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Impeachment of Andrew Jackson - The First Impeached US President.
Let's discuss, why Andrew Johnson was impeached and what were the charges against him?
Before getting to the point let us first understand what is Impeachment in the United States of America.
"The procedure by which a legislative body accuses a federal government officials for misconduct is called impeachment. Article 1, section 2 gives the power to the house of representatives and therefore, any Senate's can excercise the power of impeachment".
Johnson became the president in 1865, after Abraham Lincoln’s assassination. A former Democrat who contest as a candidate along Lincoln, the relationship with the republicans leadership collapsed during Johnson's presidency. Later, a party (republicans) led by Thaddeus Stevens and Charles conquered the party. The US, former President Andrew Johnson was the first president to face impeachment proceedings. It all started when Johnson removed his Secretary of War Edward Stanton from his office in 1867, which was against the Tenure of Office Act. During his time, he had vetoed the Civil Rights act (one of the uncommon instances in American records wherein Congress has overridden a Presidential veto) that pissed off the congress. And therefore, Congress ultimately sue Johnson up for violating the Tenure of Office act.
According to the law, no president or vice-president cannot fire any important officials firstly without getting permission from the Senate's. Over President Johnson's veto, Congress reauthorized the Tenure of Office Act on March 2, 1867, extending its protections to all office holders. The Act essentially stated that all federal officeholders who were subject to Senate confirmation could not be removed by the President without Senate approval, though it was unclear whether this requirement applied to individuals who had been nominated by a previous administration. Later, Johnson's became accused on 11 charges, for violating the Tenure of Office Act whilst Johnson fired Secretary of War Edwin Stanton, who disagreed with Johnson’s Reconstruction policies. And different abuses of presidential power.
Was the impeachment justified according to the law, or was it politically motivated?
The Senate appointed a committee to suggest guidelines of method for the impeachment trial which finally have been followed with the help of using the Senate, along with a one-hour time restriction for every facet to discuss questions of regulation that could rise up all through the trial. Chief Justice Salmon P. Chase presided over the trial and sworn in with the help of using Associate Justice Samuel Nelson. During the swearing-in of the character Senators, the frame stopped to discuss whether or not Senator Benjamin Wade of Indiana, the president (pro tempore) of the Senate, became eligible to take part withinside the trial. Because the office of the Vice President was vacant, below the legal guidelines of succession at that point Senator Wade could count on the presidency upon a conviction of President Johnson. Ultimately, the Senator who raised this point, Thomas Hendricks of Indiana, withdrew the problem and Senator Wade was sworn in.
The Senate didn't convict President Johnson by one vote on 3 one of a kind articles, as Rose changed his mind and he voted "Not Guilty". However on may 26, two more articles failed to vote and subsequently the trail ended. Later, there arose a controversial and people started questioning, why ross changed his mind? According to " One theory is that Ross didn’t follow his constitutional conscience—he followed the cash. Ross may have been the beneficiary of a $150,000 fund set up by Johnson’s supporters( there was no evidence). Some researchers were of the view that, Ross’s vote may not have been needed and there were a lot of conspiracy about his vote.
Is Andrew Johnson really a good president, what were his actions and sacrifice for his nation?
When Johnson left president office in March 1837, his legacy of presidency had forever changed the course of American's history. By his actions and tenure as president, Johnon equated the legislature with Congress in terms of power and ability to formulate legal and government policies. Johnson was able to preserved and defended the Union from the threats by nullifiers and secessionists. Nations across the world viewed the United States with outmost respect due to Jackson’s management of foreign affairs. most significantly , however, Jackson’s presidency pushed the state further toward democracy, but much work remained in granting equal rights and freedoms to those still oppressed within the United States.
Johnson found himself at conflict with the legislature, notably the Radical Republicans, who thought the president's attitude to Reconstruction was too mild, when the United States Congress met in December 1865.
It was terrible when Johnson vetoed the Civil Rights Act of 1866 and the Freedman's Bureau bill, two crucial pieces of Black-protection legislation. His vetoes united from both moderate and conservative Republicans, further dividing an already divisive situation. With the Civil Rights Act, Congress overrode a presidential veto for the first time after initially failing to do so with the Freedman's Bureau veto. Additionally, the Fourteenth Amendment to the Constitution was ratified by Congress, granting citizenship and equal protection under the law to all people born or naturalised in the United States. Johnson objected, but the change was approved.
The United States acquired Alaska, annexed Midway Island, and began using telegraphs to connect with Europe after the construction of a successful transatlantic cable under Andrew Johnson's presidency. Both Queen Emma of the Sandwich Islands and British author Charles Dickens paid the White House visits. Additionally, Andrew Johnson was the first president to host the Easter Egg Roll at the White House, and for his 60th birthday party, he invited 300 kids to the White House.
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