MG is a senior service officer and now a senior corporate advisor. A prolific writer with varied interests and hobbies
A Problem that Defy's solution
Kashmir was a quasi-independent state under the British Raj. The maharajah had limited powers, but the Raj did not interfere with his day to day administration. This state of affairs continued till 1947 when the Raj a euphemism for British rule lapsed on the midnight of 15 August 1947. The maharajah decided that he would like to be independent. This was a grandiose dream and ignored the reality that the state had to decide between India and Pakistan. Maharajah Hari Singh assumed he would succeed and so he signed a " standstill" agreement with both Pakistan and India. The Maharajah in this agreement requested more time to decide the issue.
However, things moved at a fast pace and the new leader of Pakistan ordered an invasion of the Kashmir state. The Pakistan army aided by tribal of the Frontier region invaded Kashmir. They had swift success and the maharajah and his army were defeated. the troops reached Srinagar the capital and that is when the Maharajah panicked and acceded to India. He signed the Instrument of accession and agreed to be a part of the Indian union,
Kashmir and India after the Accession
Once the Indian army intervened in Kashmir the raiders were pushed back and soon the valley was free of the tribal horde. At this critical juncture Nehru for reasons that now appear silly( he was influenced by the wife of Lord Mountbatten) approached the UNO and security council and this, in turn, led to a cease-fire and the unfortunate part is that Gilgit and parts of Western Kashmir remained part of Pakistan. Pakistan thus gained over 40% of Kashmir for a song and the folly of Nehru. Besides, Nehru agreed to 2 further conditions that are difficult to explain. He agreed to the following.
a) 'Special Status' for Kashmir by amending the Indian constitution and incorporating Article 370. This gave Kashmir a special status and allowed the state to have its constitution and flag. Besides article 45 was adopted that forbade Indians to buy land and settle in Kashmir.
b) The Security Council passed a resolution that a plebiscite is held in Kashmir to ascertain the wishes of the people but it added a rider that the plebiscite would only be held after the Pakistan army had withdrawn from Kashmir, Nehru promised to hold a plebiscite as per the SC resolution but Pakistan refused to withdraw its troops from Kashmir and thus the primary condition for the plebiscite was negated.
Pakistan sponsored Terrorism in Kashmir
In 1987 after 3 wars and the resultant defeat of the Pakistan army and its failure to annex Kashmir by force, general Zia -ul -Haq formulated a plan to try and win Kashmir for Pak by terror activities. Zia died in 1989, assassinated by his opponents, but the policy of sending terrorists into the valley was adopted. The entire state now became a battleground as the so-called mujahideen went about their task in earnest. Their religious appeal also had an effect and many local youths joined this terror activity.
The Indian army has to date killed hundreds of these Mujahideen, but Pakistan is hell-bent on creating unrest in the state. Also, a small but vocal section of the political leadership has been calling for a movement to join Pakistan. The movement headed by Geelani has little grassroots support, but the AK 47 and the Mujahaddin do the trick and one can say the gun rules in the valley.
The wheel has turned full circle now after the victory of the BJP under Narendra Modi in 2019 with a big majority. The decks were cleared for implementing the policies outlined in the manifesto of the party on Kashmir.The government brought in a bill to abrogate Article 370.
The motion was passed by a two-thirds majority in both houses of Parliament. This resolution took the Congress party by surprise and it began an agitation against the abrogation of article 370. They forgot that at the time of the incorporation of this Article in the constitution, it was clearly stated that this Article is a temporary phenomenon and would be removed soon. Unfortunately, Congress thought of the Muslims as a vote bank and this article lingers on for 72 years resulting in complete alienation of the Kashmiri population from the motherland.
Now that Kashmir has been integrated with the country, a "fait accompli" has been presented to the Congress party and its supporters. Internationally Pakistan has been nonplussed and the division of the state of Jammu and Kashmir into two separate union territories further weakened the Pakistan case.
Narendra Modi has done the unthinkable and after 72 years a problem created by Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru has been solved. One will now have to wait and see how the Indian government under Modi faces up to the diplomatic challenge launched by Pakistan and its fair-weather ally China against India. The world has however taken note of the terrorist activities originating from Pakistan and it is on the grey list of FATA for financing terrorist activities. Despite all terrorist activities Pakistan is nowhere close to getting Kashmir and the major powers of the world have made it clear to Pakistan that the time for a change of borders is over.
MG Singh (author) from UAE on September 24, 2015:
Thank you vvsoft, we can agree to disagree.
Rana Zulfiqar Hyder from Faisalabad on September 24, 2015:
Dear MG Singh,
I do appreciate your offer to visit Indian held kashmir. Freedom movements don't need foreign aid however moral help is always available for those striving for the homeland and human rights in the world. I also wish that Indian army realizes the ground realities and force is stopped against the unarmed kashmiri women, kids and men and human rights are restored soon there. Again my wishes for the best of future and peace in Kashmir.
MG Singh (author) from UAE on September 21, 2015:
Dear vvsoft, so nice you commented. The facts are different and I invite you to be my guest in kashmir. Most of the terrorism in Kashmir is inspired by the Pak army and the ISIS, by infiltrating terrorists into Kashmir. But they are not successful. Thanks.
Rana Zulfiqar Hyder from Faisalabad on September 14, 2015:
"NEW DEHLI: Nearly 40,000 people have been killed in violence that has erupted over Indian-held Kashmir more than two decades ago, the national parliament was told on Wednesday."
As reported by Tribune, International NewYork Times.
After this massive massacre, can anyone on earth still justify Indian army killing innocent kashmiri civilians?
MG Singh (author) from UAE on September 13, 2015:
Friend, you must come to Indian Kashmir and see what is happening. The only terror is by militants sponsored from Pakistan. Thanks for your comment.
MG Singh (author) from UAE on September 13, 2015:
The culture and habits are the same , the difference is in religion
common observer on September 11, 2015:
Indian forces are violating the basic human rights and freedom movement leaders are under arrest. Women, kids and men are kept under bars without any legal basis. World Human Rights Commission has published reports on the issue several times and in the recent as well.
Pakistan held kashmiris have all basic human rights and there are no curfew or military deployment there. However democratic bodies are ruling the region.
Eric Dierker from Spring Valley, CA. U.S.A. on September 10, 2015:
Interesting. Is there really a discernable culture that is distinctively independent of the surrounding societies? They really do not seem like they are an identifiable separate group.
MG Singh (author) from UAE on September 10, 2015:
Dear brother vvsoft, I will agree with you, but UN resolution on Kashmir for plebiscite has some conditions and that is withdrawal of all forces of Pakistan from Kashmir. This is not happening , hence UN resolution cannot be implemented. The Pakistan policy of running terror camps and infiltrating terrorists into Kashmir is another point.
Rana Zulfiqar Hyder from Faisalabad on September 10, 2015:
The people of Kashmir are struggling for independence for years now. Why plebiscite under the UN resolutions not held even yeas passed by? Because India feels that the result could go in favor of Pakistan. Why existence of hundreds of Indian military personals and curfew every now and then could not normalize the Kashmir temperature?
The solution of Kashmir issue neither lies with Pakistan nor with India, rather within the wishes of Kashmiris itself. They have to decide their own destiny, their own future, no one else.