John is currently pursuing a bachelor's degree in History from Montclair State University, and thoroughly enjoys reading literature
Cesare Lombroso was a famous physician and criminologist in the 1800's. He eventually became a criminologist- a person who studies crime and those that commit them. He is one of the first people to be in this field, and one of it's creators. Even though most of his work has been discredited, he is still highly renowned for being one of the first people to start looking into the why's of a crime, and what exactly made a person a criminal, as opposed to someone who is not a criminal. Criminology and all of its related fields are becoming more and more popular today. Criminology has grown to include law enforcement, psychologists, sociologists, lawyers, and even anthropologists. It's still a relatively new field, starting in the 1800's with scientists like Cesare Lombroso. Some actually consider Lombroso the father of modern criminology. But who was he, and what contributions did he make that so many consider him the father of criminology?
An Overlook of His Life
Cesare Lombroso was born in 1835, in Verona. His family was wealthy; his father was a talented tradesman, and could afford to send him to the university. Lombroso studied in Vienna and Paris. Afterward, he became an army doctor. He became an army doctor in 1859, and stayed there until 1866. He then became a visiting lecturer at Pavia. He also ran an insane asylum in 1871, and became a professor of forensic medicine in 1878. It's thought that it was at Pavia and the insane asylum that he found his interest in the criminal mind. He later became a professor of psychiatry, and criminal anthropology, before dying at Turin in 1909, leaving behind quite the legacy.
L'uomo Delinquente and Other Works
L'uomo delinquente or the Criminal Mind, was the book that Lombroso wrote detailing his theories regarding criminals, what makes a criminal, and how they can be distinguished from ordinary citizens. The book went through five different editions. It was mostly published in Italian, and was not published in English until 1900, nine years before his death. The first edition was short, about 225 pages. The last edition was extremely long; over 1900 pages. It was these publications that began solidifying Lombroso's title as the father of criminology. He published many other works, such as Le Crime, Causes et Remèdes. However, these works were not as popular, and did not have the same impact. Other scientists, of course, refuted his work, and began making arguments as to their own beliefs in criminology, which perpetuated and grew the field What was in these works, however, that caused such a spark, and created a whole new field in law enforcement?
Lombroso believed that there was a "criminal type" as well as "Born criminals". He believed that most criminals did not commit the crimes of their own will, but out of their primal nature. Lombroso studied criminals in a minute fashion, noting the height and weight, any markings on the skin, age, profession, and any other information that he could get a hold of. He focused especially on the skulls of the criminals. This was the beginning of his study of criminology. He stated that criminals were the result of a type of devolution of the criminal. Most were born this way, (the born criminals) and the criminality and brutality could be traced through families This, he supposed, could be easily seen in the physical aspects of the criminal. A person, he supplied, could tell a criminal simply by his looks and biology. Essentially, he believed that criminals were a type throwback to the early man, the primitive form of what humans are today. It was highly likely that these traits were passed down through the generations. There were, he supposed, those who were born with the primitive traits, and those who degenerated into those throwbacks by leading a life with primitive likes, also known as criminaloids. Those who enjoyed plenty of alcohol, women and things along those lines were more likely to degenerate into the more primitive man, and develop the physical traits that Lombroso thought were signs of criminality. Some of there were : Large amounts of body hair, large foreheads, long arms, and possible mental deficiencies. One thing that stuck out to me and showed just how detailed Lombroso was, was the fact that he noted that prostitutes, no matter what class of society they fell into, tended to be left handed. If that is not attention to detail I do not know what is! Lastly, he did believe that the insane were actually less regressed than criminals. He thought that the insane were still closer to the modern man than criminals. He also looked a little into how society and status played a role with the criminals and crime. He also believed that the more dangerous a person was, the more severe the punishment should be.
Here is a Copy of Lombroso's Work!
While Lombroso was ultimately discredited, and his research did not make any major changes in the laws of his time, his work had a huge impact on the field of criminology. He looked to the criminals themselves for answers on why crimes were committed. This approach was so radically different from anything that had come before it, that his work was considered revolutionary. If you are looking at the schools of criminology, Lombroso falls into the Positivist school. The Positivist school thought that the person could not really control their actions, but was ruled by biology and society. In a way, the crimes were not entirely their fault. While his theories were, for the most part, wrong, he did begin making important links between biology, society, and the reasons for crime. Many others built on his work, and began the modern field of criminology. Cesare Lombroso had so many fascinating theories, more than what I can get into in a short article. If you want to read more check out:
I started looking into Cesare Lombroso while taking an Intro to Criminology class, and decided to look deeper into his life and the effects that he had. Have any comments or questions? Let me know below!
Ronald E Franklin from Mechanicsburg, PA on May 07, 2015:
Interesting hub. What Lombroso believed about there being criminal types that could be discerned based on a person's physical attributes sounds extremely odd today. On the other hand, I suppose that a lot of today's theories about criminality will sound equally odd in a few decades.