How did Pandit Nehru merge Hyderabad Sansthan with India? How did they cope?
Historical Fact About Hyderabad Sansthan
In a democracy, the votes of the leaders who govern the country also have an effect on the country. The first Prime Minister Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru, then Home Minister Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel united the country with his efficiency and determination. The merger of the Sansthans of the country is also the responsibility of these leaders. The merger of Hyderabad was a very complex and sensitive issue at that time. However, both Nehru and Patel managed well. That is why the merger of Hyderabad was possible.
The merger of Hyderabad Sansthan had become a very complex issue in the politics of the time. Nehru and Patel paved the way for the demonic ambition of the Nizam for independence, for which he cleverly plotted, and for the unspeakable atrocities perpetrated by the Razakars on the Hindu masses in the Sansthan. There were many disagreements between them while drawing this path. It was not an easy task to take a decision like police action, for which Parliament had to be trusted. Speaking before the Interim Lok Sabha on September 7, 1948, Pandit Nehru explained why it was necessary to merge the Hyderabad Sansthan. For this, the evidence given by him is very important.
He told Parliament the historical fact that Hyderabad was never an independent state and that the Nizam had no basis in sovereignty. Nehru insisted that Razakars' atrocities were not tolerated by any civilized society. It was only after Nehru's role that the next course of police action was opened, but the problems were not over yet. Butcher said the action should be stopped immediately, fearing that it might.
Nehru did not respond to him. Butcher then woke up Sardar Patel and said the same thing. Don't worry Patel, London was bombed during World War II. The police operation started on September 13. In just five days, the Nizam had no choice but to surrender. Strict decision was required to merge Hyderabad Sansthan. At the same time, restraint was just as necessary. This was due to the hard work of Nehru and Patel. It should be noted who was involved in the merger of Hyderabad.
How did Nizam agree to merge with Hindustan?
The Sansthan of Hyderabad was accepted and the Nizam surrendered. But then another case was raised. The Government of India had appointed Kanhaiyalal Munshi as the Agent General in the State of Hyderabad. Instead of consoling the people of Sansthan, these Munshis were running to save the Nizam. He also forgot that we are the official representative of the Government of India. Munshi advised the Nizam to make a speech on surrender on Radio Deccan. Not only that. Munshi also wrote a speech of surrender to the Nizam. He also mentioned the need to resign from the cabinet and appoint new ministers.
Even worse, Nehru himself was outraged by Kanhaiyalal Munshi's advances. Nehru's khalita was waiting for him as soon as he came to address the Nizam. You should not make any promises on our behalf. No speeches on the air tonight. The surrender of the troops of Hyderabad Sansthan is a formal event and will take place in front of the Army. You should not participate in that program. Munshi was trying to save the Nizam, besides trying to sideline the leaders of the liberation struggle, but Nehru skillfully thwarted all this.
The Sansthan of Hyderabad merged with the Hindustani Sangh, but the yoke of the Nizami administrative system remained the same. After independence, the Congress was of the view that all the states should adopt land reform, disenfranchise the rights of the land grabbing clans, transfer the surplus land owned by the owners to the clans and enact strict laws for the same. The clan law in Hyderabad was as it were. The main thing is that the landlords dominate the system there. The largest communist movement in the world took place in Telangana against this system. Swami Ramanand Tirtha wrote a letter to Prime Minister Nehru. A team including Gulzarilal Nanda and R. K. Patil came to Hyderabad. He studied the land system here. The team recommended a ceiling on land holding, and Nehru accepted it.
Nehru was a connoisseur of history
Hyderabad Sansthan was formed by three linguistic provinces namely Telugu, Marathi and Kannada. Fighting for the liberation of Hyderabad, the State Congress demanded the annexation of the Marathi-speaking state after the merger. However, both Nehru and Patel were opposed to linguistic regionalism. He was of the view that linguistic regionalization would be detrimental to the unity of the country. Nehru was a politician, but at the same time he was a sensitive writer. He was a connoisseur of history. Hyderabad had its own precious culture. He wanted the culture to be nurtured, but it was a sentiment that shattered the aspirations of the people in Hyderabad who had been oppressed for years.
Nehru had also expressed his disapproval of the Hyderabad State Congress' proposal for tri-division. The Congress convention was to be held in Hyderabad in 1953. Nehru was presiding over the convention. Swami Ramanand Tirtha was the receptionist. Swamiji in his speech had supported linguistic regionalism. Nehru did not like this, but did not say anything about it. In his speech, Swamiji demanded that the Marathi part of Hyderabad should be annexed to Maharashtra. Nehru strongly defended this point in his presidential address. Swamiji was a member of the Lok Sabha when the proposal for the partition of Hyderabad was approved in Parliament. After the proposal was approved, Nehru approached Swamiji and said, you have won, I have lost! Such kindness is seldom seen in politics.
Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru
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