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Pedagogy Of Ignorance Post Apartheid: Counter Revolution Of June 16 1976: A Radical View

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The Ways of the Quislings and Turncoats: Sankara on The Tipping Edge

President Thomas Sankara

President Thomas Sankara

Fanon's Maxim


Revolutionaries And Master Teachers

Amilcar Cabral

Amilcar Cabral

Asa Hilliard

Asa Hilliard

I would like to open with the Revolutionary musings of Amilcar Cabral:

Revolution in Guinea: Some notes On Education And Being African:

Contemporary Ways Of Seeing And thinking

"We are fighting against Portuguese colonialism. We, the peoples of the Portuguese colonies, are African peoples, of this Africa ensured by Imperialism and colonialism for decades and even in some cases, for centuries. We are from the part of Africa which the imperialists call 'Black Africa'. Yes we are 'Black'. But we are men like all other men.

"Our countries are economically backward. Our peoples are at a specific historical stage characterized by this backward condition of our economy. We must be conscious of this.

We are "African Peoples", we have not invented many things, we do not possess today the special weapons which others possess; we have no big factories; we do not even have for our children the toys which other children have; but we do have our own hearts; our own heads; our own history.

It is this history which colonialists have taken from us. The colonialists usually say that it was they who brought us into history: today we show that this is not so.

They made us leave history, to follow them. Today, in taking up arms to liberate ourselves, in following the example of other peoples, who have taken up arms to liberate themselves, we want to return to our history, on our own feet, by our own means and through our own sacrifices.

We are not fighting simply in order to hoist a flag in our countries and to have a national anthem. We are fighting so that insults may no longer rule our countries, martyred and scorned for centuries, so that our peoples may never more be exploited by imperialists - not only by Europeans, not only by people with a white skin, because we do not confuse exploitation or exploiters with the color of men's skins; we do not want any exploitation or exploitation in our countries, not even by Black[African] People"....

This is What Jose Marti has had to say about the last sentence emphasized by Amilcar Cabral above:

"The best way to "defend our rights is to know them well"; in so doing one has faith and strength; every nation will be unhappy in proportion to how poorly educated are its inhabitants.

"A Nation Of Educated Men Will Always Be Nation Of Free Men.

"Education is the only means of being saved from slavery.

"A Nation Enslaved To Men Of Another Nation Is As repugnant As Being Enslaved To The Men Of One's Own".

We learn from Asa Hilliard that:

“Racism is really a mental disorder. Manifestation of racist behavior as a result of domination are the denial of reality, perceptual distortion, delusion of grandeur, phobias in the face of differences, and projecting blame (blaming the victim).

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Europeans had to lie to themselves about what Africa was and had been, and to keep that information going, one adapts to unreality. So when you see reality it is necessary to deny it. So denial of reality would be, to look at the population of Kemet (ancient Egypt) and say it was a white population. That is flat out denial of what the facts say. It is not true that the White group is superior to anyone and to believe in that is a psychological distortion of reality.”

So that, in order for us to begin to comprehend our present reality here in Mzantsi in all the collectives of Africans in their respective enclaves, we learn the following from Asa:

Consider carefully that the following ten things account for our overall lack of a sense of unity and direction:
1. We let our names go. The first step towards disorientation is to surrender your name.
2. We have surrendered our way of life (culture). We have stopped speaking the language we knew and we have stopped behaving as African people behave. We have lost our way of doing things and we have adopted they ways of people unlike ourselves.
3. We have lost our appetite because we have lost our names and our culture. Even when those among us recreate our culture and present it to us, we no longer have an appetite for it. We have a greater appetite for the culture of people other than ourselves.
4. We have a general loss of memory. Few of us can tell the story of our people without beginning it with the MAAFA (slavery). It is as if the MAAFA was the only that happened to African people.
5. We have created false memories. Not only have we lost the true memory of African people, we now have a host of other memories which are totally removed from the truth. Not only are our memories of African people untruthful, but the memories we have of Europeans are also untruthful, and the memories we have about the rest of the world are untruthful as well.
6. We lost our land. It now seems as if we no longer have an appetite for land. We lost our land in African, and Africans in the Diaspora are losing what little land they once held. Anytime you lose your mooring on the land, you lose your capacity to protect your possessions.
7. We have lost our independent production capacity. We have become consumers rather than producers. It is a shame that we don’t even produce something as simple as a “natural comb”. We have to purchase combs that are made as far away as Korea. Almost anybody should be able to make something as simple as a little piece of plastic.
8. We have lost independent control of ourselves. We have little or no control of our educational process, our economic situation, our communications, or our politics.
9. We have lost sensitivity. We have lost the ability to perceive when people are doing things to us which are detrimental. We accept inaccurate perceptions without criticism.
10. As a cumulative result of all of these things, we have lost our solidarity…our unity. When we lost our unity, we lost our political advantage, economical advantage, and even our mental orientation. We lost a clear sense of wholeness, continuity, and purpose.

Asa Continues:

“Many of us do not know it, but African people have thousands of years of well-recorded deep thought and educational excellence. Teaching and the shaping of character is one of our great strengths. In our worldview, our children are seen as divine gifts of our creator. Our children, their families, and the social and physical environment must be nurtured together. They must be nurtured in a way that is appropriate for a spiritual people, whose aim is to “build for eternity.” What a pity that our communities have forgotten our “Jeles” and our “Jegnas,” our great master teachers. What a pity that we cannot readily recall the names of our greatest wise men and women. What a pity that we have come to be dependent on the conceptions and the leadership of others, some of whom not only do not have our interests at heart, they may even be our enemies. Some actually seek to control us for their own benefit through the process of mis-education.”

We also learn from Asa:

African communities have been identified by a shared belief in several key elements:
1. The belief that the cosmos is alive.
2. The belief that spirituality is at the center of our being.
3. The belief that human society is a living spiritual part of the cosmos, not alien to it.
4. The belief that our people have a divine purpose and destiny.
5. The belief that each child is a “Living Sun,” a Divine gift of the creator.
6. The belief that, properly socialized, our children will experience stages of transformation, moving toward perfection, that is to be more like the creator (“mi Re” or like Ra, in the KMT language, meaning to try to live like God).

Being African:

Asa Answered this in the following manner:

Cutts: You keep referring to yourself as an African. Why?

Hilliard: I am an African. I am also American, but that’s my national identity. My ethnic identity is African.

Cutts: Do you ever describe yourself as Black?

Hilliard: I may have in the past, but that just refers to my phenotype and does not indicate, include my ethnic identity. I am phenotypically Black. I am perceived by others as Black. And that’s fine. But ethnically and culturally, I am African.

Contemporary reading and writing of African History is very important in not only how we write it, but what we read from and think about it, so's to try and make sense of our present conditions, globally. More especially that we are now connected on the Web akin to a global village(a la McLuhan)

The present social Media and its gizmos and media apparatuses is one way we can utilize as a people, not only to show our vain acquirement of ill-begotten public loot and our present-day slavery, but as a means of communicating our present social miasma and plight and decrepit conditions and efficient way of communicating these and taking whatever action is necessary to ameliorate our sad state of existence, globally, as an African people.

Our means and ways of communicating using the present-day so-called social media-a misnomer, as far as concerned- should be used to dispel, correct and shed light on the confusion, ignorance, and imposed lack of reading and action on what we know and read, among us as an African, to better ourselves, than to show-off and boast to each other, showing off our houses, cars, and all the accouterments of our modern-day enslavement, and doing all this to our unfortunate and poor brethren and sisters.

The present so-called 'social media' should be used as a conduit to create those situations and conditions that enable and advance our people's causes and development-to use this sort of media to show off our self-interests at the expense of the poor, is what should be scorned and looked at with disfavor, especially by the poor who do not have these paltry opportunities for themselves and their children.

We Are Much Better Than This..

The Low Intensity Warfare In Mzantsi Today... There's Completely And total Havoc And Chaos/Dysfunction In Our HOUSE... Our Pain..

At The Cusp Of Our 40th Anniversary Of Our June 1976 African Student's Revolution...

Things have gone awry today in Mzantsi. Things are bad, people-there is fighting for housing, all types of none existent jobs, expensive food, low currency, steep gas prices, abject poverty, Nyaope Drug killing us off, corrupt government and imploding and everything is rotten and topsy-turvy in contemporary Mzantsi.

There is definitely a Big Pain we are witnessing and experiencing in our midst within our daily lives. People have changed, very angry, filled with jealous and envy for and against one another, others success is cause for meanness and put down, or dragging down of each other.. We are behaving like Crabs in a Barrel.

Our neighborhoods have been assailed and occupied by foreigners who have no respect for us, and are fleecing our poor people. Our government build our people RDP houses only to sell them for a bribe to non-South African Africans.

Our health clinics and hospital are over-burdened by women who come from north of south Africa, and they get taken care off, much more better than our own poor and toiling masses who are the indigenous of Mzantsi.

We are very good at immolating ourselves: we burn upward of 27 schools for our children, which are sadly and badly equipped even if not burned down; we strike and burn building at our universities; there are all types of strikes and fires going up all over South Africa.

Stories about and on corruption in government and Private sectors; social services are appalling at best, and decrepit at worst. Our social and cultural cohesion lies a mess and waste, and it is hardly visible in its discarded state. We are still yet to be formed as a fully fledged and autonomous Nation, of which we are still divided along the Apartheid modal.

What has really happened to the Africans of Mzantsi is that for many opportunistic ones, a shortcut leeway has presented itself for them, and they are going helter-skelter for it. On their way towards acquiring ill-gotten riches from the public coffers((Public taxes), they do so with unbridled callousness and cold and calculating meanness.

Our politics are a joke. the Malema paradigm and the ANC incompetency and their recalcitrant arrogance and mien is causing our social core to crumble and implode. The preoccupation with malgovernance has created stagnancy and underdeveloped unparalleled in the history of African people of South Africa

As we now approach the 40th anniversary of the June 1976 Revolution, not what has so been tepidly called "Youth Day", in accommodation of the People who actually tun South Africa, that, we are going to have to begin to have a moment of some very serious reflection.

Our Youth has been totally drugged both sexes, and our elders are inebriated in alcohol and dire poverty, ignorance, ill-health, joblessness, loss of hope and broken families. Our churches, all of them and of all denominations, are run by scam artists who are whittling the bare income our people have for their endlessly deep pockets.

We have in our midst people of foreign ethnic grouping chomping away at the prospects of enriching and spreading their mark with our women, who are poor and easily exploited by the monied people, that, this fact, is treated as if it is xenophobic, and yet, I say, it is a matter of self preservation as a people who are the indigenous of the land of South Africa.

Our culture has been debased, scorned by all, and we, its owners, are dejected by it, and totally reject its precepts and precepts, that we are like a rootless tree. We extol the virtues of Western and Asiatic cultures, and cast a foreboding glance at our own culture, that in the end we look like poor and yesterday-looking like facsimiles of other peoples cultures and values.

Our Customary and traditional core has been shredded and made into a papier mache, that in the end, we look like scrambled eggs suffused with all the concocted spices of unknown kinds. What I am saying is that we do not recognize ourselves in the present-day South Africa, and in so doing, we have abandoned and sold ourselves and our people for a whiff and a song.

It is painful to see our state of decrepit existence we are all existing in today. We have no solutions as to how to solve this social miasma for we are all experts of everything and we master nothing. if one were to listen to ordinary people in the streets, taverns, buses, taxis, cook-outs and every outlet of our social enclaves, there is a sense of loss and doom. helplessness at our haplessness. We are not even able to get our act together to form some cohesive organizations that are really of and by the people, and working for the Good Of Our African Peoples of Mzantsi..

Our youth is caught is a no-man's land existence. there are no sporting activities like we had when I was growing. There was soccer, boxing, tennis, table-tennis, ball-room dancing, Karate clubs. informal Jazz clubs, and music lessons in places like DOCC and Dorkay House, Ellis Park Tennis. there was so much to do despite the fact that the Apartheid overlords tried their utmost best to deny and stop us from having or taking part in this events and using all the amenities at our disposal..

We had tennis tournaments in Pimville courts and finals at the Phefeni courts(not destroyed and no more exist. We had YMCA's for Youth to partake in all events and whatever was offered in those entities; we had festivals in the stadiums throughout Soweto, and our libraries were full of adults and children. It is a time and place which seems like a myth, and yet, despite the vicissitudes of Apartheid, we had a lot of things going for us.

We had hope and we knew we were going to overcome. But now, we know we are being overcome and the palpable loss of positive outcomes for our lives has long gone out when the Gravy train left us standing in a segregated platform. We implemented Apartheid amongst ourselves, and this was directed by the ANC and its lackeys.

We now have 'exiles' and 'inziles'. These seemingly paltry division lead to even much more bigger things like employment, favors, progress, education, housing, food life, and recognition and self importance that is the bane of our societies and people today.

We are now existing in this cleavage and crack-filled spaces, that when one is situated, depends on one's proximity to those who wield the laughable political we are witnessing everyday in a parliamentary(what a Joke!) system which are the leftovers of past Apartheid Nazi rule we are still experiencing today.

We hardly believe in nor trust the genius of ourselves, nor of our own people. We treat them with careless disregard and attach importance to those who are not of our people in all spheres of life, culture, custom, history, contemporary life-styles, language, and their accents.. We boast to our poor brothers and sisters as to our travels and acquired riches, our education from overseas, and the whole bit.

Our children think and know less about us, our history, cultures, traditions in more larger numbers and they end up treating, their parents and grandparents as strangers and weirdos in the land of our forefathers. who is to blame here? Ourselves, that is Who...

At this juncture, in the 40th anniversary of our 1976 Revolution, I declare and state boldly, we better start now taking responsibilities for our action and how we are helping do good for all our embattled and poor African people.

We had better start recognizing as I am onto this piece, that things have soured in our midst, our country and its people are angry and have changed, it is time to take that into serious consideration and begin to do something about it.

There is a spike in political killings, and this is a bad sign for the poor and unprotected masses of people in the townships and those living in shacks. There is a cataclysmic heave-ho that is ascendancy and it has risen the tensions within the poor to an alarming degree. there is a rise if Hypertension, sugar diabetes, Gaut, Kidney failures, Drug addiction and such-like debilitating diseases.

The turbulence in our midst is still not noted as much for the authorities are still fancying themselves as being in charge. I have a different take on that issue: The jury/verdict. is still our leadership being in charge or something like that. The elections are nigh, and there is a frantic effort to make as if all is honky-dory..

But the reality is setting in on the ruling clique and their cabals, their time is also about up.. How this will happen.. We will know as we see it happening-The masses in a murderous tamtrum and seizing of their power moment.

It does not mean to some of us, as we are seeing all these troubling turn of events in our midst, and not holler much, are not to ultimately write about such things and make as much noise as possible so as to wake our slumbering masses.

Our loss of self knowledge and understanding is costing our loss of our land and its everything to other people. Our not really having a full sense as to what the land of Mzantsi is all about with all of us in it, means that we are susceptible to being wiped out and have our women, children, land and its resources taken form us, and we are going to blame no one for all that, but Ourselves, as the Indigenous people of Mzantsi.

We are going to need to have a firm grasp on our lived reality. What is Mzantsi South Africa for us and to us? It is everything and then some. It is our land and its natural resources. It is our people, their culture, history, customs and so on.

Our land should be where we formulate our politics, control and run our economies, take care of the Game reserves and their animals, improve housing and education for the people. Create jobs that are for our people who are involved in for our own betterment.

Take care of the weak, sick, drug addicted with forthrightness and attitude of healing our people. Feed our people food and protect them from all else.

Our work has hardly begun. we should outgrow our child-like fascination with foreign cars, clothes, languages, cultures and everything. Yes, we can know about it, learn about it at our own pace, but we should not become those cultures, speak their languages, and drool for their cars and clothing and everything.

That is a recipe for destruction, genocide and defeat. We should write our own lives, our own realities, read each other's works, articles or video post; take control of the production, management of our music, dances, languages, art, history, customs, traditions, languages, traditional clothing, and communities. We should produce, design and contribute to the World of humanity our own and original everything-that to me, is a sure path to success and nation-building.

We should work on the basics of respects(Hlompho/Inhlonipho), love of ourselves and our people, helping those amongst us who have nothing, teach everyone all there is to learn and that which they can learn, in all fields and areas of academic and life's endeavors. We should begin to care, which is the norm of our being as an African people. Use that love and caring towards our own families, neighbors, communities and nation.. We can do this!!

We have within us as any people in the world to take care of our children, women, men, elderly people, our land, our animals, Rivers, mountains; encourage out children to be involved in our African arts, music, dances, performances, drama, reading and writing anything and everything about us as a people...

We should write about our hearts and minds, about the vicissitudes of our decrepit life being visited on us, today. we not only should write and read and know about all these chronic states of social miasma, we should be able to teach each other, learn from ourselves about ourselves, for ourselves in order to edify ourselves as a Nation of the People of Mzantsi.

We are The People Of Mzantsi, and we are going to ask no one for our right to proclaim and own that right and fact. We should stop cowering from ourselves, and if we do so, we will be replaced by people from other counties, which is rapidly taking place. Everyone is a foreigner except the African people of Mzantsi. that is going to remain a fact and truth about our Nation and it's country.

As we approach the 40th Anniversary of our June 1976 Revolution, these are the thoughts that we should share with each other, amongst ourselves and begin the work of assembling our imploding Rainbow farce/facade which has done nothing for African peoples of Mzantsi.

Be that as it may be, we, the Africans of Mzantsi, are responsible for the state and condition of our Nation, today, And we should hold each other responsible for chaos, dysfunction, and death that is our constant reality, day-in-and-day-out...

Do we really need outsiders to confirm us to ourselves? That we are top be given passing grades for being perceived as doing something right? Are we forever going to need other people's validation of ourselves as the authentic people of this land of our forefather for us to be recognized as being real and human beings?

Why cant' we accept and take from ourselves, and among ourselves the fact that we are like any other nation on this planet, and as human beings we are legit, without being propped up into that position by other people? How come we are failing to understand that the condition we are in has been imposed on us for many years to date..

Our African leaders are immature and do not understand how one does build a civilization.. Why is it important to show off amongst ourselves that we are better off than our brothers and sisters, by showing off foreignness about our acquired tastes and lifestyle.

We are much more better than this, and I will not accept anything less and being a poor carbon copy of other people, either than the fact that I am a person of Mzantsi...

Recognizing Overpoeering Power

Succinct! Poignant" Spot On!

Succinct! Poignant" Spot On!

The following Hub is a follow-up on the Hub written before it called, "African South Africans' June 16th 1976 Revolution", already published and one can read it. In this Hub, I begin to talk about the different issues related to the Education of African South Africans in contemporary ANC ruled South Africa.

The Hub below is mostly about the aftermath of the 1976 Revolution, the opening salvo will be about Language and Power today in South and dumbing-down education dispensed to our children.

Below I would like to post an article I wrote recently about the issue of foreign language rammed-down our children throats and brains that I think I will start of this article with the following piece:

From Afrikaans To Mandarin....We Are Not Self Confident As a People And Nation Here in Mzantsi

What's Happening? - "Di Ntshang?", "Zikhiphani"?

What we were fighting for in June 16th 1976, was the imposition of a foreign language on us as children, and against the jagged intolerable edges of Apartheidom. This was a very important thing to us, and it was important to the communities we lived in. It is not that we did not speak Afrikaans at all, but it was the fact that it was forced down our gullets with disregard to any protestations we made-was unconscionable...

This was in June 1976.

Anyone can read the article I have written about this matter, albeit brief, if one were to scroll down this timeline. Now, the Education honcho and oaf, Motshega is presenting us with another same problem. she has proudly decreed that our children are now learning Chinese Mandarin, and that they had said, some time ago, this is going to happen. Well it's happening now, Chinese culture and history.

All this is happening in the year and time when we are now celebrating our 40th commemoration of the 1976 fight against the imposition of a foreign language, and Motshega proudly pronounces her carreer achievement of beginning to teach our children, at the lower grades, and phasing this throughout the years and over to higher standards-The learning of Chinese Mandarin and Culture! Really!!!

This is serious, now... The apologists of and for this move inform us that this is being for better .relations with the emerging Super power, China, and so that in the future we can have our children handling our affairs better with their Chinese counterparts.

Now, earlier reports on this move are articulating the discomfort and toughness on our children are facing learning Chinese Calligraphy and the spoken Mandarin, which by the way, is not a common nor spoken, neither known form of language among us African people of Mzantsi.

Our children scarcely know nor understand our diverse African culture and philosophies/languages of their parents, here comes Motshega, with a very brilliant idea, to teach our children how to read and write Mandarin. I call that the Chinafication of our African children, and now, for real, we are "LOST"!

What is going on here, for real... Why is is not the case of the Chinese learning and speaking and talking our 10 different languages here in Mzantsi? Why is this not the point of contention and issue? What is happening to us that we end up have numb-skull pseudo-politicians destroying our African children's education, and we are watching this and doing nothing about it? On the 40th Anniversary of the June 16th Revolution of 1976?

What has happened to us? What is happening to us? Of all the dreaded things we are experiencing, we seem to be sitting idly by and allowing the likes of Motshega to take us 40 years ago and back to the Dark days of Apartheid rule.

Why is it important for our children to be thoroughly more confused by them being sent to Germany, Europe, China, Russia and everywhere else, through education, sports, badly managed and not controlled by us? Why is it important to impress the emerging Chinese superpowers by sacrificing our children at the linguistic, cultural and social mores of these cultures, and our children knowing nothing about our own languages, culture, history and the whole bit about us? Why?!

How come we are all taking a back seat as if this is a noble thing that has ever befallen us who are non-people here in Mzantsi? That is, to the extent that we go begging the Chinese to send their army of teachers to come and indoctrinate our children, right under our noses and in front of our eyes, in our houses, and we stay mum!

We were carrying on in many ways throughout our abodes/Townships, speechifying about the sacrifice of the students of 1976, and here we are today, more silent than our filling up graveyards when we are simply told that our children are going to be learning Mandarin. Our children speak a lot of English, and in rare cases speak our own languages, and here we are, on the commemoration of the rejection of Afrikaans, we are welcoming Mandarin and Calligraphy!

This is Insanity As A Model Of Sanity.. Big Time!!

Language And Power

When we get ready to create a revolution, we must redefine the world, and redefine words; there's no way around it. In Genesis, Adam was given the power to name things(if we are to speak about this matter from a Biblical point of view-I am neither a Christian for that matter-just a spiritual African).. He was also given dominion.

The connection between dominion and naming, between naming and bringing into reality, is the most important point being made by the article above. Nations use their mother tongues to rule and run their national business. Where do we get off and do the imposing, on our children, of this Mandarin language, and go and sleep soundly in our mansions?

When we permit another people to name and define, we permit another people to gain dominion and control over us.

Wilson writes:

"The languages that people learn and speak are most frequently directly related to the power relations between them. Many people will now learn Japanese(Chinese in our case today), as for a while they learned Russian(We have sent a whole load of children to Russia under the pretext its for IT learning purposes!!..

"And for a while people learned German, Latin, Spanish, Italian, etc. Why? Because the people who speak of spoke these languages were or are ascendance or in power at that or this time.

"There is no "good" English or "bad" English, nor "good" language or "bad" language; there is language that's connected to Power. People tend to learn first after their native tongue, whatever language is spoken by the people in power.

"There's a connection between the capacity to have other people speak your language and to call things by the names you give them, and Power. If we wish to assume Power, then we must assume the capacity to name and define things."

This precisely what we did in 1976.. We assumed the Power to name and decide our own future, at great risk, but we did not cower into our job positions and social statuses and unfocused timidity to make our point clear.. We did not want Afrikaans and its imposers and imposters, and we fought and many died because of that-I am still writing about it 40 years after June 16th 1976...

No To Mandarin and Chinese Philosophies!

We are further instructed by Wilson that:

"The psychology of a culture is to a great extent a symbolic precipitant of the kinds of experiences forced upon a group of people by their history."
This is what we are going to have to pay attention to as the last line intimates.

Wilson further teaches us that:

"We must recognize the intimate relationship between culture, history and personality. If we do not know our history, then we do not know our personality And if the only history we know is other people's history/language, then our personality has been created by that history/language.

We must recognize that in European/[and Chinese history]. It is not so much that we know [and will know Chinese History/language], (because 90 percent of us do not know European history and have not read it), but that we are left with some residue of it - that we have a sense of it - is all the hegemonic European[Chinese about to be], needs to begin to dominate and control Africans in Mzantsi.

In the absence of knowledge of African history, we will keep on hallucinating every night. These hallucinations are called dreams, and they occur at the point where we become detached from reality. We maintain our mental balance and sense of self by input into our senses.

It is necessary that for human beings to maintain sanity that they receive random input (and changing input) from the world. That is why we suffer so much when we are put into solitary confinement - where we can't see or hear anything - we may begin to have visions and hallucinations as a result thereof.

In some article to come, I will address the point above much more fully. Right now, our loss of ourselves in this decrepit Mzantsi, has to be addressed.