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New Directions for the Geopolitics of the East, After the Taliban's Victory.

Gilliam Nauman Iqbal is a Brazilian Muslim, political activist, graduated in History, specialist in Sociology of Interpretations of Maranhão

Gilliam Nauman Iqbal

New directions for the geopolitics of the East, after the Taliban's victory.

Keywords: Imperialism, United States, Taliban, Pakistan, Terrorism, East

The December 11 event is perhaps the most emblematic starting point for us to talk about the Taliban. That's because, the United States attributes the authorship of the alleged attack (alleged, considering that the implosion of the twin towers is something at least weird), to Osama Bin Laden, who was in Afghanistan at this time, after his stay in Sudan and financial and structural support to this country. What we were told is that the United States invaded Afghanistan to capture Osama bin Laden. What we have not been told is that at the time of the “attack” on the World Trade Center, Osama bin Laden had withdrawn from Sudan, to prevent the United States from interfering and supporting a coup to put in power a government that would follow his directions. , traveling to Afghanistan at the invitation of Mulah Omar. After the Taliban leader's refusal to hand over Bin Laden, the United States has the pretext it wanted to invade Afghanistan.
After this cut, the Taliban, previously unknown to the West, becomes a recurrent name in the world's media. But this movement has a long and familiar trajectory from the East.
After its formation, the Taliban continued to gain many victories against their enemies and took control of a large area of ​​Afghanistan. His background is intrinsically linked to the culture and social code of the Pashtun people. “Because they are extremely independent, the Pashtuns have always defended their homeland against foreign invaders” (MILITARY Review, September – October 2008). The Soviet Union has always tried to push into Afghan territory. In the 20th century, Afghanistan experiences stability under Zahir Shar's government, but in 1978, under the influence of the USSR, the government is taken over by the Communist People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan. Historically, the Afghan people have always suffered disputes over territories and attempted invasions, which led them to form their resistance groups, among them the so-called Mujahidin, a group that gave rise to the Taliban. In order to combat resistance to the Allied government, the Soviet Union dumped its troops in Afghanistan in 1979. The balance of the Soviet military occupation was the death of 1.3 million Afghans, destruction of agriculture and urban areas and the flight to 5.5 million Afghan refugee camps in Iran and Pakistan.
In February 1989, the Soviets withdrew their troops, but left large arms depots for the support of the Allied government. However, this material support waned in 2 years until it finally ceased, leaving the communist administration to its own devices. The lack of support and the civil war that broke out in 1992 led the communist government to resign in April.
The groups resistant to the communist government, the Mujahidin, was a resistance forged in the Pakistani-influenced Wahhabi madrassas, as the Wahhabi presence was very strong in that region. The students of these madrassas, mostly Pashtun, have absorbed the way of interpreting this line, which proposes a radicalism that deviates from the real interpretation of the Koran and the code of Islamic law, the Sharia. Students (talib) from these madrassas presented more conservative proposals and the discourse that these proposals were more aligned with Islam, gained strong popularity among the Afghan people, who were exhausted by the civil war.
In addition to ideological formation, Pakistan was responsible for training and financing the Mujahidin, now called the Taliban, via the United States.

After conquering Kandahar in 1994, movement leader Mulah Muhammad Omar consolidates his leadership before the people. After this event, the Taliban had successive victories and in 1997, they already controlled 95% of the Afghan territory.
Initially, the Taliban won popular support and sympathy, even at international levels, however, its closed and ultra-conservative interpretation of Sharia, caused the group to get lost in its project, causing strong oppression in the population, especially women. Even though this fundamentalism was the Taliban's worst enemy, it cannot be denied that the country has achieved some stability, economic reconstruction and civil pacification for a few years.
The United States' relationship with Pakistan is something that deserves a separate analysis and that helps us to understand the assertions among scholars and lay people (who reproduce the information without a deep analysis) that the Taliban was a North American creation. I adopt the thought that the hunger of Soviet imperialism caused a reaction of indignation in the part of the population that did not sell itself to foreign management. That indignation was the mother of the Mujahidin. Lacking resources and the need to prepare for armed struggle, this support came through neighboring Pakistan, which provided the organizational and structural foundation through US funding.
I also think it is naive to believe that the Soviet Union wanted to establish a socialist government in this region. The Soviet Union, which sought to consolidate itself as a power, at a time of bipolarization between socialism and capitalism, was essential to dominate a territory that would allow for naval development, since the USSR has no sea and Afghanistan would be a region that would guarantee control from other territories around. In such circumstances, the United States needed to find a strategy that would not allow the Soviet Union to emerge as a power superior to it. All these relationships must be considered and analyzed, so that we can understand the role of the Taliban in the game of imperialist interests.
Without control of Afghanistan, the United States sought various ways to gain this access, establishing an exchange relationship with Pakistan. But what is behind this policy between these two countries, apart from diplomatic terror and the constant threat of invasion of Pakistan? The granting of military bases to the United States, which integrated Indians, and so many other situations that led the United States to count on the possibility that it had Pakistan in its hands, the injection of North American capital in these undertakings in Pakistani territory, they were elements wisely used by the Pakistanis who, even though they granted facilities to the USA, at the same time helped in the structure of the Taliban with that same capital. There is a lot more that we don't know about these power relationships than you might think.
We will make a leap now, considering that there is a lot to discuss and this small and humble work will not cover such scope. Without control of Afghanistan, the United States has, on the occasion of 9/11, the opportunity to create a pretext to invade the country.
After working as a CIA agent, the figure of Osama Bin Laden, who belongs to a very rich family in the East, becomes part of the revolutionary struggles for Islam. At the time of this context, Bin Laden was in Sudan, in the work of financial collaboration to leverage the country. The United States, which also wanted a government in Sudan, allied with them, was looking for the plot to kill bin Laden and articulated a coup to put in power a group that would govern Sudan and give it support and openness in this territory. From then on, Osama became

withdraws to Afghanistan, under the protection of Mulah Omar. At the time of the alleged attacks on the Twin Towers, Osama bin Laden was a guest of the Taliban leader.
The United States asks for Osama's handover and has his request refused by Mulah Omar, which becomes the ideal pretext for planning Operation Enduring Freedom, in which US troops invaded Afghanistan and dismantled the country and the Taliban. Many Taliban fighters entered society as ordinary people, and the leaders went underground, re-emerging in insurgent groups.
During all these years of North American occupation, what can be analyzed is that the United States never had complete control of the region. The governments that followed the fall of the Taliban and were put in power by the United States, which has already undermined the vision of a democratic choice for this people, were not able to offer the Afghan society a prosperous development and today we can see a devastated Afghanistan, unemployment, misery and disorder. These governments were also unable to gain the trust and acceptance of a large part of the population. Perhaps it is possible to understand from this bias the reason why the insurgency movements were gradually gaining strength in the country. I understand that no resistance movement is huge without popular support.
This dissatisfaction with the current scenario and the perception that has always been present among the Pashtun people, and this is rooted in their social relational code as to their autonomy and resistance to invaders, created the necessary conditions that led to the recruitment of new members to the nuclei of resistance administered by the Taliban.
Understand that the discussion here is an analysis proposal from the perspective of resistance to imperialism and does not intend to deny the mistakes made by the Taliban. It is not about sanctifying them or demonizing them. It is, above all, a reading that it is possible to resist those who want control of their people, the dismantling of their culture, the demonization of their religion and thousands of other burdens that imperialism imposes on its subjugated.
Perhaps, to a greater extent, the Taliban contributed to this same imperialism finding space among its own. The minds already colonized in Afghanistan is still an expressive number. I think that the group itself is capable of this self-criticism and that the years and the recruitment of new members were elements that corroborate the Taliban's new vision and strategy.
It is also naive to think that this resumption of power in August 2021 was not the result of many conversations. But in the geopolitical game at that time, perhaps bloodshed and exacerbated violence may not fit. It takes intelligence, caution and strategy to consolidate again and realize what its population expects without deviating from its religion and its codes. A strengthened government that leaves no room for external controls and defends its wealth from the exploitation of the colonizer, needs the massive support of its people.
The gender issue in Afghanistan was perhaps one of the strongest ammunitions against the group, in relation to international public opinion. After the 9/11 episode, the Islamic religion became evident to the world as something perverse. This brought to light the particularities and characteristics of the Taliban's ideological base to the world. The radical and distorted interpretation of Sharia, which disfavored women the most, prohibiting them from attending schools and the compulsory use of the burka, was and is the great tonic in the negativity of the Taliban for world public opinion. Ignorance mixed with prejudice and hatred led the world to see Islam from this perspective, this country of Muslims. It is a fact that Islam has a way

different from establishing their social relations, in the most diverse instances, very different from what exists in the West. However, Islam supports the maxim that the search for knowledge must touch all its followers, whether men or women, and the denial of access to school for women, violates this principle, as well as the use of the burka, which should configure as a choice, since Islam directs to keep bodies, whether female or male.
I analyze that, these questions that are arms of the proposal of this article, cannot discredit the struggle of these men for years, against the imperialist attacks. It is necessary to criticize, but safeguarding the separation of errors and efforts used in a typically Afghan administration, without the control and exploitation of another country.
The current scenario suggests a new context that brings a lot of information that announces a strong change in the geopolitics of these parts here. China is now the "staff of the prophet Moses", dividing the sea for the passage of one people under the dominion of another. Is China a safe path for Islamic countries? I do not think so. However, it is necessary to take risks to become stronger. Today China proposes a great partnership with Muslim countries, especially Pakistan. From this “partnership” it will be possible to form an economic cooperation bloc between these countries, which could strengthen the economy of these nations. The project of the great road that connects several smaller countries like Azerbaijan, Bangladesh, Afghanistan, among others, from Pakistan to Turkey, to transport goods from China, will boost the economy of these countries. A structured economy proposes a fortified country less susceptible to imperialism. It also strengthens society and strengthens religion. Of course these countries are in the observance of Chinese opportunism always.
Today's Taliban are aware of this whole plot. It is necessary to open up to establish strong roots and uplift the Afghan people. On the chessboard we have a rapprochement with China and support from Iran, before an enemy for political-religious reasons, in the conflict with the Shiites.
There are some points that deserve clarification and that are present in the global collective mentality in the negative sense of the Taliban movement. One of them is the issue of drug trafficking. Drug trafficking has always been a big business, run by the United States. A deal that had a turnover of 15 billion dollars a year and that many attributed to being a Taliban enterprise. The large farms with poppy plantations operated a huge market with the sale of drugs produced from this plant. The main consumer market for this product, whose supplier is the United States, was Latin America and Brazil was among its buyers. Now the farms have been burned by the Taliban.
Much is also said that it was not an honorable victory for the Taliban, because there was no war that decimated hundreds of lives and that perhaps it would cost even more hatred for the Islamic world, as people do not have or do not want to have the necessary information to do it. your considerations. The Taliban acted to erode US imperialist government and control. Yes, there was an agreement, since the United States was no longer in a position to sustain the invasion of the country. The agreement provided for the release of Afghan prisoners, the withdrawal of troops, the exile of former president Ashraf Ghani.
Currently, the Taliban is discussing its new structure and organization. There is still no agreement on the definitive names in the country's management organization chart. But there is a solid proposal for a mixed administration, which will create opportunities for representation of the Pashtun tribes and other Islamic dissidences, such as Shiites. The strongest name for this first moment is Habaitullah Akhundzada.

The information brought here is the result of readings of sources pushed in a violent way, for the colonized formation of our knowledge, as it is the great truth: we don't know much, because the manipulation of information, makes us prejudiced, with readings of sources produced by the perspective of those who suffered in this context of oppression, the collection of many conversations with individuals who are participants in anti-imperialist movements in Pakistan and who were on the side of the Taliban, fighting the common enemy and my fantastic experience on the spot.
I dedicate these few words, given the immensity of this topic, to my father Muhammad Iqbal Abid, to my husband Muhammad Nauman Iqbal, liberating men and fighters for the just causes of our religion, always willing to Jihads for the defense of our brothers, to the Khaksar movement Tehrik, who has to be a giant in this world, taking ideas of fairness and justice, in a rational and Islamic perspective, to my family in Brazil, of whom I feel immense pride and eternal longing for my father, to the friends who made their counterpoints to my thoughts in an honorable, respectful and political way and to the friends who share my thought connections. Gratitude.
*Gilliam Nauman Iqbal is a Muslim woman, feminist, political activist and pro-Palestinian, graduated in History at the State University of Maranhão, post graduated in Sociology of Interpretations of Maranhão, traditional peoples and communities, student of Photojournalistics at Universidade Cruzeiro do Sul, President of the Razan al-Najjar Institute of Studies and Solidarity for Palestine.

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This content reflects the personal opinions of the author. It is accurate and true to the best of the author’s knowledge and should not be substituted for impartial fact or advice in legal, political, or personal matters.

© 2021 Gilliam Nauman Iqbal

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