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Horror in Hawaii-Thalia Massie's Lie Leads To Murder

Horror In Hawaii

Benny Ahakuelo--20 years old

Benny Ahakuelo--20 years old

Henry Chang--22 years old

Henry Chang--22 years old

Horace Ida--24 years old

Horace Ida--24 years old

Joe Kahahawai was murdered--20 years old

Joe Kahahawai was murdered--20 years old

David Takai--21 years old

David Takai--21 years old

Part One-Thalia Massie

In 1932, Hawaii was an unsettled area full of racial unrest, prejudice and discrimination. Control of the Islands had been hotly fought over and in 1898 President McKinley signed a resolution designed to violate Hawaii’s sovereign rights causing Hawaii to be illegally annexed. It was then called the Territory of Hawaii and native Hawaiians, Asians, Americans and others were in emotional and political turmoil over Paradise.

Americans had been on the Big Island for a long while and the Reciprocity Treaty of 1875 ceded Pearl Harbor and its shore for about five miles back to the United States. Construction of the base brought thousands of military men, both enlisted and commissioned officers, to the Island.

One of these was Thomas Massie who was deployed there in 1932. He brought his young socialite wife, Thalia, with him. She was a spoiled woman who came from a high profile family. Her mother was niece to Alexander Graham Bell, the inventor. And her father was first cousin to President Theodore Roosevelt. Thalia Massie had lived a privileged and pampered life and her position on the island did not please her at all. She was not happy in the confined and regimented naval life that was required by service men and their wives. Mrs. Massie caused her husband great embarrassment by her impulsive, snobby, rude and erratic behavior over and over. As a Lieutenant, he had a position of respect to uphold and the antics of his wife were causing gossip and social ostracizing with the hallowed circle on the base.

The night of September 12, 1931, Lieutenant and Mrs. Massie went to a party in Honolulu Hawaii. She became bored and left the party, wandering outside and eventually down the road. In her testimony to the police, Thalia said she walked several miles when a car pulled alongside her and a man dragged her into the vehicle. She was driven to an isolated location where all five men raped her, one striking her hard enough to break her jaw. Then they told her how to get back to the main road, drove away and left her.

When Thalia reached the road, a car came along and gave her a ride home where she took a douche. Shortly after one o’clock in the morning, her husband “Tommy” called her and she told him to come home because something terrible had happened. He rushed home and Thalia told her tale of rape by “some Hawaiian boys.” At some point, around three o’clock in the morning, he took her to the hospital where she was diagnosed with a fractured jaw which now seems improbable because she talked all night to police and gave a statement. She could not describe the car or the license plate number, just that it appeared to be an old car between a Ford and a Dodge.

Meanwhile about the same time period that Thalia Massie claimed that she was assaulted, five young men were involved in a traffic incident with another woman. The license plate number was reported as 58-595 and the incident was broadcast over police scanners at the hospital about 3am. The Massie party was in the vicinity and able to hear the conversation.

After the hospital, the Massies went to the policestaion where Mrs. Massie was asked questions and gave her testimony of the night’s events. It was at this time she “remembered” the license plate number to be 58-805, similar to the one overheard at the hospital. The police got busy and soon arrested five young men who admitted being involved in a fight with a woman but not Thalia Massie. One of the men had even struck the woman who hit him back. This shocked them so much they got into their car and drove away. All of them denied assaulting Thalia or even seeing her that night. But she identified one as the man who had broken her jaw. He was Joe Kahahawai, a prizefighter with a criminal record. The police felt they had found their perpetrators and never looked for anyone else.

Thomas Massie sent a cable to his mother in law telling of the night’s tragic events and she arrived promptly and took charge. Mrs. Fortescue was prominent in social circles and used to being in control and being obeyed without question. She demanded the five men be taken to trial and so they were. Naval commandant, Rear Admiral Yates Stirling, put pressure on authorities to move quickly.

The trial lasted for three weeks and the jury went to deliberation where they remained for 97 hours, the longest in Hawaii’s history. They could not reach an agreement and a mistrial was declared. The five defendants were released but required to report to the courthouse and check in every day as a kind of probation.

The public was in an outrage demanding justice and fearing that all white women were in danger. Newspapers used words like “thug”, kanaka”, “n….r”, “degenerate”, “fiend” and many other derogative names. Meanwhile Thalia Massie was described as a white woman who was cultured and refined.

Part Two-Joe Kahahawai

One of the accused, Horace Ida, was beaten almost to death and carried scars for the remainder of his life. Native Hawaiians and white Americans alike rioted on their respective sides seeking justice and accountability.

Thalia Massie’s mother decided the ‘Hawaiian boys” should not get off and must be forced to confess. A plan was hatched to kidnap and torture a confession out of Joe Kahahawai who was supposedly the man who hit Thalia and broke her jaw. On January 8, 1932, Mrs. Fortescue, Thomas Massie, Deacon Jones and Edward Lord forced Joe Kahahawai into a car and took him to Mrs. Fortescue’s rented home. He was told that the same thing Ida had experienced would be dealt to him also. Indeed he was beaten in an attempt to force a confession. During this time, he was shot and quickly died. He was dragged into the bathroom and undressed. Then the abductors wrapped his naked body in a bloody sheet, put it in the trunk of the car and drove to the beach where they intended to dispose of the problem. The place was the famous Halona Blowhole where it would most likely never resurface again.

A cruising police car spotted the Buick and pulled them over for questioning. He found the body in the trunk and the killers did not even try to deny their actions. They were arrested, charged with murder and held aboard the U.S.S. Alton that was docked in Pearl Harbor.

Scroll to Continue

At some point in time Deacon Lord gave the gun used to murder Joe Kahahawai to Thalia Massie who hid it in a Kotex box and later took it out to the beach and threw it into the a pool of quicksand.

Part Three-Clarence Darrow

The powerful people who were on trial and facing years in prison instead of a ballroom wanted the very best attorney that money could buy. Grace Fortescue had a wealthy friend who sent a request for representation to the famous attorney Clarence Darrow. He initially declined the case. But he was facing poverty and was told that he would retain complete control of the trial. So he accepted and joined the team as the primary representative for the accused.

Darrow’s first witness was Thalia’s husband Thomas. He declared that the assault on Thalia and subsequent trauma had rendered him temporarily insane. One psychiatrist described it as “chemical insanity” caused by stress. He also claimed to not remember his actions after Kahahawai had confessed to raping her or what had happened to the gun.

When Darrow called Thalia to the stand she put on a great show for the spectators. She wept and sobbed during her testimony, then flew into a rage when presented with a self analysis from her college psychological presentation. She screamed at the prosecutor, ripped the paper to shreds and stormed from the witness stand.

Clarence Darrow presented the idea that this was not a murder but an honor killing and therefore the unwritten law proclaimed the defendants must go free

Finally both sides rested their case and the jury went to deliberations which took a full 50 hours. They did take a break to attend a baseball game though.

Part Four-The Sentence

The jury found all four defendants guilty of manslaughter and the judge, Charles S. Davis sentenced them each to 10 years in prison at hard labor. Then the Governor stepped in and offered to grant executive clemency on condition that the rape trial would be dropped. Racial tensions in Hawaii were becoming violent and he wanted a surcease of riots and emotional outbursts. All partied agreed and the Governor reduced the sentences to ONE HOUR SERVED IN THE COURT DOCK. He remained there with them and everyone went out to dinner afterward at one of Hawaii’s finest restaurants.

Defendants: Grace Fortescue, Albert 0. Jones, Edward J. Lord, and Thomas H. Massie
Crime Charged: Murder
Chief Defense Lawyers: Clarence Darrow, George S. Leisure, Lieutenant L.H.C. Johnson, U.S.N., Frank Thompson, and Montgomery Winn
Chief Prosecutors: John C. Kelley and Barry S. Ulrich
Judge: Charles S. Davis
Place: Honolulu, Hawaii
Dates of Trial: April 4-29, 1932
Verdict: Guilty, second-degree murder
Sentences: 10 years imprisonment at hard labor, commuted to one hour in the dock

Jury members in Joseph Kahahawai's murder trial left deliberations at one point to attend a baseball game.

Jury members in Joseph Kahahawai's murder trial left deliberations at one point to attend a baseball game.

Interesting Information Pertinent To The Cases

  • Thalia Massie had been diagnosed with Graves disease which destroyed her vision and she was extremely near sighted but refused to wear glasses.
  • Several weeks after the “rape” Thalia Massie said she had become pregnant. Thomas said the child could not possibly be his as the couple had not been intimate for a long time. Thalia Massie had an abortion.
  • An eyewitness reported seeing a white man walking away from the club with Thalia Massie the night of the alleged assault. A boyfriend perhaps?
  • Grace Fortescue boldly told the New York Times that the group had killed Joe Kahahawai and her only regret was the mishandling of the body disposal.
  • After the killing, race riots broke out all over the Hawaiian Islands along with demonstrations of whites, island natives and Asians.
  • Soldiers and sailors were confined to posts as the violence and rioting spread.
  • Police testimony revealed Thalia’s dress was not wrinkled or stained and that her shoes were clean and not scuffed though she said she was dragged down the Ala Moana Road.
  • The Massie’s and Mrs. Fortescue all left the island without court permission but nothing was done to stop them.
  • Clarence Darrow never handled another legal case after the Massie affair. His payment for taking the case was the current equivalent of $400,000.
  • A Hearst newspaper editorial reported that Hawaii was where “the roads go through jungles, and in those remote places bands of degenerate natives lie in wait for white women driving by."
  • Time Magazine (yes, that one) blamed everything on Joe Kahahawai and the others boys, stating they were “"five brown-skinned young bucks" who demonstrated well-known "lust of mixed breeds for white women" when they raped Thalia Massie.
  • Years later in an interview Deacon Jones proudly claimed responsibility for killing Joe Kahahawai and said he later went into the house and poured a celebration drink.

Pinkerton Dectective Agency's Investigation Report

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Brenda Barnes (author) from America-Broken But Still Beautiful on July 31, 2013:

I am very happy for you Brogneaux. Your daughter in law is a loving, supportive woman. Reading and commenting is important to me also. It does open one's eyes to a greater depth in what one reads.

Brogneaux on July 20, 2013:

I am becoming aware, through the encouragement of my daughter-in-law, that authors appreciate feed back. This is opening a whole new world to expand my reading. Retirement is great. I now have time to both read and comment!

Brenda Barnes (author) from America-Broken But Still Beautiful on July 10, 2013:

Hello Brogneaux. This true story certainly is fascinating. So much deception and prejudice was allowed to taint the entire case. I am so pleased my recounting added to your reading experience. Thanks for taking time to leave a comment.

Brogneaux on July 09, 2013:

I am just finishing reading HONOLULU by Alan Brennert. Fascinating book and filled with many facts. Your account of the Massie case just added more to the book. Excellent account.

Brenda Barnes (author) from America-Broken But Still Beautiful on January 22, 2013:

Hello John M. Thank you for stopping by my Hub and for the clarifications.

John M on January 22, 2013:

Interesting article, but rather error filled. Most notably, there were NO riots in Hawaii at any point, either by the Navy or by the local population. Plenty of angry words, yes, and at one point it looked like some Navy people might act out, but the brass kept the lid on. The restraint shown by the local population was very creditable. The body was on the floor of the car's back seat, not in the trunk. And in the fight with Mrs. Peeples, only two or three of the original five were still in Horace's sister's car. Kahaawai did punch her and Mrs. Peeples, evidently fairly formidable herself, gave back. The Ala Wai Inn was only about 400-500 yards from the Ena Road location where Thalia said she was abducted, not several miles, and none of these locations nor Pearl Harbor either, are on the "Big Island." Grace and Tommy didn't force Joe into their car, they tricked him, and there's no quicksand in Hawaii. They didn't serve their sentence in the "court dock," they walked across King Street to the governor's office in Iolani Palace and served it there on the second floor. The governor did not insist on no retrial of the rape case as a condition for commutation, and in fact prosecutor John Kelley forged ahead with plans to retry the remaining four but was thwarted when Thalia refused to return to Hawaii and a Pinkerton report showed the crime hadn't happened the way she described it.

Brenda Barnes (author) from America-Broken But Still Beautiful on January 07, 2013:

That is true glamourkitty. He did that. I wanted to keep the focus on Thalia Massie as much as possible. It is so hard to write on the internet as my inclination is to give every detail. Perhaps I need to edit this and may add that detail. thanks for the input and comment.

Glamourkitty on December 26, 2012:

Hi, you forgot to mention that the murder victim had beat up another woman. He was a boxer that had no problem belting women.

Vigilantism is very wrong, but the victim was cruel to women.

Brenda Barnes (author) from America-Broken But Still Beautiful on October 16, 2011:

Hi GarnetBird. When I first read about this injustice, I was horrified also. That woman was one of the most selfish people I have ever encountered. I am glad you enjoy photography. I do too. Have you posted them on the Project 365?

Gloria Siess from Wrightwood, California on October 16, 2011:

HORRIFIC story--thank you for writing such a great hub--and thank you for reading my Hubs and commenting. I have been so involved in photopgraphy on panoramio lately I've quit writing.

Brenda Barnes (author) from America-Broken But Still Beautiful on October 05, 2011:

Yes, you may call me Hyphen. We are friends now! Thank you for reading this article. This was such a travesty of justice and I want people to remain aware so it never happens again. It did remind me of the Scottsboro Boys and for Mr. Darrow to be part of it is horrifying. Hollywood can never top the mind of a human being for duplicity and coverup.

See you around Hubworld.

ThoughtSandwiches from Reno, Nevada on October 04, 2011:

Hi Hyphenbird (may I call you Hyphen?)

Extraordinarily well written piece of history you have here. It certainly is evocative of the 'Scottsborro Boys' ordeal in Alabama, as mentioned, but with this crazy rich-white powerful-thing at the end. History does indeed provide interesting plot twists.

I look forward to more of your reads.

Brenda Barnes (author) from America-Broken But Still Beautiful on August 23, 2011:

Hi Pollyannalana. Are you thinking about Les Miserables? Sadly, that kind of injustice prevailed for centuries. Only the discovery of DNA and other forensics has helped prevent these tragedies.

I am glad you came by this Hub. I feel it is important for us to keep these stories alive and prevent them form happening again.

Pollyannalana from US on August 23, 2011:

I am sure there are many stories like this and I have forgotten the details but a man spent his whole life until he was an old man in jail for stealing a loaf of bread. Letting him go was probably worse than keeping him he was so old, but hopefully someone was left to care for him. It seems our judicial system goes from one extreme to another. I know a couple of people who lie about that bad and have all their lives. Thank God they haven't decided to be this bad though. Great write.

Brenda Barnes (author) from America-Broken But Still Beautiful on August 22, 2011:

Thank you for that PlatinumOwl. I will indeed remember it. I do feel an anointing many times when I write and often barely remember the experience. It is good to be used by One so beloved and trusted.

platinumOwl4 on August 22, 2011:

Similar to yourself, when I am writing I have so much information, but I want to use the most posistive that I have. That will help an indivual versus creating more problems. As you start your next hub remember what Jesus said,"my cup runneth over" based on the information that you have it surely is running over. I can see it in your writing. Have a pleasant day.

Brenda Barnes (author) from America-Broken But Still Beautiful on August 22, 2011:

platinumOwl4, racism is rampant and causes irreparable wounds. I agree that the stories we need to know these find us. This one did me also, along with Mary Ellen Wilson and Celia. I appreciate your feedback on the presentation. It is so hard to stay on topic. I always want to tell EVERYTHING and that could detract from the main subject. Thank you so much, Hyph.

platinumOwl4 on August 22, 2011:

Hyphenbird, Another great hub, I read about this occurrences several years ago, while attempting to make a discovery on racism,and prejudice within a certain group. This is one of the stories that found me. I have come to believe that the stories I read find me I don't find them. Excellent work and presentation.

Brenda Barnes (author) from America-Broken But Still Beautiful on August 22, 2011:

Thank you marcoujor. I think we have evolved at least a bit. The ability to run DNA analysis and all that prevents some innocents from being accused and guilty from escaping. Yet the OJ Simpsons and Robert Blakes of the world show corruption and the law are hand in hand.

Thank yo for reading and your great comments. I appreciate you.

Maria Jordan from Jeffersonville PA on August 22, 2011:

Hyph, Once again, I am enamoured with your ability to present this slice of life we have not seen. Such events astound and sober. I would like to think we have evolved, yet your stories make me still ponder,

Voted UP & UABI- have a good week, mar.

Brenda Barnes (author) from America-Broken But Still Beautiful on August 20, 2011:

I wouldn't be surprise attempted humor. That woman could try anyone's patience. That whole thing was a mess and was manufactured for sure. Regards from "up above."

attemptedhumour from Australia on August 20, 2011:

I reckon the husband gave her the broken jaw for being with someone they probably both knew about. The cops could have been in on it and those five innocents were ideal patsies. It wouldn't be the first, or last time it's occurred. Keep up the good fight, up there:) Cheers from the a-s- end of the world.

Brenda Barnes (author) from America-Broken But Still Beautiful on August 20, 2011:

Thanks Eiddwen. I appreciate you very much. Hyph

Eiddwen from Wales on August 20, 2011:

I am voting up here without a doubt. So very well written also and here's to many more by you.

Take care


Brenda Barnes (author) from America-Broken But Still Beautiful on August 19, 2011:

Thank you ccbrookes. I researched for weeks on t his case before I even attempted to write anything. The whole thing was a mass of coverup and just plain superiority. I see you write on true crime. I will check out your Hubs. Thanks for coming by.

ccbrookes on August 19, 2011:

Great coverage of a truly distubing case.

Brenda Barnes (author) from America-Broken But Still Beautiful on August 19, 2011:

Teylina, that is fine with me. The more people know and become outraged, the less these things will happen.

Brenda Barnes (author) from America-Broken But Still Beautiful on August 19, 2011:

Attempted, you put that very well. My feelings exactly concur. I find these cases fascinating and have a strong desire to bring them into the light of day. Somehow it seems to honor the forsaken that our justice system failed.

Happy days to you from up above. laugh

Teylina on August 19, 2011:

We do need to keep the outrage alive--I'm keeping some of your articles to share in history classes, if that's okay w/you.

attemptedhumour from Australia on August 19, 2011:

Hi Hyphen, it sounds like justice was ignored for the sake of honoring the dishonorable.

This was an interesting tale though. cheers from down under.

Brenda Barnes (author) from America-Broken But Still Beautiful on August 19, 2011:

Hello Teylina. Thanks very much for your support. When I first saw a snippet of information about this story, I knew I was meant to write about it. And these things indeed still happen today. And some family is mourning a loved one while a person with prestige walks free.

This was the same Clarence Darrow from the Scottsboro Boys case. Many believed he sold out when he took this a case. I do too. He was elderly and without money. This was his retirement nest egg. But that is just my opinion. Only he ever knew for certain.

Again, thank you for visiting this Hub. I think it is important that people know these things and we keep the outrage alive to prevent others from happening and being accepted.

Teylina on August 18, 2011:

I am in awe! I love the odd stuff of history that pops up now and then, and this falls in that category for me. You could never be labeled ADHD 'cause I don't remember seeing anyone suffering it able to focus that much! This piece is, as everything you do, absolutely fascinating! I probably would have been up all night hubbing (though I like Alastar's idea better!)if it had taken that to read this. It is truly unbelievable how the law can be twisted and turned, and how badly unfortunate events can become true nightmares! And, yes, it is still going on! We just have the media now. Think Darrow was the Scottsboro Boys guy. I remember them. Fantastic hub, Hyph!

Brenda Barnes (author) from America-Broken But Still Beautiful on August 18, 2011:

Hi lily. I just added (to the Hub) an interesting piece of information recovered from actual court testimony. An eye witness saw a white man with Thalia when she left the club that night. My personal thought is that she had an affair, became pregnant and manufactured the rape for a cover story. Her husband was fed up with her anyway. I believe she had the boyfriend hit her and the native boys just happened along and became a pawn.

Thalia knew she would be seen as a victim since the accused were brown skinned natives. After all she managed to get an abortion when they were illegal. Usually I am always on the side of the woman but in this case I cannot be.

This whole tale is fascinating and I feel it was a travesty of justice. Even if the rape was true, those society folks only got ONE HOUR in the courtroom dock for murdering that young man. How awful.

I am glad you liked this one. I researched for weeks before taking it on.

lilyfly on August 18, 2011:

Fantastic job! However, Hy, I can't think this despicable woman would fracture her own jaw, and even admit to rape,(if it didn't happen) since the victim was usually held to be near as guilty as the perpetrators. She pointed the finger at the wrong group of men?

Again, great job! lily

Brenda Barnes (author) from America-Broken But Still Beautiful on August 18, 2011:

always, you are right. And I just don't understand that at all. How one's heart can hold hatred and contempt because of skin color is beyond me. But some people hate just because they carry it in themselves I suppose.

I am glad so many people found this insightful like I did. I knew it had to be shared and not left forgotten to happen again.

Ruby Jean Richert from Southern Illinois on August 17, 2011:

This was really interesting Hyphen. The gospel truth is, the white race has been cruel and uncaring for other races for much too long. I think those actions are coming to an abrupt stop. You writing this article may open some eyes. Racial bias is still alive and thriving, but cleverly hidden. I see it daily on comments made daily on Hubpages. Thank you for sharing.


Alastar Packer from North Carolina on August 17, 2011:

Hyph, change those two b's to g's and you might be getting close..LOL! Yeah, in my dreams right?

Brenda Barnes (author) from America-Broken But Still Beautiful on August 17, 2011:

lambservant, thank you very much.When I read about this, I never forgot it and knew I needed to share it with others. The more we increase awareness, the fewer times these travesties of justice can be perpetuated. You are right, God is never fooled. He sees the heart.

I am glad you found this Hub.

Brenda Barnes (author) from America-Broken But Still Beautiful on August 17, 2011:

Alastar Packer, I love when people see things my way. laugh

Were you up all night Hubbing?

lambservant on August 17, 2011:

You did a fabulous job. I was riveted while reading this fascinating, but tragic story. I agree with the others, this theoretically could happen today. How many rich people have we seen go free because of money? Not right. But God is a God of justice. Though it saddens me, they got their just deserts upon their demise. Thank you for your time and care in writing and researching this story.

Alastar Packer from North Carolina on August 17, 2011:

On re-reading that with the freshness of day you are correct and I of course agree about the despicable Governor, they have a way of pulling the wool over ones eyes. Merci Hyph

Brenda Barnes (author) from America-Broken But Still Beautiful on August 17, 2011:

Hello Alastar. The virtue of white women should be what is claimed. Then there might be more cause for concern.

Clarence Darrow indeed was the hero in that case. Many feel he sold out by taking the Massie case and that he did it for the money. He was broke. One of the accused stated that Darrow knew the truth but did not tell the judge.

I must vehemently disagree with you about the governor. I think he should have been removed from office. He was just catering to influential and powerful whites and didn't care that a young man was dead.

I also like the Interesting Info sections. It allows me to give the reader more insight without distracting from the main subject.

Thanks for your visit.

Alastar Packer from North Carolina on August 17, 2011:

Should add that a minority was chosen for the exaggerated newspaper stories as a means to an end and C should never be used except in a medical setting. Great story and expose from history Hyph.

Brenda Barnes (author) from America-Broken But Still Beautiful on August 17, 2011:

Hello mckbirdbks. My mind goes on overdrive all the time. The world contains so much to know about and I am eager to learn, then I want to share. If I were in school, would they call me ADHD?

Thank you for your kind words. Coming from you with your professional knowledge, that is a great compliment. My goal was to reveal the unrest and tension without straying from the main subject. That is my most difficult task. I always want to tell EVERYTHING and have to force it back on track.

I will see you at the Cafe very soon. Sunnie and I are having pancakes. Yum

Brenda Barnes (author) from America-Broken But Still Beautiful on August 17, 2011:

Hi Marellen. Sadly it does happen even now. Those people really believed they were better than the natives and were justified in killing Joe. It makes me grieve after all these years.

Alastar Packer from North Carolina on August 16, 2011:

One reason cocaine was banned is because newspapers were reporting that blacks were going wild on it and raping white woman. Actually big liquor didn't want the competion. Not that C should be sold over counter. Yes, an injustice in the society of Hawaii in the 1930s. It reminds a little of the famous "Scottsboro Boys" trail in Alabama that Clarence Darrow defended if not mistaken. Tragic about the murders but the Governor did the right thing in the end. Liked the interesting info section as in the last Hub. Keep em up Hyph. Merci!

mckbirdbks from Emerald Wells, Just off the crossroads,Texas on August 16, 2011:

Hello Hyphenbird. This is a very well written Hub. Your attention to details is wonderful. The historical tension was clear in your writing.

You are covering such a wide range of topics. (understated)

marellen on August 16, 2011:

Money talks and has power. Even today this could happen and probably does. What a tragedy.

Brenda Barnes (author) from America-Broken But Still Beautiful on August 16, 2011:

Hi there HBN. It really was a tragedy and the mother must have suffered for years for her son. It is a perfect example of money buying off the court and government. This case still raises concerns in Hawaii. I am glad you like the background. I wanted to add it but not takeaway from the subject matter.Hopefully I succeeded.

Thanks for your visit and time. Hyph

Brenda Barnes (author) from America-Broken But Still Beautiful on August 16, 2011:

Hello writer 20. I thank you so much. I have been researching this one for weeks. I was fascinated by this case and all the people impacted by it. I just now thought I should note the ages. All of these young men were only 20 or so. Isn't that sad?

I appreciate your visit and am glad you found this Hub interesting also.

Gail Sobotkin from South Carolina on August 16, 2011:

This is a sad tale of injustice and unfortunately it's far too easy to picture something similar happening even today. When lies, strong emotions and racial tensions flare and those with political connections and wealth get involved it's highly unlikely that justice will be carried out.

Thanks for posting this interesting, though tragic tale.

I also liked the way you added historical background about Hawaii. Rated up, useful and interesting.

Joyce Haragsim from Southern Nevada on August 16, 2011:

Wow! This great you did a fantastic writing here and it's extremely interesting, had to vote up.

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