that in the western system an individual's importance depends on their financial worth, then it is clear why African children have become a liability rather than an asset and are underachieving in school. Knowing the kind of social disruption that able bodied, young men of working age unable to find a job can create in society, the West has decided to channel them into prisons as a solution in order to prevent the kind of revolts that occurred in the French suburbs 2 years ago.
This is why 'tolerance zero' was introduced and why a 15 year old African American youth who stole a simple chocolate bar would receive a 15 year jail sentence from a US court. To deaden the pain of those who have lost all hope of a better future, they inject drugs into our communities and pray for a quick demise either by a drug overdose or a bullet to the brain as our young men pretend to be mafia bosses fighting over turf. One can clearly see this same pattern in south Africa with the scourge of drug abuse decimating large swaths of the African population.
After the Europeans had finally decided to educate African children, they had to deal with the problem of the content of their education. What were they to teach these 'Negroes/Africans?' All of the aberrations and self destructive behavioral patterns that we see in our community can be traced right back to this moment when Europeans had to make a decision about the kind of information they were going to transmit to African people. I always harken back to Verwoerd and his Apartheid Bantu Education Doctrine in this instance. I have written Hubs that dealt with the whole draconian collection of Afrikaner laws that were designed to keep Africans in perpetual slavery.
When African children entered the western school system for the first time, there was great fear among the slaveholders that if Africans were taught 'the wrong' information, (the truth) they would lose complete control over them especially since our ancestors numerically outnumbered whites in the new world at that time.( African people have since become the minority.) Verwoerd said that he did not see nor envision a South Africa where the African child would be educated to the extent that he becomes better than White children, and he thought it useless for the Boers to Teach African children for jobs they will never get nor work at.
To understand why Europeans were so afraid of the content of African education we must go further back into our past. Before they had even set foot in Africa, Europeans had heard about African glory and its extraordinary civilizations. Philip of Macedonia, like the typical warmongering European megalomaniac, decided that as he was the most powerful person in the West he had to conquer Egypt, the most advanced African civilization at the time and own it for himself. Fortunately, he was killed while waging another one of his numerous wars.
Unfortunately, his son Alexander, who only a twisted mind could call great, decided to fulfill his father's dream and did eventually conquer Egypt. When Europeans entered Africa for the first time and saw the tremendous civilization our ancestors had methodically collected, stored and preserved from millennia they were mesmerized. They were overwhelmed by its organization, its opulence, its style, its architecture, its creativity, its intelligence, in short, everything but most particularly, its tremendous wealth.
Today in the western media we are inundated with propaganda of "a poverty stricken Africa" but Europeans knew then and still know now how tremendously wealthy Africa is. In fact, it is precisely because of Africa's genius and its tremendous wealth why African people were enslaved in the first place. Africa is the richest continent on earth, and it is neither a so-called Third World Country/Continent.
Europeans were envious and wanted to have Africa all for themselves but they also felt ashamed and it was at this moment that the crime which they would carry out later in the 15 century when they discovered the New World, began to take shape in their minds. One of the things that struck me as I studied Ancient Egyptian civilization was the number of times the word 'shame' appeared in the writings of many of the European travelers to Egypt. It's a leitmotiv in their writings. Even Jean Francois Champoleon who deciphered the hieroglyphs on the Rosetta Stone felt shame when he visited the tombs of the Pharaohs in the Valley of Kings and saw the different races depicted there. This is what he said.
"We also found Egyptians and other Africans depicted in the same way, which could not be otherwise: but there were some important and strange differences between the Namou ( the Asians) and the Tamhou ( the Europeans) ……
Finally (and I am ashamed to say this because our race was the last and most savage of all in those ancient times) but we must be honest and admit that we did not paint a very pretty figure in those days. Here I am referring to all the people with blonde hair and white skin, living not only in Europe, but in Asia, their place of origin. " [Asia here means people from the Middle East and not from China].
This forces us to ask the following question, Why did Europeans feel shame when they came into contact with Africa? Where did their shame stem from? It is this shame which is behind our enslavement and oppression along with mis-education and Dumbing us down perpetually..
Keeping History Alive Is The Ultimate goal for Africans
History in Focus: War And Civilization: African History In Vogue ~ At Issue is The Education Of The African Child
In recent years, there has been a lot of talk about the end of western civilization and we have all heard conservative and right wing politicians in the West lamenting the loss of western values. But what is Western civilization? What exactly are Western values? If you have traveled across Europe as I have, you will see walled cities, military forts, canons, pistols, guns, all manner of swords and statues of war heroes.
In short, you will see an arsenal of weaponry and materials for waging war. In my opinion, war is not what most people imagine when they think about civilization. This may surprise many people but the West has never had a civilization if you exclude war from that definition. So where did the West get all its architecture, laws, religion, human rights ideas, its so called values, etc?They got them from Africa. Before they visited Africa they had none of these things.
In fact, Europeans had spent their time on the planet developing more and more lethal weapons to wage war and kill each other. Africans in contrast, had spent their time on this planet mapping the stars, studying the changing seasons, inventing literature, the arts, architecture, mathematics, writing, inventing the calendar, medicine, worshiping their gods, mummifying their dead, preparing for the afterlife, even inventing the very wig that so many black women can no longer do without today, in short, trying to build the things that we consider today, as Civilization.
As a result, when they came into contact with Africa's splendor, Europeans felt inadequate, ashamed, inferior, because they had built nothing similar in Europe, only weapons of war, and so they were envious and started plotting to take Africa for themselves and enslave African people and that is exactly what they have done. So what has been promoted as Western civilization during the last 500 years is none other than the civilization of African people which they have simply confiscated and claimed as their very own.
Today, the West has reached the peak of its power and it is still in the warmongering business, and still sowing death and destruction in its path. Iraq is a recent example and perhaps Iran will be next in line, however, it now prefers to let the other races kill each other while it concentrates on supplying all the materials necessary for them to accomplish this task and rake in the profits from their deaths, especially from the deaths of African people who unfortunately have become infected with the western warmongering virus after centuries of close contact, to the point where Rwandans exterminated 4 million of their own people in the short space of only 3 months.
As many people are unaware that the West has claimed African civilization as its own, they are often confused by the contradictions they see in Western society. So they can't understand for example how slavery and human rights can co-exist side by side but if you understand that one comes from Europe (slavery) and the other comes from Africa (human rights), then there is absolutely no contradiction whatsoever.
Furthermore, as they do not genuinely believe in such concepts they often end up only paying lip service to them. Do you remember that Europeans were holding a book in their hands which clearly stated 'thou shalt not kill' while they were raping and killing our ancestors? Worse, the ships our ancestors traveled across the Atlantic ocean on had biblical names such as 'the good ship Jesus' or "John the Baptist."
Today, Mr Bush talks about god and drops cluster bombs which kill women and children in the same breath. This is exactly what his ancestors, the founding fathers, did when they exterminated the Amerindians, the original inhabitants of the USA. This dichotomy can be observed in many areas in western society because they have simply juxtaposed their warmongering culture to African civilization and promoted it as their own…
Now you can understand why there is so much injustice, poverty and exploitation on one hand and false philanthropy on the other in our world. If you have ever wondered why there are so many humanitarian and Christian organizations all over Africa apparently working to help lift Africans out of poverty, yet Africans still do not have access to clean drinking water now you know why. Next time the G8 countries get together and begin to wax lyrical/economical and political about how they intend to lift Africans out of poverty, please do yourself a favor and turn off your television.
The education of the black child caused great fear among the Europeans because they knew the genius of the people they had enslaved. What could they therefore teach African children whose birthright they had stolen? For a start, they certainly couldn't allow black and white children to compete equally because the white children would have been humiliated by the brilliance of the Africans.(Recall the history of Verwoerd mentioned above in the Hub and his Apartheid policies towards the enforcement of unequal education between African children and White children)
The problem was only solved when the minority white population realized they were the sole decision makers in terms of what information was to be taught or withheld from their black students and furthermore, they had the monopoly in the writing and in the publication of the books, manuals and other materials that black people would read.
So, they simply decided to give our children an inferior quality of education instead. That is why some of us write Hubs that are long and involved because we have had our development anything arrested for over 500+ years now, and now we are trying to cover all that lost ground-thus the story and history of Education had been one place where could start.
Professor Wilson says that the education of the black child has never been and can never be the same as that of the white child because the white child must be taught how to rule and dominate others, while the black child must be taught how to serve and obey, hence the dual role of the western educational system.
In spite of all the talk about equality, desegregation and. Mr Bush's famous 'no child left behind policy, the educational system in the West has not changed one iota since the days of slavery and continues to ensure that African children receive an inferior quality of education in comparison to their white counterparts. Neither has our own education not changed a scintilla since the earlier 18th century
In order to maintain this two tiered system they have invented all kinds of covert strategies such as intelligence tests, special education classes, hierarchy between schools, etcetera, In short, they continue to teach our children how to serve and obey which of course our young males totally reject.
In fact, it is the information they teach in the school system which destroys the self esteem and the will to succeed in our children and that is exactly what it is intended for. As a result, they lose interest in school, begin to experience difficulty and eventually they drop out and become delinquents.
Sounds like the Hub above, and this is not only in South Africa, but where African people were colonized and enslaved. And also what is happening to our education system in South Africa today, is caricatured in the paragraph above
This fear of being humiliated by African people is still very strong today and is one reason why many whites abandon certain professions and sports that black people enter and why they are so hesitant to allow black people into certain professions.
When black people dominate an area of activity or profession, whites often give the impression that it is really of no value whatsoever, however, this behavior is simply a self defense mechanism which they adopt in order to avoid feelings of inadequacy, inferiority and the pain of being outperformed by African people, in other words, the same feelings their ancestors experienced so many centuries ago when they first encountered Africans.
Teaching African children about their glorious past would have been counterproductive because of their fear of being humiliated by Africans, so instead they decided to distort both African and world history by teaching falsehood.
For example, many people today are unaware that Egyptian civilization predates that of Rome by thousands of years because they have erroneously been presented as contemporaneous, yet Roman civilization had not even begun when Pyramid building stopped in Egypt around the 14th Dynasty.
Worse, most people still do not know that there are more pyramids in Sudan than in Egypt, or that this is where this style of architecture originated. In fact, the civilization of Nubia (Sudan), predates that of Egypt… Since most of our people are unaware of the importance Sudan in our history the impending catastrophe which the proposed Kajbar Dam represents leaves them totally indifferent.
This dam, just like in Egypt with the building of the Aswan Dam will erase forever all of Africa's ancient history in the Sudan, thus making this knowledge inaccessible to future generations of African people.
Today, because of these distortions most black people are totally ignorant about their true history. Instead of teaching African children that their ancestors, the ancient Egyptians, were the true builders of civilization, ( the pyramids, obelisks and temples still stand as proof today), they were taught that it was the Greeks and Romans. Instead of being told that Imhotep the Egyptian was the father of medicine, they were taught that it was Hippocrates. Instead of being taught about the first universities founded by their ancestors in Timbuktu and Djenne in Mali, they were taught that Africans were an oral people who knew nothing about writing.
Instead of being taught about the great Zulu, Sotho, Xhosa and Shona civilizations of Stone builders in South Africa, Zimbabwe that built a city bigger than London or the artistic genius of the Nok civilization of Nigeria, they were told that their homeland was a "dark" continent, where their primitive, savage, ancestors roamed the wild jungles from morn till night practicing cannibalism and that luckily, God sent kind-hearted and charitable European Christians (Tarzan) to civilize them and to teach them his word in order to save them from themselves.
To add insult to injury, they invented a racial hierarchy with themselves at the top, and Africans at the bottom and justified it by saying they were "god's chosen people" and therefore superior and that God had given them 'a land overflowing with milk and honey,' (Africa) while our ancestors were heathen, devil worshipers who God himself had cursed and therefore we deserved to be their slaves.
These vicious lies continue to be believed by millions of people, both black and white and is one of the reasons for the rampant and chronic racism in our societies today.(One can read Biko's book on this very account which he talks about at length and very seriously).
Today whites continue to promote African genius as their own. For example, African people invented rock and rap but it is Elvis Presley who is known as the king of rock and roll while Eminem became the first rapper to win an Oscar. Likewise, Bill Gates has become a household name and a millionaire but without the genius of Dr. Mark Dean and Dr.Philip Emeagali, two African scientists, the computer would not have become accessible to the masses of people on the planet today.
This was how the theft of African civilization, the brainwashing and the mis-education of African children and African people took place. If their plan has been so successful it is because they knew that in order to succeed they would have to target African children at a very early age. They, like our ancestors, understood that if you 'train up a child in the way that you want it to go, when it is old it will not depart from it' and that is why from the beginning of slavery, African children were divested of their names and their languages.
Furthermore, to submit Africans to their authority, they used religion to terrify African children by teaching them the fictitious story of the bible, plagiarized from the Egyptian Osirian myth, as fact. This story promised African children a life of suffering (hell) if they were disobedient to their master, (the slave master, not a supreme being as many black people mistakenly believe) but heavenly wealth after death if they obeyed.(paradise).
As has been shown above in the Hub, that the education of African children has long been designed to be destined for failure and underdevelopment. And the Hub above breaks it down over many decades and centuries how this was done, and why the colonizers of the day did what they did. It is therefore, I assert, important to write our own history, Stories and so forth, and learn from what each of us has to contribute towards throwing an enlightening reality to our decrepit reality that is setting us back and under-developing us.
Dr. Carter's Aphorism
The Faslification Of The African Narrative History: Delayed Total Revolution
The real tragedy is that this distorted African story that generations of black children were forced to memorize, continues to be taken literally by millions of African people around the globe, who have spent their entire lives waiting for this ancient Superman named Jesus Christ to burst through the clouds and deliver them from evildoers.
The tragic irony is that today it is African people, the victims, who are keeping to this religion which was forcefully imposed upon our children during slavery, alive-are its ardent followers.
They are its most fanatical adherents in contrast to their oppressors' own people who have long since stopped believing in this myth. Reparations can never ever compensate for the incalculable damage this myth has caused to millions of African people who have literally put their lives on hold in our world because they sincerely believe that only after death will they truly begin to live.
The Western educational system therefore will always produce dysfunctional African children because having committed the most horrendous crime on this planet and lied about it they are forced to continue.
Their propaganda machine must continue to make African people believe in the fantasy/fiction of the Bible, believing that whites are superior, that western civilization is better than their own, also believing they must fight in the illegal wars waged by the West all around the planet, convinced by their conquerors that Africa is a continent without a future, and was backward that it needed Western religion to be saved from its barbaric past.
This belief that Africa is poor, riddled with poverty, injustice and self-exploitation has always existed and was foisted onto in our world,led many African people to think that Africa is facing a demographic explosion (overpopulation) and dying from Aids (depopulation) at the same time (an illogical equation), thought that they must work hard to promote Western interests and all the other fantasies which Africa people accept as fact/truths which are too numerous to mention here-and are in the main lies and untruths.
This is the reason their media feed our children distorted and negative information 24 hours a day that is designed to sap their energy, destroy their confidence, intensify their feelings of worthlessness and self hatred and increase their admiration for the West.
The goal here was to make every African child a Michael Jackson-Reject his physical and natural identity, and worship the values and norms/imperialist cultures of the West and other foreign nation-reject and dismiss his own culture, history, traditions, customs and so forth completely.
This is the strategic destruction of the African psyche that the West has put into place and that is why it is important that African parents and the African community understand these negative forces which are working to destroy our children in order to delay the liberation of African people.
This is also the reason they(The present government and their sponsors) treat us in the most despicable manner. We suffer the worst health, live in the most horrible conditions imaginable, are the most disrespected and abused people and do not live life as it should be lived. That is why African churchgoers often say, 'we are only passing through' in this world.
What else can they say considering the decrepit and downgraded lives that most of our people lead? On the other hand, Westerners live comfortably, eat properly, enjoy good health and live long and happy lives. They do not have the impetus to give up their power. As Prof. Clarke put it: "People in power do not readily give up power nor educate their underlings to take power from."
In short, they are alive while we are dead because they have killed us. But we can be resurrected by erasing them from our minds in the same way that they erased African history from ours. This is what I believe Dr Kamau Kambon was trying to get across when he said 2 years ago that, "The solution to the black man's problem was the white man's extermination" .
Many people in their ignorance thought he meant the physical extermination of white people. It is ludicrous to think he was talking about their physical elimination since the West has weapons which can annihilate every single African person on the planet.
What he obviously meant was that in order for African people to come out of their comatose, zombie state and lead happy and fulfilling lives, they must kill the white man metaphorically, mentally by replacing his lies with the truth-thus reeding themselves in the process.
The West will never willingly admit the truth because they have too much to lose. They would have to admit the theft of African civilization, the mass murder of African people and the perpetuation of lies. Furthermore it would raise too many questions.
For example, if the Bible is fiction, then who are its real authors? Is it true that Shakespeare was one of its writers and that is why he is known as the most famous writer ever? If there are no chosen people, then who are the people in Israel parading as Jews? Why have they been placed there? Why does the USA defend them so stubbornly?
What is the real purpose of the Pope? What information are they hiding in the Vatican? What have they done with the information they took out of Africa? What really happened during the Second World War? Who was Hitler? Why did the church protect neo-Nazis?
That would raise more questions about the recent past. These questions and a million more is what the Western world would rather not have to answer African people and the rest of the world after 500 years of telling them nothing but lies. It is not possible for them to do so, and the situation of the world today is more high tech, and conspiracy theories abound… So that, we, as people of African descent, we need to work on making ourselves better than we are at present
On the internet under the Bible story about the stolen birthright this is the warning that you will read "It never pays to tell a lie. Once you tell a lie you must tell another, and another to cover up the first lie. Not only will all these lies catch up with you, but they can cause you many troubles, just like it did for Jacob and Rebecca". That is what the West has done but their lies are catching up with them and they will have to pay the consequences.
We must no longer allow the West to claim African civilization as their own because our ancestors spent millions of years painstakingly observing, collecting, recording, creating and preserving it for us, their heirs.
To allow Western bullies who refused to do the same for their people to simply come along, steal it and claim it as their own simply because they had more advanced weapons than our ancestors should not be the cause of our fears to try and protect and write our own history in order to create a new civilization for man
. .More and more African people are only just beginning to realize this. We must tell the truth. We must reclaim our pyramids, our obelisks, our medicine, mathematics, astronomy, physics, writing, our administration, our laws and our concepts. We must reclaim the famous 10 commandments which we have been taught god gave to a man named Moses.
They come from Africa and there are 42 of them which our ancestors called the MAAT (the divine principles of peace, harmony, balance and justice) while the West calls them the 'negative confessions. '[Readers can go to my Hb Page and look up the Article I wrote about the 42 Negative Confessions from the Egyptians].
Even the very cross that the church uses is African. It's called the 'Ankh.' We must study African history to find out what our ancestors left for us and every single concept or object that they invented we must take back.
Our ancestors demand that we reclaim our birthright that was stolen from us. But it is also important to begin to know how this can be achieved, and our scholarship should try and rise above these issues, and we should work hard to write and research our own history and write it as we see fit.
We will know that our people have reclaimed their birthright when African people want to study and receive diplomas from African schools and universities rather than those in the West, when African people want to work for African companies rather than western multinationals.
When our young men and women especially our famous people want to marry African people rather than European men and women, when African parents prefer to give their children African looking dolls rather than European ones, when African people stop bleaching their skin because they prefer their own, when they prefer to give their children African names rather than European ones.
It would be fruitful for the oppressed to pray to an African God(Of their conception, imagination and creation), and reject the warmongering religions of their enemies and return to the religions of ancestor worship. This might help them to feel more empathy and compassion(Ubuntu/Botho) for African people first.
They will begin to use their resources to develop and improve the lives of their people first before anyone else's. That would show a people uniting and working towards their own empowerment by/through setting up their own economic system, political system, own laws currency rather than continue to use/depend/be controlled by the currency of the West, and other foreign government/nations
The remove the artificial borders created by the West and returning to Africa's natural borderlesness, working on developing and crating new African languages out the present and existing African languages to be fused and made the official languages of Africa, will need some things to be made clear first. Those Africans who say that, 'they don't see color' and are proud to be Human beings, well, I will defer to Prof.Clarke on this matter:
"Once An African, Always An African"...
"Let me explain what I am talking about. No matter where are and no matter what religion you might belong to, and no matter what kind of schooling you have gone through, you are distinctly an African person. You are a supporter of some loyal feelings for every African person that walks this earth and if you have confusion about that, you have confusion that is detrimental to the freedom of your own people." ...
-Professor John Hendrik Clarke - 1991.
This was made even more soul-fully-reggae tight dub by Peter Tosh below:
Peter Tosh - "African"..
The ANC's Discarded Freedom Charter
What About The Freedom Charter: Are We For Real?
The ANC was afforded a chance for the past 20 years to better the conditions of Africans that were destroyed by Apartheid. What the ANC has done is exacerbate this condition, ignore the cries and pleas of the poor, and for the past 20 years kept on coming back to have them voted into power.
The photo I posted above of Zuma rallying his troops, has got a large print "Struggle" projected in the background-yet the man has built himself a R230($23) million mansion and yet he prances in front of a picture that wants to tell the people "Struggle"? How and Why/When and with Who(m)? This is just a joke and taking advantage of the ignorance of the people that it was time they were asked by the ANC to allow them to fleece them for the next five years.
The struggle of 1976 was what put the ANC into power. The present relations of the ANC and the poor masses is at a low ebb. The leaders of the ANC, since the passing of Mandela have gone onto various media and propaganda blitz. In the mix are threats and intimidation that scare-off the powerless, who cow and vote them back into power. But their corruptive ways and other dreadful acts of their cadre has wiped off the credibility front they had put on during Mandela's life.
What is worrisome is the state of mind of the school children and education in general. The lack of reading and studying is endemic and it is wasting the youth's time who are warehoused in the townships unemployed and idle(very hungry). The elite is keeping up with theWhite Jones's and working very hard to maintain and keep the status quo intact. Ignorance is a constant reality, and the matric results this year have not changed an iota prior to the coming of the ANC, and during its 20 years of rule. They have totally destroyed Bantu Education, and have replaced it with utter and complete ignorance/confusion and dysfunction.
Nobody's got time amongst the elites to reverse this downward trend of the ANC. With their manifesto, what they have done is to assure and keep in place the manner of business as they have been carrying it out for the past 20 years. It is known that the ANC is quick to contract out parcels of land and other economic advantages to any willing investor or a fee/commission. They are agents of systems that are in the process of buying South Africa, lock, stock and barrel-included in the deal is the labor and power of the poor Africans. This is basically what they do and work of: enslaving and keeping the African masses in Mzantsi ignorant and confused. Meanwhile, this is what Mandela said:
“We are limited in South Africa because our democratic Government
inherited a debt which at the time we were servicing at the rate of 30
Billion Rands a year. That is thirty billion we did not have to build
houses, to make sure our children go to the best schools, and to ensure
that everybody has the dignity of having a job and a decent income.”
With a quick look at the brief history as to how the 20 years, to date was set up, we learn from Naomi Klein that"
"In January 1990, Nelson Mandela, age seventy-one, sat down in his prison compound to write a note to his supporters outside. It was meant to settle a debate over whether twenty-seven years behind bars, most of it spent on Robben Island off the coast of Cape Town, had weakened the leader’s commitment to the economic transformation of South Africa’s Apartheid State.
The note was only two sentences long, and it decisively put the matter to rest: “The nationalization of the mines, banks and monopoly industries is the policy of the ANC, and the change or modification of our views in this regard is inconceivable. Black economic empowerment is a goal we fully support and encourage, but in our situation state control of certain sectors of the economy is unavoidable.”
History, it turned out, was not over just yet, as Fukuyama had claimed. In South Africa, the largest economy on the African continent, it seemed that some people still believed that freedom included the right to reclaim and redistribute their oppressors’ ill-gotten gains.
That belief had formed the basis of the policy of the African National Congress for thirty-five years, ever since it was spelled out in its statement of core principles, the Freedom Charter…
The process began in 1955, when the party dispatched fifty-thousand volunteers into the townships and countryside. The task of the volunteers was to collect “freedom demands” from the people—their vision of a post-apartheid world in which all South Africans had equal rights.
The demands were handwritten on scraps of paper: “Land to be given to all landless people,” “Living wages and shorter hours of work,” “Free and compulsory education, irrespective of color, race or nationality,”
“The right to reside and move about freely” and many more. When the demands came back, leaders of the African National Congress synthesized them into a final document, which was officially adopted on June 26, 1955, at the Congress of the People, held in Kliptown, a “buffer zone” township built to protect the white residents of Johannesburg from the teeming masses of Soweto. Roughly three thousand delegates— Black, Indian, “Colored” and a few white—sat together in an empty field to vote on the contents of the document.
According to Nelson Mandela’s account of the historic Kliptown gathering, “The charter was read aloud, section by section, to the people in English, Sesotho and Xhosa. After each section, the crowd shouted its approval with cries of ‘Africa!’ and ‘Mayibuye!’” The first defiant demand of the Freedom Charter reads, “The People Shall Govern!"
…What the Freedom Charter asserted was the baseline consensus in the liberation movement that freedom would not come merely when blacks took control of the state but when the wealth of the land that had been illegitimately confiscated was reclaimed and redistributed to the society as a whole.
South Africa could no longer be a country with Californian living standards for whites and Congolese living standards for blacks, as the country was described during the apartheid years; freedom meant that it would have to find something in the middle.
That was what Mandela was confirming with his two-sentence note from prison: he still believed in the bottom line that there would be no freedom without redistribution. With so many other countries now also “in transition,” it was a statement with enormous implications.
If Mandela led the ANC to power and nationalized the banks and the mines, the precedent would make it far more difficult for Chicago School economists to dismiss such proposals in other countries as relics of the past and insist that only unfettered free markets and free trade had the ability to redress deep inequalities.
On February 11, 1990, two weeks after writing that note, Mandela walked out of prison a free man, as close to a living saint as existed anywhere in the world. South Africa’s townships exploded in celebration and renewed conviction that nothing could stop the struggle for liberation.
Unlike the movement in Eastern Europe, South Africa’s was not beaten down but a movement on a roll. Mandela, for his part, was suffering from such an epic case of culture shock that he mistook a camera microphone for “some newfangled weapon developed while I was in prison.”
The ANC went into negotiations with the ruling National Party determined to avoid the kind of nightmare that neighboring Mozambique had experienced when the independence movement forced an end to Portuguese colonial rule in 1975.
On their way out the door, the Portuguese threw a vindictive temper tantrum, pouring cement down elevator shafts, smashing tractors and stripping the country of all they could carry. To its enormous credit, the ANC did negotiate a relatively peaceful handover.
However, it did not manage to prevent South Africa’s apartheid-era rulers from wreaking havoc on their way out the door. Unlike their counterparts in Mozambique, the National Party didn’t pour concrete—their sabotage, equally crippling, was far subtler, and was all in the fine print of those historic negotiations.
The talks that hashed out the terms of apartheid’s end took place on two parallel tracks that often intersected: one was political, the other economic. Most of the attention, naturally, focused on the high-profile political summits between Nelson Mandela and F. W. de Klerk, leader of the National Party.
De Klerk’s strategy in these negotiations was to preserve as much power as possible. He tried everything—breaking the country into a federation, guaranteeing veto power for minority parties, reserving a certain percentage of the seats in government structures for each ethnic group—anything to prevent simple majority rule, which he was sure would lead to mass land expropriations and the nationalizing of corporations.
As Mandela later put it, “What the National Party was trying to do was to maintain white supremacy with our consent.” De Klerk had guns and money behind him, but his opponent had a movement of millions. Mandela and his chief negotiator, Cyril Ramaphosa, won on almost every count.… But in the smoke-filled backrooms of negotiations, the Apartheidizers won all what they wanted
Running alongside these often explosive summits were the much lower profile economic negotiations, primarily managed on the ANC side by Thabo Mbeki, then a rising star in the party…South Africa’s whites had failed to keep blacks from taking over the government, but when it came to safeguarding the wealth they had amassed under apartheid, they would not give up so easily.
In these talks, the de Klerk government had a twofold strategy. First, drawing on the ascendant Washington Consensus that there was now only one way to run an economy, it portrayed key sectors of economic decision making—such as trade policy and the central bank—as “technical” or “administrative.”
Then it used a wide range of new policy tools—international trade agreements, innovations in constitutional law and structural adjustment programs—to hand control of those power centers to supposedly impartial experts, economists and officials from the IMF, the World Bank, the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) and the National Party—anyone except the liberation fighters from the ANC.
It was a strategy of balkanization, not of the country’s geography (as de Klerk had originally attempted) but of its economy. This is one fact/strategy/modus operandi of the creation of the present-day South African government that is still being unknown/misunderstood by many would-be revolutionaries in South Africa today.
This plan was successfully executed under the noses of ANC leaders, who were naturally preoccupied with winning the battle to control Parliament. In the process, the ANC failed to protect itself against a far more insidious strategy—in essence, an elaborate insurance plan against the economic clauses in the Freedom Charter ever becoming law in South Africa.
“The people shall govern!” would soon become a reality, but the sphere over which they would govern was shrinking fast… And ultimately, that approach was dumped by the ANC
“We were caught completely off guard,” recalled Padayachee, now in his early fifties. He had done his graduate studies at Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore. He knew that at the time, even among free-market economists in the US, central bank independence was considered a fringe idea, a pet policy of a handful of Chicago School ideologues who believed that central banks should be run as sovereign republics within states, out of reach of the meddling hands of elected lawmakers.
For Padayachee and his colleagues, who strongly believed that monetary policy needed to serve the new government’s “big goals of growth, employment and redistribution,” the ANC’s position was a no-brainer: “There was not going to be an independent central bank in South Africa…” All fiscal ownership, control and holding were party to, and controlled by foreign Banks and multi corporations, with the assistance of the powerful governments.
Padayachee and a colleague stayed up all night writing a paper that gave the negotiating team the arguments it needed to resist this curveball from the National Party. If the central bank (in South Africa called the Reserve Bank) was run separately from the rest of the government, it could restrict the ANC’s ability to keep the promises in the Freedom Charter.
Besides, if the central bank was not accountable to the ANC government, to whom, exactly, would it be accountable? The IMF? The Johannesburg Stock Exchange? Obviously, the National Party was trying to find a backdoor way to hold on to power even after it lost the elections—a strategy that needed to be resisted at all costs. “They were locking in as much as possible,” Padayachee recalled. “That was a clear part of the agenda.” At by most accounts, to date, that strategy has succeeded.
Padayachee faxed the paper in the morning and didn’t hear back for weeks. “Then, when we asked what happened, we were told, ‘Well, we gave that one up.’” Not only would the central bank be run as an autonomous entity within the South African State, with its independence enshrined in the new constitution, but it would be headed by the same man who ran it under apartheid, by Chris Stals.
It wasn’t just the central bank that the ANC had given up: in another major concession, Derek Keyes, the white finance minister under apartheid, would also remain in his post—much as the finance ministers and central bank heads from Argentina’s dictatorship somehow managed to get their jobs back under democracy. The New York Times praised Keyes as “the country’s ranking apostle of low-spending business-friendly government.”…
What happened in those negotiations is that the ANC found itself caught in a new kind of web, one made of arcane rules and regulations, all designed to confine and constrain the power of elected leaders.
As the web descended on the country, only a few people even noticed it was there, but when the new government came to power and tried to move freely, to give its voters the tangible benefits of liberation they expected and thought they had voted for, the strands of the web tightened and the administration discovered that its powers were tightly bound-they could not do as they pleased-they had to consult and if possible, get the consent of the Central bank and its cronies-and usually, their petitions and suggestions were voided and rendered useless. These programs were cut off and left out of the negotiations and government protocol for ruling.
Patrick Bond, who worked as an economic adviser in Mandela’s office during the first years of ANC rule, recalls that the in-house quip was “Hey, we’ve got the state, where’s the power?” As the new government attempted to make tangible the dreams of the Freedom Charter, it discovered that the power was elsewhere. Meaning, they had not power and they were just Pons in a huge International Chess Game.
The self-entrapment that the ANC created for itself thus far, is about to continue for the Gravy is to sweet to let go or forgo. The rulers of the ANC would rather sell their souls to money than listen and take care of the needs of their poor people. They have essentially told them that now they are free, it's every man for themselves… It is indeed.
Because, just reading the piece above, the reader begins to get a sense that the ANC are amateurs in this game of governing(The Johnny-Come-Late-lies), and that is why they do not control the economy and currency of the country. They are all paid workers for obscure and covert powers that they themselves are still unable to discern nor comprehend. They have not even spoken about or legislated according to the premises enshrined in the Freedom Charter… And this will never anytime soon, or ever.
It is at this point that I will introduce John Perkings, because what he has to say, makes much clearer what I have been saying above.
Affluence In The Middle Of Dire Poverty
Ruling In Name Only-Form Of Vorster Petty Apartheid
Want to redistribute land? Impossible—at the last minute, the negotiators agreed to add a clause to the new constitution that protects all private property, making land reform virtually impossible.
Want to create jobs for millions of unemployed workers? Can’t—hundreds of factories were actually about to close because the ANC had signed on to the GATT, the precursor to the World Trade Organization, which made it illegal to subsidize the auto plants and textile factories.
Want to get free AIDS drugs to the townships, where the disease is spreading with terrifying speed? That violates an intellectual property rights commitment under the WTO, which the ANC joined with no public debate as a continuation of the GATT. Need money to build more and larger houses for the poor and to bring free electricity to the townships?
Sorry—the budget is being eaten up servicing the massive debt, passed on quietly by the apartheid government. Print more money? Tell that to the apartheid-era head of the central bank. Free water for all? Not likely. The World Bank, with its large in-country contingent of economists, researchers and trainers (a self-proclaimed “Knowledge Bank”), is making private-sector partnerships the service norm.
Want to impose currency controls to guard against wild speculation? That would violate the $850 million IMF deal, signed, conveniently enough, right before the elections. Raise the minimum wage to close the apartheid income gap?
Nope. The IMF deal promises “wage restraint. And don’t even think about ignoring these commitments— any change will be regarded as evidence of dangerous national untrustworthiness, a lack of commitment to “reform,” an absence of a “rules-based system.” All of which will lead to currency crashes, aid cuts and capital flight.
The bottom line was that South Africa was free but simultaneously captured; each one of these arcane acronyms represented a different thread in the web that pinned down the limbs of the new government.
A long-time anti-apartheid activist, Rassool Snyman, described the trap to me in stark terms. “They never freed us. They only took the chain from around our neck and put it on our ankles.” Yasmin Sooka, a prominent South African human rights activist, told me that the transition “was business saying, "We’ll keep everything and you [the ANC] will rule in name-[only]."
You can have political power, you can have the façade of governing, but the real governance will take place somewhere else.. It was a process of infantilization that is common to so-called transitional countries—new governments are, in effect, given the keys to the house but not the combination to the safe…
In the first two years of ANC rule, the party still tried to use the limited resources it had to make good on the promise of redistribution. There was a flurry of public investment—more than a hundred thousand homes were built for the poor, and millions were hooked up to water, electricity and phone lines.
But, in a familiar story, weighed down by debt and under international pressure to privatize these services, the government soon began raising prices. After a decade of ANC rule, millions of people had been cut off from newly connected water and electricity because they couldn’t pay the bills. At least 40 percent of the new phones lines were no longer in service by 2003.
As for the “banks, mines and monopoly industry” that Mandela had pledged to nationalize, they remained firmly in the hands of the same four white-owned mega-conglomerates that also control 80 percent of the Johannesburg Stock Exchange.
In 2005, only 4 percent of the companies listed on the exchange were owned or controlled by blacks. Seventy percent of South Africa’s land, in 2006, was still monopolized by whites, who are just 10 percent of the population.
Most distressingly, the ANC government has spent far more time denying the severity of the AIDS crisis than getting lifesaving drugs to the approximately 5 million people infected with HIV, though there were, by early 2007, some positive signs of progress. Perhaps the most striking statistic is this one: since 1990, the year Mandela left prison, the average life expectancy for South Africans has dropped by thirteen years.
TalkingStickTV - John Perkins - Confessions of an Economic Hit Man - Part I
The Checkered Chartered Freedom
Underlying all these facts and figures is a fateful choice made by the ANC after the leadership realized it had been outmaneuvered in the economic negotiations. At that point, the party could have attempted to launch a second liberation movement and break free of the asphyxiating web that had been spun during the transition. Or it could simply accept its restricted power and embrace the new economic order.
The ANC’s leadership chose the second option. Rather than making the center-piece of its policy the redistribution of wealth that was already in the country— the core of the Freedom Charter on which it had been elected—the ANC, once it because the government, accepted the dominant logic that it's only hope was to pursue new foreign investors who would create new wealth, the benefits of which would trickle down to the poor.
But for the trickle-down model to have a hope of working, the ANC government had to radically alter its behavior/ideology to make itself appealing to investors.
This was not an easy task, as Mandela had learned when he walked out of prison. As soon as he was released, the South African stock market collapsed in panic; South Africa’s currency, the rand, dropped by 10 percent. A few weeks later, De Beers, the diamond corporation, moved its headquarters from South Africa to Switzerland.
This kind of instant punishment from the markets would have been unimaginable three decades earlier, when Mandela was first imprisoned. In the sixties, it was unheard of for multinationals to switch nationalities on a whim and, back then, the world money system was still firmly linked to the gold standard. Now South Africa’s currency had been stripped of controls, trade barriers were down, and most trading was short-term speculation.
Not only did the volatile market not like the idea of a liberated Mandela, but just a few misplaced words from him or his fellow ANC leaders could lead to an earth-shaking stampede by what the New York Times columnist Thomas Friedman has aptly termed “The electronic herd." The stampede that greeted Mandela’s release was just the start of what became a call-and-response between the ANC leadership and the financial markets—a shock dialogue that trained the party in the new rules of the game.
Every time a top party official said something that hinted that the ominous Freedom Charter might still become policy, the market responded with a shock, sending the rand into free fall. The rules were simple and crude, the electronic equivalent of monosyllabic grunts: justice—expensive, sell; status quo—good, buy. When, shortly after his release, Mandela once again spoke out in favor of nationalization at a private lunch with leading businessmen, “The All-Gold Index plunged by 5 per cent."
Even moves that seemed to have nothing to do with the financial world but betrayed some latent radicalism seemed to provoke a market jolt. When Trevor Manuel, an ANC minister, called rugby in South Africa a “white minority game” because its team was an all-white one, the rand took another hit.
delete up down float right edit A Charter That Is Still Hidden In Plain Sight
The Selling Of The Struggle Of South Africa: Imperial Covert Actions
…Rather than calling for the nationalization of the mines, Mandela and Mbeki began meeting regularly with Harry Oppenheimer, former chairman of the mining giants Anglo-American and De Beers, the economic symbols of apartheid rule. Shortly after the 1994 election, they even submitted the ANC’s economic program to Oppenheimer for approval and made several key revisions to address his concerns, as well as those of other top industrialists.
Hoping to avoid getting another shock from the market, Mandela, in his first post-election interview as president, carefully distanced himself from his previous statements favoring nationalization. “In our economic policies . . . there is not a single reference to things like nationalization, and this is not accidental,” he said.
“There is not a single slogan that will connect us with any Marxist ideology.” The financial press offered steady encouragement for this conversion: “Though the ANC still has a powerful leftist wing,” the Wall Street Journal observed, “Mr. Mandela has in recent days sounded more like Margaret Thatcher than the socialist revolutionary he was once thought to be."
The memory of its radical past still clung to the ANC, and despite the new government’s best efforts to appear not threatening, the market kept inflicting its painful shocks: in a single month in 1996, the rand dropped 20 percent, and the country continued to hemorrhage capital as South Africa’s jittery rich moved their money offshore.
…In South Africa only a handful of Mbeki’s closest colleagues even knew that a new economic program was in the works, one very different from the promises they had all made during the 1994 elections. Of the people on the team, Gumede writes, “All were sworn to secrecy and the entire process was shrouded in deepest confidentiality lest the left wing get wind of Mbeki’s plan.”
…In June 1996, Mbeki unveiled the results: it was a neoliberal shock therapy program for South Africa, calling for more privatization, cutbacks to government spending, labour “flexibility,” freer trade and even looser controls on money flows. According to Gelb, its overriding aim “was to signal to potential investors the government’s [and specifically the ANC’s] commitment to the prevailing orthodoxy." To make sure the message was loud and clear to traders in New York and London, at the public launch of the plan, Mbeki quipped, “Just call me a Thatcherite."
Shock therapy is always a market performance—that is part of its underlying theory. The stock market loves overhyped, highly managed moments that send stock prices soaring, usually provided by an initial public stock offering, the announcement of a huge merger or the hiring of a celebrity CEO.
When economists urge countries to announce a sweeping shock therapy package, the advice is partially based on an attempt to imitate this kind of high-drama market event and trigger a stampede—but rather than selling an individual stock, they are selling a country.
The hoped-for response is “Buy Argentine stocks!” “Buy Bolivian bonds!” A slower, more careful approach, on the other hand, may be less brutal, but it deprives the market of these hype-bubbles, during which the real money gets made.
Shock therapy is always a significant gamble, and in South Africa it didn’t work: Mbeki’s grand gesture failed to attract long-term investment; it resulted only in speculative betting that ended up devaluing the currency even further…
Some commissioners felt that multinational corporations that had benefited from apartheid should be forced to pay reparations. In the end the Truth and Reconciliation Commission made the modest recommendation of a one-time 1 percent corporate tax to raise money for the victims, what it called “a solidarity tax.”
Sooka expected support for this mild recommendation from the ANC; instead, the government, then headed by Mbeki, rejected any suggestion of corporate reparations or a solidarity tax, fearing that it would send an anti-business message to the market. “The president decided not to hold business accountable,” Sooka told me. “It was that simple.” In the end, the government put forward a fraction of what had been requested, taking the money out of its own budget, as the commissioners had feared.
South Africa’s Truth and Reconciliation Commission is frequently held up as a model of successful “peace building,” exported to other conflict zones from Sri Lanka to Afghanistan. But many of those who were directly involved in the process are deeply ambivalent. When he unveiled the final report in March 2003, the commission’s chairman, Archbishop Desmond Tutu, confronted journalists with freedom’s unfinished business.
“Can you explain how a black person wakes up in a squalid ghetto today, almost 10 years after freedom? Then he goes to work in town, which is still largely white, in palatial homes. And at the end of the day, he goes back home to squalor? I don’t know why those people don’t just say, ‘To hell with peace. To hell with Tutu and the truth commission.’"
Well, to further the core of the paragraph above, I have decided to use John Perkings' speech below…
The Charter That Has Never Been-Yet Public
John Perkins - "The Secret History Of The American Empire...
The ANC Blame The Debt They Inherited After Apartheid
“The fact that the ANC dismissed the Commission’s call for corporate reparations is particularly unfair, Sooka pointed out, because the government continues to pay the apartheid debt. In the first years after the handover, it cost the new government 30 billion rand annually (about $4.5 billion) in servicing—a sum that provides a stark contrast with the paltry total of $85 million that the government ultimately paid out to more than nineteen thousand victims of apartheid killings and torture and their families.
Nelson Mandela has cited the debt burden as the single greatest obstacle to keeping the promises of the Freedom Charter. “That is 30 billion [rand] we did not have to build houses as we planned, before we came into government, to make sure that our children go to the best schools, that unemployment is properly addressed and that everybody has the dignity of having a job, a decent income, of being able to provide shelter to his beloved, to feed them . . . . We are limited by the debt that we inherited."
…What makes the ANC’s decision to keep paying the debt so infuriating to activists like Brutus is the tangible sacrifice made to meet each payment. For instance, between 1997 and 2004, the South African government sold eighteen state-owned firms, raising $4 billion, but almost half the money went to servicing the debt. In other words, not only did the ANC renege on Mandela’s original pledge of “the nationalization of the mines, banks and monopoly industry” but because of the debt, it was doing the opposite—selling off national assets to make good on the debts of its oppressors.
Then there is the matter of where, precisely, the money is going. During the transition negotiations, F. W. de Klerk’s team demanded that all civil servants be guaranteed their jobs even after the handover; those who wanted to leave, they argued, should receive hefty lifelong pensions.
This was an extraordinary demand in a country with no social safety net to speak of, yet it was one of several “technical” issues on which the ANC ceded ground. The concession meant that the new ANC government carried the cost of two governments— its own, and a shadow white government that was out of power. Forty percent of the government’s annual debt payments go to the country’s massive pension fund. The vast majority of the beneficiaries are former apartheid employees.
A Charade, Farce And Fiction
The More The Votes Are Cast, The more Things Will Stay The Same
In the end, South Africa has wound up with a twisted case of reparations in reverse, with the white businesses that reaped enormous profits from black labour during the apartheid years paying not a cent in reparations, but the victims of apartheid continuing to send large pay cheques to their former victimizers.
And how do they raise the money for this generosity? By stripping the state of its assets through privatization—a modern form of the very looting that the ANC had been so intent on avoiding when it agreed to negotiations, hoping to prevent a repeat of Mozambique. Unlike what happened in Mozambique, however, where civil servants broke machinery, stuffed their pockets and then fled, in South Africa the dismantling of the state and the pillaging of its coffers continue to this day.”(Naomi Klein)
It is the last line by Klein that has made me write the Hub as it stands. This pillaging and emptying of public coffers is being negotiated by the ANC and its cadres amongst the poor, and the very same thing they have been doing for the past 20 years, will go on unabated and unchecked. No accountability and corruption to the hilt, is the mantra of the pot-bellied and double-chined shiny leaders that today are milking the poor dry, even if it destroys the masses, it is good for them to keep on fattening their pockets and illegally rule the country.
Then we have ahistorical clowns like Malema who wants to Nationalize the Mines. Onkgopotse JJ Tabane responded in this way in the following article:
Nationalism Won't Happen In our Lifetime
"So, nationalization will be debated — big deal. When Mandela was released from jail 20 years ago, one of the first PR gaffes to be associated immediately with his name was the claim that the ANC was going to nationalize anything that moves. Typically none of that happened because you cannot take at face value anything a politician says, even if it is Mandela. So he was called aside quickly to be told: “Tata, actually this is not really what we are going to do … lest the markets punish us.”
So to be frank, Julius Malema’s noise is not new. The ANC has not adopted the nationalization of mines as a policy 20 years on — no prizes for guessing why. The recent chance they had to do this saw them simply postpone the debate to 2012 where, frankly, it will be summarily quashed.
They have cynically given permission for the debate to continue so the minister of minerals can again say: “It is not a policy of government — this nationalization.” She can say this until 2012, whether Julius and his cronies like it or not. It would be foolhardy not to learn a simple lesson: those who attempted to be bigger than the organization have never succeeded — especially in the ANC.
The ANC storybook is full of examples of people like that, people who thought that shooting from the hip would get them somewhere, but I digress.
Nationalizing the mines is a lazy and foolish idea that will cause us to go the way of all African countries that forgot the place of the state in a budding economy. All you have to do is glance at the dilapidated African capitals that last got a facelift from the colonial masters before independence.
The common denominator of them all was attempted shortcuts to economic recovery. This is what we are being invited to. There is frankly nothing magical about putting something under the state’s control and hoping that this will automatically achieve efficiency and redistribution. Frankly this is banal.
You don’t even have to cross the border to look at collapsing parastatals that have bled the taxpayer dry. How about making the only mine under the state function first before running amok with profitable enterprises.
Some children still study under trees and 80% of our schools don’t have libraries and laboratories 16 years after democratic rule. There is no youth league campaign to stop the bleeding parastatals whose CEOs earn more than their counterparts in listed companies. How about getting some of these basics right first fellows?
The ANC youth league is calling for the chaos that often results from fixing that which is not broken. There is the accusation — curiously coming from the communist party — that nationalization will bankroll failed BEE deals in the mining sector. I do not advise that you hold your breath for a sensible post-matric answer from the youth league about how that is going to be avoided.
In 2003, the then minister of minerals and energy suggested that 50% of SA’s mines be owned by blacks and that the royalties be revised at some point to achieve this. Overnight, billions of capital flight from our stock exchange resulted from that ill-timed pronouncement alone, made before any kind of engagement could be concluded with the mining sector.
Today the law requires mining moguls to only give up 26% in 10 years. This pittance of equity is unlikely to be achieved in this lifetime. It simply won’t happen. There is no example in recent history of an insurrection, because that is the only way you can achieve what can only be described as a belated economic revolution.
Yes, yes indeed it is a time bomb, but you need a trigger event like a famine or a war to even have something like nationalization make it to the agenda of any sensible government’s economic framework.
It’s the stuff that the collapsed Soviet Union was made of. The ANC has never pronounced itself a socialist organization. That is the fight that the youth league must go and have with its mother body, not through misguided nit-pickings … why not banks? Why not farms? Why not forests? What is so magical about mines? The debate over socialism actually is the elephant in the room.
Now this straight talk is what the ANC’s national general council should have told its youth league instead of egg dancing with what the whole world already knows. Nevertheless one must commend President Zuma for lambasting the youth league for being a bad example.
He implied that the naked bum chaos at its conferences cannot possibly produce anything worthy of consideration by the mother body and that they will never be taken seriously until they take themselves a tad more seriously. All those who have had a decent matric pass would have heard the sentiments loud and clear … nationalization — it ain’t gonna happen in our lifetime.
There's a lot of learning to be done before we can even start of the nationalization issue, which will not benefit the poor in any way. It is apparent with the present state of the economy and politics that nationalization will be for the paltry few who are at present gaming and gaining from a system they have set up to make profit and gains.
So that, as good as it may sound for the ignoramuses like Malema, there are some picayune issues that should be dealt with first-erasure of poverty, improving health services, improving and upgrading education, and getting rid of drugs. Nationalization is somewhere down the laundry list of 'to do' things that are immediately needed by the poor.
ANC Vote-Getting Modus Operandi: Same Old, Same Old
The more promises that the ANC trumpets, the more things will stay the same. For the past 20 years, we have seen what is repeated in this election round, the same tactics and false promises. The following article by David Bruce attests to this observation I have made above:
:"Can ANC Rein-In Grass Roots Coercion?"
The party's leaders decry intimidation, but some local despots in its ranks use fear to retain power.
How will the ANC be remembered by historians? Certainly it will be as the liberation movement and party that played a central role in the achievement of democracy in South Africa. But will it be remembered as a party that maintained this commitment in the ensuing decades?
As the 2014 election draws nearer, and in the years to come, this will be a defining question that the ANC has to grapple with. How it answers this question will have important implications for the role played by political intimidation in electoral politics in South Africa.
After obtaining 65.9% of the vote in 2009, there is no danger of the ANC losing power in 2014. But dissatisfaction with service delivery and corruption, the president's homestead in Nkandla, Guptagate and other scandals have worn away at its credibility. Opinion polls suggest that there is potential for it to lose significant electoral support.
Since 1994, electoral competition in South Africa has revolved mainly around more affluent and racial-minority voters. But less affluent Africans vastly outnumber wealthier South Africans. The ANC's position of dominance will only really be threatened if there is a change in the voting behavior of this constituency.
In the past, poorer South Africans have overwhelmingly voted for the ANC. Those who are dissatisfied have tended to withdraw their support from the ANC without transferring it to another party. With a few regional exceptions, no opposition party has been adopted by poorer South Africans as an alternative political home.
"Before they look at the policies, promises and candidates of another party, voters look to a party's overall image," said researcher Collette Schulz-Herzenberg.
No Substantial Challenge
Nothing suggests the probability of a mass defection of poorer voters away from the ANC in 2014. If there was the possibility of a split in Cosatu, leading perhaps to the formation of a workers' party, this, for now at least, has been averted.
However, though there is no substantial challenge to the ANC's position of dominance as the party of poorer black voters, there clearly have been shifts in the character of opposition politics.
Most notably, the Democratic Alliance is a far more robust and racially diverse party and is not restricting its contestation with the ANC to the more affluent parts of South Africa. In addition to the established opposition parties, there are also several new groups, including the Economic Freedom Fighters (EFF), Agang and the Workers and Socialist Party, all of which to some degree have an eye on the support of poorer voters.
The EFF, for instance, may be well positioned to present itself as a voice for the aspirations of young, poor and disaffected voters.
As Jacob Zuma's ascendancy to power demonstrates, the criminal charges facing Julius Malema are not inevitably a political liability. But to compete successfully in the 2014 elections, the EFF will need to go beyond relying on Malema's charisma and celebrity status and develop the political machinery to mobilize voters.
But if any parties do begin to contend credibly for the votes of poorer South Africans, it is also likely that political intimidation will come more prominently into play during electioneering.
As reflected in the build-up to Mangaung, internal rivalry within the ANC has come to be characterised by various strategies to "fix" the outcome of what should be internal democratic processes. At the extreme, these strategies involve political killings. In areas where a single party is overwhelmingly dominant, as is the case in much of poorer South Africa, much intimidation is directed against internal party opponents.
Since 1994, political killings have mainly occurred in KwaZulu-Natal. But these killings give little sense of the scale or geographical distribution of political intimidation. There are likely to have been many more instances where people have withdrawn from political contests after being given notice that continued participation may result in undesirable consequences for themselves or their family members.
In response to a question about how much one fears becoming a victim of political intimidation or violence during election campaigns, 33% of respondents to the 2011 Afrobarometer survey in KwaZulu-Natal said "a lot".
In the North West, a combined 26% responded in the same way. Other than in these two provinces, only 20% (in the Western Cape and Mpumalanga) or fewer people replied in this way.
But these figures do not mean that intimidation can be dismissed as a minor problem. People who support the dominant party in the area in which they live have little to fear about openly expressing their political preferences.
Where a party maintains a strong majority of support in an area it is only likely to be among a minority that intimidation or violence, or the denial of opportunities for participation in government work programmes, for instance, are concerns.
Only when people begin to identify with a party that is not dominant in their area will they become conscious of anxieties about the risks of openly expressing their political preferences.
The Afro-barometer statistics may be taken to imply that a large proportion of potential opposition voters in poorer South Africa fear the consequences of openly expressing their political preferences.
At election time, the leaders of political parties are required to commit themselves to standards of conduct consistent with the holding of free and fair elections. This includes speaking out against violence by their supporters. But the rhetoric of political leaders is not necessarily aligned with the conduct of politicians on the ground.
For many ANC politicians, retaining ANC dominance is a sophisticated game that involves optimum exploitation of the party's historical credibility, the relative ignorance of many voters in poorer communities, as well as their anxieties and fears.
For these politicians, releasing poorer people from the fear of openly expressing "alternative" political preferences enhances the chance that other parties may make inroads into their monopoly of power over poorer communities. Related to their dependence on the resources that political power provides them access to, this is a risk that they are not prepared to take.
If it is genuinely a party of democracy, the ANC must take steps to rein in the local despots of this kind who are within its ranks, even though they contribute to securing its political dominance.
Since the passing of Mandela, the ANC has come to the realization that since their coming into power 20 years ago, they did not rule South Africa with Mandela no in the background. Now that he is gone, they have to begin ruling South Africa with no front to cover their shenanigans. The article above is like a shot that rang over the bow of the incoming ANC rule without Mandela. This is a blueprint of what people in South Africa must expect now.
There is not going to be any changes as sprouted by the declaration of the manifesto as authored by the ANC and its handlers. The same if not worse forms of corruptions which have stained the credibility of the ANC, will be reinforced and carried out without any accountability and anarchic arrogance that will shock the people of south Africa. Education is not going to fare well. The economy will tilt in favor of those paltry few who receive its crumbs. Drug addiction will grow worse, and now, the ANC wants school to be made to go up to 14 years.
The state of national ignorance will be made much more evident by the confusion that is being sown in the Education field, and the youth will remain ignorant and very despondent. The struggle ahead is even much more tougher than the one we faced in 1976. This time, we are facing ourselves, our own people who have been put in power, and they in turn cater to Capital investment and ignore the poor. This will not change, it might only get worse. Those thugs who are ANC operatives will continue doing what they do and getting well-paid by their leaders. Not much will change, the only change we'll see will be the worsening of the present decrepit conditions the poor have to live with and in.
Build The Ramshackle Tin-Canned Habitat, Just Like During Apartheid-Now In 2014
Discounting Education and Confused Pedagogy/Miseducation of The Poor People
Since we are talking more about education, I found the article by Thabang Motsohi very informative and instructional about the state of education, schooling and progress in the education of African Children in the article below"
"School Drop-out Rate Still Too High
As expected the 2013 matric results have unleashed deserved pride and joy about the performance of the class of 2002. Various analysts have also provided very informative analysis in order to have a deeper appreciation of how well the system has been working over the past 12 years.
The 2013 results are simply an outcome of an effort that started in 2002 when 1,261,827 learners were enrolled in the public schools system for grade 1 (DOE, Education Statistics in SA at a Glance, 2002, p8). We can only have a deeper and meaningful appreciation of the challenges that impact on the system if we have a more comprehensive view and understanding of some of the key drivers that affect its performance.
Research by Nic Spall of the University of Stellenbosch says, “Identifying policy priorities to improve outcomes for poor primary school learners” provides a good perspective on some of the challenges facing a critical segment of the system that feeds into the secondary and senior secondary levels.
I reproduce in full the policy implications identified in this research:
Preschool education: Providing at least one year of quality pre-school education to all students is likely to improve student performance. This is especially true for poorer students who would otherwise start primary school at a disadvantage. Improving the quality of preschool education offered to the poor is also necessary if the full benefit of this policy intervention is to be felt. These recommendations are in line with those made in previous policy briefs.
Access to reading textbooks: Learners from low-income households are less likely to have direct access to textbooks. Since there is a strong positive correlation between reading-textbook access and reading performance, targeting policies and funds towards reading-textbook provision will have an impact on student performance. This is especially true for learners from a disadvantaged socio-economic background.
Homework frequency: The research shows performance gains associated with those students who received homework either once or twice a week or most days of the week. Practical policies that encourage teachers to prescribe homework and enable students to complete that homework should be explored. These policies are likely to be inexpensive, but yield significant gains in student performance.
Teacher knowledge and quality: Teachers? Subject expertise has a small positive impact on learner performance. While improving teacher subject-knowledge is likely to provide modest gains, at the grade 6 level policy should focus rather on helping teachers convey the subject material to their students.
We should be proud of the progress we have made in all of the above areas. Challenges still remain though especially in poor schools.
- Improvement of school infrastructure consistent with minimum acceptable standards in poor areas has been slow and contested. Progress seems to follow threats of legal action by various NGOs in the education sector.
- Quality of teachers has been demonstrated to be very poor and Sadtu has resisted all efforts aimed at performance management in the areas where they have influence.
- The roll-out of early childhood development centers has not matched demand especially in poor areas.
- Provision of textbooks and other support materials has been the subject of public contestation with the department of basic education in the past few years.
– Management of schools in order to attain normal functionality has been disrupted very frequently by Sadtu. In a number of instances the appointment of principals has been influenced by patronage rather than skills and qualifications. (Cash for post of principal.)
– Teaching environment in terms of high teacher /student ratio has been a challenge.
An equally relevant research has recently been done by Martin Gustafsson: “New evidence in the case for improving the quality of secondary school learning outcomes” (Stellenbosch Policy Brief No. 01/2011). The policy implications flowing from it are reproduced below:
- Continued focus on educational outcomes: To a large extent, the findings add weight to the existing prominence given to improving the quality of educational outcomes. Grade-on-grade academic improvements at secondary level are below those found in similar countries, which confirms the need to improve the quality of learning and teaching across all secondary grades.
- Improved access to learning resource: One way to achieve better outcomes would be to improve access to learning materials, since households cite lack of books as their main challenge. This supports the existing policy shift aimed at addressing this problem.
- Focus on core skills: Proficiency in reading and writing English, along with computer literacy are shown to be vital determinants of employment and earnings prospects. Policies should ensure that learners are sufficiently equipped in this regard.
- Increase learning time: Only about half of learner absenteeism is attributable to poor health, with a further 10% caused by a lack of money. This indicates that there is considerable scope for increasing learning time in schools through, for instance, advocacy campaigns aimed at parents that emphasize the importance and benefits of secondary school education.
- Enrollment vs performance: The analysis shows that secondary level enrollment in South Africa is already high by international standards, with marked improvements between 2003 and 2009.
But when it comes to the number of learners passing matric, the country does not perform well. Many learners reach the grade 12 insufficiently prepared for their final exam. A key and immediate objective should be to increase the completion rate for those learners who do in fact reach grade 12.
This does not imply that increasing grade 12 enrollment should be ignored. It should remain as a (secondary) long-term goal. But in the medium term, the focus should be on improving the quality of educational outcomes, both in terms of the completion rate, and in terms of the quality of skills and knowledge learners gain in the process.
The net effect would be to equip learners and improve their chances of entering tertiary education. This is desirable at individual level, since further education improves employment prospects and earnings potential. But it will also be beneficial at national level, because an increase in secondary and tertiary graduates has been shown to improve a country’s economic growth potential in the long run.
If we shift our attention and focus more to improving the quality of education outcomes, reporting on the performance of the 2002 class requires more than the information we are given at the very public and chest-beating announcements that we are accustomed to. The following statement by Equal Education identifies the problem with respect to the 2013 results:
In total, there were 1,407 schools with a pass rate below 60%, the standard used by the DBE to identify ‘underperforming schools’. 1,209 these schools, or 86%, are in Quintile 1, 2 and 3. These are the poorest and most under-resourced schools in the country. In comparison, only 36 schools in Quintile 5 had a pass rate below 60%. 631 Quintile 1 schools had a pass rate of between 80% and 100%, compared to 620 Quintile 5 schools. However, the number of schools in Quintile 1 (1,659) is much larger than the number of schools in Quintile 5 (740). In reality, 38% of Quintile 1 schools compared to 83,79% of Quintile 5 schools had a pass rate of between 80% and 100%.
The issue of the drop-rate between grade 10 and 12 deserves more discussion and public engagement. And, dealing with the issue will require a systemic and contextual evaluation by education researches so that targeted interventions can be made.
Currently a number of very useful and different interventions with varying successful outcomes are being tried by the provincial education departments. Clearly a much more coordinated strategy is required to yield the outcomes we all desire.
While it is important to celebrate the achievements of the class of 2002, it is equally very crucial that key contextual data is presented and properly interpreted. It is understandable that we give publicity to the announcement of the final matric results. But it is even more important to account fully for the unacceptable high rate of drop-outs between grade 10 and 12.
If opportunities for these learners are not drastically improved in the short term, the system will be making an unwanted contribution to possible future social instability. The public needs to understand the depth and complexity of the challenges to be able to work with education authorities for even better outcomes.
Education In "Post-Apartheid" South Africa
Putting Present-Day Education in Its Proper Perspective
With the whole hullaballoo surrounding the Matric results in South Africa, and the article above about the students revolt of 1976, it is very poignant to read the article written below by Siphiwe Sithole, who states:
I must congratulate the class of 2013 for achieving what is said to be the highest pass rate of 78.2% since 1994 in South Africa.
It is always exciting to watch newly matriculated youths get into the real world, some get jobs, others further their studies while others journey to find themselves wherever life takes them, all very interesting growth paths young people must go through. I’m confident that I speak on behalf of every South African by saying the 78.2% that the class of 2013 reached has made all of us really proud, I won’t be talking about the authenticity of those results, that’s a story for another day.
But the hard truth is that we cannot congratulate the class of 2013 without reflecting on the many shortcomings of the ministry of education or the severe impact this has on black children — children who only have some sort of an education as the only tool to set them free — free from present-day racism, poverty and the burden of their predecessors which lingers on for many to this day.
The department of basic education lead by Angie Motshekga won’t stop talking about this year’s results. I’m not surprised given that not so long ago they failed to provide schools in Limpopo with textbooks for almost six months! To make things worse, the Eastern Cape department of education was almost non-functional at some point, horrific given that the leading party claims to have prioritized education in the country. Clearly from this we see that this isn’t entirely true.
What the department of education must concern itself with instead is the post grade 12 lives of these young people finishing school every year. For many black school leavers life after grade 12 is not as rosy as the 78.2% pass rate that’s being forced down our throats in the media.
Many black children will not make it to university or any further learning institution. Many black township-educated children, with or without the talent and ability, will never compare to an average white kid who went to a private school somewhere in a white suburb of South Africa.
The dualistic nature of our economy is far reaching. The evil collective system of apartheid coupled by present-day racism still ensures that black children do not get the same opportunities a white child would. Even in a democratic South Africa 20 years into freedom.
We must also make the honest distinction between a public school, which is predominantly black, and a private school, which is largely white. The difference is really who can afford to go where, and most black people rely on public schools for obvious reasons — public schools with a compromised, substandard curriculum, with little if any decent extra-curricular activities such as good sports facilities, debate teams , etc.
All are extremely important for grooming a child. I must mention, some black people will send their children to private schools, but these are mostly exceptions and don’t really make a significant difference anywhere.
The greater majority of black people only dream of sending their children to private schools.
You must understand that I am no cynic, I went to a black (public) school in a township and can proudly say I’ve witnessed very talented kids produced from that system. The problem and my contestation, is solely around the fact that these are only exceptional cases. Again these do not make the sort of impact that is needed to change the fate of an ordinary South African.
Only smart kids make it out of the grossly oppressive system created by a white-dominated country that seems to aim to keep a black man in a township and send his kids to public, under-par schools — whereas white kids from a private school have a better chance at making it. It surely isn’t true that every white kid is smart and ready to take on the world.
While some white people are affected by unemployment it is mostly blacks who suffer this fate. Walk the streets of Johannesburg or anywhere else in South Africa and count the number of black people sleeping in the streets, begging for money at the traffic lights and women carrying babies with empty stomachs. Perhaps some of them even have a grade 12 certificate.
Private, white-run schools still produce better results and this is not particularly due to the fact that white people are smarter. White kids from white suburbs, who are beneficiaries of apartheid are still better off than black children, regardless of what these black children have to offer the country and the world. It is these rather depressing facts that have led me to question the authenticity of a black matric certificate in a South Africa riddled by a competency challenged, classicist, elitist, racist South Africa.
The Past Has To Inform The Present: Education Of Underdevelopment
Pedagogy of the Dumbed Down: Ignorance Is The New Normal
It is interesting that in 2014, we have writers who decry the unfairness embedded in the educational system. In 1976 we fought Afrikaans being imposed on the foisted upon us Bantu Education system. Today, the White schools which African people are in a hurry to send their children to, has not made them any better than White students.
This has been what Verwoerd spoke of. May people have not really studied Verwoerd and how he set about implementing Apartheid, particularly Bantu Education. Now, what we have, is some system of education worse-off than Bantu Education was. Students cannot read or write and neither study for lack of books and well-trained teachers.
The present leaders of the ANC are in no hurry to improve and upgrade education of the poor masses, and they do not even pretend to offer some form of 'free-education'. The teachers colleges are not up to par for they produces teachers that are incompetent. Books and lab materials/computers are hard to come by.
The culture of reading and learning/studying is nonexistent amongst the students and the community. So that, we have here a perfectly ignorant studentry which does not antagonize nor threaten the present status quo. We have a dumbed down cadre of African South African students that do not know any better, and are programmed to be self-destructive and not think about any revolution. This is what has happened to the Student of South Africa today: confused, ignorant and dysfunctionally illiterate.
Pratish Mistry writes:
"Earlier this year, Basic Education minister Angie Motshekga proudly donned a brilliant grin when president Jacob Zuma announced the improvement in the Matric pas rate as part of his annual State of the Nation address. When presented with the results of the recent assessment, she described them as very sad. Very sad, indeed."
Contrary to the Department of Education’s belief, one does not need to be a rocket scientist powered by millions of assessment tests to figure out what is going on. One does, however, need to transplant one’s ample behind from the ivory tower and actually visit a school or two. Such visits would reveal some basic, glaring facts:
- Teachers struggle to maintain their motivation levels;
- Student discipline and attendance is appalling;
- Parental involvement is far from what it should be;
- Principals and teachers are overwhelmed with departmental admin;
- There is no concrete plan that is committed to by all stakeholders — the system is plagued by ad-hoc requests and regular goal-post changes
If there is any further proof required that South Africa has lost another generation with outcome based education, this latest study is it. The Western Cape scored the highest in terms of performance in literacy and numeracy with a tally of a very sad 43%. Mpumalanga fared less well and sits at about a very sad 19%.
So, what is the way forward?
Firstly, South African Education needs to get the basics right. Educators need an annual plan that does not keep changing every time an ample bottom in the Department lifts a cheek to pass some wind. Gathering reams of statistics from teachers will not improve literacy — increasing quality teacher time with students is likely to do a better job of that.
Admin is inevitable, and obviously some reporting is necessary, but it needs to be scheduled and streamlined, which it currently is not.
Secondly, the Department of Education should be focused on improving teacher quality and on metrics that count. Fudging Matric pass statistics annually may make certain individuals look good but it clearly does not measure knowledge, literacy or numeracy currently.
Thirdly, and this is by no means an easy task, government needs to drive a change agenda to build the mental link between education and prosperity. Such links exist in developing powerhouses like India and they contribute hugely to their success and growth. This in Wonkie’s opinion, is one of the key areas where the post-apartheid government has failed miserably to date. Until the value of education becomes ingrained in South African culture, the mentality of entitlement without effort will prevail.
The very same things that Pratish Mistry is talking about I have alluded to above. The present state and need-for-change that is required by the new government, will need to haul the whole system up and set up a simple, but effective blueprint for education for all children and adult South Africans. The government is just content to keep as many people as ignorant as possible and confused so long as it secures their rule over them effectively and for a long time.
Educated Into Ignorance: Education For Slavery Since Apartheid To Today Under The ANC...
Asa Hilliard's Ruminations About African Education
The Standards Movement: Quality Control of Decoy?
This is relevant to the present state of Education in South Africa. I think many of the points that Asa makes are and will be lessons and affording South Africans some answers as to how to set up, reform and control the Education of Africans as advised by Asa below.
The following is condensed from a speech by the late Asa Hilliard (joined the Ancestors in 2007), former professor of urban education at Georgia State University in Atlanta…
Is the standards movement a quality control movement, as it is advertised, or is it a decoy for something else?
We have been here before, with the standards movement. In fact, we reach a standards movement almost every three or four years. Some governor wants to manipulate the test score requirements or get a new test. Some president wants to manipulate test score requirements or get a new test.
Somebody wants to change the standards of education, presumably as a way of raising the quality of schools and schooling and the achievement of children. I say presumably because I don't think that I can remember a time when that was really the reason for having a standards movement. If you want to raise quality, then standards manipulation is probably the last place that you would start.
Let me say at the outset that no one fears high standards, at least no Africans that I know. We do not fear clear standards. We do not fear uniform standards. We do not fear public standards. In fact, we have been at the forefront of standards of the highest order. [Asa Hilliard, Barbara Sizemore, et al, Saving the African American Child. Washington, DC: National Alliance of Black School Educators, 1984].
But what we need is honest school improvement that acknowledges both high standards and high quality of school input. The standards movement as it is now progressing at the national and state level is half the solution to the problem. To establish the standards of output without having standards of input is a travesty. To hold children responsible for outcomes without giving the same level of sophisticated attention to guaranteeing the standards of exposure is an abandonment of the responsibility of adults for the education and socialization of children.
That's why I used the title that I did: "Standards as Quality Control or Decoy?" I believe that the standards movement is generally a decoy. I don't care whether it's a Democrat or a Republican who calls for it. Usually, when people put so much emphasis on standards as a school reform tool, it means that they want to look like they're performing a reform effort, but they're actually moonwalking. They look like they're going forward but they're going backwards.
What most of us fear is that we will be held responsible for achievement without being given the same quality of treatment on the front end. We're not afraid of standards. We're afraid of hurdles, of obstacles. Standards, Assessment, and Instruction
There are several things to deconstruct here, because they're all tied together. When we say standards, you can talk about setting standards. You can also talk about the instruments to measure the standards, whether they're valid, invalid, biased, or unbiased. And you can talk about the quality of instruction to enable people to meet the standards. All of that is tied together.
But we generally break these apart. As a result, we usually make mistakes in our analysis. If you're talking about using standards to get the achievement level of Americans up to snuff, then you're going to have to talk more broadly and deeply than we've been talking so far.
I'm a little bit tired of people getting credit for improving education by doing the cheapest thing they can do, which is to call for the manipulation of test scores or to create new standards. These new standards are not going to be any better than the ones the College Board developed in the College Board's Green Book: What Students Need to Know and Do in Order to Graduate from College.
They're not going to be any higher or better than the standards of the National Alliance of Black School Educators, [Hilliard and Sizemore, et al. Saving the African American Child. Washington, DC: National Alliance of Black School Educators, 1984]. In fact, I'll take any standards that you come up with as long as they're high enough. If you get a consensus of a group of thinking people, I don't think you can write a set of standards that won't make sense.
Are you going to say, "No" to calculus as a standard for the high school level? I think calculus is a reasonable standard. All children are brilliant enough to learn calculus, if you want to offer it to them. But if you want to teach calculus, you have to know calculus. And most teachers don't. So why blame the child for the inability to achieve when the deficiency is in the other place? Obviously, if you want the child to achieve in calculus and teachers don't know calculus, then now you've got to prepare the teachers. Now you're talking about staff development. See how it's all connected?
If someone really wants to raise the achievement of children, you've got to recognize reality in the classroom. Once you do so, you'll know that we'll have to do what we did in the 1960s. When this country thought that the Russians were ahead in the space race, when they put up Sputnik, the next thing that happened was that the US massively mobilized for science education. It was science, science everywhere. We had a National Defense Education Act. Look at the language: education became a matter of national defense. When the rubber met the road, they knew they had to do something and they funded the process of doing it.
What's happening now? The budget is bankrupt on social welfare issues and nobody wants to do anything about it. So you manipulate the standards to make it look as if you're doing something. But you cannot fix the problems that are wrong in the public sector without providing resources.
If you want to reform schools, don't do it with testing. We used to say, "If you want elephants to grow, you don't weigh the elephants