Bill has advanced degrees in education and political science. He has been a political science teacher for over 27 years.
Differences Between Liberalism and Conservatism
Liberalism and conservatism have been the most important ideologies to influence American politics. Each has had a different perspective on three important areas in American culture:
- Political freedom
- Human nature
- The role of government
This article is dedicated to helping you grasp the differences between these two ideologies in these three areas as they came about in history.
First, What Is an "Ism"?
The "isms" that we talk about in politics—liberalism, conservatism, socialism—are "ideologies." The word "ideology" literally means the "science of ideas." The term "ideology" (or idéologie) was coined by Destutt de Tracey during the French Revolution. He had a utopic vision of transforming France into a rational and scientific society via a national education program. This educational approach was a combination of individual liberty and extensive state planning and was the approach for the French government called "the Directory" during the French Revolution (1795-99). At first, Napoleon supported Tracey and his believers. Later, he derided them, calling them idéologues (ideologues).
As for what ideology means in modern times, political scientists Terrence Ball and Richard Dagger have defined an "ideology" as a fairly consistent set of beliefs about man's nature, the economy, and the government. According to them, an ideology must also perform the following:
- Explain social conditions
- Evaluate social conditions
- Orient people in society
- Provide a plan of social and political action 
The Encyclopaedia Britannica says that an ideology "is a system of ideas that aspires both to explain the world and to change it.” In short, an ideology is an action-oriented theory. So, an ideology is not just a set of beliefs: it is a set of beliefs that posits a program of action that will have a "salutary effect" on society.
Liberalism started as an ideology dedicated to promoting reason, individualism, and the rights to life, liberty, and property which are derived from nature. Modern liberalism is different in that it tends to look more toward central—especially government—action to solve social problems rather than individual initiative. This article will just focus on original (sometimes called "classical") liberalism in the areas of freedom, human nature, and the role of government.
Liberal Views on Freedom
The focus of classical liberalism is the individual who is in pursuit of his self-interest which is arrived at by rational means. That individual has a right to life, liberty, and property, a right that is a bestowed by God via nature. These rights are not merely the rights of mankind collectively; they are the rights which each person has individually. So, freedom for the individual is the right to pursue your self interest and our freedom to do so is the gift of God or nature.
Liberal Views on Human Nature
Adherents of classical liberalism tend to characterize man as a "rational individual." Because man is "rational man," we can trust him to pursue his self-interest in a rational way. The implications of this are that men should be generally free to pursue their economic interests free of government interference and they do not need a large and intrusive government to direct them. Of course, in their pursuit of their self-interest, they cannot impede upon the rights of others who are also entitled to pursue their self interest and to do so free from constraint.
This view of human nature is in conflict with the traditional view that was and still is taught by the Christian religion that says men are sinners and that this sinfulness extends to their reasoning. Therefore, those that espouse classical liberalism are more likely to claim that we can generally trust man to make decisions in an environment with only a minimal amount of government. We do not need the dictates of the past (tradition or religion) to provide a general direction for society. Each individual in pursuit of his own interest, the "pursuit of happiness," is most likely to lead to a better life for all.
In The Rights of Man, Thomas Paine put it this way:
I am contending for the rights of the living, and against their being willed away…by the manuscript assumed authority of the dead; and Mr. [Edmund] Burke is contending for the authority of the dead over the rights of the living.
Paine reflects the classical liberal view: men's rights should not be overshadowed by the dictates of the past. Each generation should be free to pursue its own self-interest free of those historical artifacts we call tradition.
Liberal Views on Government
The purpose of government for the classical liberal is to protect life, liberty, and property which were the gifts of God to man prior to the organization of government. Governments are the creation of men for the purpose of defending those rights. We can think of the nature of government as being that of a contract in which parties enter into for mutual benefit. The modern libertarian Robert Nozick likened the government to a protection agency. As individuals, we hire an agent to protect our natural rights. In return, we surrender some of our liberty, but very little, to the protection agency. Therefore, a government is a means to an end. Governments—and the laws they produce—serve a minimalist function to protect our natural liberties. In the end, laws are the servants of our self interest.
The ideology of classical liberalism had an important influence on how American political thought developed. First, when it comes to rights and politics, John Locke's rights of "life, liberty, and property" were translated by Jefferson as "life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness" in the Declaration of Independence. The Declaration reflects the minimalist view that government exists primarily to protect those rights, and that the people should be able to discard one government and erect another. In the words of the Declaration:
That whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Government...
Much of Thomas Paine's rejection of monarchical rule in Common Sense reflected the classical liberal view to trust reason, individual self-interest, and look askance on tradition. There is no form of rule that is more traditional than monarchy. Paine called the idea of monarchy "exceedingly ridiculous."
In the area of the economy, the ideas of classical liberalism had a profound effect on American economic thinking. Americans easily slid from a mercantilism view which emphasized the accumulation of state wealth to a freer market system that emphasized the productivity and the accumulation of capital. In the same year that Jefferson and the Second Continental Congress issued the Declaration, the Scottish Enlightenment thinker Adam Smith published his work The Wealth of Nations which is considered a pivotal work in the area of classical liberal free market economics.
In the area of human nature, classical liberalism's emphasis on individual man in pursuit of his self interest had the least hold on American thinking. America was not just a Christian nation, it was Christian and Calvinist, which led to a view of human nature as utterly depraved. Furthermore, while individualism did fare better in America than in Europe, institutions such as family, churches, and town councils were still considered important and not merely instruments to advance one's rights.
The second ideology to have a major influence on American development was the ideology of conservatism. Some question whether conservatism is actually an ideology. The conservative does not oppose reason, but he also does not see it as central as does the liberal. The classical liberal is comfortable relying on human reason for a future good life, but the conservative is not. He is more likely to rely on tradition and experience as better predictors of a good life.
Edmund Burke is often hailed as the originator of European conservatism. In 1790, his work Reflections on the Revolution in France was published in which he offers a critique of the French Revolution.
Conservative Views on Freedom
Conservatives are less likely to give reason a prominent place as does the classical liberal. In some ways, Burke sounds like a liberal when he says, "Men have no right to what is not reasonable," yet he also says, "...the whole body of them (the community) has no right inconsistent with virtue...." So, a pursuit of self-interest cannot be one contrary to virtue. Burke also says that men do not have a right "to what is not for their benefit." This would imply that there is some standard beyond self-interest, and even reason, that would deny to the classical liberal what he thinks is his due. So, for Burke, freedom cannot be the freedom to be immoral.
Burkean Conservative Principles Stated by Russell Kirk
Conservative Views on Human Nature
Man is connected to his society. He is not an individuated mass. If you ask the conservative if man is an individual, he might ask you "An individual what"? For the conservative, the word "individual" is an adjective, not a noun. The conservative sees men not as primarily individuated, but primarily as connected. He is more likely to view society as an organism rather than like a machine. And because men are organically arranged, changes among them must be slow and incremental if they are to be helpful. Sudden and revolutionary changes, even if they are of good-intention, are likely to do harm because of their haste.
Yes, man is distinct from his fellow man, but he is also connected to them. And those connections (which are embodied in traditions, and institutions) are not merely instrumental to our happiness to be discarded when we tire of them. Rather they are repositories of social knowledge that are likely to be more important than reason in providing man a better life.
Just as the conservative reduces the role of the individual in society, so he also reduces the role of reason. Rather, man is limited and must rely on his experiences. As American founding father John Dickinson said
Experience must be our only guide. Reason may mislead us. It was not Reason that discovered the singular and admirable mechanism of the British Constitution. It was not Reason that discovered or even could have discovered the odd and in the eye of those who are governed by reason, the absurd mode of trial by jury. Accidents probably produced these discoveries, and experience has given sanction to them. This then was our guide.
Conservative Views on Government
The conservative view of government is different from the liberal view in that the conservative view is the traditional view: government is to enforce laws and punish those that violate them. The conservative is more likely than the liberal to treat governmental authority as a given. For the liberal, men created government and social human authority in a rational act to better secure their rights than what nature could provide. So they agreed by a social contract to mutually safeguard their liberties. Conservatism has no such secular "In-the-Beginning" story. Governmental "authority" is not the creation of a rational act, but rather authority is what we are born under. We really did not choose what authority we would live under. When we were born, we were born under authority. As we grew and became adults, we were under the authority of a state. While we might live under "public governments" where we have some rights to participate, and we might even have some collective power to change the regime under which we live, we have no such individual right. We no more legitimize our state's authority now than we legitimized our parental authority when we were born.
As for government's primary function, it is to enforce the laws (whether they be created by institutions or evolve naturally) and to punish those that break them. While recognizing the importance of punishing criminals, liberalism is more likely to emphasize citizen's rights and the possibility of revolution against an infringement on those rights. Burkean conservatives are more likely to uphold the importance of punishing those that violate the laws of the land. Upholding law and order, rather than securing rights, is the primary task of the government.
 Terence Ball and Richard Dagger, Political Ideologies and the Democratic Ideal, 6th Edition (New York: Pearson Education, 2006), 4-9.
© 2018 William R Bowen Jr
William R Bowen Jr (author) from New Bern, NC on April 06, 2018:
TSAD, thank you for the clarification and thanks for reading....
The Logician from then to now on on April 05, 2018:
William, I started with "this is all well and good" which I think pretty much answers the questions you just posed to me. Then I went on to explain that basically I see little relevance when today's "ideologies" are frauds of the past, not evolved but hijacked for deceit. But I didn't mean to diminish the importance of history or your hub page which is all well and good, I just think today's world is so corrupt that the history of these world views isn't relevant to what they are today.
William R Bowen Jr (author) from New Bern, NC on April 05, 2018:
TSAD, You don't see it's relevance for today? It's relevant for context: history is important and how ideas came to us have relevance. I do hope that you see that. It should at least help you to see how old some of our ideas are and that some of the debates we engage in today aren't new ones, but are much older. Also, it helps to know that both ideologies are not fixed, but have evolved over time. I hope you see that. Thanks for reading and your insights.
The Logician from then to now on on April 04, 2018:
William, this is all well and good but I fail to see it's relevance to today's liberal and conservative ideologies, which btw, I prefer to call world views rather than ideologies because of the negative connotation of extremist which liberals have given to the word ideologue.
In truth the historical concept of "liberalism" has been hijacked by the leftist who use it like a wolf uses sheeps clothing - they want you to think today's liberal is the liberal of old valuing reason, rationality, freedom etc. when in reality today's liberal ignores these things when they hinder hidden left wing agendas like abortion, gun control, bigger government and government control, less freedom, open borders, man made global warming on and on, agendas that have to be disguised as altruistic endeavors because no one wants their end results which sums up today's liberalism as basically their ends justifies their means.
Conservatism of today is best summed up as the antithesis to today's liberalism on whatever the liberal issue of the day is, because liberalism is nothing but a wolf in sheeps clothing while the real thing, the reasoned truth, the sheep in their own skin is conservatism - the basic ideologies are of good (conservatism) verses evil (liberalism) in the most simplistic terms.
William R Bowen Jr (author) from New Bern, NC on April 04, 2018:
Jack Lee, I should stress that what I gave in this article was the historical roots of conservatism. The idea of "small government" or "limited government" was not an important component of Burkean conservatism. Burke would have been more concerned that the state be strong and that there would be a national church that would support the state. The emphasis by Burke would have been on the strength of traditional social institutions, something he saw being undermined by the French Revolution. The conservative emphasis on limited, small government will not come until the 20th century and will be popularized by Republicans like Barry Goldwater and Ronald Reagan in the United States and by Margaret Thatcher in the United Kingdom.
Eric Dierker from Spring Valley, CA. U.S.A. on April 04, 2018:
Jack Lee from Yorktown NY on April 02, 2018:
You write a good summary of the two ideologies. Where do you see the current two parties, Democrat and Republican, belong in your disection?
I am a self proclaimed conservative. The one thing that I believe, which you seem to leave out, is the effectiveness or lack thereof of the big government. We conservative believe in the Constitution and the concept of a limited federal government. The fact that most of the federal agencies today are ineffective, bureaucratic and wasteful. It is for those reasons I am against a huge government. It is the pragmatist in me that sees how good intentions on the part of liberalism lead often to poor government policies and programs. Anyway, good summary.