After the first imperialist war, when the nature of the capitalists became more apparent,they tore off all veils and lay bare.By the name of nationalism,they attacked the world alliance and glorified the war and again started preparing for a great war to divide the weak countries of the world among themselves.This new form of capitalism first appeared in Italy.
Fascist Philosophy In Italy
In 1919 Mussolini founded the Fascist Party. But Mussolini was not the originator of fascism;Its inventor was Pro Wilfelo Pareto (1848-1923).This is Nietzsche's philosophy and Machiavelli's philosophy.Based on the content of diplomacy he formulated his political doctrine.Pareto's father was a humanist and critical of Mezzino's doctrine.
As a result,he had to leave Italy.He was a staunch opponent of his father's ideology and for him the destruction of humanity was the most urgent need. Pareto was 10 years old when he returned home with his father.As a teenager, he began to participate in politics.But his free trade policy and liberal justice system were not liked by the government.As a result, he changed his mind and became a worshiper of Power politics.He started to strongly oppose liberalism and socialism.Pareto adopted this false theory as the main program of Mussolini's Fascist Party.
Preto was an engineer and mathematician.He is from Luzon, Switzerland and was a university professor; Benito Mussolini was one of his students.When Mussolini seized power in Italy in 1922, Paretto give a higher rank; But because of his death in 1923, Pareto could not "serve" Fascist Italy. "What can be the best form of society?" of pareto Answer— "That form of society which is most agreeable to my ideas."
In Pareto's thinking, the basis of social order would be the decision of the 'born-hero'.His point was that in every society some or the other person is born with all kinds of talent,courage,aptitude etc. are characteristic.The birth-hero has all the qualities, but, one thing he cannot create; That is correct we cannot give birth to a child like ourself.Plato express such thoughts.Like Plato, Pareto is a different class in every generation suggests to fix Borne-Hero.According to Pareto, the management of society should be in the hands of heroes. Most people in the crowd are not born-heroes; So it's better that they don't have the freedom to think, express or do anything—all they have to do is follow the hero.The hero speaks of their well-being.The revolutionary doctrine was that when there is an excess of qualified persons among the lower classes and a corresponding shortage of qualified persons among the upper classes, the upper classes dominance of the people is disturbed which leads to revolution or rebellion. Later people will make the revolution successful.Populism, equality, etc. are in favor of fascist states.The way to prevent revolution, as the saying goes, is sometimes the meritocracy of the lower classes. Incorporation of people into upper class.If this is not done, the weakness of the lower classes, why not, renders the rulers powerless, so that the lower classes lie, etc., which are essential qualities for fascist rulers;Deceit, treachery, favoritism etc. need to be resorted to.They are so in the interests of the rich and capitalists that the masses help the rulers. But yes, the relationship between the capitalists and the rulers should never come to light. According to Pareto, the crowd has no value, for him, the crowd's gossip flows. In the words of Professor Wellsworth Fabish, "Pareto could not even see the name of virtue with white eyes - truth, justice, public opinion were objects of hatred to him.
The basis of fascism is mainly Pareto's above based on the decision. The first decision of fascism is nationalism i.e.Self State is the best state and they are created to rule the whole world. All other states of the world will serve and obey their orders.
The second decision is military power—war It is absolutely necessary for the prosperity and development of human society. He who cannot acquire military power is incapable of governance.
The third decision is free reign which means that all power will be in the hands of the leader (Mussolini).The Council had advisory powers to the dictator (Mussolini).The rights of speeches, writings, conferences, radio broadcasts etc. could be given only to small and big leaders. Others do not have that right.
The fourth decision—Leadership of capitalism.
Fascism created a new set of rules for the conflict between capitalists and workers.These are capitalists' capital for government maintenance. Now the capitalists no longer feared bankruptcy; The profit may be less, but there is no fear of not making a profit.
If they have money, they can invest in other factories, their own business can handle In the end the state can take advantage of it and run the state with the people of the capitalist class. For this reason, if the state is secret to the capitalists It is not right to feel any guilt in imposing some control. There was no right to strike for betterment of one's condition, for increase in wages. To strike was a crime tantamount to treason.
Reasons Behind The Success Of Fascism In Italy
Even before the war there was a socialist regime in Italy, increasing their strength to fight but there were many opportunists among them. On the other hand, the Catholic clergy and the rich people are silent knowing the danger couldn't have done it. They started organizing among the peasants in the name of religion. Mussolini was a socialist at first, but now saw that his ambitions could only be fulfilled by joining the other side. At first Italy did not join the war; But when the odds were heavy for the Allies.He joined the Allies. Mussolini is now openly against the socialists.And started campaigning for the ruling-exploiting class.Until the end of the war.
Socialists were very strong in Italy. If they had not fallen into the wrong policies of the opportunists and the peasants of southern Italy into the trap of the Pope, there would have been a communist revolution in Italy as in Russia.In the post-war period the Italian masses that mean-He was in crisis and was repeatedly delayed in organizing and leading him to the path of revolution. On the other hand, Mussolini's Fascist Party was supported by the rich and the clergy.
He started to attract the youth of lower class families to his party by showing parades etc. This situation cannot continue for long. The opportunists' long formula,Inaction etc. proved that they are not capable of handling governance.
From 1921 the fascists started quarreling with the socialists. On the side of the fascists were the rulers, the military and the capitalists. Like the National Volunteers, their slogans were "Down with Socialism" and "Back to Ancient Rome" Come on.” They made themselves stronger and more effective by mobilizing all anti-socialist forces.This gives them more advantage in fighting with socialists.In 1921 there were 35 deputy fascists in Parliament. But his faith was not in fascist votes, he believed in animal power. For which he had been preparing himself for so many years.
Mussolini himself is black on October 28, 1922, the King of Italy refused to declare martial law at a conference with 40,000 fascists in uniform. All the exploiters were waiting for this day, because their question was why the police or soldiers were being sent against Mussolini? This public support was awarded to Mussolini.
The king summoned him and gave him the prime ministership. Mussolini could not govern with the support of 35 members of Parliament. But the officers of the army were on his side, the Pope's blessed hand on his head was on The biggest tool of class-rule was the army in his hands. He also changed the rules of elections to bring the parliament under his control. He made it a rule that the party that wins at least 1/4 of the total number of seats in the election, the party's representative in the parliament will be 3/4 parts of the total number of members of the parliament. In the April 1924 elections, the fascists killed many people, when anti-fascist supporters non-violently removed the parliament from parliament seats are gained. On June 10, 1924, the fascists called for the ouster of the socialist leader Matiyoti. But Mussolini had no problem with that.In 1925 he established a dictatorship in Italy. And In 1926 he broke up other political parties. All those parties the leaders either fled abroad or fell prey to murderous fascists.
© 2022 MD Khalid Hasan