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California 1947: The Last Documented Court Case of Black Slavery in America

Ms. Inglish has 30 years experience in medicine, psychology, STEM instruction, history, and aerospace education for USAF Civil Air Patrol.

Forced labor in slavery for 16 hours a day existed in Berkley California until 1947, after World War II.

Forced labor in slavery for 16 hours a day existed in Berkley California until 1947, after World War II.

Black Slavery in America Lasted Until the Cold War

American History is full of events and people that Americans are not proud to claim. This is the price of being a country of humans and one of the prices of freedom in the republic. One such event is logged in Volume 73 of the Federal Supplement, page 76 (1947) and still makes attorneys, judges, and students of the law shudder and shake their heads in disbelief. The case is 65 years old at this writing and it is still unbelievable though true. In addition few people seem to be aware of it.

The event became a high profile court case in 1947. In it, America discovered that an 18-year-old African American woman was held as a slave by her teacher and "friend" for 40 years.

After several false starts toward freedom, Dora L. Jones (1896 - 1971) was discovered in captivity by California police after receiving a tip.

The officers discovered Ms. Jones as she was forced to sleep among bags of luggage in the back of the 1946 car owned by her long-time captor and the captor's second husband. There was not much room in most automobiles in those days, as we see in the photos below.

In 1946 at age 58, Ms. Jones was found emaciated, suffering from acute swollen ankles related to sleeping confined among the luggage in her "owner's" car.

The auto was parked on the street outside the house in which she was forced to work from sunrise to sunset without compensation "or else." These circumstances had spanned four decades of abuse.

The confinement in the car alone could have killed her, as such confinement in a tank on assignment killed reporter David Bloom with a blood clot that traveled from his leg to his heart and lungs during the War In Iraq in 2003.

A 1946 telephone at the Henry Ford Museum, Detroit -- Can you imagine slavery in this post World War II era?

A 1946 telephone at the Henry Ford Museum, Detroit -- Can you imagine slavery in this post World War II era?

Following a Paper Trail

Reading and writing through a variety of topics brings to light cases such as Dora Jones's. Some unheard-of things are contained in history and reveal themselves when one follows a trails of books.

I learned about Jones as I stumbled upon a first edition of a paperback copy of Anatomy of a Murder (based on a true story) by Robert Traver in a book shop.

The next day, I found another mystery by the same author for 50¢ at the library and discovered that it was a set of stories based on cases in which the author had been involved. He had been a Michigan judge with a pen name. He mentioned case law references, astounding me with a reference to slavery in 1947. From there, I found the legal documents in archives.

Constitution Of the United States Of America, Amendment XIII

Section 1.

Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction.

Section 2.

Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

Adopted on December 18, 1865.

Dora Jones's Justice

The Los Angeles California Eagle newspaper carried the story of the modern slave's court case on March 6, 1947.

The Kingston NY Daily Freeman ran a related story on March 20 of that year. Both publications reported that a wealthy Boston, Massachusetts couple, Mrs. Elizabeth Ingalls and her second husband Alfred Ingalls, enslaved Dora L. Jones on threat of imprisonment or commitment to an insane asylum.

The couple transported Jones across the country to California, forcing her to sleep in their car or on the floor of their motel rooms, without bedding, after she tried to escape.

The couple's daughter, Mrs. Helen Ingalls Roberts, reported the slavery to the Berkeley California Police Department, stating that a third party reported it to the FBI.

Alfred Ingalls had been a US Army officer in WWI and WWII, had been a Massachusetts state legislator, and was a director of the New England Watch and Ward Society, a group founded to uphold public morals. For work, Alfred was ironically an attorney.

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Police were tipped off by one of Mrs. Ingalls's daughters from a previous marriage: Helen. This alerted the FBI, and a second daughter, Ruth, also testified against her mother in court.

Ironically, It was Mrs. Ingalls herself that drew the attention of the FBI by reporting that Dora Jones was. In reality, Helen and her husband persuaded Dora to leave and tipped the police to the illegal, forced labor and captivity. Dora, age 57, had been a senior citizen forced to sleep among suitcases in the small backseat or trunk of a car.

The evidence was sufficient to warrant the jury in finding that the defendant Elizabeth Ingalls did entice, persuade and induce Dora L. Jones to go from Berkeley, Alameda County, California, to Coronado, San Diego County, California, with the intent that Dora L. Jones be held as a slave, as charged in Count One of the indictment.

— Quote from the case transcript.

How did this happen?

During Elizabeth Ingalls's first marriage, her husband allegedly seduced Dora Jones, who had been a pupil in teacher Elizabeth's school and who had come into the home to work as a maid.

After the adultery and a subsequent related abortion for Jones, Elizabeth divorced her husband and lied to Dora that as part of the divorce decree, Dora was on permanent "probation", required to work for no pay for Elizabeth for the rest of her life. In the early 1900s, with no one to consult, Dora believed Elizabeth.

As Jones grew older, she learned differently and made a few failed escape attempts. It was not until the family arrived in California and moved from one county to another, near Helen, that the case was uncovered.

Every time Dora complained of her maltreatment, Elizabeth renewed her threats to imprison her slave or to send Dora to a lunatic asylum. The latter was easy to do, supported by the fact that many women who wanted divorces were committed, by their husbands in those days. Elizabeth kept Dora isolated and frightened into submission, a hallmark of abuse.

When her daughters testified against her, Elizabeth Ingalls called one a Communist and the other a Nazi.

She was fined $2,500 in 1947 and ordered to pay Dora $6,000 for unpaid wages, probably not enough. Prison time was suspended, but it would have been poetic justice for Ingalls to serve time in confinement.

Presiding District Judge Jacob Weinberger felt that United States vs. Ingalls was a hallmark case, published his opinion denying Elizabeth Ingalls's motion for a new trial, and the story went to the newspapers.

Free at last, Dora L. Jones went to live with a brother in St. Louis after the trial, dying in 1971 amid the Civil Rights Movement.

Lawyers, judges, and law students still shake their heads about this case, and I join them. Different sorts of human trafficking besides slave labor exist in our country today and they should be stopped.


  • Guluboff, R.L. The Lost Promise of Civil Rights. Ppg 161 - 164. 2007.
  • The Chicago Tribune Archives. Charge Couple Held Maid as Slave 30 Years. Seek US Indictments Against Pair. February 6, 1947. Retrieved July 12, 2012.
  • United States v. Ingalls, 73 F. Supp. 76 (S.D. Cal. 1947).

© 2012 Patty Inglish MS


Patty Inglish MS (author) from USA and Asgardia, the First Space Nation on December 22, 2012:

This is ghastly, Mark, and I know that a few parents even try this with their children. I am always happy when these cases are uncovered and the victims removed from harm. 19 years is a lifetime.

Mark Monroe from Dover De on December 21, 2012:

What is even e disturbing is that this behavior still goes on today. The following is from a 2006 ABC report.

"In November 2006, the couple were each sentenced to four years in prison for "forcing a woman to work as their domestic servant and illegally harboring her for 19 years in their residence," according to the Justice Department.

The Calimlims were convicted of using threats of serious harm and physical restraint against their victim, whom they had brought to the United States from the Philippines when she was 19.

According to a Justice Department summary of the case, "The victim testified that for 19 years she was hidden in the Calimlim home, forbidden from going outside, and told that she would be arrested, imprisoned and deported if she was discovered."

Patty Inglish MS (author) from USA and Asgardia, the First Space Nation on December 20, 2012:

History is probably full of such interesting tists and tuyrns. Can we find them all? Thanks for coinmmenting Mark!

Mark Monroe from Dover De on December 20, 2012:

Well written interesting piece

thank you

Patty Inglish MS (author) from USA and Asgardia, the First Space Nation on October 29, 2012:

Yes, reprehensible.

sweetie1 from India on October 29, 2012:

Totally unbelievable..

Patty Inglish MS (author) from USA and Asgardia, the First Space Nation on October 29, 2012:

I don't know if she paid it! What a crummy outcome.

Shasta Matova from USA on October 29, 2012:

It is amazing the things people get away with. Here are some stats from 1946:

Average Annual Salary: $3,150

Minimum Wage: 40 cents per hour

The fine was a slap on the wrist, since it is only about two year's worth of work. I wonder if she actually paid it.

Patty Inglish MS (author) from USA and Asgardia, the First Space Nation on October 29, 2012:

Isn't it amazing the events we still find happening, when we thought the problem was solved by the law? I wonder what the 2000s and 2010s have hidden in them, besides all we have seen in the media? Thanks for your comments, dahoglund.

Don A. Hoglund from Wisconsin Rapids on October 29, 2012:

It is certainly an interesting case. Thank you for letting us know about this ase of modern slavery. sharing.

Patty Inglish MS (author) from USA and Asgardia, the First Space Nation on September 27, 2012:

Thanks for your testimony, u-turn. The name "Plantation Cove" would certainly hold dubious implications. The headstones would be really interesting.

Arthur George Rettell jr. ( from AZ. STATE on September 27, 2012:

The chain and eyes are like when reading an ad with red and or yellow combination. Interesting. This would not surprise me, as out side of my ole hood, in Lockhart Fl. There was a slave plantation as teens and old fashion big wide mansion and painted white with the big pillars and big windows and two story, might have been three, trying to picture as when first seen when like 14 of age! Just as You see in movie, the Georgia plantation homes. Slave huts as i call them on the east side and front of mansion faces due north. There is cemetery in fork of rd, that is north of home and not far distance in front of home. Slave graves i say by names and mostly flat head stones. Real History ... To top it off they years later built apartments ans the fork is still in road and head stones intact at entrance of to side. They named the apartments Plantation Cove in the beginning and eventually changed name as i mentioned latter to people and went to make sure they did not remove grave or head stones.

Patty Inglish MS (author) from USA and Asgardia, the First Space Nation on September 27, 2012:

Thank you for these comments! The situation is definitely insane and the punishment not near enough for Mrs. Ingalls, in my opinion, either.

I wonder how many households in our country might hold a captive to some degree in them? The elderly come to mind and I did know about one of those cases that was uncovered and solved. Poor Dora, though - working 12 and more hours 24/7/365, being fed table scraps, and sleeping in a car on the street in all weather. Six MILLION dollars would not have been enough to pay her in return.

Nathan Bernardo from California, United States of America on September 27, 2012:

Incredibly fascinating. It is telling that Ingalls essentially got a slap on the wrist for enslaving someone for forty years; there is a bad habit of this sort of thing in this country; slavery has been continued through the prison system too, some regions of the country finding ways to convict people so they can be used as free labor. Great piece, I definitely never heard about this story before.

Kristy LeAnn from Princeton, WV on September 27, 2012:

Wow, that is absolutely insane. That poor woman. It's a shame her captor didn't serve any time in prison for that but I guess one thing remains consistent all throughout history and that is the ability to get away with just about anything if you have enough money.

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