Dictionary.com defines the word conspiracy as "an evil, unlawful, treacherous, or surreptitious plan formulated in secret by two or more persons; plot," and tells us that a theory is "a proposed explanation whose status is still conjectural and subject to experimentation, in contrast to well-established propositions that are regarded as reporting matters of actual fact."
We can deduce from combining these two definitions that a conspiracy theory is a gathering of facts and other intelligence that suggests that a given event is the result of an evil or unlawful plot formed in secret. Close, right?
Almost everybody who is capable of thought loves a good conspiracy theory. The subjects are wide and varied and range from "Was George Washington a Freemason?" to "Did George W Bush not only previously know about but was he also partially responsible for the events on September 11th 2001?" What most of us refer to as the "crazy train" stops at just about every point in between.
The most famous conspiracy theory in the US is, of course, the murder of President John F Kennedy in 1963. The theories range from the idea that the US Mafia had him killed to the Cubans did it, the Soviets did it or, like Elvis and Tupac, JFK is really still alive and partying it up on Martha's Vineyard. Note: As of today, September 4th, 2012, JFK would be 95 years old, so how much partying would he really be doing?
Most conspiracy theories do, however, contain some of the same elements.
The Elements Of Conspiracy Theories
Though every community has its own little conspiracy theories, the "big ones" happen on a national if not global level. They usually involve a tragedy or the death of someone famous. In the case of the Las Vegas shooting death of rapper Tupac Shakur in 1996, conspiracy theories were borne out of the lack of suspects and the investigating police department's unwillingness to release information to the public.
There are several elements that conspiracy theories should have in order to spark public interest and/or outrage. Here are the most prevalent.
Most conspiracy theories begin with a big event.
There are many other examples we could use, but let's use JFK's murder, the "mother of all conspiracies" here. We have video footage of the shooting of the President and photographs from his autopsy also exist. For all intents and purposes, we will consider JFK as truly being deceased and as having become so due to at least one gunshot on November 22, 1963.
Some aspect of the event has to either be unexplained or the given explanation has to either be unbelievable or there will be too many holes or there has to exist at least the suggestion of a "cover up."
Some conspiracy theorists believe that 1.) The video clearly shows that there were unexplained gunshots and the trajectories of those gunshots suggest that there was more than one gunman. 2.) There may have been a cover-up - stories and testimonies changed, especially with regards to the witnesses interviewed by the Warren Commission, an official government investigation into the assassination of JFK. 3.) The killing of JFK's suspected murderer, John Harvey Oswald by Jack Ruby is considered by some to be evidence that Oswald either did not act alone, or he was following orders and that he was murdered to ensure his silence.
Two or more people need to agree on the purported "true" aspects of the event.
It is estimated that up to two-thousand books have been published which deal with the JFK assassination conspiracy in some aspect. Many people do not believe the government's official story that explains the events of November 22, 1963, and have theorized on their own, with or without factual evidence, what actually happened on that day and the weeks and months leading up to it.
Those facts or beliefs need to ring true enough to convince other people they are the truth.
Because of the information that has been gathered concerning JFK's assassination, many people do not believe that the explanation that the government gave to the American people is factual. At the very least, many consider it incomplete. In 2004, FOX News conducted a poll to find out what percentage of their viewers believed in the accuracy of the findings of the Warren Commission. According to the poll's results, sixty-six percent of those responding believed that the assassination was part of a larger conspiracy. Seventy-four percent believed that there was a cover-up and only fourteen percent believed that the American public was given all of the facts.
The Truth As Who Knows It?
Theoretically, anything can have or become a conspiracy theory, but those four things must be present for the theory to become popular. The most prevalent conspiracy theories are the ones that get people thinking.
The important thing to remember when investigating conspiracy theories is to stick to the facts only. It can be easy to get swept up by passion or other emotions and, before you know it, you're full-blown crazy too. Nobody wants to get caught with tin-foil on their heads. Seriously.
The 25 Most Popular Conspiracy Theories
Chris on December 15, 2016:
Who is JOHN Harvey Oswald? An error, or a conspiracy?
Mark on November 05, 2012:
Go to Alex Jones
Ka'imi'loa from Tucson, AZ. on September 09, 2012:
The four main theories are
1. Paparrazzi speeding alongside the limo caused the horrible accident, but through toxcology report and the autopsy showed the driver was waaaaay drunk for driving.
2. The Royal family actually had her offed, because she was planning on marrying a "Muslim" (God forbid), and that she was pregnant, Imagine that, a Muslim step-father to the soon to be Kings
3. The boyfriend Dodi, owed money and was killed, along with everyone with him
4. She "killed" herself with the help of her man's billions of dollars to start a whole new life with new identity.
So, which one sounds plausible or credible enough to believe it? Either way, she was a remarkable woman that did a lot for the people she cared for. The world did lose a precious individual.
Georgie Lowery (author) from North Florida on September 09, 2012:
Diana was, for me, very painful. I still wonder, as do millions, what exactly happened that horrible night. But you are right, conspiracy theories get virtually everybody worked up!
Thank you ! :)
Suzanne Ridgeway from Dublin, Ireland on September 05, 2012:
Congrats on the AP program!! I'am sure you will do mega on it!
Great hub here, it is amazing how we all find this subject fascinating and intriguing and throw our 10 cents worth into the pot!
Princess Diana certainly evoked many theories along with Marilyn Munroe. Voted up, interesting, useful!!
Georgie Lowery (author) from North Florida on September 04, 2012:
Howzit? It is. :)
Maybe YOU should write a Hub about conspiracy theories? The Diana one is the one that really breaks my heart. I loved her so much.
I believe that there is at least a little bit of crazy in everybody - that's what makes the world go round!
Thank you! Though my oldest younger brother is the conspiracy nut in my family, I can hold my own. Some of it, while really out there, does make for great reading and conversation! Nice to see you around, by the way. I was afraid you had deserted us! ;)
Thanks for your comments! :)
CJ Baker from Parts Unknown on September 04, 2012:
Very fascinating read! I think you are right, even if most of us hate to admit it, there is something about a good conspiracy theory that we can't help but get caught up in. I really appreciate how you developed the common links for most conspiracy theories.
Ka'imi'loa from Tucson, AZ. on September 04, 2012:
good one councilman Jim Garrison.....
Chris Price from USA on September 04, 2012:
One of my history professor stated regarding most conspiracy theories that people don't really think well enough ahead to carry them out, so most are just accidents.
Regardless...back, and to the left. Back and to the left.
Ka'imi'loa from Tucson, AZ. on September 04, 2012:
Howzit Georgie-girl....good read. I have always been fascinated by the numerous accounts on how the president actually "died" that afternoon in Dallas. Was there a second gunman on the grassy knoll?? However, conspiracy theories make for great entertainment I believe (as long as you do not dwell to much that it consumes your every thought). To add to your great topic of theories floating around...
1. The death of Princess Diana
2. The "moon landing"
4. Global Warming
are probably still among the top subjects that ensues huge arguments still within the intimate circles of geniuses. Be safe girl spahk you laterz...