Sacrificing Poor Africans For Cash Nexus
Suppression and Propaganda
The advent of the Internet has finally given some racist White South Africans something to say which they have nave not been able to say for many decades. It is not like the South African Apartheid government did not use the media to defend its case against it s detractors overseas. There are ample examples of the how they did so.
They spent billions buying media conglomerates in the United States and Europe to present their case. It is worth noting that people say that they want the truth, but what they really want is a confirmation of what they already believe. People tend to define history through personal memories. There are some White folks in South Africa who believe that African history should be dealt in a positive light deemed right by them.
According to these White people, dwelling on the negative(meaning those that expose Whites and their blaming Africans for everything) only reinforces negative images of Africans among themselves and other races and also re-opens the "blame" wound that makes Whites uneasy That is some logic there! Perhaps the most important factor in public uneasiness is the knowledge gap.
Most people's images of Apartheid in South Africa and elsewhere is what the Radio, newspapers,TV and the Internet tells them it is or should or could be. Some define history in a political context, based on propaganda. Still others define history through mythos, a collection of interpretations of the past carried in expressive media such as songs, dances, movies, words-of-mouth and the internet.
But then, there is real history, the one which is analytical and it is also done through academic research. History will always be critical of mythos and memory because they have little to do with standards of evidence. It is this gap between how the average person perceives Apartheid - a simplistic White oppressor, Black Victim Story - and the much more complex historical record that poses a dilemma for many people. A lot of people, African and White, are afraid of a greater analytical view of these very problematic things of the past because it will not conform to their strongly held mythos.
So, what they do is conflate the feelings that they have today with what they imagine people felt during Apartheid. Most whites who are busy attacking Africans and African history of South Africa on the Net do not understand how difficult survival was and is-Spiritually emotionally and physically, for Africans - and that, that survival was strength and is still strength for Africans, today. And in this mix, one can begin to add the new ANC-led government, and its history will be dealt with below that of the one on Apartheid.
In Defense of the 'Vaderland' and the 'Volk' in the Media
Historical Perspective and Academic Analysis of Apartheid Media
In order for us to understand the Media Propaganda flourishing on the Internet by many Racist and unapologetic detractors of African people, we will be better served if we really put Apartheid Media into a proper Historical Perspective. To understand the present vitriol on the Web against African people in South Africa by White people, we will delve into some research in order to paint a much clearer picture.
Today it is very easy for White bloggers and Internet users in South Africa to assail African people from every angle conceivable. It is true that of the 45% of Internet users in South Africa, fewer than 3% are African users. This is due to imposed poverty, ignorance and many other shenanigans applied by those who still uphold the values and life-style of Apartheid and will not let it go.
In order for South African Africans to understand this concentrated and vicious effort against them it is important to put the history of the South African press into a propers perspective; African people were not included nor consulted on their opinions or points of view by the colonial government of the day. When the Afrikaners undertook their "Great Africa," they did so with the hope that will create Republics conducted to their own liking.
But the discovery of diamonds and gold brought about fortune seekers who began to intrude on how these new "Boer Republics " were run, and the intruders were backed-up by the Newspapers they brought along with them. In 1800, The Cape Times Gazette made its debut. It carried government notices and paragraphs of news. Within three months, the governor withdrew its printing monopoly and bought the press. Lord Somerset proceeded by sending the press to a remote 'frontier' village in Graff Reinett on the Western Cape Coast, where it was used to print government forms(Varley, 1962)
By then, Thomas Pringle and John Fairbairn, in January 7, 1824, ran the first issue of South Africa's first independent press, 'The South African Commercial Advertiser.' The Commercial Advertiser printed proceedings of a court case that dealt with allegations of corruption in Somersert's administration. By this time, the governor had just returned from leave in London. Before he left for England, the Governor had asked Pringle and his colleague to submit proof sheets to his office before publication.
The issue duly appeared under these conditions. Pringle was summoned before the governor,whom he found with the South African Journal lying open before him. Pringle wrote: "'So , sir,' he began, 'you are one of those who dare to insult me and oppose my government,' and he launched into a long tirade of abuse; 'scolding, upbraiding and taunting, with all the domineering arrogance of mien and sneering insolence of expression of which he was so great a master'(Pringle, Narrative. p. 89) Despite further difficulties, the press won when in April Somerset was recalled to London.
From then on, papers rapidly expanded into the interior. A list of newspapers listed in the Colonial office of Cape Town in 1891 included names of more than 125 assorted journals(Cory, 1913). In this part, one begins to see officialese arrogance and harsh attitude and stance being taken by individual people in power, and in the later years that spun into policy and then law.
The reaction of the Dutch Settlers and Colonists was to set up a journal to counteract Fairbairn's newspaper. De Zuid Afrikaans appeared in 1828 and according to an Afrikaner historian, was obliged from the outset not only to fight against "radicalism of the negrophilist philanthropists," but also frequently to defend the name of the Dutch residents against libel of the British in the Cape(Greig, 1963) and to fight and preserve the Boer Culture and the "Vaderland"(Fatherland) through the press. To the Dutch, the terms "free press" and "independent press" came to mean dominating African populations and the control of intellectual property and content and academic superiority and superior complexes over African people.
In 1858 Cape Town had eight newspapers of Which the Cape Argus, a commercial newspaper survived and spawned Africa's largest newspaper chain. Before long, The Argus was the only triweekly in the Cape and claimed the largest circulation. This newspaper printed a special supplement prepared by correspondents in London. In 1876, The Argus, together with the mining and commercial interests formed The Argus Printing and Publishing Company. The discovery of gold in 1872, in the eastern Transvaal and in 1886 in the Witwatersrand(the areas of what is today known as Johannesburg[or Gauteng]} brought about hundreds of prospectors and fortune seekers.
The diggers or "Uitlanders"[Foreigners], as the Boers called them, had little sympathy for the Boer government. Pro-digger newspapers like the Gold Fields Mercury and the Argus were very critical of the government, denouncing it as corrupt and inefficient(this theme , as will be seen, is recurring today against the ANC-led government in the South Africa press). In 1889, the Argus Printing and Publishing Co., limited was formed. It was a collusion of English newspapers in Johannesburg, Kimberley and London.
The Cape Argus was then called the Star, and changed from a triweekly to a daily newspaper(Neame, 1956; Rosenthal, 1970). The British and the Boers were on a collision course. The merging of big British capital and the British newspapers brought resentment from the Afrikaners, and this is what partly led to and culminated into the Anglo-Boer war at the turn of the century.
One of the key players in this war was Cecil John Rhodes. He was one of the richest men in South Africa at the time. In 1871, he opened diamond mines in Kimberley, known as the De Beer Consolidated Mines. As a private citizen, Rhodes also had gold mining interests in the Transvaal. Using that toehold, he developed a plan that he hoped would bring about British power to the Transvaal Boer Republic. He sent some of his Henchmen to stir up unrest amongst the "Uitlanders," getting them to agitate for voting and other rights. In 1895, acting on his orders, Rhodesian troops(today known as Zimbabwe) staged a raid on the Transvaal with the hope that it would set off a revolt which would finally oust he Boers from power.
This attack, which came to be known as the Jamieson Raid - because it was led by Jamieson, was botched, and Rhodes' plan failed(Caldwell, 1975; Le Seur, 1913). The Jamieson raid damaged relations between the Boers and the British beyond recall. The raid affected the press. In 1896 President Kruger passed a law requiring the press to disclose the names of printers and publishers. This law also gave the State President the right to ban the distribution of publications which were perceived to be breaking the law of the Transvaal Republic. Kruger took these moves to protect his government against the British press attacks.(van Jaarsveld, 1961)
The reasons for the Anglo-Boer War lay in a combination of strategic, political and economic factors. When the war started in 1899, the Kruger government shut down the British Press. On the other hand, the British arrested Afrikaner editors and shut down the circulation of Dutch newspapers in all British colonies. When the British defeated the Boers, they were sure that the press would never be anti-British again.
They put the press under the control of the Argus Company. (Pemberton, 1964) It is in this tradition of 'robust British-type press freedom,' established in the last century, and has come under pressure in the 20 Century, that the press found itself caught in conflicts of a deeply polarized society, to-date in the 21 century. It was a press caught between a divided English and Afrikaner public, and both the English and Afrikaners caught between African nationalism of the 20 century, and the new neocolonial, post-apartheid petit African bourgeoisies of the 21 century.
The Afrikaners emerged from the Anglo Boer War a defeated and impoverished nation. The war was a White man's war. But, rarely discussed, was the participation of Africans in the war- and that is for another topic in another Hub. Nonetheless, it has been recorded that Africans helped on both sides of the war — and thousands of them died in concentration camps, but their contributions as fighters was not and is still not yet acknowledged. Nor had any nations that were conquered by the Whites during the late sixteen hundreds had a chance to seize the moment of white division. British armies had crushed African resistance and black power structures and were also in a position to impose their will on the Afrikaners (Sol Plaatjie, 1974)
But two of the most successful Boer Guerrilla leaders, Smuts and his commander-in-chief,General Louis Botha, led a movement for conciliation. The liberals in London and the Afrikaner 'conciliators' revived the idea that they should amalgamate. They set about forming a united South Africa in which the English and the Dutch speaking people would bury their differences. Africans were not included nor invited to these talks. The others that were included were the gold mining companies and a growing class of Afrikaner large-scale farmers who needed a stable permanent settlement and a large cheap labor force.
To secure a government that would guarantee both, they formed an alliance of gold and maize. With the British looking on benignly and helping where they could, the leaders of South Africa assembled. They had many differences, but within a couple of years, Afrikaners and the British framers and mine owners from the interior, traders and plantation owners from the seaboard, agreed to merge — not as a mere federation, But a Union, with overriding powers given to central government (Le May 1965).
The Afrikaners were quick to mobilize their political power against the British Imperialist gestures. They refused to serve on the proposed legislative council, declaring that self-government alone would satisfy them. In fact, by 1904, several hundred Afrikaners in Pretoria established their first major political organization, "Het Volk." It focused on Afrikaner grievances over restrictions on their use of the Dutch language and over the administration of relief funds.(Davenport, 1966)
The devastation of the Anglo-Boer War had turned the Afrikaner in the Transvaal and the Orange Free State into an impoverished people. The landless poor whites had become a serious problem into he Transvaal even before the war. Many Boers were no longer self-sufficient and independent. Consequently, these barely literate indigent Whites began another Great Trek.
They moved from the rural outbacks into the burgeoning towns and cities. They arrived with essentially no better skills that the Africans who also left the rural areas to seek urban employment. In other words, Whites in South Africa were on equal footing with the Africans. Many of these poor, uneducated and unskilled Afrikaners gravitated towards the famous war veteran, General B. Hertzog.
He eloquently articulated their fear that their 'civilization' would be obliterated by the technologically superior civilization of the British Speakers. Hertzog crystalized the Afrikaner movement in 1914 with the formation of the 'National Party'. From that time to this day, the National Party has been the major vehicle for Afrikaner Nationalism(Vatcher, 1965) The movement was further boosted in 1915 with the founding of he newspaper, Die Burger in Cape Town, under the editorship of D.F. Malan.
This was the first daily Afrikaans-language paper in South Africa. It was complemented in 1938 by the Transvaaler, edited by Hendrick Verwoerd. Die Burger began in less than promising circumstances. The country was under martial law and Die Burger was suspected of pro-German leanings. During the First World War, Die Burger was cautious to avoid suppression. Its readership was predominantly rural people or city dwellers of modest means who had little purchasing power to attract advertisers. However, it developed and propagated the policy of the National Party in its news and editorial columns. Malan made Die Burger the shield and sword of Afrikanerdom (Sachs, 1975; Scholtz, 1974)
During the second World War, Jan Smuts, as Prime Minister, decided through a series of informal arrangements and committees to seek the cooperation of newspapers in critical war effort matters. Although the Afrikaans newspapers were hostile to the war efforts, they knuckled down to the informal arrangements because they felt that these were preferable to full scale censorship.
Meanwhile, the attitude of The Transvaaler was even more ambivalent. On one hand it attacked those who openly sided with the Nazis of Germany. But on its columns it sounded ore like the Nazi Radio (Neame, pg. 41; Herzstein, 1987) Dr. Verwoerd was a big Nazi sympathizer and he even studied in Germany. But the British established a pattern of internalized control and self censorship that became a corrosive feature of the South African press.
The issue that divided the British and the Boers, and the newspapers that represented them, was centered on the external policies of the government. The Afrikaans press realized that it was more profitable to focus on internal policies and specifically on the questions of race. This is what the Afrikaners/English press is doing to the ANC-led government today. One now becomes aware as to where all this press hullaballoo of the proposed media tribunal historically originates from.
The English press, with its close links with a wider Anglo-American social reality, reflected the West's growing revolution against Nazi racism and "authoritarianism," pressed for more liberal policies in South Africa. In 1942, a government commission recommended important reforms in the educational, social and health conditions of urban African. Although the Smuts government had taken the country to war on the side of the allied forces, and also introduced some reforms in South Africa, it was far form liberal in its approach to race relations.
The difference between its attitude to the country's traditional segregationists policies and that of the nationalist was one of degree, not kind. However, the country's booming wartime economy, spurred by industrial development to produce arms and munitions, had drawn an increasing number of Africans into the labor market.
Apartheid Media and White Supremacy
When the Afrikaner Nationalist Party came into power in 1948, it was bent on implementing apartheid and entrenching White supremacy in government. The attitude of the government towards the press was not rooted in the Pringle-Fairbairn tradition, but rather in filial relationship between the Afrikaans press and the Afrikaner nationalist movement, or the "Het Volk".
The Afrikaans newspaper had arisen as part of the 'volk' movement, and as instruments in the ethnic mobilization of the Afrikaners. Although they were allowed a measure of freedom to criticize the political leadership and test reactions to new ideas, it was expected that their criticism would be temperately phrased and essentially constructive in approach.
The essence of the relationship was that the newspapers would at all times be loyal to the movement; not harm the government with embarrassing reports, and would as an instrument of communication between the movement's leadership and its followers. At election times,the Afrikaans press sounded the trumpet call to rally the 'volk' to the Party's support.
In short, it was a 'patriotic' press in the narrow context of the ethnic political movement it served. When the Nationalist government came into power, the press was still expected to be loyal and patriotic when it came to larger 'national interests'. This included reports on the implementation of Apartheid and the international reactions to it; the press was expected to be loyal and patriotic at all times. Under traditional authoritarianism, the press operated outside of the government and was permitted to gather and publish news, but it had to function for the 'good of the state'.
The government usually left the press alone if it did not criticize authority or challenge the leadership in any way. If the press attacked or embarrassed the government. Then the political authority intervened, imposed censorship or even closing down publication and jailing editors. The government arrived at this logic at a position where it was apparent that the dissemination of information, ideas and opinions among members of the community necessarily had a negative effect towards the government. Sometimes, as we shall later see, this effect was immediate, and at other times 'remote' also, we'll see this play itself out in the same manner under the ANC-led government. In fact, what the media restrictions limited most was the ability of its receivers to know the full story of events that lay behind newspaper editorials.
Other Apartheid's Myriad and Media Laws
The Nationalist Apartheid government immediately began to implement racial segregation or Apartheid through a series of laws. The Prohibition or Mixed Marriages Act of 1949 made intermarriages between races illegal the population Registration Act allocated every South African to a specific racial group. The immorality Act made sex across color lines illegal. The English press reflected the human suffering wrought by Apartheid legislation on the society.
This made for sensational headlines: prominent people committing suicide after being arrested under the immorality Act; families split under the Population Registration Act; Arrests and banning under the Suppression of the Communism Act. The English press through this type of reportage, continued to believe that it was practicing its traditional press freedom and in the process embarrassed the government even more. The Nationalist government perceived this as disloyalty prepared to damage national interests for the sake of partisan political gain. The government increased political pressure to control this inveterate disloyalty through close government monitoring (The Star, 1950)
The press commission was set up in 1950. It sat for eleven years as an intimidating inquisition. Its charge included the concentration of control of the press and its effect on the editorial opinion and comment and the presentation of news. The press had been served a notice that it activities were under scrutiny ad was warned to watch its steps.(Giffard, 1975) This sound like and look like the direction which ANC is going with its proposal of a Media tribunal.
J.G. Strydom succeeded Daniel Malan as Prime Minister in 1954. By this time, segregation had been enforced in almost all public places: libraries,churches, theaters and so on. The Extension of University Education Act set up four ethnic colleges for Africans, but restricted admission of other races into the traditional White universities. Africans were compelled to carry passes or reference books(got scrapped towards the end of Apartheid).
Multiracial Congresses were shut down. Inevitably, the press reflected in its reporting and comments the growing polarization in the land. Strydom regarded the English press as the enemy of the government. But at the same time, the government remained relatively unfettered by the negative reporting about Africans. (Hepple, 1974) Apartheid had in fact suppressed authentic African politics, which were really the politics of opposition. This suppression systematically affected both institutions and the press.
A key measure in achieving this shut-down of the opposition was application of the Suppression of Communism Act. This Act prohibited newspapers from quoting the utterances, past of contemporaneous, of any person place under a special restriction called the "Banning Order". Similarly, newspapers could not publish anything deemed to further the aims of any banned organization. This was he law used to ban the ANC, PAC, BCM and 37 other organizations.
This made it impossible for newspapers to report authentically to report on African politics for over 20 years. The copy-edition of the White newspapers were constantly on the alert and kept an up to date list of 'banned' persons in a tickler box on the copy desks(Phelan, 1985; Mathews, 1971; Mathews, 1981)
Slowly the net tightened. Defense matters were placed out of bounds, except when publications were authorized by the Defense authorities themselves. The Official Secrets Act was tightened under the title of "The Protection of Information Act"(The ANC is using the same terms and Act to create a media tribunal). Reporting on activities of the police ad on prison conditions was made hazardous through a cunning position that reversed the onus of proof: 1.e., newspapers had to prove that they had taken 'reasonable steps' to establish that what they published was rued.
This meant, for example, that newspapers could be prosecuted for publishing any 'untrue matter' about the police. For example, if a policeman tortured, assaulted or killed someone, the press wold have to ask the police themselves whether the allegations were true. If they denied, which they routinely did, the newspapers could publish that information at their own risk. This in turn cost them large sums in lawyer fees and tied up senior editors and key reporting staff for months on legal consultation and court appearances(Pollack, 1981; Potter, 1975)
All these laws were in force before the special press restrictions were enunciated in 1986. The laws of the 1986 State of Emergency were already enough to fill a thick legal volume that every South African journalist kept on his desk as an essential book of reference. There were more than 120 laws restricting what could be reported in may areas of activity; for example, the police, defense,prisons, official secrets, key points, oil supply, nuclear energy, the quoting of banned organizations or promoting their aims, the quoting of a banned person/s, remarks held to foster racial hostility, photographing and or publishing pictures of prisons, prisoners and so forth, are a few areas subjected to restriction. (Moseki, 1988; Stuart and Klapper, 1982)
To avoid the implementation of these threats, the newspaper proprietors agreed to establish a press Council in the early 1970s. It was created to enable the press to monitor and censor itself. And it had powers to reprimand and fine the newspaper found guilty of breaching the code of conduct (McKay, 1988)
According to Percy Qoboza, "Reporting and editing a newspaper in South Africa in the 1980s was like walking through a minefield blindfolded". (Qoboza , 1984) A journalist who wanted to get ahead was expected to show that he was at least half a businessman who understood and had a finely developed sense of what pleased the Ad agencies and paper owners. The journalist was expected to take this into account before exposing police brutality or the torture of detainees. On the other hand, they had to be wary of security agents and government legislation. (Hachten, 1979)
In the final analysis, the press got entangled with immediate-future preoccupations, viz.., the economics of circulation; rationalization between publishing companies and an increasing concentration on business journalism; news that was politically safer and economically more sensible was fully exploited. Maintain and holding tight to Ad agencies Only through a genuine social revolution could there be a return to Pringle-Fairbairn press tradition.
But until then, the press under apartheid faced an authoritarian and recalcitrant regime. Further on we will show the press has been used by White people to blame the victims of apartheid(Africans) which they say that the condition they find themselves in, meaning Africans, was their own doing.
The African Press Under Colonialism and Apartheid Rule
The first newspaper for Africans in South Africa, Imvo Zabantsundu(African Opinion), was founded in 1884 by John Tengo Jabavu. By the 1930s,the number of registered African newspapers were 19. At about that time, literate Africans constituted about 12.4 percent of the adult African population. This reading intelligentsia was made up of members and office bearers of proliferating independent African political and cultural or economic organizations that sought to generate accoutrements of middle-class lifestyles. The voluntary organizations which they established and the activities which they became personally involved were publicized in their journals survived the Great Depression of 1929-1932. After 1932, The Bantu World was founded and came to represent African point of view and reportage(Switzer, 1979)
After 1932, The Bantu World was founded and came to represent in form as well as in content all issues African. But it was owned by the Argus Company, a White, inevitably capitalist firm, and could not be trusted. The Bantu World attracted corporate and financial interests that provided the newspaper to develop rapidly as a business enterprise with fully fledged editorial, advertising, accounting, printing and circulation departments.
At the same time, the newspaper became a resource center for training Africans in the skills needed to run a successful business; for example, they were trained to work as printers, truck drivers, typists, clerks, salesmen, advertising personnel, as well as journalists(Walshe, 1971). Social control in the newsroom did not have to be communicated officially because Tema, the editor and subsequent editors of the "Bantu Press" and those that followed conformed to the policies of the newspaper proprietors(Couzens, 1977)
The Bantu World became a trendsetter from an elite to a mass audience. By 1946, African literacy had increased to 21.3 percent. Only the Bantu World and Unmteteli wa Bantu(Speaker of the People), were regarded as national papers. The former circulated mainly in the Transvaal and Swaziland; the latter circulated in the Reef(Johannesburg and Vaal Triangle, Ciskei, Transkei, KwaZulu and Bophutatswana(Friedgut, 1949; Couzens, 1977) Suppression of African perspectives, even in bland and moderate forms was considered essential to the maintenance, and by extension, the very survival of Afrikaner dominance.
During the 1960s and 1970s, newspapers expanded coverage of African news (an area long ignored), but was gradually recognized by some White newspapers who began to publish 'specials' or 'extras' for African readers. As a result, the English papers in particular, began using African journalists, and in the process, reported more Black news in the 1960s and 1970s.
Though no independent African or White press existed during the Apartheid era, there were publications that were edited and published with the African reader in mind. What can be called the African Press in during the realities of Apartheid South African could be described this way:
1. The English press became a 'surrogate' press for Africans especially in papers like the Rand Daily Mail(banned) Daily Dispatch, Sunday Times and others.
2. There were weekly African orientated papers such as the Imvo Zabantsundu(Xhosa) Ilanga (Zulu) Bona(See - in Sotho, Zulu and Xhosa people and the Cape Herald [For Cape Coloreds].
3. Bantu world, came to be known as The World, World, (both owned by Argus) was banned in 1977, and was succeeded by Sowetan. It was produced by an African staff and edited for Africans .
4. Golden City Press, s Sunday paper for Africans in Johannesburg, founded in 1982 (which was filling a void of the banned Post) and was owned by the Argus. (Switzer, 1988)
Thus, there was no independent and free African press in South Africa during the hey-days of Apartheid rule. A combination of political pressure and economic failure saw them closed down or taken over. In its determination to silence the African political opposition, the government had closed eleven newspapers in 40-plus years. Five of them newspapers specifically for Africans, and the other six were left-wing papers with a high African new content. It is therefore clear that the Apartheid State was bent of crushing African Press, its content and existence in a period of forty years or more.
Other African newspapers either went out of business or were taken over by White commercial companies, some of them went pro-government Afrikaans Press Companies. For example, Imvo Zabantsundu was now published by Perskor, the most racially conservative of the Afrikaans newspaper companies. City Press and Drum Magazine, both publication of honorable provenance in the African struggle, were owned by a rival Afrikaans publishing house, Nasionale Pers(Naspers). The Sowetan, a daily paper, was owned by the English-language group, The Argus Printing company newspaper, which in turn was effectively controlled by the giant Anglo American Mines(Rubin, 1981).
The African press was less free, during Apartheid , to print the news it saw fit to print. This was partly because of White ownership, encouraged by Apartheid legislation. And inevitably, the African press reflected the White perspectives and perceptions in its reportage of news. The government kept a hawkish eye on the African press because it considered it a potential enemy. Joe Latagkomo, former editor of Sowetan, neatly summed the Steyn Reports accusations that the 'black press — meaning Sowetan, and some few others fomented discontent and lacked loyalty, responded in 1982 thus: "We do not believe any of these statements to have been true either for the The World, The Weekend World, Post, Sunday Post or now for the Sowetan.
What those newspapers did was precisely what this same commission suggests the Afrikaans press did not do: The Afrikaans press failed, the report says, to adequately report on the hopes and frustrations of the black community. We reported on those hopes and frustrations. We did not call on the government to pull down shacks and leave people in the cold… They came and we reported it. We did not create community councils such as that which received a disastrously low poll in Soweto. The government did and we reported it. We did not detain people without trial, ban them, deport e\them. The government did and we reported it. We did not fail to provide housing for the people.
The government did and we reported it. We did not make racist statements at public meetings. Some government people did, and we reported them.... Who creates the climate for labor unrest, for school unrest? Why did thousands of kids flee from the country of their birth to take up arms? The government created all this. We will report it. The government suggests there are a great deal of "moderates" who are "embarrassed" by our newspapers. We would suggest that both the government and the commission are out of touch with the situation. We know the hatred. We know the bitterness that this system creates. We are part and parcel of it. We feel it; we sleep it.
I am convinced that nobody will be able to run a black newspaper which serves as a mirror of society without threats from the government. There are too many government-created ills which cannot simply be washed away. The government must stop deluding itself that there are thousands of "moderate" backs who would buy an alternative paper which would dish out the news a la TV 2 and 3"(Black TV channels)
The laws that were administered in an attempt to regulate the press were not theoretically blind, so was their administration not biased and not blind. Even before the State of Emergency, when no one could keep up with the more than eight thousand general detentions (officially admitted by the administration under parliamentary pressure), the number of detentions and arrests among black journalists, relative to all other journalists, was markedly greater. Up to early 1987, no Afrikaner journalist had ever been detained.
From 1976 to 1981, the period immediately before Mr. Latakgomo's editorial, fifty black journalists were detained for up to five hundred days; ten were detained more than once; ten were banned; and one was arrested, tried, and sentenced to seven years on Robben Island(where Mandela was imprisoned), known as the South Africa Devil's Island. In the same period, white journalists suffered suffered one detention, one banning and one six-year jail sentence.
When one realizes that, during the period analyzed, there were fewer than two hundred and fifty mainstream black journalists,but over thirty-five hundred white journalists, the disparity in applied pressure is unmistakably enormous"(William A. Hachten and C. Anthony Giffard, 1984) Black journalists were often assaulted and tortured in their encounters with security forces. Few have escaped this brutality and several have suffered permanent injury as a result of it (Lelyveld, 1985).
The clamping down of African resistance in the sixties crushed black journalism too, and for a while it went into decline. However, it recovered and entered a new phase with the demands of the 1976 Soweto Uprisings. At this time, racial explosion and violence made it impossible for White reporters to enter Black Townships. For months on end, Black reporters risked their lives to get the story. They continued to do so throughout the 1980s State of Emergencies, up to the time when Mandela became President.
In the Area of official information and propaganda, the Nationalist Party has used public communication to persuade and influence pubic opinion and perceptions both in South Africa and abroad. From Daniel Malan, J.G. Strydom, J.B. Vorster, P.W. Botha to F.W. de Klerk, all have been closely linked with Afrikaner newspapers, the government created and information vacuum on Black politics to its White electorate. South Africa was a divided country and it is still a divided country even today.
The political opposition that was silenced was also segregated. Africans were physically removed from the presence of those who had power, except to the extent that they met in their working relationship. 'Thus, the White people, who were voting, did not see the consequences of the policy they kept voting for. They did not see the consequences of the violent repression meted out on black in the Townships, just a stone throw away. Life in their White suburbs was tranquil, orderly and affluent' (Crapanznao, 195)
There was no sense of commitment as the race problem became abstracted into a subject during the evening meal, on the part of Whites. In this vacuum, the government had indoctrinated the White population over time to regard black majority rule as unacceptable.
With TV, the press and radio closed and controlled, blacks could not counter this smear campaign or get themselves heard and judged in their own right. The same is true today, due to poverty and a predatory African-led government, Africans cannot defend themselves adequately because they cannot afford computers nor pay for the Internet so that they can counter the smear that is viscously and heartlessly used with callous vitriol and information to smear them, nor will they be able to be heard and judged in their own right, for a long time to come. Meanwhile, on the Web, contemporaneously, the same campaign used by the Apartheid government to put down Africans in the eyes of the world, is being used by ordinary Whites, on the Internet, to carry on that African Smear Campaign vociferously packed and packaged in hideous and damning vitriol.
Apartheid Was Good For Africans...
Apartheid and Technology
The colonization, gathering, dissemination, spin, and control has been within the purview of the Colonial and Apartheid media from the 1800s to today. The Hub above gives the history of the press and many attempts made to control it then and for 2010 years. The Apartheid rulers upped the ante when they passed a series of laws designed to curb, censor and dictate what could and should be reported. The Apartheid government in South Africa was uncomfortable with both the freedom permitted the independent press and the criticism the government drew from restricting the press.
The cultural shape freedom of expression assumed in the legal structure of South Africa was of unique interest. The South African media system exists within a symbolic Apartheid system of its own. At one hand of the media spectrum was the South African Broadcasting Corporation(SABC), the state monopoly for all television and almost all radio, and served as the arm of the state. On the other hand were the print media and organs of the African labor unions and communities, which focused on particular grievances caused by living under apartheid. In the middle was the establishment press: there was the Afrikaans loyalist press along with its assertive and dissenting wing on the right.
Next came the English newspapers and magazines which ranged from apolitical sex and soccer tabloids, to brave antiApartheid journals mostly from the left. Also, there were student and church publications with political viewpoints; usually from a sharply left or right perspective. Lastly, there were the non-broadcast audiovisual media, from rock to reggae, 'volk' to Mbaqanga music, live theater and movie houses and funeral orations to community-based meetings and rallies, and the like.
The technological communications media ecology was dominated by SABC, which was fiercely loyal to the Apartheid government. It accounted for nine out of ten radio listeners and TV viewers. It was also dominated by a section made up of four commercial media corporations, similar to those that dominated print media. Only three of the country's two dozen racially and linguistically targeted radio stations were not controlled by the Pretoria regime through the SABC. Of the three, two were owned by the Homeland governments: Radio Bop(Bophutatswana) and Capital Radio(Transkei). The third one was owned by the Press Conglomerates and operated from the Bophutatswana Bantustan (Tomaselli R. and Thomaselli K., 1987)
Four of the country's five TV Stations were run by SABC. The fifth was controlled by the four print media groups. With the exception of two Bantustan stations and the press owned M-Net TV Station, which broadcast nondescript content and substance; both radio and TV in South Africa broadcast words and images of the world that were powerfully pro-government and pro-Apartheid. All broadcast media was commercial because they all relied on advertising and consumer revenues. The press barons had not been slow in recognizing that bad new meant bad business.
And South Africa's print media involved first and foremost, business ventures, as has been discussed above. Print media ownership, as stated above in the Hub, was concentrated in the hand of four press groups, and three of these, Argus, Times Limited(TML) and Nasionale Pers were owned and controlled by Anglo American Corporation and Sanlam Giants, respectively of English and Afrikaner Capital. (Giffard, 1980). Anglo and Sanlam also owned or controlled, through their press of subsidiaries, the country's paper cartel, its three print media centers, network and the national news agency wire service(Lacob, 1982). The fourth of the print media giants, Perskor, was equally tied into Afrikaner capital through effective control by the Rembrandt Corporation and the Volkskas Bank (Pogrund, 1976).
Clearly all organs of media companies were white owned and controlled, as is still the case today.
By this time, the Argus newspaper, the biggest of the four, accounted for more than 55 percent of all daily newspapers bought in South Africa. In surveying the media environment in South Africa, it must be borne in mind that most South Africans had limited access on what they read. South Africa, with a largely educated white population - 3 million,(See My Hub on "African South Africans and the June 16 1976 Revolt: Sad Times, Bad Times - Aluta Kontinua, AMANDLA, POWER!), and a middle class of only 4 million Africans who were literate out of 30 million Africans and has a low circulation of print media (Sparks, 1988)
By 1960, twelve years after the Nationalist came to power, the police fired on African demonstrators in Sharpeville, and this came to be known as the 'Sharpeville massacre. The police slaughtered people like cattle; shooting them from behind as they tried to run away, and it was officially estimated that sixty-eight people died from that massacre. The Suppression of Communism Act, passed shortly thereafter, gave the government power and excuse to execute demonstrators. But the violence did not abate after the law was enacted. The hot points on the the calendar of grievances, form the 1960 massacre,to the 1985-1987 States of Emergencies, resulted in thousands of deaths and detention (Spong, 1986)
A sampling of the powers that the government held and has exercised, indicates the scope of the restraints on the freedom of the press:
a. The government had unlimited power to close down newspapers as it did in 1977 with The World and the Weekend World, and the successors, The Post and The Sunday Post(1979), New Nation (1987), Rand daily Mail (1986), etc.
b. A more insidious power, because its exercise was not widely known or understood, was the requirement that a new newspaper register and deposit R40,000.00 ($20,000.00), as a guarantee of 'good behavior' which may be forfeited if the publication errs in the opinion of the government do the day. An untold number of small papers, reflecting African and dissident opinion, had in effect been smothered in the cribs by this extreme form of registration power.
c. Authorities can achieve a measure of press control by banning the journalists themselves — those whose stories, associations, or activities displease government officials. This power has been exercised with great frequency in the 1980s, particularly against black journalists associated with black trade union, MWASA. Banned persons could not attend meetings, whether political, social, or business. And this was done as an effort to put people under 'house arrest'. The banning of a journalist, black or white, was a harsh action, denying them jobs, livelihood, and severely restricting their personal freedom in general.
d. Even harsher than banning was detention, especially if the dreaded Section Six of the Terrorism Act was invoked. Detention provisions were devoid of due process. They included arbitrary arrest and incarceration without charges of trial for indefinite periods of time. Journalists could and did disappear for long periods, as a number of black reporters did while covering the Soweto Uprisings in June 1976 and in 1984.
e. Further, journalists were subject to prosecution under sweeping laws such as the Official Secrets Act, Terrorism Act, Prison Act, Defense and Police Acts. This were particularly onerous to the press because reporters must in effect get Ministerial permission to publish any story in these important areas (Mathew, 1981)Much of the laws restricting the press and journalists were related to the vas legal and bureaucratic structures that maintained the Apartheid regime.
Understanding press controls in Apartheid South Africa required an understanding of the political system by which the country was governed. Legislative power was, until 1984, vested in a central parliament consisting of a lower house (House of Assembly), the President's Council and the State President. (In 1981, the Upper House [Senate], was replaced by the President's Council.)
Political power was concentrated in the House of Assembly made up of 165 White members, elected by White voters only in single member constituency. The State President was Constitutional ceremonial figure-head with powers similar to the Queen of England or the Governor general.
In the general elections of 1981, the National Party registered its ninth successive victory, scoring the biggest electoral margin since 1910. The party was returned to power with a majority of 97 seats, winning 131 of the Assembly's 165 directly elected seats. On September 9 1983, the Nationalist, with Botha at the Helm, pushed through parliament a new constitutional structure that would dramatically reshape the Westminister parliamentary system. Under the system, segregated chambers were set for Coloreds and Indians, but Africans were left out.
By 1984, the African majority had not yet been represented in the Central Parliament and the Provincial Council which had limited legislative power over the four Provinces(Natal, Transvaal, Orange Free State and the Cape). This was due to the fat that by the 1970s, the state of White rule in South Africa was not democratic, but authoritarian. It could be aptly described as a "pigmentocracy'' in which all political power was vested in the White oligarchy, which was controlled by an Afrikaner elite. This condition remains to this day in some form or another.
The liberal Press was reduced to insecurity and near impotence. It did not have the power to attack Apartheid contradiction. The English dailies were impeded from discovering and reporting critically on Constitutional reforms. The direction of laws over the past forty-plus years had ensured that, to the extent South Africa remains a democracy,it would be a progressively less accountable one. Mathews noted: "When absolute power is versed in the political authorities, a carping press seeks to present fundamental alternatives. Its role becomes subversive in the minds of men who are not accustomed to having their judgement qualified or seriously called into question by others.
The press tends to focus on the moral shortcomings of government policy and actions. It is a kind of moral mirror in which the government sees its own image and the sight was not a frequently pretty one. This explains the irrational outbursts against the newspapers. They produce a discomfort of conscience which is irrationally countered by transforming the press into a traitorous enemy ranking with, if not, beyond the Communist, the ANC, etc. (Mathew, 1981) This is precisely what is happening with the ANC and its coalition partners in its relationship with print media and various other media organs.
Elaine Potter had earlier observed that: "In the Nationalist government's campaign against the independent press, the government had two primary objectives: First, it sought to safeguard its political principles; and second, to ensure its ideology was not merely the policy of a political party which chanced to be in office, but a fundamental 'truth' against which only the press was blasphemous. The importance of this for the press was the growing tendency to identify all opposition to Apartheid with subversion and criticism of it defender with treason.
Thus, in seeking to secure itself in office and to eliminate all serious opposition to its Apartheid ideology, the Nationalist government arrogated to itself very extensive powers. There can be little argument that the government had provided itself with machinery to limit freedom of its institutional opponents(Potter, 1975) The ANC is beginning the baby-steps of arrogating power to itself by proposing the Protection of information Act and have a media tribunal answerable to the Parliament.
The multitude of wide-ranging laws enacted over the past fifty something years, created very immediate and practical problems for reporters and editors attempting to gather and publish news.These laws imposed a sense of self-censorship on the part of the press. Below a review a short summation of the laws that controlled and created an Apartheid Media are Environment are discussed(both Print and Electronic):
1. The Internal Security Act
Enacted in 1950 as the Suppression of Communism Act, this Act made it an offense to advocate, advice, defend, or encourage the achievement of any objective of communism. The Act provided that any newspaper deemed to be 'furthering' the objectives of Communism can be banned. This Act made it an offense to publish anything said or written on any person banned under the Act.
2. Sabotage Act
This Act was dealt with under the General Law Amendment Act of 1962 which required that care be taken to ensure that news reports, articles, or stories could not be construed as incitement, instigation, or aid to endanger, among other things, the maintenance of law and order. Under this law, journalists could be detained incommunicado for up to 180 days or indefinitely. Habeas corpus was specifically rendered impossible. There was also provision for a 14 day detention, renewable indefinitely, for 'interrogation'. Under this provision, the police had to place an affidavit before a judge to justify any detention. The detainee was not allowed or entitled to know the allegations presented to the judge by the police. Again, habeas corpus was excluded.
3. Terrorism Act
This Act regarded terrorism as any action which would endanger the maintenance of law and order; causing general disturbance; furthering any political aims (including social or economic changes) by forcible means or with the aid of any foreign government or body causing feelings of hostility between Whites and Backs; promoting the achievement of any objective by intimidation; prejudicing the operation of industry and commerce.
In this instance, the state had to show that the accused intended to endanger law and order. Thus the onus shifted to the accused to prove that he or she did not have that intention. A finding of guilty under the Terrorism Act meant a compulsory minimum of five years imprisonment; the maximum penalty was death. The impact of this statute was immediately apparent. Letters to the editor, advertisement, political columns, editorials, and news stories containing matter which might be construed as conspiring, procuring to overthrow the state, were prohibited. This law intended to bolster the Apartheid regime, and also posed great dangers to journalists merely trying to report what was happening.
4. Unlawful Organization Act
This Act was enacted in 1960, and it was used to ban the AC and PAC. This Act proscribed newspapers from publishing ANC and PAC views abroad, or their underground material. Related to this legislation was the Affected Organization Act of 1974 which made it illegal or an offense to canvass foreign money for or on behalf of declared to be banned. Newspaper kept lists of such organizations as protection from harassment by the state.
5. Riotous Assemblies Act
This 1956 Act dealt with the area of 'promoting hostility' between races as the Bantu Administration Act of 1927 had made it an offense for anyone to promote hostility between blacks and whites. Secondly, if a person was prohibited from attending a meeting, nothing he or he said wrote, whether it was in the present, past or future, could be reported. Thirdly, a newspaper could be banned it in the government opinion, any cartoon, picture, article or advertisement was deemed to endanger race relations. Fourthly, it was an offense to publish anything that could have the consequences of inciting others to violence.
6. Official Secrets Act
This Act proscribed the communication of anything relating to munitions of war or any purpose prejudicial to the safety or interest of the Republic of South Africa. Penalties were severe — up to fifteen years imprisonment. In practice, it served to place severe restrictions on reporting anything to do with security. This was put into effect in conjunction with the Defense Act of 1957, which restricted reportage of military matters, including reprinting reports appearing in foreign newspapers. Newspapers were not allowed to publish stories which 'alarm or depress' the public.
7. Prison Act of 1959 and 1965
The key section of this law affecting the press, prohibited publication of any false information about the experiences in prison of any prisoner or ex-prisoner or administration of any prison without taking reasonable steps to verify such information. The burden of proving that such steps were taken, were on the accused. What constituted reasonable steps was not clearly spelled-out. The reporter was expected to first very everything he or she wanted to publish, first with the prison department, and could only publish if the prisons department confirmed the story.
8. Police Amendment Act
The most oppressive was the second Police Amendment Act of 1979, which made it an offense to publish 'any untrue' matter about the police 'without having reasonable ground for believing that the statement was true.' The onus of proof was on the newspaper and the maximum penalty was R10,000.00($1,500) fine or up to five years imprisonment. This Act spawned distrust because it gave immunity to the police from the press and public scrutiny. The Prisons Act affected a relatively small community, but the Police Amendment Act affected very much larger proportion of the population.
9. Advocate General Act
This 1979 law created the office of the Advocate General. Under this law, no person may, without permission of the Advocate General, disclose to any other person (journalists included) the content of any document in the possession of the Advocate General. The Act did not interfere with the traditional freedom of parliamentary debate. However, in practice, government members of parliament may, when confronted with alleged corruption, merely referred the accuser to the Advocate General; this, in effect, replaced the opposition's role as the watchdog over corruption with investigation by the Advocate General.
10. Protection of Information Act
In June 1982, parliament passed the Protection of Information Act which provided for several wide restrictions on the public's right to know. It provided jail sentences of up to ten years for the unauthorized disclosure of information relating 'security matters or the prevention or combating of terrorism'. The onus was on the editor to prove that any facts he published could not be construed as prejudicial to state interests.
11. National Key Points Act
The National Key Points Act was a 1980 law permitting the government to designate certain crisis areas, such as the scene of the terrorist bombing, as off limits for journalists. This bill was keeping within the present legislative policy of suppressing information about hostile acts directed against the state and strategic installation. The intent of the Act was to subject news of an act to sabotage at any 'key' installations (such as the Sasol Coal and gasification project) for approval by the military authority before publication.
12. Petroleum Products Amendment Act
This 1978 Act was another law restricting press coverage. Journalists faced fines of up to R20,000($2,800) and seven years imprisonment for publishing without Ministerial permission, information about the source, manufacture, or storage of any petroleum produced or acquired by South Africa. Similar restriction concerning the stockpiling of strategic commodities were imposed under the National Supplies Procurement Amendment Act of 1979. This Act empowered rather than obscure government officials, The Minister of Industries, Commerce and Consumer Affairs, that whenever they deemed it expedient or necessary, publish a notice in the Government Gazette, prohibiting the disclosure of any information regarding any goods or services.
13. The Atomic Energy Act of 1973
This Act imposed severe penalties for unauthorized publication of information about uranium or thorium, nuclear research, and many activities of the Atomic Energy Board by the press.
14. The Hazardous Substance Act of 1973
This statute made it an offense for anyone, journalists included, to refuse to give information about such material to an inspector who demanded the information or explanation. Broadly speaking, a hazardous substance is one which had toxic, corrosive, radioactive or flammable propertied, or is an electric product.
15. The Radio Act of 1952
This Act made it an offense to intercept and publish radio communication which a person was not authorized to received. News reporters were not allowed to monitor the ambulance, police, the fire department, or army signals to pick up tips.
In short, all the above stated laws fell into three categories:
First, were laws that curtailed individual freedoms in such a manner as to harm press freedom as well. The Internal Security Act provided for the 'banning' of individuals, and preventing them from writing or being quoted by the press. The Unlawful organizations Act made it an offense to publish anything that was construed as 'furthering' the aims of proscribed organizations such as the ANC, PAC, etc., (this law was later scrapped).
Laws of the second type forbid publication of certain information without permission, on topics such as atomic energy and oil supplies. Reporting on the South African Defense Force was drastically limited by the Defense Act. In 1975, this law was used to keep South Africans from knowing the army's full scale war in Angola. The publications Act empowered a government agency to ban 'undesirable' material. Undesirable material was defined quite broadly, and included matter considered prejudicial to the safety of the state, or the general welfare of the society
The third category of laws included those that do not ban sensitive topics outright, but instead, created legal hazards for publishers who might choose to cover them. For example, the Prisons Act made impossible and an offense to publish false information about prisons without taking 'reasonable' steps to ensure it's accuracy. A similar law governed reporting on may areas of activity such as police, defense, prisons, official secrets, key points, oil supply, nuclear energy, the quoting of banned persons, or promoting the aims of banned organizations, or publishing on prisons and prisoners(Stuart, 1982)
From the above laws, the government erected a more rigid mechanism of control. Despite these laws, the South Africa press was able to exploit a wide margin to publish news and comments that were critical of the government. The public had the English press as an alternative to propaganda of the state controlled television, radio and film (Tomaselli R. and Tomaselli K., 1987)
On July 20, President Botha declared the firs State of Emergency. It authorized the police to close off areas in the Townships, and to block the publication of news or comments concerning the State of Emergency or its enforcement. The State of Emergency also barred publishing names of detainees without authorization. These emergency powers buttressed the already existing draconian legislation through enabling the security forces to operate under conditions resembling martial law in thirty-six affected areas. But the State of Emergency did not crush popular insurgency. Ominously, in the firs month after its declaration, the number of deaths attributed to political violence tripled(New York Times, 1985).
In August 1985, the bloodiest moth during the State of Emergency, more than 160 people were killed in politically related violence. By November 2, 1985, Botha clamped down on the media. He decreed that print reporters in unrest areas first seek police permission from the police. He forbade all camera crews, photographers, and radio reporters in the areas covered by the State of Emergency(Christian Science Monitor, 1985) - Also, read my Hub on: "Apartheid Genocide on Children: The Killing of African South African Kids from 1985 to beyond Y2K", and visit the picture gallery of the Hub to see what Botha was trying to avoid to be captured what they were doing in the Townships. In the Comment Section of the Hub I wrote: "Cry the Beloved Peoples: An In-Depth View of How the Apartheidizers Blame the Victims in Contemporary South Africa."
A comment made by "Ike" in the comment box of this Hub has posted links of the whole Apartheid saga and pictures which were not those that were eliminated nor shredded by the Apartheid regime on its ways, needs to be viewed to comprehend fully what apartheid and its minions were up to.
The government blamed the media for being part of the violence syndrome; and claimed that the presence of reporters contributed to the unrest. But the unrest did not subside in the following months: the tally of deaths related to political violence remained high up to mid-December 1986. The government's motives for imposing these restrictions had less to do with 'curtailing bloodshed, but more to do with politics in South Africa, and getting the story off the television screens domestically and internationally'(Sperling and McKenzie, 1990)
In an address to parliament, Botha claimed that from September 1984 to April 1986, an estimated '508 people, mostly blacks, were brutally murdered by radical blacks'. In addition, he affirmed that, 'no less than 1,417 black owned businesses, 4,435 private homes [including 814 homes of black policemen], 28 churches, 54 community centers, several hundred schools and a number of clinics that served the black community were either damaged or badly destroyed or gutted by petrol bombs or other forms of arson'. (New York Times, 1986; Cowel, A., 1985; Rule, 1985).
To curb the violence and ban the cameras on the scene, Botha extended the prohibition of covering unrests throughout the country. Journalists could not quote or publish any statement deemed 'subversive,' a term that was broadly defined and included anything likely to have the effect of promoting civil disobedience, or any objective of an unlawful organization.
Until December 1986, the focus of press restrictions had been to black out news about the political violence and what the security forces were doing in the townships. On December 12, 1986, it became a violation of the emergency restrictions to report on boycotts, 'restricted gatherings', unlawful political structures such as the 'peoples courts', and circumstances of refugees (Weekly Mail, 1986).
The December decree also broadened the definition of banned 'subversive' statements to cover basically anything deemed to encourage resistance to authorities. And, in a step towards prior censorship, the government advised news organ to telex articles to a newly created censor's office if, in the editors judgement, their content might come under the emergency rule restrictions (James, 1987)
In January 1987, the commissioner of Police banned ads and reports it perceived to further the cause of 'unlawful organizations'. In August 1987, other emergency regulations were instituted. This phase encompassed 'promoting of fanning the breaking own of public order' and fomenting feelings of hatred... towards local authorities or security forces' (Sechaba, 1986; Guardian, 1984; ANC News Briefings, 1984)
By 1988, The South African Apartheid regime had placed several key emergency press restrictions
a. No reporters, print or broadcast, local or foreign was to be within sight of the unrest;
b. no unauthorized news or comment concerning the unrest or security forces actions;
c. no making of quoting 'subversive' statements;
d. no systematic or repeated publication of 'revolution-supportive' material;
e. no unauthorized reports on conditions of detainees, or on various forms of non-violent protest activities, and on unlawful local political structures, such as the 'peoples courts.'
Any journalists who violated these emergency decrees were punished by a fine of up to R20,000 or ten years in prison. In some cases, both. These press restrictions were aimed at thwarting one of the essential components of a democracy: the free flow of information and ideas that enabled citizen to make informed political decisions. The government sought to achieve this objective in three ways.
Firstly, these restrictions aimed to calm the White minority by keeping them ignorant o the events in the Townships. Botha's government was politically dependent on appearing firmly in control while pursing is gradual and very limited program of reform.
Secondly, the government wanted to deprive the foreign audiences of information on what was happening in south Africa in order to diffuse international political and economic pressure.
Thirdly, by hampering the abilities of the press to cover most activities of the anti-Apartheid movements, Botha was able to distort political life by denying access to the media of the country''s main political forces.
By purposely making the restrictions vague, and by enforcing them unevenly, the state managed to keep journalists off-balance. Most editors had stopped trying to clear their copy before publication, but erred on the side of caution when running the story, thereby acquiescing de facto in the strictures. Eventually, those restrictions containing loopholes and inviting circumvention, were usually closed-off by the publication of amended executive orders under the State of Emergency.
Finally, it was fact and information more than opinion that were restricted by these regulations. What these media restrictions limited most was the ability of South Africans and the World to know the full story of events that lay behind the editorials of South Africa as dictated by the Apartheid State legislature, capital and military interests, through coercion of Africans. Those who trumpet the virtues of Apartheid and its shenanigans, are mere adding insult to injury on the African people who are still suffering the 'after-effects' of Apartheid.
The whole new thing of Blaming the Victims of Apartheid on the Internet, is another one of the many abuses that Africans have to suffer, and the world, through the World Wide Web, have to listen to. Articles like this one,are written with the History of Apartheid in mind, and the new media under the ANC-led government,and trying very hard to show the differences and progress that has been made thus far, and yet seems to be plodding down the same road as Apartheid's muzzling of the media.
Post Apartheid Democratic Free Media
Between 1950 and 1990, more than 100 laws affecting the media were passed by the apartheid regime. It is important to note that in 2004, South Africa was marking ten years of operation in a free legal environment of democracy. This has had a positive impact on the media, and the media, in a way, has helped to consolidate tis new democracy. But this relationship, that of the press, vis-a-vis government is a very mixed one. The quality of journalism under this new ANC-led government has begun to change. At this juncture,it is important to look at the past 16 years of journalism in south Africa, and what is happening today between the ANC-led Government and the media.
To put this history in perspective, the KAF Democracy Report of 2005, stated that: "South Africa has an adult population (people aged 15 and over) of 26 million about 12 to 13 million had less than a full general education; about 7.4 to 8.5 million have less than grade 7(often used as an education-level indicator of sustainable, functional literacy) and about 2.9 to 4.2 million people are estimated to have had no schooling at all, and are presumably functionally illiterate. These are the leftovers of and affects of the Apartheid rule which created poor educational infrastructures, especially in the rural areas. The Present government has begun to address the backlog by providing adult basic education and training(ABET) and compulsory schooling for all children from grades 1 to 10."
This is important , but if one were to look much more deeper into the newly created Educational system, there seems to be more failures and in schools and chaos as it regards the curriculum. With education being overhauled, we look at the short history of the Media and communication organs in the era of the ANC-led government.
The History of the Media in the Age of ANC-led Democracy
The New Media Structure under Apartheid:
The KAF Democracy Repot of 2005 further informs us thus: South Africa enjoys a great rage of local and national independent media compared to other countries on the continent. The National Broadcaster, The South African Broadcasting Corporation (SABC) owns 21 radio station of which several broadcast in the country's 12 official languages. SABC also own four TV Stations - SABC 123 and SABC Africa, which beams out via satellite company DSTV into the rest of Africa. The independent Communications regulator, ICASA, recently gave SABC two regional television stations that will broadcast local content exclusively in the country's indigenous languages.
There are 80 functional community radio stations operating in the country's 9 provinces; a recently published White Paper has been published which proposes the framework for the establishment of community television in the country. There are 14 private commercial radio operators that broadcast in a range of formats from adult contemporary music, to jazz, classical music, youth and current affairs. The footprint stretches across major metropolitan areas and provinces.
However, no private commercial radio station have been licensed to compete wit the public broadcaster monopoly. Recently, during the past two years leading to 2010, SABC has been embroiled in corruption wherein about R10-billion has been lost and the ANC has decided to insert their Man at the helm of the organization, and this has had some form of chilling affect and the giant monopoly is still facing an uncertain direction in its programing and management, that is, as of the writing of this Hub.
KAF Report continues: "E-TV is the country's only licensed free to air alternative programming to that of SABC. MNET is the country's only terrestrial pay-TV channel, while DSTV is a subscription TV Bouquet, broadcast via satellite to South Africa and several African Countries. Both MNET and DSTV are owned by Media Group Naspers, which is also a major publisher of South Africa Newspapers and Magazines."
This entity will also be given a brief historical look so as to understand its role in contemporary Media environment or ecology within South Africa and elsewhere. Nearly 20 daily independent newspapers titles are published in the country's commercial hubs and provinces. Only a handful of daily and weekly titles are circulated throughout the country , and this is due to the high costs of distribution. In 2001, an estimated 147 free sheets of 'knock and drop' papers became affiliated the now defunct Community Press Association.
These knock and drop titles, have a majority of them now owned by the media group, Caxton, are now being distributed freely to urban dwellers, generally those in affluent neighborhoods and districts. Newspapers are still a source of information for some urban dwellers that the buying and reading of newspaper is still one that is deeply entrenched in the urban readers.
Radio is till a very popular medium amongst South Africans, and it provides news, weather, musical programs, talk shows and religious services and music to a very part of the South African population. The KAF Democracy Report informs us that: "Radio is dominated by the three largest players, Kagiso, Primedia and African Media Enterprises, and newspapers by the print giants, Naspers, Johncom, Independent News and Caxton.
"These companies have diversified their interests into other media areas as well, including outdoor advertising, cinema and film distribution, advertising sales, Internet Publishing and magazines. Several are are looking northwards and intend to expand their empires into the rest of Africa."
The KAF Report continues to add that: "No political party own its own newspaper, except of the Ilanga, a newspaper printed in Zulu in KwaZulu Natal the Mandla Matla Trust, it is owned by the Inkatha Freedom Party. Although it is claimed that the owners do not interfere in the title's editorial independence, but the paper's allegiances are sometimes question due to its political Affiliation " Community ownership of newspapers in South Africa, along with TV and Radio, are still out of the question.
In essence, the structure of the media as it has been crafted under Apartheid, transitioned as it was into the new Age of the ANC-led government for the past 16 years.
When it comes to the Internet, the KAF Democracy Report states: "Political parties have used the Internet as an inexpensive means of disseminating their opinions in the public domain, with the ANC's online newsletter, ANC Today, becoming primary reading material for any political journalists. There is no censorship for online newspapers, the majority of which are shovelware for their print counterparts.
"The South Africa Advertising Research Foundation's All Media Products Survey(AMPS) estimates that almost 28 million people tune in to radio(of this figure, community radio accounts for about 4.5 million listeners) Due to the high costs of access, however, the Internet remains an elite medium.
"Research company, Worldwide Worx estimates that approximately 3.5 million South Africans (about 7.5 per cent of the total population) have access to the internet. The cost of television sets and the limitations of signal distribution means nd access to electircity mean only 14.6 million South Africans have access to television.
"An audience media survey conducted by South African NGO Genderlinks to look at news and current affairs consumption patterns among men and women in South Africa showed that: 49 per cent of women and 40 per cent of men get their main news fix from television [very often: 4], 34 per cent of men and women regard radio as the primary news source [often: 3] and 21 per cent of men and 15 per cent of women use newspapers 9 [occasionally: 2]. The Internet, by contrast is almost never used." (Berger)
Also as distinct from the pre-Apartheid era, the 1990s saw the rise of the Internet as another mass medium. While access in South Africa remans limited only mainly to the middle class white community, this outlet — with its participative dimension — has meant another way in which different views can be expressed, debated and disseminated. The state has generally sought to improve access to the use of ICTs through the development of multi-purpose centers in Townships and rural areas.
There is no censorship of the Internet though the Interception and Monitoring Act does allow the government to snoop on people's Internet usage and email among other things. Low internet access (about 3.5 million) is a consequence of poor government planning and a telecommunications monopoly by Telkom that has seen South Africans reportedly pay the highest on average call cost in the world.
Over the decade, there has been a drastic change in the media freedom environment. Government and media have attempted to engage constructively with each other, especially at national level through the South African National Editors Forum. However, tensions between government and the Fourth Estate do persist. Since 2000, a number of positive legislative changes have occurred which strengthen the media. These include the establishment of the Media Development and Diversity Agency (MDDA) and the promulgation of a Freedom of Information Act.
In broadcasting, the publication of position papers on ownership and control of broadcasting services, local content quotas, regional and community television broadcasting, subscription broadcasting services and convergence legislation should strengthen and guide the sector and bolster South Africa's position as a world class broadcaster. Up to now, there was virtually no fear of repression, but there was trouble for the media looming in the immediate future: Media tribunal....
Hiding Bad Governance Behind Draconian Laws
South Africans, through the financing model at SABC, are inundated with cheap US programming and less indigenous talent, despite the local content quota. In the past few years, SABC wanted to separate itself into commercial and public service wings, with profits from government subsidizing SABC. This complex disentangling has been complicated by the fact that the public service wings will still carry advertising.
Overall, the impact of this funding model on democracy in the narrow sense is not necessarily negative. However, it means insufficient resources for programming in diverse languages, this could have repercussions on the language of empowerment and on the informational divide amongst citizens in South Africa. Another factor that endangers the credibility of journalism in South Africa has been the increasing commercialism of the media industry. Even SABC as a public broadcaster is substantially skewed in its contents due to this dynamic.
Part of this picture has also been an indiscriminate 'dumbing down' of content, and increase in sensationalism. But overall, the subsidized media — including SABC - are independent and critical towards the government, but to a point. Further, the democratic standing of the media has been undermined by numerous violations of the boundary between advertising and editorial or programming content. Further, to an individual, editors complain about how much they have to concentrate on the business side of the media, such as on sales or on attracting audiences as ends in themselves, at the expense of being able to focus on editorial content and its intrinsic value.
This situation in turn reflects the historical decline in the power of the editors — who nowadays report to a Chief Executive Officer (CEO) or to a board. Editing content is now often subservient to commercial agendas, and democratic consideration come second . (KAF Democracy Report 2005) Some now feel that the new government, because of its dysfunctional role as a government, is now using the Media tribunal as a deflection from the malfunctioning of its state policies.
The state that the government is hiding its bad governance behind draconian laws akin to those of the Apartheid era. Joe Thloloe puts it this way: "The started in the early 1960s when the National Party government was threatening to regulate the media in the same way the ANC is doing now. To ward off that threat, the industry decided to create a media council."
Thloloe adds: "It is much of a political game than a real issue. There is no way of strengthening the Ombudsman as it is now functioning. The suggestions that are being thrown in the ANC Alliance at this point do not make sense. The jailing of journalists is absolute rubbish. Fining publications is a possibility, I don't think it will serve to improve the quality of journalism out.
"The sad thing is that if they go ahead, it will mean the taxpayers' money, as well as money from the newspapers, will be spent on lawyers fighting the matter right up to the Constitutional Court. I believe very firmly that the Constitutional Court will not uphold the statutory tribunal for the simple reason that it goes against the principles enshrined in the Constitution."
"The present government is not addressing issues of corruption, cronyism, nepotism and the tenderpreuners scandals that are putting it in a bad light both locally and internationally. This have made the poor Africans and other minorities in a tenuous position." John Porter on the M&G public comment boxes wrote: "The ANC have absolutely no bloody clue how to govern, or what government means, or how it works or what a democracy is."
To say something like 'we to have a right to express ourselves,' (as echoed by Mthembu when addressing the press in Johannesburg), is utterly farcical. This really beggars belief and shows the kind of stupidity we are dealing with since the ANC sees itself as a party, as state, as liberators, as the public — as running all aspects of South African civil society. This kind of arrogance is bordering on lunacy — clearly we see the delusional ANC for what it is. The ANC has lost the plot, and there is no hope as long as they are in power.
New Threat To Media Freedom
The Mail and Guardian reports that, "The Law Society of south Africa (LSSA) on Friday expressed concern about the draft Protection of Information Bill and the proposed Media Tribunal, saying they were 'unconstitutionally suspect'." Max Boqwana and Peter Horn said in a joint statement that the two measures threatened to undermine press freedom, which was a fundamental pillar of democracy. They said that the draft Bill and tribunal had the potential to erode transparency, accountability by public officials, and the public's right of access to information and media freedom.
They also saw the Bill as suffering several defects which rendered it Constitutionally suspect and which needed further consideration. The stated that it was so broad that it could potentially cover every aspect of a citizen's life. The thresholds for classification set out in the Bill were unacceptably low and would allow for information to be classified on the basis of harm that was hypothetical and speculative. For example, a document could be deemed as "classified" it "maybe harmful" to the "national interest". Mail and Guardian, 2010)
The Bill allowed classification of commercial information held by the state, including commercial information belonging to private companies. (Maybe this includes Naspers, whose information and connections to the world economy and media, and the ANC will be discussed bellow — my addition). Boqwana and Horn say that the Bill also did not provide for an independent oversight mechanism to review classification decisions.
It has thus left the final decisions in this regard in the hands of state officials who might well have an interest in continuing to conceal certain information. The Bill would further legislate a number of criminal offenses, without proposing any public interest indemnity or these criminal offenses. The result is that the offenses will inevitably censor the publication of matters of public interest by the media and others.
Whereas the LSSA recognizes the legitimate need for every government to take steps to protect information that is crucial for national security, such legislation should be narrowly tailored and should not be drafted in a manner that fails to take into account the important role played in a democracy by the media, and indeed every citizen who seeks to expose corruption, nepotism,hypocrisy and maladministration," Boqwana and Horn said.
The Mail and Guardian continues quoting Boqwana and Worn who went on to add that they accepted that the media had a duty to report fairly, objectively and responsively. This was so in view of the powerful position the media occupied in society, However, the LSSA was greatly concerned bout the suggestion that the media required external regulation.
They say that what appears to be envisaged is a government-appointed 'independent' tribunal which would serve as a forum for appealing decision made by the press ombudsman, and which would be accountable to parliament. The fact that the tribunal would be accountable to Parliament was cold comfort. Ultimately what this would amount to, was, government oversight over the media, which could not be countenanced in a democratic state.
Looking at the media today, one sees a self-targeting and self-selecting media of the wealthy classes with papers like the Sunday Times, The Argus and the Mail and Guardian. According the David J. Smith:
"They don't speak to ordinary people of this country. You and me may think of ourselves as everyday blokes, the man on the street, but we are not. We have the Internet, we have a street, we have a house and a car and all that.
"I am talking about the guy who walks the street, catches a taxi to work, gets his pay cheque in a manila envelope, has an ID book and not a passport. These are the people who can actually change governments in this country, these are the people who brought down the last government and they can bring down this government.
"But the only newspapers aimed at them are hokey tabloids like the Daily Sun and Die Son. Papers that think a story if a headless chicken possessed by demons is more interesting than a government possessed by demons.
"Even a paper like the Sowetan that does a fairly good job of straddling the middle class and the working class , spends most of its energy covering celebrity news and glitzy bling blah. If the media is going to actually make a dent and fight corruption, it needs to speak to JZ's voter base.
"The people who are NOT reading this blog post on their boss's dime. Tell them why our government is rubbish, talk to them about the corruption that runs through the halls of Parliament. Speaking to people like me and you is like backing the DA. A waste of time.
"If the media is going to actually make a dent and fight corruption, it needs to tell the people why our government is rubbish and what it is not doing and doing that which is right and wrong." The people are smart enough to sort out the information disseminated to them, along with their own personal experiences inserted,by them, in the mix and midst of their analysis of the news, or reportage."
This proposed Information Bill proposed by the ANC has proponents pointing out that this Bill is unconstitutional because freedom of the press is enshrined in the Constitution. They add that it is essential for any liberal democracy to have a free press and an independent one. They observe that it is against the Constitution for the ruling party to insulate itself into the organ of the state, and in the process distance themselves further away from their constituents. They thus cite:
A Case For African Media Consumers
Financial models also impact on the democratic role of the public broadcaster. The SABC draws most of its revenue from advertising; license fees just yields 13%. This is not only unpopular with commercial broadcasters, who resent amongst other things the power of the corporation to bulk market its outlets to advertisers. It has also attracted severe criticism from civil society, and even from the ANC, for what is seen as a commercial agenda that compromises public service programming — especially in regard to transmission in the minority languages of news presentation and programming, this doe to the country's 12 official tongues, and the people who speak this language.
This in a way creates a chasm of news dissemination, distribution and consumption of information (news , etc.) between the minority language speakers who are targeted by the press, and the majority 9 language speakers of the country. Some accuse the majority in their news dissemination, of incidents, true or false, that might happen(as in the case of Xenophobia) and other accusatory news or information, to sell papers, and misinform their minority consumers(A legacy of news presentation and reportage acquired during the Apartheid Era). Unathi, below, presents the African side of media dissemination, consumption and analysis as it pertain to the Africans in South Africa.
Unathi Qondile, after question the media's dissemination of Xenophobia stories that the press had been trying to spread post-World Cup, addresses the question of the media and its ignoring of Africa people and painting a picture that does not exist about them:
"It takes a sick soul to conjure up xenophobia rumors; it takes even a sicker media to spread such news without taking into account the foreseeable impact. I have long held the view that the media in South Africa has no bearing or relation to the majority of this country. It serves a minority and whenever it does attempt to serve the majority,it is to relay moral panic and instill fear for or against the actual majority(Africans-my addition). For example, there is this overriding perception that there is more crime in the suburbs and white people are targeted in the cities.
And as such, one will find that most crime reporting tends to lean towards Rolex gangs, drive-way shootings, etc. Yet, I can for a fact state that there is more crime in the rural areas and townships than there is in cities regardless of proportions or relativity theories. You just do not find those day-to-day stories in the media. They are insignificant. No 'public-worthy' [public- minorities]. So, why the particular fascination with xenophobic attacks? For as long as 1997, I have known foreign nationals to be not welcome in townships.
Terms such as 'makwerekwere' were even in Boom Shaka(and Brendas's my addition) songs in the 1990s discussing the matter of foreign nationals in black communities. But get this: "In 2000 or thereabout, a South African general dealer and bar owner I knew was hijacked, dragged in his store, robbed, tied up and burnt together with his store. In Centane, Ngqamakwe and surrounds black South Africa shop owners or farmers carry 9mm pistols under the 'bakkie' seats.
They tend to buy 'bakkies' that are similar in color - white or cream to avoid being easily targeted. "Amakhwenkwe aselalini abhokile" is what they say. By day the perpetrators are drugged out shy boys loitering the streets of townships. By night, none dare cross their path - ask the local men, who are shot dead by kids no older than 14 years, on weekends, in Butterworth and its surrounds - they are dead."
Unathi further adds: "Ask a few local bottle store owners how many times their patrons have been shot dead or told to lie down as teir bars and shops are looted in broad daylight. I know of one that's been looted more than ten times and the owner won't budge. Still there, in Msobomvu township. Ask a few houses how many times they've been robbed this year alone. Ask how many children and grandmothers have been raped. Ask many young men have been ripped apart for their internal organs. Ask. Ask. Ask. Ask,
"These are the stories of African South Africans, which are untold and largely irrelevant to the media's agenda. So, when foreign nationals enter these already ill communities, what do they expect? The matter is exacerbated by non-South African-ness. Your outsider status becomes a convenient excuse. And any form of ascending towards self sustenance, beyond the locals, in the midst of their poverty is what gets you targeted. It's not about where you come from; it's about what you have. The 'haves' versus the 'have-nots.
"And various senseless indiscriminate crimes driven by a sense of moral degeneration and decay also occur[From the days of Grand apartheid, to now-my addition]. This is the daily hustle of the Township and rural dwellers regardless of media categorizations of victims. These are the realities of those communities. Some have less, some have more. So, I ask again, why is the media particularly engrossed with reporting on xenophobia as just plainly xenophobic in it's manifestations?"
Unathi concludes: "I have also come to the conclusion that recent reports on the looming xenophobic attacks after the World Cup are dangerously misguided. It is understandable that xenophobic behavior is ongoing in townships. It is also understandable, in my terms, that the media stokes them. The concept of a media is something that was let behind when democracy was snatched in 1994. It was overlooked and left largely untransformed in 'ownership' and 'agenda setting'. Therein lies the problem.
"People who run these 'things' do not understand how black rural South Africans consume the media. If they do, they have a wry way of showing it. I have, through research in days bygone, naturalistically as possible observed how in our culture,which is rich in narrative and story-telling techniques, nothing is as awe-inspiring as 'Indaba'(News) or Amabali. The Daily Sun's sales prove this over and over. Let alone the word-of-mouth added coverage Public service broadcaster news prove this over and over.
"In the process of consumption there is a lot of discussion, story telling and over-analyzing. Go sit in a train and you'll be amazed at the intense manner in which media subjects are handled in vernacular(local indigenous languages) I just don't know how African journalists cannot articulate this? Are they trapped and contained in rigid Western inverted-triangle ways of telling"
Unathi finally clarifies: "There is a different pattern of transmission and of understanding catchy headlines for such markets. 'Here comes Xenophobia!' — literally means, it's coming and we must therefore unite and align ourselves with whomever is pursuing it. New literally set their agenda. So when newspapers start the liturgy of 'Xenophobia Attacks After World Cup,' I am quite sure many of the prospective perpetrators weren't aware of such, but took it as a fact. Yes, there was always xenophobic tension and post 2008 nostalgia."
Such headlines, thereafter, get discussed in trains,emotions run high and Bobs-your-uncle you have hate. Yes, I blame the media. The media sees this agenda based on their expectations of post World Cup drama(strikes, violence, etc.), because there was a guiding mentality of lets-behave-until-the-end-of-the-world-cup, which was sadly set by the government in its pronunciations against BRT and Taxi strikes, you name them. It is sad that after the unifying experience of the World Cup, these people now have to sit in trains discussing xenophobic headlines.
"'Shit stirrers,' at best, is how one can define this day's media. Don't get me wrong, I am not saying ours is a dumb consumer market. But I am saying ours is a culture that is initiated to destructive, cynical and Western notions of relaying news in vapid angles. Such that in isi-Xhosa, one could go as far as say, at first glance, "indima yeMedia kukuthelekisa* — sadly value will be lost in translation, so I won't translate, it's along the lines of the 'media fuels fight'*. All I am saying is that "Xenophobia attacks" headlines give people a vocabulary and psyches them up. Careful, the power of a world is a culture whose words are littered with ambiguity."
Unathi in the end observes: "The media, in its powerful role, is operating on an oblivious plane in this country and is not mindful to the difference and ways of relaying news. As such, you will, without fail, constantly find politicians of the 'new dispensation' blaming the media, but unable to pin-point the exact nature of the problem. Well, let me tell you that the problem lies in the wording, tone and underlying suppressed ideologies[and 'memes'-my addition]. The facts might be correct, but the toe and wording is what breaks it down.
African culture of uBuntu does not espouse the subtle unpatriotic vitriolic ways of address. This might all seem glaringly anti-textbook journalism, it is. The media, its codes of conduct and general guidelines are not cast in stone and as such we need to work on ways that are all-inclusive and not necessarily civic in its duty, but striving towards the restoration of unity in south Africa. We are a healing nation, sensitive to long-standing shrewd media ways of the West.
For as long as we have demons of typing R2.00 per word articles/scripts, we are still far from the ideals of an African media renaissance (Unathi Kondile, Media Flaws, July 2010) Unathi is in total agreement with David Smith. The media needs to change its ways of news gathering and information dissemination to the majority poor, without any prejudices and biases. In so doing, the media will be well on the way towards helping South Africans more informed and equipped better to deal with their present situation
The Real Beginning: Media Tribunal
It is a bit clearer now that the history of the press and contemporary media organs that not much not changed. The new government is in cahoots, also in service of the past Apartheid media in using the African majorities through suggestive 'memes', and follow up that one two punch by blaming the victims they lured and manipulated using commercial media techniques. Helga Jansen says that we did not guard our democratic freedom jealously and vigorously. She goes on to say that:
"Beyond the activism of media workers and NGOS, all of these entities allowed political interests and political actors do it for us by letting them stand guards at the gates of a metaphorical constitutional hill, and watch out for those who will trample the hallowed grounds of democracy." Then she plunges in to this pitch: "Throughout this has been an 'independent' media, free to take up the baton for our responsibility towards our democracy. We allowed the media to become the "unofficial" opposition. The "serious journalism" of the 'trashy tabloids' and the "acres of middle-class whingeing" confirmed our worst nightmares, a black ruling party would degenerate into a banana kleptocracy.
"The trashy tabloids dulled any reporting or portrayal of working-class political opposition, while the English-speaking dailies entrenched racial fears of 'the other' through horror stories of black criminals violating innocent middle-class victims. Service-delivery failures, HIV/Aids denialism, the rape trials, and corruption tribulations of Zuma and other in the black government, and the imminent failure of the First African World Cup - these 'true' stories sold the newspapers." They also enticed the new government into assessing its increased chances of clamping-down on the media.
Helga Jansen talks about the interplay between the Government and the Commercial Media Moguls as follows: "The anti-government trend is not new in South African mainstream print media. This does not mean that genuine media investigative journalism into the irregular use of state resources is not needed, and necessary. But what passes as good journalism? Are our news rooms a healthy balance between journalistic experience and youthful enthusiasm or is it just youthful arrogance passing itself off as political journalism? However, as Jeremy Cronin calls it" '
"The oppositionist inclination is the media's view that it is the watchdog over those in power [usually those in political rather than economic power].' As deep disappointment and growing anger towards the African National Congress, seethed and settled, so the "independent" media fed this anger. And as they uncovered one 'truth' after another about the ANC, in the name of media freedom, they also sold newspapers by the ton loads, and helped shape our political and national identities, and perhaps also reinforced our prejudices, our Afro-pessimism. We brought this threat of the media on ourselves."
The core issue revolves around whether media people should behave as journalists first and foremost, and political beings second, and indeed what kind of journalists they should be — watchdogs or development journalists. Most media, today, out of their own volition, support the government, though there are a number of exceptions to the support. For example, reportage on government policy on HIV-Aids and Zimbabwe had been almost universally negative. I contrast, there has been almost no critical debate about the government's orientation on economics. Instead, criticism of the latter has been about the implementation of policy rather than its intrinsic nature.
This is not to say that journalists' limited coverage of this issue means that they have become ideologues for the government as the commercial press has been like throughout apartheid rule. Coverage of issues such as government race-related redress policies is often robust. There are regular instigations into corruption or cronyism. There is thus in general no love lost between the media and the government, and there remains enormous suspicion amongst the ruling party politicians about the motives of what is still often seen as a "white-orientated and controlled media". This is what Mthembu talked about below, the overwhelming white ownership of print media which needs to be discussed as they will be talking about the media tribunal in September.
However, there are four areas of social life and identity that color journalism was not always conducive to democracy These are race, nationality, class and gender. In one sense the media can be said to be part of a broad thrust of nation building, in its effort to help construct a sense of a democratic and unitary South Africanism, notwithstanding, rifts and conflicts framed in racial terms. Three specific issues of social prejudice, however, continue to challenge the media's role in mediating, if not exacerbating(as discussed in Unathi's article above), social tensions.
The first is xenophobia against foreigners from other African countries, using language that tarnishes entire nations in the process. The second challenge is that a major continuing factor underpinning racial division in the society is economic inequality, and there the media have done little to help address the stark disparities in income between racial groups. While the small black middle class is indeed reported upon, poor people remain almost entirely out of the media loop[one asp recalls Unathi's article above at this point].
A third challenge is that despite the county's progress in advancing the position of women in all areas of life, women are still grossly under-represented in coverage. A study in 2002 revealed that only 19 per cent of news sources were women, and even worse, that black women (who constitute 45 per cent of the population) made up only 7 per cent of the total. Black men jade up 27 per cent f news sources and white men 32 per cent. Although there is some improvement, there's still a long way to go ensuring that the media do a better job in representing both quantitatively and qualitatively the social demographics of race, language, nationality, class and gender.
The ANC Throws Down The Gauntlet
Ineptitude; Inconsistencies; Inexperience
According to Guy Berger: "When the ANC looks at the media, it sees a reality that's quite different to fine-sounding rhetoric about the role of the press. Likewise, when the media looks at the tribunal proposal, it is similarly skeptical about whether the ANC's motives are honorable. At the same time, both perspectives also have telling blind spots:
* The media's critique of the ANC discussion document has, quite symptomatically, largely ignored the proposal around ownership change. (Which the ANC is now raising now of late)
* Meanwhile, the ANC document has absolutely nothing to say about the political and economic crises which have wrecked the SABC for the past three years.
In his article, "Taking the ANC Media Tribunal at Face Value" Guy Berger goes on to say: "
To start with, the discussion document says that the ANC respects media freedom. It calls for journalism that reflects on "how our souls are being poisoned by the spirit of conspicuous consumption in a socio-economic formation that encourages greed(..eh! The pot calling the kettle black! Uh-oh! — my addition) One would have therefore thought that the exposes of high living would have been welcomed. Instead, however, the document motivates for the tribunal by proposing that "many who find themselves 'in the news' are unhappy about the way their story has been presented or the way journalists have obtained information."
It adds that "people need recourse when media freedom trampled their rights to dignity and privacy". (So, does "people", in this case maybe means ANC executives or what?"- my insertion) Berger continues to press on ahead: "Yet, supposing the document's authors genuinely see the tribunal as being in the broad public (rather than the narrow party("allegiance?"-interests, what is their reasoning? Here are the key assumptions embedded in their case:
* Unlike broadcasting, print media remains untransformed in terms of ownership and hence the newspapers retain an ideological outlook contrary to the ANC's within the "battle of ideas".
* This situation,combined with commercialization and ethical corruption, produce negative journalism. According to the discussion document, to date any journalist who "dared to acknowledge progress in the service delivery and government performance was condemned by peers as a lapdog".
*The masses do not have access to, or redress from, newspapers, hence diversity is limited. In particular, the existing self-regulation system is simply a self-serving gimmick by the press. My italics - Refer back to the citation I offered of Unathi Kondile)
* Contrary to all this, newspapers should be "instruments of transformation" in building a better South Africa.
* The ANC is a united political force guided by progressive values, enjoys a popular mandate and can be trusted to set things right. (?!) (Guy Berger, Mail & Guardian, 2010)
Helga Jansen quips: "The ANC too, however, played its part in creating the kind of media we have. We watched as our economy swayed from serving the people to serving "the ANC's embrace of neoliberal policies in the late 1990s — the ANC pursued a largely market-led approach to media transformation". The foreign and largely white-owned print media reconsolidated after the mid-1990s and regained an entrenched foothold as the only kids on the print media bloc.
Black print ownership was edged out of the market though enormous costs of printing, and their own debt-funded equity — think the rise, and quick demise of This Day. Over the years the ANC has pursued an anti-media diversity path, despite paying lip-service to the contrary. According to Media activist, Jane Duncan, there are several instances when the ANC rejected legislated levy fund for the Media Development and Diversity Agency, which was designed to ensure media diversity, was left powerless and underfunded.
The South African Broadcasting Corporation has been known to 'dump uneconomic audiences' in favor of those who attracted 'Ad Spend'. Community radio stations, instead of serving communities, chased the government and commercial advertising [cash]? — To remain afloat. So far, the ANC has been in the same boat as the paper moguls and the Ad agencies and so on.
The ANC Pushes Back
The ANC posted on its Website: "ANC Condemns Attack on Cabinet Ministers and Deputy Ministers Staying in Hotels":
The African National Congress (ANC) condemns as sensationalism of the highest order the perpetuation by some sections of the mainstream, that some Cabinet Ministers and Deputy Ministers were wasting taxpayers' money by staying in "luxury" hotels while their State allocated houses were being refurbished by the Department of Public Works. This Media obsession with the so-called "luxury" as seen in reports about several ministers and deputy ministers, among other Higher Education Minister Blade Nzimande, Police Minister Nathi Mthethwa, communications Minister Siphiwe Nyanda, Deputy Communications Minister Dina Pule, who have stayed in hotels while their state allocated homes were being refurbished, reflects a dangerous trend in news reporting without establishing facts to back up the "wasteful expenditure" charge. The Facts are:
1. In line with the Ministerial Handbook and prescripts governing public representatives, Cabinet Ministers, Member of Parliament (MPs), provincial MECs and Members of Provincial Legislatures [MPLs] are entitled to stay in hotels while their permanent accommodation is not yet ready for occupation.
2. Ministers, MPs, MECs and MPLs are entitled to accommodation to be able to effectively carry out their public duties wherever they are.
3. There is nothing immoral, illegal or unconstitutional in public representatives staying in hotels as this is no breach of the Public Finance Management Act (PFMA) or the provisions of the Ministerial Handbook.
4. Regardless of political affiliation, MPs and MPLs have stayed in hotels when their State allocated accommodation was either being refurbished or not readily available.
The question that we should be asking is what informs this kind of reporting is merely meant to tarnish the public image of ANC representatives and the Ruling ANC. We can only conclude that this confirms our long-held suspicion that there exists a targeted campaign aimed at vilifying ANC ministers and deputy minsters. To stoop as low as to write about what ANC Ministers and Deputy ministers eat when the same cannot be said about members of the opposition parties, smacks of gross bias and abuse of Press Freedom.
This kind of journalism is not only mischievous, but disingenuous due to failure to properly inform the South African society about laws governing accommodation of public representatives.No luxury can be derived in staying and working from a hotel environment where you have no total privacy than staying in a proper home. The ANC appeals to members of the media to educate themselves about legislation governing accommodation of public representatives before jumping into dangerous conclusions. This unbalanced and sensational reporting without fact can only serve to give journalism a bad name, an issue the ANC will certainly take up with the press Ombudsman and other authorities. This excerpt was issued by Jackson Mthembu, National Spokesman on July 18 2010.
Gwede Mantashe posted on the ANC's official website an "ANC Media Statement" on 24 July 2010, which stated the following:
"The National Executive Committee [NEC] of the African National Congress [ANC] met over two days from 22-23 July 2010. The NEAC mainly focused on the preparations for the September National General Council (NGC) and examined urgent issues that required decisions.
The NEC thanked all South Africans,the various structures and formations in society for making the 2010 FIFA World Cup a success. We congratulate Bafana-Bafana(This sounds like stretching the issue further than need be-My addition), the FIFA Local organizing Committee(Still mired in tender scandals?) , SAFA(Was out of the picture, under FIFA), and all South Africans for the successful hosting of the 2010 FIFA World Cup Tournament.
South Africans should be encouraged to make more success in preserving the legacy of the World Cup. Members of the NEC were reminded that before the competition started, a national prayer was held in the Free State and it would therefore be appropriate to organize a thanksgiving prayer(Sounds like an American cultural Holiday from the Red Men-my insertion) for the 'incident-free' and successful world cup competition.
The NEC acknowledged that Bafana-Bafana were ranked 90(no, it was ranked 83, and 66 is still low-no pride here-my addition).It was also agreed that a celebration festival would add the necessary flavor to our celebrations, giving an opportunity to artists[Which? From Where?] and other key stakeholders[Those with Tenders, only to participate?]. The NEC also congratulated Louis Oosthuizen for taking the British Open(Hey, what about Caster Semenya, huh?)
Fienie Grobler reports: "The ruling African National congress [ANC] on Tuesday insisted that it did not want to curtail press freedom with a proposed media appeals tribunal, but warned that print media did not seem committed to transformation. "It is us who can gloat and say the freedom you enjoy is as a result of what we fought for, led by the ANC ... We are not about to reverse our legacy in that area," said Jackson Mthembu, ANC national spokesman.
According to Grobler, Mthembu was briefing the media about ANC's discussion document to set up a media appeals tribunal for the print media, saying the current self-regulatory system of the press ombudsman did not allow for punitive measures. Mthembu continues to add: "The media should not deny the ANC the right to 'put a view to the public'. Does that not amount to messing with our freedom of expression as the ANC? There's a lot of dishonesty ... you can't enter an argument by saying stop an argument.
You are defender of your space. The tribunal would be set up to "assist" editors and the ANC values media freedom. Which part [of the proposal] is unconstitutional? Which part wants to cap media freedom" None of our commas, none of our sentences, none of our wording has that ... it would not be allowed in South Africa. We are the people who fought for the freedom you enjoy today ... some of us died for it. We have put our view before you, and it is our right."
Mthembu, according to Grobler, said that the discussion document did not evolve around the proposed tribunal, but also looked at media ownership. Mthembu said: "Print media does not have, nor is in a process of developing a transformational charter, despite the the regrettable degree of transformation. Media24 had a 15% historically disadvantaged individual(HDI) ownership and AVUSA 25.5%."
We(the ANC) have proposed the Competition Commission 'investigate the anti-competitive dynamics' in the print-media value chain, that is paper, printing,publishing, distribution and advertising. (But what Mthembu is not saying is the relation of Naspers, with its ownership of Media 24 were in cahoots and it is explained below how this was happening)The ANC believes a media appeal tribunal was necessary to regulate the media, and would be similar to how broadcast media was regulated by the Independent Communications Authority of South Africa.
The NEC came to the conclusion that there an exaggeration and sensationalism on the possibility of Xenophobic attacks. Security forces were commended for the intervention in containing the threat(Which one? Where? How? Any perpetrators?). The ANC branches were directed to be part of all the efforts to fight xenophobia(This is what Unathi Kondile was talking about. It was not only the press that was fomenting these xenophobic issues, but the government too) Mantashe goes on to discuss the Chikane files and says: "The NEC has noted the articles written by Rev.Chikane that appeared in the Independent Newspapers recently. It is in the character of the ANC to promote freedom of speech and free circulation of ideas and information within the ANC and broader society.
However, the publication of the Chikane files, especially aspects that purport to report in a distorted fashion NEC meetings when Rev. Chikane was not even present, is viewed in a very serious light(Meaning? Is this part of those who will fall under the media tribunal?) We therefore, call on our members and our people to be cautious in reading the Chikane files as they are not a gospel truth(this is vague, and not saying much) of the events that have unfolded in the recent past. As an ANC leader and member, the officials of the ANC, we will seek an audience with him(will the outcome be reported)? It seems like the ANC is saying that if you write something that we do not like, we will tell you what we want you to write that we like.
Repeat After Me...…
According to Staff Reporter of M&G and SAPA, The South African Communist Party General Secretary, Blade Nzimande, "South Africa's media posed a threat to democracy" speaking at the party's 89th anniversary celebrations in Rustenburg in Northwest on Sunday. Blade Nzimande, who holds the post of Minister of Higher Education and Training, described the self regulatory press Ombudsman as "toothless and useless" said: We know the importance of free media because it was the communist that went to jail for that. But we want a media tribunal that will hold journalists accountable. If there is one serious threat to our democracy, it is the media that is accountable to itself.
Does this mean that the media will have to repeat what they official prattle was about According to the Staff reporter, Joe Thloloe, the Ombudsman, warned on Friday that a tribunal would be an "imposition" on media freedom Joe added: "Any system imposed from outside the press itself will be an imposition and in violation of the Constitution. I was saying we were getting two different positions.
"The one, from Polokwane, that there will be an investigation into the possibility of a media tribunal ... But also, another position or is it [the tribunal] going ahead. I was told they are going to recommend that Parliament will do an investigation, and I would be happy to participate in the investigation, but what worries us are people who have already made up their minds."
According to the M&G, Business Day's Editor Peter Bruce, who said he will not be attending the meeting scheduled for Tuesday with the ANC, wrote, I just don't want to be part of any meetings whose object is make my country less of a democracy. If I go, and if other editors go, it will merely legitimize the ANC wants to do anyway — they will be able to say they 'consulted' with the media. But not, at least, with me. This is not Vichy," Wrote Bruce.
The way the media gobbles up African newspapers, it is in the same manner as described above in the History of Apartheid Media. Not much has really changed if one were to rewind the facts presented above about how the media was put into the service Apartheid during the rule of the Nats, as the press is now be made to kow-tow to the whims of a self-aggrandizing and greedy predatory government ruling South Africa today.
As noted from Berger above, the document of the ANC says that it was voted into power on a platform of services that the government should deliver: job creation, rural development, land reform, better education and health, and combating crime and corruption. It observes: "It's not the stuff that sells newspapers and make news, but they are what people want. What is not highlighted is that people do not read 'pro-government "good news" newspapers, which makes for a problematic business model."
More generally, the document proposes that because the ANC stands for progressive change, "We must take change to ensure they dominate the national discourse and that our voice is heard clearly above the rest". This admission is made unashamed, because it assumes the correctness of the self-regarding view that the ANC is singular and that it intrinsically represents the public interests. Albert Camus wrote: "The slave begins by demanding justice and end by wanting to wear a crown. We must dominate in his turn." George Orwell in Animal farm stated:
"The creatures outside looked from pig to man, and from man to pig, and from pig to man again; but already it was impossible to say which was which." In the final analysis, the new government seems to e headed in the direction of telling the media what to print, show or say, or face the consequences of a media tribunal. We should not forget that in every case, throughout history, once power has been obtained,the ideals used to gain power fall away"
Media Police and Policing
The Hawks, who have replaced the Scorpions, arrested a Sunday Times Journalist called Mzilikazi wa Africa, dubbed a "very shady journalist". Sunday Times Editor, Hartley, say that was Africa was arrested by a large number of policemen in an operation which was clearly designed to intimidate the media. Mandy Rossouw of M&G writes: "The media appeals tribunal mooted by the ANC could include measures to imprison journalists of force them to pay millions of Rands in fines," said the party's national spokesman.
"If you have to go to prison, let it be. If you have to pay millions for defamation, let it be. If journalists have to be fired because they contribute to the South Africa we want, let it be," retorted Mthembu. He said they have no intentions of they won't change the constitution, thus changing the international perception of their government. "We are the authors of that Constitution. We have no intention of changing it," he said(M&G, 2010).
He intones: "Our impression is that the media has more freedom than all the freedoms that all of us enjoy. Media freedom superceeds all other freedoms." Mthembu felt that the current system of self-regulation by the Ombudsman was insufficient because it did not provide for sanctions. Mthembu pointed out that, "There are people who go out to smear other people and you have no way of sanctioning that," he said. "Some media reports don't go down well."
Some point out to the fact that the press has behaved irresponsibly on several levels:
- South African paparazzi journalists are free to hound law abiding citizens Brenda Fassie even made a song about them
- Slander Public officials at will, especially during the elections
- Concoct fake interviews to create Hysteria with total impunity(See Unathi's excerpt above)
- Journalistic standards are cast aside because there is no oversight by the media watchdog groups
- Pursue partisan agendas at the expense of broader public interest since South African media is owned and controlled by a single media conglomerate(Nasper, maybe?)
Following the reports on the hotel stays of the communications minister, Siphiwe Nyanda, the police minister, Nathi Mthetwa, and the higher education minister and communist Party boss, Blade Nzimande, the ANC released a statement lambasting the media for reporting on such matters. According to Mthembu, "The ANC had merely noted the initial reports, thinking that the media would see the folly in their ways. But we saw it was becoming a pattern and certain ministers are being singled out and we had to say something." The fire eating and breathing Malema said:
"There will be no debate over establishing a Media Appeals Tribunal. "We have already decided. We want Parliament to appoint a tribunal and make it law," stated Malema. Malema said that the Press Ombudsman could not be a player and a referee at the same time. Malema said that media should be regulated, in front of 500 delegates at the Free State ANCYL conference in Bloemfontein wherein he stated: "These people are dangerous. They write gossip and present it as facts." He said that the media destroyed the political career of ANC treasurer general, Mathews Phosa, on a rumor.
He argued that the press must "respect" the decision of the Conference, and anyone who disrespected and disrupted any Youth League conferences should be expelled from the party."(M&G) One has to start wondering who is the "Youth in the ANC Youth League". I guess that since its formation, the Youth League, still has the original members, who are now in the National Executive Council(Old Men), considered to be "Youth," To me, Malema and his cabal are not "Youth in the strictest sense of the word and meaning. It smacks of a cover for something else.
This can be gleaned in what he has been saying in regard to the proposed Tribunal. I think the youth have a lot on their minds and life to be worried about the Press Council; how about jobs, better education, housing, security, libraries, labs, better teachers, better curriculum, better and well organized sporting associations and teams, cultural and customary practices for the youth, drug rehabilitation enclaves and mentoring the youth on government and local governance, and so forth. Whilst the ANC and its supporters are busy chasing the Media around and trying to clamp it down, it would be fitting at this juncture to talk about the Case of Naspers and its national and international holdings, along with its relationship with ANC, and try to figure-out who is fooling who here.
Interrogating Naspers: Apartheid Inc.
We have already touched up on the that in 1914, J. B. M. Hertzog who formed the National Party, also formed Nasionale Pers the following year, along with a daily newspaper, De Burger, later known as Die Burger. In 1916 they formed their first magazined, Die Huisgenoot. In 1918, expanding further its book publishing operations, founded Die Burger Boekhandel. D. F. Malan was the one of the driving forces behind the exclusive Afrikaner secret society known as Die Afrikaner Broederbond which stated that: "The Afrikaner shall reach it ultimate destiny of domination in South Africa ... Brothers, our solution for South Africa's troubles is not that this o that party shall gain the upper hand, but that the Afrikaner Broederbond shall rule South Africa."
Medialternatives reports that: "In 1973-1977 The National Government under Vorster tried to purchase the Washington Star, and also set up a slush fund to acquire the Citizen and other English language papers. The Rand Daily Mail exposed this secret operation as the "Information Scandal". In 1984, Naspers acquired the Drum Publications, with titles consisting of City Press, Drum and True Love & Family. As well as a 50% interest in Jane Raphaely & Associates. In 1985, under P. W. Botha, Nasionale Pers entered into an arrangement with Perskor, the media group founded by HF Verwoerd and Publisher of Die Vaderland from an all-white, Afrikaner-owned electronic pay-television media business, called M-Net, the new entity eventually listed on the JSE Securities Exchange (JSE). In 1987, Naspers introduced the English Family magazine, 'You'.
The Underground Government in South Africa
The Case of Naspers:
According to the article by Medialternatives, The Truth And Reconciliation Committee(TRC) set up terms of the Promotion of National Unity and Reconciliation Act, No. 34 of 1995, based in Cape Town. The Commission's mandate was to bear witness to, record and in some cases grant amnesty to the perpetrators of crimes relating to Human rights violations, reparation and rehabilitation. Naspers publications published cartoons depicting Botha as the only man able to stand to the TRC. In 1997, the TRC held a special hearing into the media, comprising four sessions in Johannesburg, (15-17 September 1997). The Afrikaans press declines to make a submission to the Commission. Instead, it provides the commission with a copy of "Oor Grense Heen" the official history of Nasionale Pers(Naspers)This is what Medialternatives has to say about the TRC and Naspers:
"Volume 4 of the Final TRC report [pg. 180] observes: The history conceded that Die Burger, for instance, promoted Verwoerd's ideals of Bantustans from an early stage and that, after Sharpeville, the same newspaper advised that all positive aspects be speeded up. Occasionally, doubts about Apartheid surfaced, but in the main, the book reflects a total lack of concern for the company's support of the racist system. In the TRC's investigation into the role of the Afrikaner Press under Apartheid. Prof. Arrie de Beer appears in his personal capacity as "a former full-time journalist in the Afrikaans Press" and as a university media lecturer and media researcher(session 4) Media alternatives offers some nuggets from the Professor:
"There are many pseudo-legalistic and particularly sarcastically spiteful arguments in the Afrikaans media and elsewhere,why people or institutions should appear before the TRC. These are almost as cynically brutal as the friendly open faces of the people who testified in the Vlakplas and Hani cases as the perpetrators of these deeds, where they chose their words with great circumspection to condone the deeds before the TV and the public. The one point of view which was maintained in the Afrikaans Press, is that everything could be said about this matter has already been said in the Afrikaans language Press, and that adequate writing has taken place on this matter.
This is a question which everybody has to reply to for himself. But I am convinced that everything which the Afrikaner Press did during the apartheid years, collectively or individually, has been adequately answered. If one looks at the collective issue, whether the Afrikaner Press collectively had been keeping mum for too long about [crimes under Apartheid], it is a fact in the heyday of Apartheid years, at least three Afrikaans papers existed which were official mouthpieces of the Nationalist Party, and were involved in the Press group in leading positions and exercised their effect very carefully, and they criticized many people for points of view which are now commonly accepted by the Afrikaans Press as facts of life."(The TRC excerpts on Prof. de Beer's comments as cited by Medialternatives)
In the TRC's final report, Desmond Tutu asks the pertinent question wit Naspers failure to make proper submissions: "Is silence from that to be construed as consent, conceding that it was a sycophantic handmaiden of Apartheid?" However, after the hearing the Commission received some 150 affidavits from individual Afrikaans-speaking journalists:-These acknowledged the important role of the Commission and expressed disappointment at the Naspers decision not to appear:
"They believed that the Afrikaans Press has been an integral part of the structure that had kept Apartheid in place, particularly the way Afrikaans papers had lent their support to the NP during elections.The submissions maintained that, although the papers may not have ben directly involved in violations, they should accept responsibility for what happened because they had helped support the system in which gross human violations occurred."
They said that, "Many Afrikaans journalists were deaf and blind to the political aspirations and sufferings of black fellow South Africans" and did not inform their readers about the injustices of Apartheid. When knowledge about gross human rights violations became public, the journalists felt they had too readily accepted the denials and disingenuous explanations of the NP.
Those who made submissions also sought forgiveness for their lack of action and committed themselves to ensuring that history will not repeat itself." According to the TRC Final report: "Professor Ari de Beer echoed the general tone of these submissions. He said he had felt compelled to approach the Commission because of the revelations at earlier Commission hearings, particularly those of Vlakplaas. Professor de Beer felt that he and may "God-fearing" Afrikaners could not accept personal responsibility for specific gross human rights violations.
Nevertheless, he did feel that there should be an acceptance of individual and collective responsibility for those violations committed under the ideological veil of apartheid, in the name of the Christian religion and Afrikanerdom. He expressed regret for keeping quiet about Apartheid when he knew he should have actively protested it. He challenged those who claim
The TRC, in its final report, condemned the Afrikaans Press as an extension and willing propaganda organ of Apartheid, that the Afrikaans press had nothing to answer for.(Media Alternatives) The Afrikaans Press was condemned in the TRC's Final report for being an extension and willing propaganda organ of Apartheid. By not reporting honestly on the human rights abuses of the NP government, the Afrikaans Press as a whole stands condemned for promoting the superiority of Whites and displaying an indifference to the sufferings of people of color.
Despite a limited number of individuals who rejected the system, and despite examples of resistance to the policy of slavish reporting on government and race related issue to the long history of actively promoting the former state and its policies were minor ones. A Naspers journalist expressed the general antipathy in the following manner: "We must neither deny nor accept the responsibility for Apartheid, since the company's history under Apartheid is public record, there is no need to make a submission, and business continues as usual. Apartheid did not die, it lives on and did its apparatuses morphed into the Mandela government, unscathed. The press continued to carry on business as before the Mandela rule: Blame the Victims and make huge profits selling papers.
The Innards of Naspers
Medialternatives gives us a breakdown of the guts of Naspers as follows:
- In 1997, shortly after the hearings, MIH Lt.., created a highly successful Internet provider, M-Web Holdings, which because of its market capitalization and access to the local loop via contacts within the ANC-NP alliance was able to undercut and drown out the competition. (This is one way the ANC is in cahoots with the past media organs of Apartheid rule-My addition).
- Naspers merged its existing private education activities such as City Varsity and Damelyn College to form Educator Holdings limited — "one of the" leading education providers in South Africa. During the same year, Naspers re-organizes the brands its local print media business as its "Media24" division. The original company stated by JB Hertzog was reorganized into a holding company with five subsidiaries: MIH Holdings. MWEB, Media 24, Nasboek and Educor.
- 1999 - Former UWC vice-chancellor and director in the president's office, Jakes Gerwel was appointed to the Media24 board. *His close association with the cabinet of Thabo Mbeki, and the Nelson Mandela Rhodes Foundation, played a key role in whitewashing the companies egregious history by recasting Naspers' Media24 division as a "blameless and transforming entity."
- After 2000, Naspers rapidly expanded its operations around the globe with a series of acquisitions,mergers and complex listings on various stock markets and international exchanges.
- In May 2001, Naspers acquired a 46.5% interest in Tencent Holdings Limited, the operator of an instant messaging platform in China called QQ, which subsequently developed into the "leading business of its kind in China".
- In a quest to further expands its business in China, the company Acquired a 9.9% interest in Beijing Media Corporation, the , the Publisher of various newspapers such as Beijing Youth Daily and print-related materials. Which included advertising.
- In2002, the First Edition of Daily Sun was Published.
MIH Holdings and MIHL became two wholly owned subsidiaries of Naspers through a series of highly secretive listings/delistings and complex share scheme on the JSE, Nasdaq and elsewhere.
- Naspers created a secondary listing in Nasdaq.
- In subsequent company reports and especially the groups' annual South African report, Media24 sought to portray itself as a "modern, forward looking company which has transformed".
- In February 2005, Naspers acquired the South African Internet interests of service provider Tiscalli. On 31 March of the same year, Naspers prepared for a limited unbundling of its South African operation.
- Naspers Beijing Partner, Beijing Media Corporation Ltd., has been under investigation for alleged corruption and its trading of its shares on the Hong Kong stock exchange was suspended. The Beijing government launched a high-level investigations int alleged briery and corruption in the company.
- In June 2005, the Supreme Court of Appeal handed down its verdict in a sexual harassment case brought by Sonja Grober against the company in 2003. The court found that the company had a duty to protect the trainee manager from harassment.
- The 2006 Media 24 annual report cynically refers to the group's "chain of integrity". In submissions made before South Africa's Labor court with regard to a case of discrimination filed at the CCMA that same year, community journalist David Robert Lewis made the following observation — "considering what we have been told by the TRC and what we know now, this "chain of integrity" is in all reality a "chain of shame."
- Print media, book publishing and private education assets are consolidated in the "Media24 division" apparently "in order to simplify the groups relatively complex structure". The result was the creation of a parallel entity which allows Black Empowerment Groups Welkom Yizani to buy a 15% stake in the Naspers subsidiary "Media24" (a total of 14.6-million shares), while Phuthuma Nathi buys a 15% stake in pay-TV operator "MultiChoice SA" (about 45-million shares)" These share schemes are noting less than dilutions of the company's local subsidiaries in South Africa and do not affect the holding company or its overseas operations in any way.
- In May 2006, Naspers acquired, for US$ 422 million, a 30% interest in the Brazilian media group Editora Abril, publishers of dozens of titles the most important of which being Revista Veja
- In January2007, Naspers acquired a 30% interest in popular mobile chat platform Mxit. Also, in 2007, Noseweek publishers articles critical of Naspers division Educor. In "Degree of Deception" and "Diploma Circus" the magazine questions "Dodgy practices, plagiarism and cover-ups with the help of political influence", and whether journalism degrees from Educor amount to anything more than brainwashing.
- Naspers acquired a 30% interest in a Russian instant messaging service for desktop PCs and mobiles.In November 2007 the company acquired a further 2.6% ofMail.ru
- In March 2008, Kobus Faasen objected to the use of the term 'Bushman' by Die Burger to describe people of mixed race. He lost his case after South Africa's legal system upheld the Apartheid-era system of race classification. (The more things change, the more they stay the same-My observation).
- Naspers acquired Tradus(Listed on the London Stock Exchange), which provided an online auction platform and Internet portals in Eastern Europe. The company also owns Allegro.pl, which was considered the leading online auction site in Poland.
- In august 2008, Naspers acquired a 25% stake in mobile media company BuzzCity through MIH, which was now considered Naspers "Investment arm". BuzzCity network was made up of publishers worldwide and BuzzCity's own mobile media properties, included the myGamma social networking platform which was aimed at regions with low fixed-line Internet penetration.
- Media24 attempted to sue photographer Geof Kirby for defamation after he questioned the legality of the company's reliance on dubious freelance contracts in particular, its syndication without permission of content under South Africa's Apartheid-era Copyright Law which granted publishers first rights over written material but not over photographic images.
- A gay protest rally was held against Media24 after John Qwelane's homophobic equation of gay sex with bestiality in the Sunday Sun.
- In September 2009, Naspers acquired a 91% interest in BuscaPe, provider of comparison shopping systems for more than 100 portals and Web sites in Latin America, including Microsoft, Globo and Abril.
2010, The Bildergurger Group, which included Napser Officials, met in Spain to discuss control of the world's financial institutions.
Press council Warns Against Media Tribunal
It is important to get the media council's side of the story for the South African Press.It was reported on August 2 by the Mail Guardian Reporter that: "The Chairperson of the Press Council of South Africa, Raymond Louw, on Monday took issue with a call by the South African National Congress(ANC) and South African Communist Party [SACP] for a statuary media appeals tribunal. The Press Council decried the manner in which this proposal as a clear violation of the Constitution in relation to the promotion of freedom of expression and media freedom.
The stated that such a press tribunal has nothing to do with promoting press freedom but everything to do with the way the press reported the conduct of governance, including the conduct of Cabinet ministers and other senior officials of the Party. It seems that official reaction was to how the press was reporting about government officials and their corrupt shenanigans, thus the Media Tribunal proposals, which made the Press Council, represented by Raymond Louw issue the following statement, as printed in the Mail & Guardian on August 2 2010:
"As Chairman of the South African Press Council which administers the Press Ombudsman system of press self-regulation, I am appalled that the South African Communist Party and the African National Congress are calling for the institution of a statutory 'media appeals tribunal' to 'strengthen media freedom and accountability.' The manner in which this call is being made and the indication, as far as they go, that have been given of the objectives appear to be a clear violation of the constitution in relation to the promotion of freedom of expression and media freedom.
The various reasons for setting up the tribunal offered by office bearers of the two parties and contained in the document put out by the ANC for discussion at its national general council in September - 'Media transformation, ownership and diversity' are quiet clear why they want to impose it on the press. It has nothing to do with promoting press freedom but everything to do with the way the press reports on the conduct of governance including the conduct of cabinet ministers and other senior officials of the party. They do not want the public to be told of their poor performance, corruption by "tenderpreneurs" and lavish life-styles. They want the press to report the African National Congress's version of what is happening…"
Louw, of the Press Council continues: "This emerges clearly in the discussion document. It states: "Our objectives therefore are to vigorously communicate the ANC's outlook and values [developmental state, collective rights, values of caring and sharing community, solidarity, ubuntu, non-sexism, working together] versus the current mainstream media's ideological outlook [neo-liberalism, a weak and passive state, and overemphasis on individual rights, marker fundamentalism, etc.] The statement also displays a startling ignorance about what goes on in the Press Ombudsman's office. The Communist Party states that the ombudsman's office is made up of people from the media, who decide on complaints.
Indeed, the ombudsman is a senior journalist. It is an essential requirement for a person adjudicating on the conduct of the media and journalism to be well versed in the methods and practice of journalism and a senior journalist fills that role. But there is strong public representation in that office. When the ombudsman conducts a hearing, he sits with two people, one a journalist and the other a public representative Indeed, there are six public representatives and six journalists available for hearings by the ombudsman and the Appeals Panel.
The Appeals Panel - which is engaged when either the complainant or the defending newspaper appeals against the ombudsman finding — is chaired by a non-journalist. He is a retired judge of the Supreme Court of Appeal and when he holds a hearing, he sits with one public and one press representative. Thus, to suggest that the office and proceedings are conducted by "people from the media" - is false and one is being propagated mischievously.
Louw, of the Press Council presses on: "Another complaint by the politicians is that the ombudsman's office is 'inadequate without explaining what they mean by that, except to imply in some of their statements that they want punitive prison sentences and fines be meted out to journalists and publishers. In regard to penalties, the Ombudsman imposes at is regarded by the media as one embodying serious sanctions.
"I found wanting, a paper can be called upon to publish a correction and an apology prominently as well as the strictures of the ombudsman or appeals panel. This punishment strikes at the heart of a newspapers operations. It tells the readers that the newspaper was not only inaccurate but that it behaved unprofessionally or even dishonestly. Nothing damages a newspaper more than a finding against its credibility and trustworthiness. If the public loses its trust in a newspaper in regard to its method of operation and accuracy, it can go out of business, thus enduring the ultimate sanction."
Louw counsels: "The SACP talks of accountability. The Public accountability described above is what publishers ad journalists fear most — that which results in the withdrawal of support from the paper. The ANC and the Communist Party, despite their having voted for the Films and Publications Act, also forget that the ombudsman's office has been given legislative recognition. This Act exempts mainstream newspapers that subscribe to the Press Code from some of the provisions of the legislation.
"The irresponsibility of the ANC in its castigation of the Press Council is breathtaking in its reliance on fiction. On several occasions it complained — and the complainant on one occasion was no less than Kgalema Motlantle, now Deputy President - that the Press Ombudsman did not respond to its complaints. The ANC was asked to provide a list of the complaints that had been treated in that way."
Finally, after much badgering, the ANC produced one complaint. However, the party did not apologize when it was told that not only had the complaint been dealt with, but that the finding was in favor of the ANC(what a comedy of errors!- my addition). Some of the ANC's minsters and leading personalities - including ANCYL's President, Julius Malema, the league's spokesman Floyd Shivambu, Kwa-Zulu Natal Premier Dr. Kweli Mkhize, and ANC Treasurer-General Dr. Mathews Phosa, — are using the Press Ombudsman to voice their complaints and at least one former minister, Geraldine Fraser-Moleketi (Public Service and Administration), expressed her entire satisfaction with the manner in which her complaint had been articulate n branding the Ombudsman's office ineffectual has laid complaints and in one case a newspaper apologized to her.
Even Deputy President Motlanthe has laid a complaint, though he later withdrew it. Several of these cases, and others, have resulted in ruling in favor of the state institutions or ANC politicians.
The Chairman of the Press Council adds some reminders and mild admonishing: "In 2007 the New Zealand Press Council conducted a world-wide survey and listed 87 countries with press councils. One of its major findings was that 86% of them adopted the self-regulatory method which has been adopted in South Africa. The same percentage believed the most effective punishment for newspapers when they breached professional and ethical codes was to order them to publish a correction and/or an apology with the prominence of positioning decided by the council. And 82% conducted their operation on the basis of a code and a complaint process.
South Africa's press Council operates in similar fashion and journalists believe that with such a large number of other Press Councils in the world adopting these standards, South Africa's current practice of dealing with breaches of ethical and professional standards appear to have majority approval among the democratic states(Chairman of the Press Council, Raymond Louw, (Quoted by Mail and Guardian - 2010).
Installing Petty Laws(Petty Apartheid?) The Death of Freedom of speech
Emulating the Way of the Masters
One thing about colonialism, Apartheid or otherwise did affect its subject in various ways to emulate their masters. When the oppressor slave were under the boot of segregation, some harbored feelings of envy of their masters accumulation of wealth, culture and other intellectual and academic trappings. In the course of the displacement of colonialism as whites only to black rule or empowerment, we see a petit bourgeoisie, in post segregation America and post-colonial Africa, escape into what Franklin Frazier calls "escape into delusions". And I add "of grandeur" about their role and purpose in society(especially the poor African society in all cases). Franklin Frazier reminds us of another time period in America which is the same as we are seeing in South Africa when he writes in this excerpt:
"The self-hatred of middle-class Negroes is often revealed in the keen competition which exists among them for status and recognition. This keen competition is the result of the frustrations which they experienced in attempting to obtain acceptance and recognition by whites. Middle-class Blacks are constantly criticizing and belittling Negroes who achieve some recognition or who acquire status above them. They prefer to submit to the authority of whites than be subordinate to other A Blacks.
"For example,Negro scholars generally refuse to seek the advice and criticism of competent African scholars and prefer to turn to white scholars for such co-operation. In fact,it is difficult for middle-class Blacks to co-operate in any field of endeavor. This failure in social relation is, as indicated in an important study, because "in every Negro he encounters his own self-contempt. It is as if he said, "You are only an African like myself; so why should you be in a position above me?"
Franklin Adds: "This self-hatred often results in guilt feeling on the part of the Negro who succeeds in elevating himself above his fellows. He feels unconsciously that in rising above other Negroes he is committing an act of aggression which will result in hatred and revenge on their part. The act of aggression my be imagined, but very often it is real. This is the case when middle-class Blacks oppose the economic and social welfare of Blacks because of their own interests.
In some American cities, it has been the black bourgeoisie and not whites who have opposed public housing projects for black workers. In one city two wealthy black doctors, who have opposed the building of low-cost public housing for Black workers workers,own some of the worst slums in the United States. While their wives, who wear mink coats, 'drip with diamonds' and re written up in the 'society' columns of Black newspapers, ride in Cadillacs, their black tenants sleep on the dirt floors of hovels unfit for human habitation. The guilt feelings of the middle-class Blacks are not always unconscious. Some even go on the radio and proclaimed that the Black people did not want social equity.
The blacks were conscious of their guilt feelings and their self-hatred in playing such a role, for they sent word privately to the writer that they never hated so much to do anything in their life, but it was necessary because of their position as head of a state college with was under white supervision. The self-hatred of the middle-class black arises, then, not only from the fact that he does not want to be black but also because of his sorry role in American history.
The black bourgeoisie, has created a world of make-believe to shield itself from the harsh economic and social realities of American life. This world of make-believe was created out of a myth of black business, the reports of the black press on the achievements and wealth of blacks, the recognition accorded them by whites, ant the fabulous life on black "society". Some of the black middle-class intellectuals were not deceived by the world of make-believe.
They would have nothing to do with the black "society" and refused to waste their time with frivolities. They took their work seriously and lived in relative obscurity so far as the black world was concerned. Others sought an escape from their frustrations by developing, for example, a serious interest in black music — which the respectable black bourgeoisie often pretended to despise. In this way, these intellectuals achieve some identification with the black masses and with the traditions of black life.
But many more middle-class blacks, who were satisfied to live in the world of make-believe, but must find a solution to the real economic and social problems which they face, seek an escape in delusions"(Franklin)
The state of the ANC governance in South Africa is that of dependency on the Imperial Multi-Corporations. Kwame Nkrumah aptly summed it this way: "A State in the grip of neocolonialism is not master of its own destiny." To which Julius Nyerere further elaborated: "What we have in common is that we are all, in relation to the developed world, dependent not interdependent — nations. Each of our economies has developed as a by-product and a subsidiary of development in the industrialized North, and is extremely orientated. We are not prime movers in our destiny. We are ashamed to admit it. But economically, we are dependencies — semi-colonies at best — not sovereign states."
On this issue of the local intelligentsia no doing their best to help and grasp their people's realities, Thomas Sankara put it this way: "There are these leaders who have natural roots, and then there are those who have artificially created them. By artificial I mean those leaders who were created by erecting a wall around themselves. Such people are definitely cut-off from the popular masses. They can be generous to a point, but that doesn't make them revolutionaries. You'll run into officials at all levels who are unhappy because no one understands them, even though they have proven their commitment to their work. Though they are making honest sacrifices, no one understands what they are doing."
Sankara elaborates further: "Some of the international aid volunteers who came here from Europe are a bit like this; they have the same kind of experience. They too are sincere, but their ignorance about Africa leads them to make mistakes, blunders, that are sometimes insignificant, but that become decisive in the future. So, after a stay of several years, they go back home completely disgusted with Africa. Yet, it's not for lack of a noble heart. It's just that they came here with a patronizing attitude. They were lesson givers."
As I have stated above, the envy and pining for things European has affected Africa's present-day rulers. Some ANC exiles alway s prefaced their dialogue with anyone like, "When we take over..." which brings back the point I have been making about the official African leaders make-believe world and escape into "delusion" and the "make-believe" world emanates from the period of long-suffering and wanting what white people have and doing things like they did them, but if 'they'(Africans' take-over, would do that and then some...; that is why what is being done in South Africa, by the ruling Africans is being done with such verve and nerve, that one cannot be escaped by that reality as aforementioned.
Doing thing the way the 'master' was doing, is part of the long-term planning of the existing ANC. Thomas Sankara was asked if he has ever experienced inequality firsthand himself or observed its impact on other people? He gave this narrative:
"I have experienced it personally. When I was little, I went to primary school in Gaoua. The school principal there was European and his children had a bicycle. We other children dreamed about this bicycle for months and moths. We woke up thinking about it; we drew pictures of it; we tried to suppress the longing that kept surging up inside us. We did just about everything to try to persuade them to lend it to us. If the school principal's children wanted sand to build sand castles, we fetched them sand. If it was some other favor they wanted, we fell all over ourselves to do it, and all that just in the hope of having a ride — taking a ride, as we say here.
"We were all the same age, but there was nothing to be done. One day, I realized that all our efforts were in vain. I grabbed the bike and said to myself: "Too bad, I am going to treat myself to this pleasure no matter what the consequences." They arrested my father and threw him in prison. I was thrown out of school. My brothers and sisters didn't dare go back to the school. It was really terrifying. How could this possibly fail to create profound feelings of injustice among children of the same age?"
Sankara continued: "They put my father in prison another time, too, because one of my sisters had gathered some wild fruit by throwing stones up at them. Some of the stones fell on the roof of the principal's house. This disturbed his wife's siesta. I understood that after a wonderful, refreshing meal she wanted to rest, and it was irritating to be disturbed like this. But we needed to eat. They didn't stop at putting my father in prison. They issued a notice forbidding anyone to pick this fruit."
The colonial master used many dirty tricks and teaching mannerisms that conditioned the present leaders as we see them. This was from the time when the colonial master were in control of the country and everything that went with it. Na'im Akbar gives us a historical background on the creation of our leaders as we see them today: Akbar offers this narrative:
"One of the things that was systematically done during slavery was the elimination of control of any emerging 'head' or leader. Slave narratives and historical accounts are full of descriptions of atrocities brought against anyone who exemplified real leadership capability. The slave holders realized that their power and control over the slaves was dependent upon the absence of any indigenous leadership amongst the slaves.
"Any slave who began to emerge as a natural head,that is, one orientated toward survival of the whole body, was identified early and was either eliminated,isolated, killed,or ridiculed. In his or her place was put a leader who had been carefully picked, trained, and tested to stand only for the master's welfare. In other words, unnatural head were attached to the slave communities. They furthered the cause of the master and frustrated the cause of the slave."
Akbar further notes: "The slaves were taught to view with suspicion natural leaders who emerged from among themselves. Such heads were identified as "uppity" or "arrogant" and were branded as the kind of trouble-makers who were destined to bring trouble to the entire slave community. This idea was reinforced by the public punishment of such indigenous leadership and any of his/her associates or sympathizers.
"The entire slave community was often required to carry an extra burden or be deprived of some small privilege, primarily because of such 'uppity' slaves. Such practices rather firmly entrenched the opposition to natural leaders. They were often isolated by their own community, and were usually victims of fellow slave "snitches" who reported to the master that someone was brewing trouble.
"The 'snitches,' having demonstrated their loyalty to the master, were usually promoted to the position of slave leader, and another grafted leader was born-i.e., with a slave body and master's head. The slave community was encouraged to view the greater power given to the master-trained leader as an indication of his superior worth as a leader. The master-trained leader was rewarded, praised and given privileges as an inducement for the slaves to follow this manufactured leadership."(Na'im Akbar)
The ANC feels that, "The media is too critical of all the good they are doing for their International and local masters, that, they want the press to concentrate on the good they are doing, and less of the corruption, ineptitude, poor governance and the super gravy train reportage, also, praise them for all the public and government good they are doing". In order to make sense of the latest move by the present government in South African it is important to pay attention to the leaders and writers on the subject of the effects and affects of colonialism on the psyches and consciousness.
The leaders of the present-day ANC led government were, most of them, educated within South Africa, and if one were to study the imposition of and the falsified miseducation and consciousness by colonial education, one might begin to understand and get a glimpse of the modus operandi of the government in power today. Chinweizu gives a brief on this issue of colonial rule and colonial education and their effects on the intended populace:
"Thus did all the colonial institutions contribute to fashion a breed of Euro-Africans, and to refashion Africa in some debased image of Europe. To look upon this colonial order as a purely African entity and ignore its links to Europe is to find an African class of chiefs, minor bureaucrats and traders tying the toil and lives of the populace to the interests of the ruling white administrators, businessmen, missionaries and settlers. But to look upon it as part of that global system to which it belongs, that is, as part of an extended Europe, is to discover its true character.
Visible is a white colonial administration protecting white businessmen, missionaries and settlers who link the toiling Africans to the service of the European ruling classes. And what are the tendons,visible and invisible, which bind the appendage society to Europe? In the economic sphere they are the roads and railways connecting farms, mines and markets to the ships in the ports; the banks, the mining and trading companies bound by legal and financial threads to their parent organizations in Europe; the currencies pegged to the franc or the pound/(even the dollar, in this day and age — my addition); and last but far from least, the commodity prices set in London, Paris, Brussels and New York, that determine prices in Africa.
In the political sphere these links are the district officer,the commandant and the resident, the police, the courts, the army and other arm of the colonial bureaucracy, all headed by the governor , and all under the control and guidance of the colonial office of the European national government which sent them out to Africa. In the cultural sphere, the links are the colonial schools and the religious and secular organizations which operate as field agencies for nurturing Euro-Africans. such was the structure of the colonial order."(Chinweizu)
The ANC took power of a vibrant Apartheid colonial order which had the social, political, economical and cultural trappings of those described by Chinweizu above. Nothing was changed, in fact, it was a replacement of African faces to the past white faces in many areas of governance and somewhat in the economy. This is then true to say that the present-day ANC-led government is a government that came into the era of neo-Apartheid colonial order, and serviced that system as they found it, and in the process affecting their own people, who are now more poorer that they were before their coming in/back from their exiled existence as a 'liberation' movement, then subsequently as the present 'negotiated' government.
When the ANC "took over...," as noted above, "they negotiated a lot of deals which ensured that the system of government they were inheriting should be left as is". The press and other capitalist and Apartheid institutions transitioned into the orb of the new Mandela government with all what they entailed without any alteration of any kind. The ANC went on to pass some of the most praised Press laws given free-flow of information and freedom of speech to the citizens and the press.
As already noted, those who elected the ANC into power are the ones that have been ignored. In order to get a better picture of what I am talking about, it is important to read my Hub titled: "South Africa and The 2010 World Cup: In the Eye of the Storm," wherein I touch up on a great deal of the mistreatment of the poor by the present ANC-led government in preparation for the 2010 Tournament. This was all done in 'service of the FIFA and all the Multi-Media and various other Multi-corporations,' at the expense of the poor and suffering masses in South Africa.
The ANC has done its job very well in preserving the economical structure which supported and was propping-up the Apartheid regime. As the structure that was described by Chinweizu above, the ANC saw to it that nothing was changed right up to the Parliamentary, the army and the economical infrastructure intact and well serviced and supported.
Now that the same Media institutions are exposing the corruption, ineptitude, sloppy service deliveries, and the opulence resulting from the super gravy trains, and the wives and families of the government official living large, and this gleaned by the media , making the poor aware of what their government, the ANC has decided to create a media tribunal with threats of up to 25 years imprisonment for those found guilty of reporting falsehoods about the ministers and their deputies, families acquaintances and so on.
This is not a government trying to clean-up a biased and one-sided press, but a government which has become tired of the reportage which puts them in a bad light to its poor and hungry voting majority, and the world at large. Also, they feel like what they achieved during the World Cup should be bringing in accolades from the press; and all the good things, albeit they are half-done.
Housing, and other weak efforts at taking care of their constituencies. In one way, it is convenient for the ANC to attack the media and have a new blackout(one can look at the lousy SABC TV programming and some dreadful radio programming to the masses to understand this point), to the listening and reading public, so that they can even hide more of the hideous deals that have gone down and are still going down(read the story of the Zuma's sons and their mining deals and corruption in the Mail and Guardian) and the other terrible corruptions which have now become a culture and way of life for the present government and their 'tendepreneurs' scandals and the life of high living and jet-setting that has come to characterize all the government official, ministers and their deputies, families and shameless nepotism and aggressive cronyism.
It is the Africans and poor whites and other racial minorities that are really feeling the brut of the new rule and government. So far, as we have seen, Apartheid media , was draconian and enforced a 'type' of the news blackout, chiefly amongst the Africans. This also had an effect of affecting white news-readers and radio listeners and TV watchers. What was beamed, talked about on the radio and beamed on televisions, was to omit news about the suffering of Africans, unless it had to do with crime, riots, rebellion and semi-revolution, about Africans.
The white public was misled and misinformed in the process because of the news diet and presentation to the white media consuming public. In the process, blaming the victims of Apartheid was paramount in the dissemination of news throughout the country during Apartheid time. Today, after 16-years of an ANC-led governance, the same is true for the poor of South Africa. It is true that the ANC has done some good things for the poor Africans in South Africa, but in so doing, they did less to give the people security, better basic needs and accountability for their hogging the wealth and distributing unequally, the wealth of the land, and curbed the free-flow of information to their voting bloc.
The Press didd cover and is still covering the corruption, ineptitude, poor service deliveries and the flamboyant life-styles of the rich and powerful ministers and their deputies in government. As has been shown in this hub, the present rulers are in cahoots with big international corporations and cartels at the expense of the Africans. One can see this in the way the government that is in place took over old structures of Apartheid and kept them in place and made private deals with both local and international Potentates.
One can also get a better idea when one looks deeper into the relationship of FIFA with the present government in distancing themselves away from the interests of the Africans and poor whites in South Africa. It is important to note these issues and see them for what they are: The present government is a neocolonial 'type' of government which is in service of the neocolonial Apartheid government pitied against the poor. This came to a much more clearer light during the Word Cup when the local government protected the tourist and soccer fans assiduously more than they did the local citizens.
In Athlone, Cape Town, people were moved from the path that was going to be used by the tourists and the soccer fans and were deposited in desolate and tin-shacks townships heavily policed. During the matches, in Johannesburg, tourists and soccer fans were barred and discouraged from going into the Townships of Soweto (some went, out of curiosity and dare). Local traders and others who wanted to benefit from the stadium were kept a distance away and the big companies like Coca Cola, McDonalds and the like were given preference over and above the local African and other nation's merchants, who were paddling local wares.
The Press contributed to the negative picture painted about the people of the Townships and the crime and poverty and diseases they were wallowing in. We also saw the partnership between, as described above, of Naspers and the ANC, showing that what the ANC is proposing to be launched, a Media tribunal, is not only flexing, but it is also one way to deflect attention on the reportage that is being done by some newspapers, and that the reading pubic should be kept ignorant of their shenanigans.
The poor, who are seeing and being pounded by being given the last status and attention in the land of birth are very disappointed and bamboozled by the carrying-on of their government in opposing and ignoring their interests and complaints. Also, the privileged and internet savvy white populace in South Africa, most of them, are using the Internet to inform the world about Africans who they do not even know. Apartheid oppressed and ignored the poor, sick, poverty stricken, crime-ridden and shoddy ramshackle habitats, which are rodden-ridden and infested with insects creepy-crawling all over the place, and cold filled environments of the poor Africans domiciles.
The new government better serviced the requests and businesses of their International and local rich business entities to the max. Colonized Information, technology and Technique have been used and are still being used by the present government in service of colonialism and neocolonialism to subjugate, control, manipulate, impose news-blackout and to keep the South African populace ignorant and at logger-heads with itself. This is being done easily and deliberately because Apartheid never died, and the new government is some partly modified version of the old order of Apartheid.
Since these leaders were concerned with acquiring for the class privileges within a neocolonial society, the freedom they sought had to be freedom within the imperial system, not outside it. Without a fight for liberation, instead of a negotiated settlement, they would have had to construct a new African society within which to practice African liberties, and not the for the African petit-bourgeoisie within disguised enclaves of European empires.
As they have campaigned for African self-rule, they were granted political power but not sovereignty, since the country which they were now going to lord over was still part of the European and American Imperial structure. They still are not in control of the economy of the country. The colonization of Africa, and the emergence of an African petit bourgeoisie indoctrinated into liberal capitalist beliefs of a "universalist" nature — beliefs that did not sufficiently define their African domain of operation — were some factors that determined the nature of the autonomy South Africa would acquire post-apartheid: they got political power, but did not come near towards get into controlling the economic sphere of the country they were ruling politically, only. This is the paradox and conundrum which South Africa African-led government faces today.
The Same Old Tunes: Repression, Depression and Oppression
Yet, political liberation has done nothing to hg their lives of Africans in south Africa. After sixteen years of ANC-led government rule, poor delivery in basic need services for the poor has been nothing, to say the least, horrendous. The South African African petit bourgeoisie is egged-on by the ANC-led government to acquire western accouterments and manner to the 'T,' that some people who observe this, fall into the trap of blaming African in South Africa as "being Xenophobic" and so forth. Whereas the reality and social life facts on the ground, amongst the people, is something different
It is also interesting that Africans from north Africa like Adejumobi, from Nigeria and others play the 'blaming the victim game without paying attention to the history of South Arica. Said Adejumobi conjures these thoughts in their battle(from the University of Caper Town which he says was the 'hotbed of the struggle to restructure knowledge production in South Africa." For Who? By Who? And to what Effect?): "But we lost the battle; South Africa was 'unprepared for change.' In the absence of change, apartheid will another shape and form(How? Why? My questions); black on black violence will deepen; and the psychology of domination will recreate itself. This is the whole talk about xenophobia in South Africa.
Adejumobi continued to wryly observe: "For any discerning mind[Maybe there are no such minds in South Africa among 50 million Africans! My observations], what is happening now in South Africa is predictable(Is It? - I question?). I saw it coming, and I left South Africa when I did. I recall informing students, "South Africa is a country on the edge; it may implode from within". Without reshaping the Curriculum on Africa; without decolonizing the minds of the people; without owning up and admitting the historical role played by other African countries in South Africa's liberation struggle, South Africans rarely know who they are and where they are coming from [That is a lot to say about so many millions of people, and it is erroneous to use one's ignorance of a people as if it's a fact, whatever one shallowly observe from a class room in Cape Town University].
African South African were never liberated from Apartheid since ANC rule-- ANC is in cahoots with the past and present Apartheid bib business and the Boer's political entourage) One may maybe aver whatever about the ANC cliques and cabals, but should not about the majority of South Africans, without even 'walking in their moccasins for six moons', at least... I guess Nigerians know themselves well and know where came from, eh!. "Beyond mere cliches of the leadership of the african National Congress, and some cadres in the South African liberation movement [Adejumobi the post-doctorate students analyst stresses on] majority of South Africans, especially the blacks, do not see themselves as Africans."
How strange it is that Africans use the African names to refer themselves to as Africans, 'Abomdamdabu' [Zulu for Indigenous], 'Batala,' Sotho for indigenous; Manguni(Zulu) or 'Bakone',(Sotho), that's what Africans in South Africa call themselves. One should begin to write the history of Nigeria and flesh out some colonial and post colonial facts about that country. No, Africans in South Africa know and practice their culture and customs as do all Africans throughout Africa(See my Hub, "Restoration of African South African Historical Consciousness: Culture, Custom, Traditions & Practices" published on Hub pages on 02/27/10 for starters).
Lest we forget how tightly locked up the South African refugees were tightly controlled throughout the different countries in Africa, people should begin to do their research academic work more seriously before casting aspersions about a people. I wish Mr. Adejumobi had stepped out of the marble halls of Cape Town University, working hard to impress those hard line Verkrampte professors, and did some interviews with the returning guerrillas within South Africa and how they were treated as refugees in different African countries, he might not carelessly write about how 'Africa helped South Africans and were involved in the struggle, only if he knew how scared those states were of the Boers, they were very hard and harsh in containing the South African refugees, lest they be air-raided and attacked also by the mercenaries and South African White commandos.
One can see from the comments made by the critics of Africans, in the case of South Africa, that this perception is observed by those who are in South African as foreign scholars and visitors, but the very selfsame people never bother to go and live with africans in the traditional rural enclaves and in the ghettoes sprawling throughout the land. But passing through and not living with the poor in Mzantsi, does not qualify anyone to be judgmental and an analyst about a people who most foreigners can hardly speak any of their languages, nine(9) of them, by the way... nor shack with them in their hovels for a night[Paltry few do].
That is why articles published by this author assiduously work hard towards putting a historiography of the history of Africans in South Africa form their own narrow and ill-informed knowledge/perspectives. There will be further articles about African South Africans, their lives, custom, cultures, and languages, so that we can safely dispatch off with those who write about a people they do not know nor lived with, and can neither talk their languages.
Chinweizu talks much more clearly on the issue above when he wrote: "One of the most devastating legacies of our satellization to the West is that our culture has become eccentric. Instead of being Afrocentric in our thoughts and actions, we are Eurocentric. What Europe does we automatically assume as the standard we must imitate in order to appear civilized"(This view applies to all Africans who were colonized by Europe, including Adejumobi and where he comes from, Nigeria)
As a result, we have lost our ability to define ourselves. We gladly accept every ridiculous definition of what we are supposed to be, so long as it is proffered by the West. Without a strong sense of ourselves, we accept whatever the West wants us to believe about our past. We even refuse to define our cultural and political constituency for what it is - African Africa. But that is indeed our pan-African constituency, a constituency defined by our separate history, our separate historical situation. People like Adejumobi and his ilk, are ahistorical clowns who really do not even understand the ramifications of studying in the University of Cape Town, in South Africa, and what that means whenever they start talking about upgrading South African history to the whole continent's history.
The very University, whose city he so adores, is not in the business of teaching anyone how to reform South African African education, but is interested in educating him into 'ignorance' which, from his writings, he seems to have been thoroughly indoctrinated and made dumb, to the extent that he blames Africans for their state of being at the point he sees or meets them-outside his comfort zone in the UniversityOf Cape Town. So far as I can tell, he has learned nothing…
Exclusive Retailers Oppressive Business Techniques in the Black Community
Shopping Malls in the "new South Africa" that are being built in the poor slums and ghettoes, oppress and exploit African peoples. The White South African entrepreneurs, in a manner similar to American entrepreneurs, after having suddenly discovered that shopping malls in Black Townships are good business(Post-Present Apartheid dogma), decided that they by using their wealth and other advantages they gained from their prior exploitation of blacks to further subjugate and suppress Africans.
As in the case of proposed Harlem malls,white South African entrepreneurs, after years of benign and malignant neglect of black commercial needs have now decided to atone for their past poor judgement and 'racist inclinations-to say the least,' by returning to the Black Townships in order to more thoroughly exploit them in the name of the "new South Africa". In typical white supremacist fashion, they make elaborate claims of helping African peoples while greedily helping themselves to their god-given and hard-earned resources/finances.
While claiming that they are meeting the commercial needs and advancing the economic development of the African peoples, these white owned corporate Leviathans are in reality concerned with attempting to satisfy their own insatiable appetites and advancing their own exclusive economic agendas. The New York Times (10/26/94) describes the South African situation in this way:
"A MALL COMES TO A BLACK TOWNSHIP":
Soweto, South Africa, Oct. 23 - Late last year, a group of white executives from Sanlam Properties. A leading South African development company, piled into a mini-van and rode into terra incognito, the sprawling black metropolis of Soweto. As Jacobus A. Swanepoel, Sanlam's regional manager, recounts that journey, it is tempting to imagine a carload of cartoon capitalists with dollar signs ringing in their eyes — ka-Chung, ka-Chung. Soweto, impoverished alien, oppressed, battle-torn - Soweto, suddenly seemed a land of untapped opportunity.
The first result of that trip materialized here on Sept. 29; the biggest and most modern shopping center any black Township has ever seen, complete with a family steakhouse, a triplex cinema., automated teller machines, an appliance store, clothiers new-plus ultra of suburban life in south Africa, a gun shop. At the mall's heart is a vast air-conditioned Shoprite supermarket that has brought some Soweto shoppers close to joyous tears.
After years of commuting to stores on the periphery of the black enclave, or paying the inflated prices of tiny township convenience shops, they have discovered in the wide aisles and sale prices of Shoprite an equality nearly as satisfying as the one conferred by last April's elections. Soweto, which once appeared to white business as a ghetto teeming with squatters and bristling with political upheaval all at once acquired a more alluring identity; a city of more than three million consumers without a grocery store, appliance dealer of clothing of national stature.
The New York Times continues: "Until now, most white business have shunned black townships.Whites were prohibited by Apartheid law from owning township property. Then, after, the repeal of that barrier in June 1991, the townships seemed too turbulent to be worth the risk. Instead, Sanlam and other developers built huge indoor Malls on the outskirts of Soweto(a la East Gate Mall, South Gate Mall Bara Mall and recently Maponya Mall and Jabulani Mall - My addition), forcing township residents to come to them.
A mini-van taxi ride from Soweto to one of these Malls cost the price of a half-gallon of milk or two loaves of bread, and it ate up most of a morning, but as Alfred Hlatshwayo observed over his basket of groceries in the new Shoprite, "it was that or do without out." Now that the April elections have restored political peace, developers have turned to the townships with more open min. Following the lead of gasoline stations and fast-food chains, which moved earlier with franchise outlets, banks, developers and retailers are now scouting hungrily.
If you look at the strategic plans of most of the larger firms, you see that they have their eye on the townships," said Johan Jacobs, marketing director of the South African Chamber of Commerce and Business. Soweto's shopping malls were developed with capital from Sanlam, which historically catered to white Afrikaners, but the mall's success suggest that foreign investments could follow into the neglected townships. Mr. Swanepoel said Soweto had grown ripe for business at a time when most white suburbs are already saturated with retail stores."
The white capitalists enterprises returned to or entered those communities to exploit them all the more. The return or entry of these gluttonous entrepreneurs is obviously self-serving in that they demonstrate little concern for the true economic well-being and self-determination of the Black community. Their entry into Black Township markets merely reflects their search for new markets after having saturated their traditional (White) markets.It also reflects their unrelenting intention to economically and politically dominate African peoples all over the world with impunity.
Social Segregation, Neo-racial Segregation, Domination and Exploitation
For White Supremacists, the more things changed the more they remained the same. They changed the economical and the political Black sphere to maintain their sameness. Despite changes in society from Apartheid colonialism to African independence(for Africans)(i.e., from supposed segregation during Apartheid, to integration,during Mandela's rule or co-option), the motive of white supremacists and capitalists remained the same — the unending domination and exploitation of Black peoples by White peoples and to profit therefrom.
Just as Whites in America and Whites in South Africa profited from apartheid, the legal racial segregation of Blacks, they now profit from so-called racial equality, the legal desegregation of Blacks. The amount and rate of profits that Whites gain under desegregation are even greater than under segregation. In either case, Blacks were and continue to be relatively poor and every which way dependent as well as politically powerless. White-owned chain stores and their investors plan to open and have as of the writing of this Hub opened malls in more than 14 townships and neighborhoods, and Sanlam Properties pan to be involved in the opening of some of these malls in Black townships, too.
According to the New York Times, Sanlam has "two other townships projects near announcements, including a mammoth 'Hyper Mall' in another part of Soweto(today know as the Maponya Mall), and another half a dozen on the drawing board." The Times points out that Sanlam entered Soweto on political tiptoes . It assembled a committee of 40 local organizations to review its plans."
In perpetrating the charade that it is truly interested in advancing Black economic development and in order to ease its entry into the Black economic development and in order to ease its entry into Black township markets, Sanlam makes use of a familiar White American entrepreneurial tactic — that of promising more than it is actually going to deliver.
Sanlam claims it has created a trust fund to train local entrepreneurs. It also intimates that it plans to sell 49 percent of the project as shares to local investors. (Note that it did not offer to sell 49 percent of the projects as shares to local investors.) Sanlam has permitted three small Black-owned businesses to occupy spaces in its new 68-store mall. The clincher in Sanlam's package for the Black township is a promise of 600 permanent jobs for local residents. The attitude towards these deals has been captured by a comment made by Max Legodi, a South African Businessman as follows:
"Mr. Legodi of the Soweto Chamber of Commerce applauded Sanlam for its diplomacy, but said black business resented the fact that the Shoprite supermarket chain, which has no connection with the American supermarket chain of the same name, had not enlisted black partners in the store that is the centerpiece of the project. "We feel that appointing a few black faces in Shoprite doesn't give you a passport to come in and exploit the emerging black market," he said." (Times)
The promise of jobs in return for the right to greedily exploit the Black community is business as usual for White entrepreneurs and White politcoeconomic establishment whose true intention is to maintain Blacks as servants, wage earners, and general subordinates, not owners and managers, in their own neighborhoods and nations Some prominent African South African business people and organizations, much to their credit — in contrast to their Black American counterparts — have seen through the deceptive games being played by white entrepreneurs and the White Supremacist establishment. The Times reports that:
"The new interest of white retailers has generated a bitter outcry from some black businessmen in the townships. They complain that after decades of weathering the strains of an apartheid ghetto, black entrepreneurs are being bullied aside by the economic power of white outsiders who have discovered gold in the black townships. "I feel like a man on a bicycle ho's been overtaken by a jet," said Paul Gama,chairman of the black-controlled Blackchain Ltd., which owns three modest and struggling grocery stores in black townships. Max Legodi, head of the Greater Soweto Chamber of Commerce and Industries, which speaks for hundreds of small retailers in the township, was sympathetic.
"All these years we had no access to capital, no access to credit," he said. "We were not able to gain expertise in business management. We did not have relationships with suppliers to buy in bulk. We could not do business in white areas." These men argue that white entrepreneurs moving into the 'emerging markets' of black townships should be obliged — by political pressure, if not by law — to take local partners, as do many foreign companies that come to South Africa."
Gama describes the typical pattern of White entrepreneurial strangulation and impairment of Black entrepreneurial growth and development opportunistically followed by White entrepreneurial oppression and exploitation of Black peoples. Typically, with the legal approval of the government and the support of traditional White racist practices, White entrepreneurs and financial institutions deny equal goods and services as well as credit and capital to the Black community during long periods of White racist political and economic oppression of Blacks, sometimes lasting for centuries, followed by continued denial of finance, credit, training, and economic opportunity to Blacks during periods of so-called Black political liberation and independence.
The tremendous financial and human resources White entrepreneurs and capitalist have accumulated during the former Apartheid period, are used to enter into overwhelmingly unequal competition with Black entrepreneurs during the rule of an ANC-led government. Any attempt on the part of Blacks to even the "entrepreneurial playing field" by asking and demanding that compensatory considerations, preferences and advantages be awarded them for past racist practices in favor of wWhites, is loudly hooted down by conservative Whites and ignorant, self-serving Backs as "reverse racism". This is an interesting response in light of the obvious fact that "reverse racism" would be a just solution to "forward racism" which permitted Whites to gain almost irreversible advantages over Blacks.
According to the Times, Paul Gama underlined this point by explaining that, "his Black Chain stores had remained in business, without laying off workers, despite political violence that scared away customers and drove the company repeatedly to the brink of bankruptcy." He fumed at the thought of white companies now reaping the dividends of the struggle. "White businesses know the devastation of Apartheid won't leave them any competition," he said. "It is a walkover for them."The future and well-being of the Black community requires that Black peoples own and control their community and national markets, and not act as mere workers and consumers in them.
Blacks, like any other ethnic group and nation, should be first to profit and benefit from their markets and resources. To do otherwise would be tantamount to willfully giving away the commonwealth of the group to others and consequently impoverishing themselves as well as denying their future generations the right to inherit the god-given traditional and accumulated wealth of their ancestors. It is disconcerting to see and read what lame analysts like that johnny-come-latelies like Adejumobi rail against African South Africans, who will never get the type of Cape Town University education, then turn around and assail the very African Taxpayers and African folks in South Africa s being unaware that they are Africa, that South African Africans are blaming foreigners of taking their jobs.
Well, the last time I checked, Africans in South Africa owe nobody anything, there was no liberation for Africans in South Africa, and they are still suffering all sorts of degrading intellectual and other types of abuses without let down. I guess he needed to think the way he did to get his doctorate and good grades. But, Africans in South Africa are cognizant of the birthright. Land and resources, and this issue was demonstrated by the Times when it reported the following:
"Whether business should be required to team up with black capitalists when tapping black markets is now a topic of heated negotiation in business groups and within the government. Major business groups generally favor such joint ventures, although they are opposed to enforcing them by law. African South Africans and African Americans have endured all manner of indignities, sufferings, deprivations,losses and impairments under the reign of White supremacy in its various historical and contemporary forms.
"The negative effects and aftereffects of White domination shall last for generation among all Black peoples, its primary subjects. The central function of White-commandeered Apartheid was to forcibly and exploitatively extract the material, human and productive wealth of Black peoples and redistribute them to their White overlords. The wealth, power and influence Whites expropriated through their coercive domination and exploitation of Black land. Labor and productivity have continued to exponentially expand and perpetuate themselves by compounding the interest on their original and concurrent principal.
"White domination of Blacks, even if confined to the past, allowed Whites to accumulate astronomical wealth. Moreover,it has allowed Whites to capitalized that wealth by developing socio-economic technologies and sociopolitical advantages which will facilitate their continuing economic and political domination of Blacks in the present and into the future even under governmental regimes which do not legally or politically sanction racial discrimination of any kind,whether of the forward or reverse variety."
Therefore, "Apartheid did not die," it morphed into a more gluttonous and oppressive monster riding the fake independence that Blacks in south Africa thought they have earned and now control.
Absence of Black Ownership Social malaise and Malady
Therefore, it is not enough that Africans in South Africa forgive Whites their past sins; that they merely "forget the past"; that they "forgive and forget". It is not enough that Whites cease and desist their prior injustices and racially discriminatory practices afford them. For even under a color-blind political and economic regime they will use their previously accumulated and unredistributed wealth and power to continue to invest to their advantage and to their advantage and to the disadvantage of Africans in South Africa.
Africans have to remain aware of the fact that when they let Whites purchase and gain control of their resources by means of the wealth and the other advantages they acquired through the perpetration of prior racial injustices, they will continue to be victimized by White-instigated racial inequalities and exploitation even though such ends may not be consciously intended by Whites.
Whites will plea that they are not only taking advantage of market opportunities equally available to all without regard to race. It is imperative that if Blacks are to acquire true equality and power relative to Whites, then, they must demand and get reparations from Whites or that Whites, through committed long-term affirmative action, compensate them for their loses due to their prior oppression by whites.
If tis cannot be accomplishes then it is necessary that Blacks, by any means necessary, prevent Which by no means a substitute for Black ownership of those facilities and the ancillary goods and services they require. Social problems in the Black communities from further investing in their territories where Blacks themselves are not included as equal or predominant partners
Crime, family instability,social disorganization, poverty and disease in the Black community are all related to the absence of Black ownership of important and vital resources. The mere convenience provided by White-owned retail facilities placed in Black community is by no means a substitute for Black ownership of those facilities and the ancillary goods and services they require.
Social problems in the Black community will not be prevented because shopping will be more convenient for Black consumers. These problems will be solved through the Black ownership and equitable distribution of the Black commonwealth and through the Black community's empowering itself relative to other communities to protect and advance its interests.
This cannot happen if other communities own and control all that is vital to the Black community, no matter how convenient or inexpensive to Black consumers. Ultimately, the convenience provided by such arrangements will become much too inconvenient and the cheap prices they afford will become too much to pay.
New Media for African-Americans and Africa in the 21st Century
For the whole of Africa, having lost clear and detailed sense of our identity, we have naturally lost our ability to create a point of view originally and strictly our own. With our scrambled sense of reality, we have forgotten how to see things in terms of our separate and concrete interests. We behave, throughout Africa, as if the interest of the West were necessarily our own, as if the western point of view were the one and only valid one.
Worse still, we behave as if it were some sort of betrayal to discover and insist on our own point of viewing the world. We allowed ourselves to be persuaded that African Unity was utopian hen it was advocated by Kwame Nkrumah; but as soon as the western powers took a hand in the matter and cracked the whip, we created an Organization of African Unity they the West controlled.
We allowed ourselves to be persuaded that the economic unification of Africa was utopian, but gladly took associate status in the Common Market of an economically Unifying Europe. We permitted ourselves to believe that we should be nonaligned, primarily because we had been told that communist aid and contact would be bad for us. without making our own independent observations and calculations we believed such western advice for many years, denying ourselves whatever aid we might have gotten from China and the USSR We must wipe from our eyes all delusions of freedom if we are to see clearly our way to real freedom.
How can Black people see clearly and know how to apply themselves and utilize the new technologies in this Technological Society(as described by Jacques Ellul in his book Technological Society). Jajj Flemings writes that "People of color may consume a lot of technology, but oftentimes we fail to use it in a way that moves us forward."
Chances are you've all heard about the 'digital divide' but not everyone is exactly sure as to what that actually is.. Wikipedia defines it as the gap between individuals, households, businesses and geographic areas at different socio-economic levels with regard both to their opportunities too access information and Communication Technologies (CTs) and to their use of the Internet for a wide variety of activities.
Basically, as the Internet and digital technology continues to mature, these technologies will become more integrated into every aspect of our business and personal lives; as communication platforms, mediums for business commerce, and news source. But are African Americans being left behind in the digital age?
If so, mobile technology may help bridge the gap. According to the Pew Pol (July 2010), 51% of Hispanics and 46% of African Americans use their cell phones to access the Internet, compared to 33% of White Americans. Forty-seven percent of Latinos and 41% of African Americans use their phones for e-mail, compared with 30% of White Americans.
HAjj continues to write in his article that: "The African American community must take personal responsibility to ensure that we cannot stay current as it relates to digital media literacy. Just to be clear. The digital divide is greater than having access to Facebook or sending personal text messages. It's being able to use the Internet and digital technology to communicate access to information, and create commerce. Here are 8 mobile Apps to increase your informationMobile Apps (See 8 Apps on the Picture Gallery on the right of the Article and explanations as to what they do). Here are some tech areas that lack diversity:
1) Tech Startups: One percent of tech startups have Black founders (87% White Americans and 12% Asians). There's a new frontier of Black tech entrepreneurs that are being birthed through the New Me Accelerator. You can follow the process this summer on NewMeConference.com.
2) Social Media/Digital Conferences: How many African-Americans attend social/digital media conferences to stay current on the trends of digital technology? There's a lot of debate over the lack of diversity of the speakers and participants at these conferences. Our community needs to be challenged to create a pipeline of qualified people and companies that demand attention of the tech community and provide access and opportunities to close the digital divide.
"How should African-Americans use technology?" Hajj asks and answers in the following manner: "Technology and the Internet are tools that can be the great equalizers.Let's focus on the areas we can control by educating ourselves on the latest digital technology, mobile devices, and application to expand our presence in business and in the digital space. Here are some resources to identify African American offered by Hajj:
- New Me Accelerator: The first Accelerator for minority-led tech startups launching in the summer of 2011 in Silicon Valley
- Black Enterprise's Entrepreneurs Conference + Expo: This year's Black Enterprise Entrepreneur's conference will include a lot of useful social/digital media.
- Brand Camp University: One of the most diversified social media conferences.
- Black Web 2.0: A great destination for African-Americans in Technology and New Media.
- Quora: A great resource to query who some notable founders, entrepreneurs, and executives in Silicon Valley are.
- 28-Days of Diversity: 28-Days of Diversity is a list generated by Wayne Sutton highlighting quality minorities in the tech space
The information above was culled from an article written by Hajj Flemings.
Social Media and Diversity
Here is another article written by Jay Baer: "At South by Southwest in Austin, I was at several events attended by the 'social media mafia'-the 300 or so folks that create much of the content around social media nationally. Bloggers, consultants, community managers, et al. There are of course many excellent social media practitioners that do not attend SXSW, but there is definitely a high concentration of social media pros at these taco-fuelled events. One of the events was even produced by Amber Naslund and me, as a launch party for The NOW Revolution. As I looked around at these events. I noticed that, 'the vast majority of attendees appeared to be 25-39 years old, and the vast majority were White.,
The fact is, most social media pros can easily name the handful people in the business. Excellent professionals like Wayne Sutton,Stanford Smith, Shashi Bellamknonda, Shama Kabani, and Rohit Bhargava, are the exceptions that prove the rule. In Louisville a few days before SXSW, Amber and I presented to a group of social media and business leaders at a terrific event produced by Jason Falls.
During the questions, an attendee asked whether companies should be thinking about increasing diversity in the social media ranks. It was the first time I'd been asked about diversity in a social media context. The premise of The Now Revolution is that business success is increasingly about reaction time, and that to be fast, your company need to operate with one head, and one heart.
Decentralizing social responsibilities and empowering employees to make the right decision now, is the hallmark of social evolution. The best way to move fast and with authenticity is to innately understand the perspective of the person on the other end of the social telephone. That's why ThinkGeek is so effective socially. They sell to geeks. But more importantly, their employees ARE geeks. If social media is going to be a public "face" of organizations, and drive kinship with the populace, we have to do more than rely on a bunch of 30 year-old White people to do so.
As an industry, we cannot fall into the same trap that the advertising business did, whereby they continue to struggle with attracting and retaining a diverse workforce 30+ years after it was first identified as a shortcoming, Let's make sure social media practitioners look like the people with whom they are supposed to interact: our customers.(Jay Baer)
It was the pressure of communications which brought about the downfall of traditional societies. And in the future, it will be the creation of new channels of communication and the ready acceptance of new content of communications which will be decisive in determining the prospects of nation-building (Pye, 1963)It did not take long, however, for communication scholars and world leaders to realize that the link between mass media presence and socioeconomic development could also often be negative, especially in developing countries.
According to Lerner and Schramm: "Throughout the less developed regions, people have been led to want more than they can get. This can be attributed in part to the spread of mass media, which inevitably show and tell people about the good things of life that are available elsewhere.
"... As people in the poor countries were being shown and told about 'goodies' available in developed countries, they were also being taught about their own inferiority — at least in terms of wealth and well-being.
"Recognition of the disparities between the rich and poor countries produced among some a sense of hopelessness, among others a sense of aggressiveness. Both apathy and aggression usually are counterproductive to genuine development efforts."
Ideologies, Ideas and Colonized Information
To further elaborate on this issues discussed above, Wilson informs us that:
"... In the past we have discussed a number of sources of bases of power, e.g., economic resources, authority, class membership, family, culture, organization, and the like. However, a source of power more fundamental than these, in fact the ultimate base of power for the other power sources, is the power of ideas.The power of mind, of thought, imagination and vision; the power if ideation and the transition of ideation into action, are manifested in a multitude of personal, social, cultural and physical forms.
"For ideas are actualized and incarnated in patterns of social attitudes, relations and organization; in social and physical products; in abilities and inabilities, superordinations and subordinations. Knowledge is idea, the production of ideation reciprocally interacting with reality. Therefore, if knowledge is power, ideas have power. Ideas can be coercive and compelling. Beliefs, symbols, doctrines, and idea systems can enable or empower men through their capacity to induce then into states of consciousness conducive to the achievement of certain personal and social goals which would not be achievable by other means.
"Indeed," as Thomas Dye asserts, "whole societies are shaped by systems of ideas that we frequently refer to as ideologies." He goes on to define an ideology as "an integrated system of ideas that provides society and its member with rationalizations for a way of life, guides for evaluating 'rightness' and 'wrongness,' and emotional impulses to action."
"The relationship between socioeconomic power systems and social ideology is an intimate one. For ideology legitimates power systems, hierarchical structures and social relations through its provision for rationales and justifications. If ideology successfully justifies the distribution and exercise of power within social relation, then it represents itself as a potent source of control over the consciousness and behavior of the participants. Thomas Dye informs us that:
"Ideologies control people's behavior in several ways:-
1) Ideologies affect perception. Ideas influence what people "see" in the world around them. Ideologies frequently describe the character of human beings in society; they help us become aware of certain aspects of society but often impair our ability to see other aspects. Ideologies may distort and oversimplify in their effort to provide a unified and coherent account of society.
2) Ideologies rationalize and justify a way of life and hence provide legitimacy for the structure of society. An ideology may satisfy the status quo, or it may provide a rationale for change, or even for revolution.
3) Ideologies provide normative standards to determine 'rightness" and "wrongness" in the affairs of society. Ideologies generally have a strong moral component. Occasionally, they even function as 'religions" — completer with prophets(Marx), scriptures (the Communist Manifesto), saints(Lenin, Stalin, Mao), and visions of utopia (a Communist society)
4) Ideologies provide motivation for social and political action. They give their followers a motive to act to improve world conditions. Ideologies can "convert" individuals to a particular social or political movement and arouse them to action.
So that,we are then learning about ideas in terms of their use by the ruling class or dominant groups to justify the existing social order. In this sense we learn from Jeffrey Reiman (1990) who asserted that:
"When ideas, however unintentionally, distort reality in a way that justifies the prevailing distribution of wealth and power, hides society's injustices, and thus secures uncritical allegiance to the existing social order, we have what Marx called 'ideology.' So to the naive but acute observer of the American political and economic system it is amazingly baffling that in the face of gross and rapidly increasing inequities in wealth and power, social status and influence, social health and welfare, the vast majority of the population who bare the burden of these inequities do not utilize their vaunted freedom of speech and assembly to engage in fundamental questioning the political-economic-legal institutions of the system and organize to transform them so that they produce more equitable and salutary outcomes.
"The fact that this system has not been transformed toward such outcomes implies that despite its gross inequities and inadequacies a critical mass of the populace much accept the ideology used to rationalize and justify its existence. Obviously, those most interested and active in inculcating and sustaining such an ideology would be those who are the chief beneficiaries of the socioeconomic status and those who believe they stand to gain in the future fro its continuance and/or who fear losing what they have, though it may be less than they need if the system were to reconstituted.
"It should be apparent that in such a system the 'rich and powerful' have an especially strong interests on promulgating and elaborating the prevailing ideology which legitimates their socioeconomic status. The rich and powerful, in this context, of all the groups which compose America/south Africa societies, have the greatest need for ideology and to see that the other groups are well-indoctrinated with it."
This is the nub of the issues when it comes to race relations within contemporary societies. There are those who have more than others, and they are the ones who rule and determine life as we live it. Here is an interesting take on this by J. Reiman:
"A simple persuasive argument can be made for the claim that the rich and powerful in America/[Africa] have an interest in conveying an ideological message to the rest of the nation(s). The 'have-nots' and 'have littles fa outnumber the 'have plenties'. This means, to put it rather crudely, the 'have-nots and the 'have-littles' could have more if they decided to take it from the 'have-plenties'.
This , in turn, means that the 'heave-plenties' need the cooperation of the 'have-nots' and the 'have-littles'. Because the 'have-plenties' are such a small minority that they could never force this cooperation on the 'have-nots' and 'have-littles', this cooperation must be voluntary.
"For the cooperation to be voluntary, the 'have-nots' and the 'have-littles' must believe that for all its problems the present social, political and economic order, with its disparities of wealth and power and privilege, is about the best that human beings can do. More specifically, the 'have-nots' and 'have-little' must believe that they are not being exploited by the 'have-plenties'.
Now, this seems to me to add up to an extremely plausible argument that ours is a social system that requires for its continued operation a set of beliefs necessary to secure the allegiance of the less well-off majority. These beliefs must be in some considerable degree false, because the distribution of wealth and power in the United States/African and South Africa is so evidently arbitrary and unjust. Ergo, the need for ideology."
Professor Clarke could not have put it any better, and I have not known anyone to have encapsulated all the above information as Clarke did. Just to paraphrase him, Clarke said that, 'the Europeans not only colonized information, they also colonized information about the world.'
In Africa and elsewhere, arguments as to whether the continent should acquire the new communication technologies have assumed robust dimension. The major issues revolve around the questions of priorities. ... In a world in which the developed and developing countries pursue different goals and priorities based on the different levels of their technological endowments, the new communication technologies are bound to be viewed with both optimism and suspicion.
Indeed, it was the former President Julius Nyerere of Tanzania painted a grim picture of the African scene when he reportedly said that, 'while the industrialized world may be traveling to the moon with ease — as a result of their technological advancement - African leaders are still grappling with the problem of how to reach their people in the villages.' Taking the Internet and other emerging electronic networks as an example, Jegede doubts their ability to accelerate Africa's development even as he recognizes the need for Africa to share information and ideas with the rest of the world.
African PeopleBlamed And Victimized By Their Own Leaders
It is also worth checking-out the ideas of other writers about the victimization of Africans since European enslavement of Africans and colonizing/Imperializing over them, has been all about and is still all about. We read from Hamilton Odunze that:
"When a fêted scholar like Chinua Achebe says something, it is merely natural that the rest of us pay attention and respect. To embellish or remove from the insightful observation of such an intellectual is something I will not encourage anybody to do, just for the heck of it. However, from time to time, one feels compelled to share an opinion. Having said the above, I respectfully want to discuss an issue raised by our esteemed scholar far away in Jamaica a few weeks ago and published by Vanguard Newspapers.
The occasion was the ongoing 200th anniversary of the end of the transatlantic slave trade of Africans to the Caribbean. Achebe said: “we have not been lucky with the leadership we have had since independence … no one else suffered the huge compulsory movement of people and the destruction of the continent that followed it. It is that destruction that we are seeing in Darfur, Somalia and Nigeria…”
Chinua Achebe is right. Anybody with a good sense of history knows that the unabated destruction we are seeing in Africa today has some elements of Western influence engraved in them. We are victims of one of the most horrendous crimes in human history by way of colonization and slavery.
Yet, Africans are divided as to how we have been affected by slavery and colonization. Many believe that these events bunged the pace of African civilization. I credit this point of view with brilliant scholastic values. But history has shown that many great civilizations were at one time or another colonized.
Therefore, the problem in Africa may not be directly linked to these horrendous crimes. The problem may be with the nature of African independence. Stay with me as I make the supporting argument.
Take Nigeria for instance. Our fight for independence was not spirited enough to warrant the need for a common purpose within the elements of survival and nation building. With profound apologies to those who struggled for our freedom, independence came on a round table over coffee and lunch. Right from then on, those who would later rule Nigeria were instantly separated from those they would rule. There was no common ground for the masses and their leaders.
This trend has survived in today’s Nigeria. In fighting for our independence, we did not sacrifice enough for our freedom; therefore, we lack any basis for patriotism. To a large extent, this lack of patriotism is the difference between nations who fought and died for freedom and those whose freedom came over coffee and lunch like ours. For instance, America fought a long and hard war with the British for their freedom. Consequently, they were united by the need to survive, regardless of their differences. South Africa is on the right track today because the nature of its independence was rough and bloody.
So far, I am arguing that our path to independence should have been violent, even bloody. Colonization and slavery, bad as they may have been, are not at the root of Africa’s problem. However, regardless of which side of the argument you are on, one question stands out: Is it really pragmatic to discuss Africa’s and Nigeria’s problem in the context of colonization and slavery? As a Nigerian who anguishes over the situation of things in our country, I fear that not pointing out the dangers in continuing to blame the West for our woes is wrong.
Since Chinua Achebe’s insightful observations, I have labored to link the extent of destruction going on in Nigeria with colonization and slavery. I could not find the moral courage to join in blaming America, Europe and France for our woes. For one reason, it is unprogressive because it makes excuses for what we have failed to do for ourselves.
Second, it makes excuses for the perpetuation of the abuse and destruction which has been going on unabated in Africa. One thing is clear: these abuses and destructions are malicious acts of people committing against their own. Therefore, blaming the West for our problems is a futile academic exercise not consistent with the realities of our existence in Nigeria.
The realities of life in Nigeria are grim, as many as 99% of Nigerians live with less than $1 a day in the midst of affluence. Our infrastructure is under colossal decay. In case we have forgotten, let us go down memory lane in order of profundity: as close as 1982, Nigerians were enjoying a booming economy. Our hospitals were among the best in the world. We had world-class education. Again, how do we explain this retrogression in terms of colonization and slavery? If anything, the effect of colonization should have been more apparent then than now.
I am not trying to weaken the effects of colonization and slavery, but given the world around us and the impact that Nigerians have made, we should have been half-way down the road to self realization. Like Nigeria, many African nations have been liberated for more than 40 years now. Can somebody please hoot me when do we take a step in the right direction? Our problems in Africa and Nigeria go beyond colonization and slavery.
Many Nigerians believe the West perpetuated our problems by intentionally creating a montage nation called Nigeria. For instance, they argue that the nature of Nigeria’s diversity is not manageable under a national umbrella. In a world where many nations crave the kind of diversity we have, it is preposterous to argue that this same condition is our weakness. If anything, Nigeria’s obscured strength is its diversity.
My honest conclusion is that we are victims of an ethical dilemma of our own creation manifested in the kinds of leadership we have gotten in the past 40 years.
Below we read from an article in the New York Times of 1998, A Story Of The Atlantic Slave Trade:
In the New York Times Howard W. French writes of The Atlantic Slave Trade: On Both Sides, Reason for Remorse
The New York Times April 5, 1998
The Atlantic Slave Trade: On Both Sides, Reason for Remorse
By HOWARD W. FRENCH
ABIDJAN, Ivory Coast -- From the moment the White House announced that President Clinton would stop at Senegal's Goree Island, one of this continent's most famous monuments to the Atlantic slave trade, a polemic was re-launched in the United States and in much of Africa over how and indeed whether Clinton should apologize for the centuries-long capture and sale into bondage of millions of Africans.
For some, the very idea of an apology was offensive. Weren't Africans engaging in slavery themselves well before the first Europeans came and carried off their first human cargoes? Didn't African chiefs themselves conduct razzias, or slaving raids, on neighboring tribes and march their harvest to the shores for sale?
For others, though, the Atlantic trade in Africans was one of the greatest crimes humanity has known, and remains one that has never been properly acknowledged.
"The Holocaust was certainly a great tragedy, but it only lasted a few short years," said Joseph Ndiaye, the curator of the Maison des Esclaves, the featured stop on Clinton's trip to Goree. "We never stop hearing about the Holocaust, but how often do we dwell on the tragedy that took place here over 350 years; a tragedy that consumed tens of millions of lives?"
In the end, an appropriately solemn Clinton stopped short of an outright apology for America's part in the slave trade, finding other ways to express his regret as he focused on the future.
That Clinton so artfully chose to sidestep African slavery's long history should have come as no surprise to anyone familiar with its cruel and complicated details.
Even today, few subjects are so prone to passionate disagreement. As ever, people from each leg of the triangular Atlantic trade -- Europe, Africa and the Americas -- still use the slave experience as a vacant screen upon which they project their own misperceptions and justifications.
The Colonial View
In the United States, conservative columnist Patrick Buchanan recently echoed a sentiment heard often from whites who resent attempts to make them feel guilty for slavery:
"When Europeans arrived in sub-Saharan Africa, the inhabitants had no machinery and no written language. When the Europeans departed, most of them by 1960, they left behind power stations, telephones, telegraphs, railroads, mines, plantations, schools, a civil service, a police force and a treasury."
Even disregarding the wildly benign view of Europe's colonial legacy, many historians say Buchanan's assumptions -- of a savage continent being blessed with the gift of European civilization -- are as erroneous as they are widespread.
Early European travelers to West Africa, in fact, found societies that by many measures, from commonly available technology to general living standards, were not so different from home.
"The smelting of iron and steel in West Africa was similar to that in Europe in the 13th century, before the advent of power driven by the water wheel," wrote Hugh Thomas, the author of "The Slave Trade" (Simon & Schuster, 1997). "Senegambia had iron and copper industries, and the quality of African steel approached that of Toledo before the 15 century."
It would be dishonest to lay all of Africa's subsequent problems on the slave trade. But most experts do not doubt that the forces unleashed by Europe's demand for slaves, gold and other African goods radically destabilized societies that were embarking on their own path toward development, and laid waste to whole regions of this continent.
"The discussion of how Africa became what it did subsequent to 1500 very quickly becomes an argument over what the slave trade did to the continent," said John Reader, a fellow of the British Royal Anthropological Institute and author of "Africa, a Biography of the Continent."
"Africa clearly would not have had an easy time even if there had not been an Atlantic slave trade," he wrote. "But one can easily imagine entirely different trajectories for the continent."
A cold look at the nature of the Atlantic slave trade makes it very difficult to overstate its impact.
Until recently, Africa's economic development has always been hindered by low population densities. Africa's population in 1500 has been estimated by some at 47 million. Over the next 350 years, between 10 and 15 million Africans were landed in chains in the New World, and 4 to 6 million more are thought to have died during their capture or the Atlantic crossing -- a total of between 14 and 21 million people. History has seen few social disruptions on that scale.
In the end, however, many specialists in African history consider the process by which slavery worked to be as destructive as the sheer numbers involved.
Few African slaves were enchained by Europeans themselves. Instead, massive slave raids, huge marches of captives from inland areas and continuous rivalries between coastal kingdoms and local ethnic groups were driven by demand for Europe's coveted goods -- cloth and candles, grain, horses, spiced wine, pots and pans.
For centuries in Africa, ethical conventions had governed the taking and use of slaves, who in most cases resembled the serfs of Europe more than the chattel of the Americas. These suddenly dissolved.
"The trans-Atlantic slave trade vastly devalued human life compared to what existed virtually anywhere on the continent before," said historian Basil Davidson. "Things were not a peaceful Garden of Eden in Africa beforehand. But all of the evidence combines to show that the level of civilization in pre-colonial Africa was degraded and depressed by the onset of widespread violence related to the slave trade."
And here one begins to touch upon one of the cruelest ironies of the slave trade and enter into an area that many Africans and African-Americans are often unaware of or uncomfortable confronting directly.
African slavery, albeit of a very different kind, began long before the arrival of Europeans, and continued well after slavery's abolition in the West. And the slavery of the Americas could never have approached the scale it attained without the active and widespread collaboration of Africans. Most troubling, perhaps, are how European perceptions of Africans and their behavior lent seeming moral acceptability to the commerce.
The free-for-all among African societies to capture slaves from their neighbors and rivals for sale to whites was deliberately stimulated by the Europeans who anchored offshore with their cloth and trinkets. And this same state of chaos comforted whites in their view of Africans as ignoble savages.
Today Africans and African-Americans may often share a common view of slavery as the evil work of whites. But the very notion of shared Africanness so commonplace today existed only in the minds of foreigners during the time of this trade. To Africans, their own divisions on ethnic and linguistic lines mattered far more. The lack of solidarity served, in the European mind, as another easy rationale for enslaving them.
Contrast this to the attitude Europeans took toward the New World's Indians. Recorded instances of Indians selling each other into plantation slavery are rare. Less than 100 years into the colonization of the New World, calls were spreading for the abolition of Indian slavery.
"The Indians were seen by and large as a people unknown to the ancients who had somehow remained innocent and noble," said David Brion Davis, the Sterling Professor of History at Yale University." At the very same time, mariners going up and down the African coast spread tales of Africans as savage barbarians who sold slaves themselves.
What Is Africa To Me?(ala John Hendrick Clarke)
"Ibrahim Sundiata, wrote an article on the Slave Trade and the Wonders of the African world:
"The discussion over 'The Wonders of the African World' has produced a vigorous and, perhaps, much needed debate. Having finally seen the entire film series and having bought the accompanying book, I have a few thoughts on one issue dealt with in both the text and in the film - Slavery.
"What is Africa to me"? This too oft quoted line by a New World Black man still interrogates. To many the continent signifies as the home of the Black Race, the iconic antipode of Europe, the home of the White. Indeed, Africa in the American popular perception continues to be either an Edenic Mother/Fatherland or the barbarous home of famine, disease and civil war. Two constructs-"The Image of Africa" and "The Image of Slavery"-have molded, and continue to mold, the Black Diaspora. "Wonders of the African World" gingerly attempts to walk the line between the two.
We may begin by asking: What is the "essential" relationship to ancestral Africa? We do know, of course, that, from the fifteenth century onward, millions of forced migrants left the African continent to people both of the Americas and the islands of the Caribbean. At embarkation, captured women and men were phenotypically and culturally African, but much has happened since then. Yet, Africa continues to operate as a fixed point, the loadstone of ethnic identity, an identity often analyzed so as to diffuse issues of hybridization and creolization. Whether the locus of collective origin is in ancient Egypt or among the Yoruba, a core Africanity is posited because societal constructs so clearly set off the "Black" community from the "White," in a Manichaeans worldview which governs everything from politics to the music industry.
In early 1998, President Bill Clinton visited Africa. To many, the trip was a triumphal one, focused on trade, international security and the ties that bind Africa and African Americans. Howard French, an African-American writer in the New York Times mused over whether the United States should apologize for the Atlantic Slave Trade. He noted that, "In the end, appropriately solemn Mr. Clinton stopped short of an outright apology for America's part in the slave trade, finding other ways to express his regret as he focused on the future." When the president did express regret, he spoke at school in Uganda. The act was perhaps unintentionally symbolic, the equivalent of apologizing for the Irish Potato Famine in Slovakia. Interestingly, nothing was said of contemporary bondage across the border in neighboring Sudan.
The silence reflects the vagaries of the last century's abolitionist debates. Commenting on President Clinton's decision to express official regret for the historic slave trade, French mentioned what we may call The Slaver's Canard: "Weren't Africans engaging in slavery themselves well before the first Europeans came and carried off their first human cargoes? Didn't African chiefs themselves conduct...slaving raids on neighboring tribes and march their harvest to the shores for sale?" The charge is an old one. Beginning in the eighteenth century, defenders of Atlantic slavery maintained that Africa itself was rife with slavery; Europeans only took away the surplus produced by semi-permanent warfare. Nineteenth century abolitionists countered by painting an image of a bucolic Africa in which slaves were part of the family, a status hardly comparable to chattel status in the American South.
From the other end of the political spectrum, polemicists continued and continue to hammer away at the particular evil of "African slavery." For instance, the conservative ideologue Dinesh D'Souza decries what he perceives as liberal attempts to "downplay African slavery." He notes that "Any claims of the benign quality of African slavery are hard to square with such reports as slaves being tortured at the discretion of their owners, or executed en masse to publicly commemorate the deaths of the kings of Dahomey. . . "
Given the geographical size of Africa and the number and complexity of societies found there, any broad generalization is bound to be false. One could argue that there is no benign slavery. Some time ago, in comparing slavery in the Americas, the anthropologist Marvin Harris, comparing slavery in the United States and Latin America, discounted the "Myth of the Kindly Master," in which "Latin" slavery was envisioned as somehow innately less harsh and burdensome than the Anglo-Saxon variety. In the Harris thesis, if some African societies seemed to offer slaves more leeway than others, it is because their intensity of economic production was less. It would be very hard to argue that the slave salt miners of Taodeni or the laborers in the Asante gold mines participated in any form of "familial" slavery. Even when the kinship idiom is used, we must realize that folks can be awfully hard on their kin (for example, Roman fathers had the legal right to kill or sell their spouses and children). Also, gender cannot be overlooked. The majority of slaves in Africa were women and in many places the major agriculturalists. Their status put them at a complex juncture; under patriarchy all women are subordinate, but some are more subordinate than others.
If Africa is simply the metonym for "Black Man's Land," a place without nations, ethnicities or languages, the charge of slavery and slaving is devastating. Zora Neale Hurston lamented, "But the inescapable fact that stuck in my craw was: my people had sold me...My own people had exterminated whole nations and torn families apart for profit before the strangers got their chance at a cut." Richard Wright was bedeviled by similar thoughts. "Had some of my ancestors," he mused, "sold their relatives to white men?" The writer wondered: "What would my feelings be when I looked into the black face of an African, feeling that maybe his great-great-great-grandfather had sold my great-great-great-grandfather into slavery?" Skip Gates continues in the same vein: "The image of slavery we had when I was a kid was that the Europeans showed up with these fish nets and swept all the Africans away." He is startled: "Rubbish. It's like they went to a shopping mall. Without the Africans there wouldn't have been a slave trade."
The indictment is particularly blistering:
. . . For African Americans the most painful-truth concerning the extraordinary complex phenomenon that was the African slave trade is the role of black Africans themselves in its origins, its operation, and its perpetuation. It was an uneasiness and anger about this truth that fueled Richard Wright's barely concealed contempt for his Ghanaian kinsman in Black Power and that led many African Americans to view their New World culture as sui generis, connected only tenuously to its African antecedents, if at all. Western images of African barbarism and savagery, of course, did not endear us to our native land [sic]. But for many of my countrymen, the African role in the slave trade of other Africans is both a horrific surprise and the ultimate betrayal, something akin to fratricide and sororicide. Imagine the impact of a revelation that Sephardic Jews had served as the middlemen in the capture or incarceration of Askenazi Jews during the Holocaust, and you can perhaps begin to understand Richard Wright's disgust.
This raises the question of what a "brother" and a "kinsman" is. If a continent is the "Nation," an equivalent would be to view the Holocaust as a Mittel-Europaische family feud of particular ferocity -- Europeans exterminating their own people, while in league with an alien race at the other end of the world. Indeed, thousands of Askenazim did die at the hands of their Polish, Ukrainian and Baltic neighbors. And, strangely, the Germans killed a far greater percentage of their European Jewish captives than they did of their North and West African prisoners of war. Although some nineteenth century thinkers may have seen Jews and Arabs as "Orientals" sharing a bundle of common characteristics, only the most Utopian of present-day prognosticators would predict the rise of a political "Pan Semitism" in the Middle East. The comparisons of Jews and Africans is a strained one. Kwame Appiah notes "that Judaism - the religion and the wider body of Jewish practice through which the various communities of the Diaspora have defined themselves allow for a cultural conception of Jewish identity that cannot be made plausible in the case of Pan Africanism." Appiah points to "the way that the fifty or so rather disparate African nationalities in our present world seem to have met the nationalist impulses of many Africans, while Zionism has, of necessity, been satisfied by the creation of a single state."
Unfortunately, in the popular American imagination, the fifty African states remain an irrelevant hodgepodge. The continent remains largely featureless; languages are dialects and ethnicities are tribes. If Africa, three times the size of the United States and containing 748 million people speaking some 1,500 languages, is reduced to simply a mythic homeland, confusion is sure to follow. And worse than confusion, a basic lack of understanding or sympathy for Africans as they exist is bound to follow.
The image of slavery in Africa has historically stood as a distortion, either a magnification or diminution of the image of American slavery. TransAtlantic bondage is the absolute before which all other manifestations are held to be relative. Slavery is the cause of the essential national fissure. The national (white) image of the institution has gone through various permutations, without questioning basic assumptions. Early in the twentieth century Southern historians like Ulrich B. Phillips painted a rosy picture of bondage in Dixie; indeed, slavery was a benign "school" for blacks. D. W. Griffith's Birth of a Nation contained images of both "faithful darkies" and "ferocious bucks." The popular image of kindly slavery perhaps reached its apogee in Margaret Mitchell's Gone with the Wind.
As the white vision of slavery changed, so did the black. The African American view of slavery has changed drastically in the years since emancipation. Various nineteenth-century black thinkers, among them Martin Delany, Henry M. Turner, Alexander Crummell, and Edward Blyden, saw the Middle Passage as providential, even if highly painful. By the time of the Civil Rights Movement a Providential Slavery had all but disappeared from most African American discourse on slavery and the slave trade. The image of slavery emerged not so much as a labor system, but as a systematic torture of millions rooted in innate racial antagonism. In this scenario, sexual exploitation and gross barbarity fueled by raging hatred characterized everyday of slave existence. The plantation resembled not so much Booker T. Washington's "school" as it did Stanley Elkins' later comparison with a concentration camp.
An "Old Dixie Narrative" had emerged. Simply, stated this view of history says: Slavery was confined to Dixie and slaves grew cotton. Nowhere else in the history of humanity has slavery existed and nowhere else were human beings chattel. In this scenario, Africans were selected to be slaves because they were black. Racism drove a slave trade and slavery which existed as the ultimate form of psychosexual torture. The numbers immolated in the horror of the "Middle Passage" and in the cotton fields ran into the millions. At the popular level, the Old Dixie Narrative floats in the American collective consciousness, even among those who have never given it much thought.
For many African Americans, looking back through the prism of Jim Crow and lynch law, a view of slavery as the ultimate horror provides ample proof of the ultimate fixity of human nature. Racism was as alive in fifteenth-century Lisbon as it was in nineteenth-century Mobile. History is one long version of Up from Slavery and always a struggle against the Manichean "Other." Blacks remain the ultimate Outgroup, one which erases European division and suffering. In the Old Dixie Narrative, there is agreement from both sides of the racial divide that Blacks have always been drawers of water and hewers of wood. Class is eternally "raced."
If slavery is about race, then Africans could not have engaged in a slave traffic. Indeed, the charge itself is racial calumny. However, a cautionary note was sounded long ago by the Trinidadian historian Eric Williams. Best known for maintaining that white humanitarianism did not abolish the slave trade, the scholar made a subsidiary, and often overlooked, point: capitalism and slavery are no great respecters of persons. Writing from beyond the confines of the Dixie Narrative, he observed that, "The `horrors' of the Middle Passage have been exaggerated. For this the British abolitionists are in large part responsible." Furthermore, "A racial twist has ...been given to what is basically an economic phenomenon. Slavery was not born of racism: rather, racism was the consequence of slavery. Unfree labor in the New World was brown, white, black, and yellow; Catholic, Protestant and pagan." Slavery need not be raced. It could exist in ancient Rome, medieval Kosovo, nineteenth-century Korea and in the Liberia of the 1930s. Unfortunately, few could think in terms of C. L. R. James dictum: "The race question is subsidiary to the class question in politics....But to neglect the racial factor as merely incidental is an error only less grave than to make it fundamental."
If we heed these caveats, we end up with somewhat different conclusions than those contained in the "The Wonders of the African World." Slavery, like marriage, is a fairly universal institution. Most societies have had some form of it. Slavery, at base, rests on the ability to coerce labor and/or sexual reproduction. Probing for a peculiar "Black" guilt for slavery is an ahistorical and presentist trap.
We might as well ask why the "brothers" have fought and killed each other in places as disparate as Biafra and Rwanda. The answer is obvious. Africa is a continent full of proud, diverse and often contentious peoples. It also has social cleavages within societies, something a scholar like Walter Rodney clearly recognized twenty years ago. Recently, Joe Miller has pointed out that, "Africa [still] looms integrally in the background of African-American history as a unified ancestry reflecting the racial sense of community forced by American prejudice on African Americans. . ."
The "Wonders of the African World" did little to go beyond this view. The positing of a Black "Volksgemeinschaft" is soothingly mythopoeic, but it is not history. As Pearle-Alice Marsh, executive director of the Africa Policy Information laments: "There are millions of Americans who still think Africa is a country, not a continent." Sadly, in spite of its kaleidoscopic race around the continent, "Wonders of the African World" will do little to change this perception.
Responses From well-known scholars to Gate's Video
Wonders of the "Skipian" World
. . . I will make a plea for introducing some substance into the debates, especially as concerns the emotive issue that so preoccupies Ali Mazrui in his Second Critique: slavery and the role of Africans in it.
First of all, I think we should avoid phrases like 'the history of the slave-trade'.
Ali Mazrui asks who is behind 'rewriting' this history. Does he mean to say
(a) that there is only one slave-trade ('the' slave trade),
(b) that there is only one history ("the" history) of it, and
(c) that we should not rewrite history?
Well, of course, 'history' is constantly being rewritten. If it were not, we would still be looking at African history through racist and colonial eyes. There is no 'one' history and no 'one' slave trade, and scholars are constantly engaged in the process of reinterpreting the phenomenon of human beings depriving others of liberty, subjecting them to their will, and determining their life and death in that process which we call slavery. They are also engaged in unearthing new data which will provide a catalyst for new interpretations. It is hardly a scholarly critique to ask 'who is behind' a certain interpretation, as if there were inevitably some sinister motive lurking.
Historians of Africa have long since abandoned the simplistic notion that slavery in Africa is merely the story of Europeans snatching up Africans and transporting them to the New World. Of course, it was a far more complex business than that, and of course (as we know from endless documentation) certain African rulers and entrepreneurs traded slaves both among themselves and with with others interested in buying them, whether Europeans on the western coasts or 'Arabs' (and Berbers, and others; perhaps we should just say 'Muslims') in the Sahelian lands, the Nilevalley and the East African coast.
Long before Europeans were bartering for their human commodity on the coasts, Muslim traders from North Africa and Egypt were purchasing slaves in Ancient Ghana, Songhay, Kanem-Bornu, and from Ethiopia. Later also in Waday, Dar Fur, Sinnar and from Mogadishu down to Zanzibar. They obtained these slaves from African rulers and merchants who had acquired them by war and by slave-raiding pure and simple. The great Timbuktu scholar Ahmad Baba wrote a learned treatise in 1613 on the subject, in which he identified which African populations were, to his knowledge, non-Muslim and thus potentially enslaveable, and which were Muslim and were not.
Many persons thus enslaved were absorbed locally within Africa, while others were transported across the Sahara, up the river Nile, over the Red Sea and the Indian Ocean to lands as distant as Spain, Turkey, Arabia and India. Over time, from the 9th century when this draining of slaves into the Mediterranean Basin and West/South Asia began, to the early years of the 20th century when it came to an end, scholars have calculated that as many Africans passed into slavery by these processes as crossed the Atlantic.
Whilst there are big differences between the practice of slavery in the Muslim Mediterranean world and in the Christian New World, the processes of uprooting human beings, selling them and transporting them as slaves are very similar (e.g. the Saharan Middle Passage was scarcely less cruel and life-threatening than the trans-Atlantic one). As my Sudanese colleague and friend Professor Yusuf Fadl Hasan once said, referring to this: 'Slavery is slavery and cannot be beautified by cosmetics'.
I am pointing this out not to diminish in any way the horrors of the Atlantic Middle Passage, the brutality of the ways in which Africans were treated in slavery in much of the New World (though historians will always search out anomalies, contradictions and exceptions), and the appalling suffering that racism has caused and, in various less physically obvious ways, still does cause in much of the European-settled lands of the western hemisphere. Rather, I am doing so because I would like to see slavery viewed from the perspective of the Africans who were victims of it,
whether internally, northwards, eastwards, or westwards. Rather than seeking to apportion blame (though yes, European capitalism and racism did produce much more suffering than its competitors), we should be examining the economics and social dynamics of the African societies that practised slavery and sold slaves in order to understand this phenomenon.
We should not necessarily be surprised that 'brother sold brother'. Human nature is prone to do such things, and Africans are fully 'human' beings (neither angelic nor devilish). 'Race' (however we define it) does not determine everything, except in racist eyes. Europeans have sold Europeans into slavery (e.g. the medieval Slav(e)s), and have committed genocide among themselves; Africans have done the same (and in North Africa enslaved Europeans too). In neither case did they see their victims as 'brothers'. In fact they saw them as inferior, or sub-human, 'others'; this was always the rationale either for mass slaughter or for enslavement. This may not be 'racism' in its classic definition, but it is certainly 'otherism', which is a close relative. . .This is a response that was ushered-in by Paul Finkelstein:
"I deal with this in class by offering two ideas to students who are concerned about African complicity.
First, whatever the African role, the Europeans were still buying and selling slaves; the Europeans had ideologies about Christianity, civilization, and Americans added, after 1776, equality and the rights to life, liberty and happiness. So, whatever the Africans did, the Europeans and Americans were violating their own moral codes and ideals; and surely the U.S. can apologize for that. Africans may need to apologize to African-Americans for selling their ancestors to Europeans, but that is a different issue; I can't speak for either group, and President Clinton's remarks deal with what the U.S. did in our history, not with what others did.
As for Africans being "up to their eyeballs" in the slave trade; I like to ask students why Bosnians, Croatians, and Serbs kill each other with such glee; while blond blue eyed German speaking people were sent to gas chambers by other blond blue eyed German speaking people; the answers of course go to the root of human nature and the ability to do harm to other people, as long as we can define them as "the other." That was true in Africa; it is true in what was once Yugoslavia; it was the rule in Nazi Germany, and in much of the rest of the West at various times.
Finally, a thought on conservatives discovering African complicity; this still does not explain the behavior of the Americans who bought the slaves, kept them enslaved, and enslaved their children and grand children. And that, I suspect, is something conservatives have not yet discovered.
Chapman Distinguished Professor
University of Tulsa College of Law
Here is another response to the Gates Video above from Mikell:
The case against Henry Louis Gates.
Gwendolyn Mikell Professor and Director of the African Studies Program, Georgetown University, Washington, DC.
It seems to me that Gates' pain about the Trans-Atlantic slavery have twisted his objectives as film-maker and narrator. We all understand pain and suffering related to slavery, but it is not acceptable to present negative personal and a-historical opinions as if they are fact in material that pretends to be scholarly. It seems to me that Gates has crafted his own attack on Afrocentric views of the greatness of Africa. It seems to me that the Gates' video attempts to paint a picture of an imaginary divide between African Americans and African views of the Continent and its role in history. As an African American, this offends me.
Biodun Jeyifo, Professor of English at Cornell University
Very many commentators have remarked that Gates is deafeningly silent on the role of Europeans in the slave trade, on both the western and eastern coastlines of Africa. For many people, this is the ONE factor which, above all else, compromises Gates' intention to provoke Africans and African-Americans to dialogue on the role of Africans in the slave trade. Additionally, there is the problem associated with the insistence of the African respondents that Gates selects for the episodes on the transatlantic slave trade that the West African slave-raiding and slave-dealing chiefs were equal partners to the European slave traders.
This is a minority view among professional Africanist historians, black and white; the least Gates could have done is feature scholars who represent a different view of the relative roles and rates of profit accumulated by Africans and Europeans in this trade in human cargoes. Finally, there is the fact that beyond provoking an African and African-American dialogue on African participation in the slave trade, the focus on African complicity in the transatlantic slave trade and the Arab-dominated slave trade on the Indian ocean serves Gates ultimately as illustrations of a thesis that violence and cruelty were pervasive in the African past.
A Critique Of Henry Gates By Mazrui and Mutuga
"My Chapter on Henry Gates deals with his intellectual discourse over the past decade or so. As I searched the numerous article he has published(including his memoir, Colored People", dealing with the character of african -American social, cultural and political patterns, I discovered two things that I disliked about Gates' intellectual discourse.
"One was an almost neuronic need to couch discourse on african-American socio-cultural and political patter in what I call "Black put-down terms," a mode of intellectual discourse on Black realities that Gates' intellectual confrere Kwame Anthony Appia is also addicted to, I should add.
"Second, much of Henry Gates' discourse on African-American socio-cultural and political patterns exhibits a thoroughly chameleon trait-an almost manic need to produce a discourse on Black realities that migrates between a "Black put-down" -or "Black-averse" mode, on one hand, and, on the other hand, a seemingly redeeming "Black-friendly" mode, though in ultimate essence the redeeming posture is phony.
"This chameleon trait-so fundamental I think to Henry Gates as an intellectual-stod out as I read his reply to Prof. Mazrui's fully valid critique of Gates' film series "Wonders of the African World." The overall character of Gates' reply is one of"an intellectual dodge." By this I mean, a clever bid to translate the overwhelming negatives of his film series into intellectual poitives.
"Many "overwhelming negatives", I refer to 1) the numerous intellectually convoluted or twisted put-downs of African realities in the film series, and 2) the Eurocentric derived irreverent posturing toward African realities by Henry Gates, ever while simultaneously characterizing a given African reality as positive, as an "African Wonder." As Ali Mazrui rightly put it" "Gates seemed incapable of glorifying Africa without demonizing it in the second breadth."
"Henry Gates' reply to Professor Mazrui's valid critique of "Wonders of the African world," then, a premier example of discourse as an intellectual dodge, something Gates is quite adept at, I suggest. Henry Gates paints several self-serving images of himself-seemingly objectively rendered-and weaves betwixt-and-between them, straining for what might be called a self-portraiture crescendo to hook his readers on. But don't be caught by any of it, snared in Gates' self-portraiture trap, so to speak.
"For starters, Henry Gates would have his readers believe than an academic year spent in a village society of one of the few genuinely progressive African states in the early 1970s-Tanzanis-translated automatically into a socialist-friendly demeanor on his part. GCambridge by him in the 1970s under a genuinely progressive African intellectual like Wole Soyinka also automatically translated into a progressive-firnely demeanor on Gats' part. But don't you believe it. Henry Gates' intellectual arrogance is such that he thinks he can get people to believe just about anything.
"... In doing so, Gates aims to deflect attention from the true goal that his 'Black put-down' discourses serves-namely, the establishment and conservative pattern in contemporary American society, and globally, too. In putting "tough love" into Soyinka's mouth, Henry Gates is, above all, trying to piggy-back his way to a special public elf-portraiture-one he considers politically serviceable.
"At bottom, Henry Gates' myopia regarding hi self-importance can be viewed as the main source of both the filmic failure of "Wonders of theAfrican World" and the intellectually tacky 'Black put-down aura that pervades it-an aura that bespeaks the film series' politics, acutally. What else can explain the absence of a serious didactic format for the narration of the series-a formalized instructional design or format for conveying to American viewers a serious quantum of substantive information about African History and Culture?
What else can explain the unbelievably arrogant irreverence that Henry Gates exhibited at so many levels in the series?"The irreverence associated with wearing the lounge attire found in bourgeois quarters of our American suburbs when visiting traditional sanctuaries of the Ethiopian Coptic Church, for example. The irreverence associated with snide comments about the historical authenticity of theCoptic Church's claim of possessing the Ark, and the related irreverence associated with Gates' posturing about climbing the gate to the hallowed site where the Ark is located.
"Henry Gates wouldn't dare behave with such flippant and infantile irreverence in a comparable visit to a traditional sanctuary of Judaism in Israel,of the Church of England, of the Holy See in Rome, or anywhere else in the West. He wouldn't dare, I assure.... This kind of behavior by Henry Gates is reserved only for the "Black-World realities! And what Gates can quote to his readers a fawning comment on "Wonders of the African world," by the current governing class in Ethiopia as a serious rebuttal of the charge by Mazrui and others that his demeanor as interviewer was irreverent toward traditional sanctuaries of African civilization is another dimension of Gates' myopic self-imporatance. His chutzpah, too.
The Africa As Designed/Percieved/BuiltUnified by Africans
Clarity of Vision and Solidarity the Key to African Freedom and Autonomy
There are people, like Gates, who shine and find power in being detractors of their own people, and conveniently forget who they are. Asa Hilliard writes:
"In 2002, the Council on Black Internal Affairs published a book that skillfully outlines the many ways that Africans are used against each other. The focus of their text is the Black Uncle Tom. They outline the history of the concept, the origins of the Uncle Tom figure, the manner in which Uncle Toms are created, and numerous other factors which bring light to how certain people in our own communities are used against us as they support our own communities are used against us as they support White supremacy. In an excerpt from a section where they describe the Black anti-Black" they write:
"At the political root of this strain of Uncle Tomism is the utter refusal to grapple substantively with the reality of the suffering and enslavement of one's own racial group or to reorganize and fight for Black interests as distinct from the interests of White supremacy. As the masses long for a cogently mapped-out strategy for their deliverance, the Uncle Tom - under contract to White institutions and from forums provided by the White media and White academe-rhetorically evades all serious internal debates on race advancement."(p. 31).
"It is all a part of the desire, by some Africans, to identify with, and be accepted by Whites. Africans continue to resist their own realities as White people desperately cling to their own. Hidden or silently ethnicity has a way of surfacing in interesting times. A desperate plea for the survival of Western Civilization. Pat Buchanan in his book, which is a strident defense of White people and Western Civilization, wrote:
"The West is dying, Its nations have ceased to reproduce, and their populations have stopped growing and begun to shrink. Not since the black Death carried off a third of Europe in the fourteenth century has there been a graver threat to the survival of Western Civilization. Today, in seventeen European countries, that are more burials than birth, more coffins than cradles."
"The prognosis is grim. Between 2000 and 2050, world population will grow by more more than three billion to over nine billion people, but this 50 percent increase in global population will come entirely in Asia, Africa, and Latin America, as one hundred million people of European stock vanish fro the Earth. In 1960, people o European ancestry were one-fourth of the world's population; in 2000, they were one-sixth; in 2050, they will be one-thenth. These are the statistics of a vanishing race."
Buchanan names the population and nations that concern him. He also locates the cause of the fear that he and others find in the rest of the world - the "Third world." There are too many of them. This translates to, there are too many Africans. They re having too many babies per family. They have a different culture, et. Buchana's observations are not new. The represent a continuous, consistent, and classic arguments and predictions about the way the world really operates.
"We have read similar observations from Kotkin(1993) and Huntington (1996). What is instructional here is the view of Africa and Africans. there are fears for the fate of the Afrians. In fact, Africa and the Africans, are invsible. the only relevance that Africa and the Africans plays in the observation of others is to add numbers (i.e., workers, resources) to their populations.
"But still, the nations in the European list are seen as European, no matter how many Africans or others may reside there. Buchanan's argument and agenda is very clear. It is a rallying cry for "Europeans Only". In short, he is saying, "Stop the Africans!" No one knows how many Europeans find these arguments persuasive. Africans are late to the party or the more recent discussion of unity. While attempts, later sabotaged, have been made to unify African countries, only in 2001 did they reunite to act on the matter of an African Union."
Also, information and social relations have been facilitated for by the new emerging and merging technologies and techniques and their data/information system. It is important to interrogate the length and breadth of the attacks that are being foisted upon the poor by those who control and have deep monetary pockets to actually carry out this type of war and power display, on their part.
20 Years Of ANC Promises
Promise Nothing and Deliver Nought
One thing glaring about the present forms of cronyism, nepotism and 'bra-ska' that suffocates development and life in South Africa, is the fact that those who are recipients of such government largesse, are made to shut up or else they will find that life is 'cold outside the ANC'. Much-ado about nothing has been made of the ANC manifesto trumpeted by Zuma and his cronies, along with American PR, to give people that as a reason to expect changed when none is stipulated that changes the old order, and some flimsy and vague promises for the next coming years.
The very promises that the ANC will concentrate on job creation(unemployment is presently chronic and vast), rural development(most of the houses, huts and the land lie open and the houses empty because the inhabitants have trekked to the Burgeoning cities in the hinterland and other costs; Land reform(meaning, large tracts of land will be parceled to the highest bidder of a gaggle of investors salivating at the prospects of an ANC government in power, and unfettered access to open land); health, which is very disjointed and not helping. primarily, the indigenous of South Africa; fighting crime(one should just look at the Drug infested locations, alcoholic ridden communities/enclaves, and Corruption(in this instance, the ANC manifesto is simply saying elect us into power so that we can continue from where we left off in our corruption scams).
This is the reality in Mzantsi and the people have no other choice than to elect the same Imperial bee-workers into the same positions and let them have carte blanche in their dysfunctional rule. We learn from the article by SAPA that:
"The ANC’s 2014 election manifesto was a predictable laundry list of promises while it expected South Africans to conveniently forget past failures, Agang SA has said.
South Africans were also asked to forget unmet promises and the ruling party’s habit of putting itself ahead of the national interest, Agang SA said in a statement yesterday.
“Can the ruling party be so tone deaf to the disbelief and distrust citizens have towards it that it expects us to believe, without reason, that it will be able to meet these promises any better than it has in the past?“
The manifesto, launched in Nelspruit, Mpumalanga on Saturday, was a mixed bag of old and new pledges.
President Jacob Zuma said the party would continue to focus on job creation, rural development, land reform, food security, education, health and fighting crime and corruption.
It was no secret that the majority of South Africa’s poor were black, particularly women and those living in rural areas.
This situation would change, Zuma told African National Congress supporters at the Mbombela Stadium.
He said all citizens should share in the wealth of the country.
Zuma said the manifesto contained plans for addressing poverty and unemployment, with the economy taking centre stage.
"Yet we are confronted with questions about the usefulness of the matriculation qualification, failing public hospitals and the collapse of the healthcare system in the Eastern Cape,” the party said.
Infrastructure development was below par, the economy was static, the unemployment rate remained stubbornly high and the economy could not absorb the millions of unemployed nor the thousands of matriculants who finished schooling every year.
The ANC also regularly made promises that corruption would be curbed even though greed was symbolised by the thousands of public servants who continued to do business with the state on their own account.
President Jacob Zuma’s Nkandla homestead also symbolised greed.
“What South Africans need is a government they can trust. Our country needs a growing economy that creates real jobs for all. We need quality education and training that can get our country working again" some in the different communities say."
It is apparent that we are going back into the same vinegar bottle for the next five years. The ANC knows that their image is tarnished, but those in their pay, will fight to death to preserve their petty-privileged status within the ANC movement/party and government. It has been the same old story for the past 20 years, and there is not that is different in the coming elections of 2014- Same old Sh*t, a different day and year...
Things Chnged To Remain The Same...
Neo-Colonized south african Elections - The ANC Did Win- Same Old,Same Old
Musings Beyond The 2014 Elections: An Elegy - But... This Is Not A Poem, But Our Lived Reality... People's Power...
In the neck of my hood/woods, the elections hunters have rallies taken on a circus race gathering and lawlessness of a people blowing steam. Constant TV haranguing, debates, bad vibes and many shenanigans on the ground, has us the residents in our area subjected to one helluva Bash called "Marikana". Later on this saga and shindig.
This was on the heels of a very well attended rally thrown by Zuma and his side-kicks. FNB was filled to the brim even outside of the stadium and the show was on. One of the highlights was Zuma's slide step-dance he performed to the howl of his followers. This had to be done to get the poor to say, with all the Nkdanlda thuggery, 'he is a man of the people." A man after the people's mind and hearts." Through his actions, he performs to win 'the hearts and minds of his followers and those on the fence, etc. As far as our media goes, this was successful.
Talk was cheap in this rally, action shouted and roared more louder- jump on the stage, you will have cut short a long and involved speech. The government is using the 'show and tell' technique, by being 'live' in their 'organized' events exhorting the vote. And Television and other social media and the rest, beam all to the expectant, troubled, but captured audiences. Some have seen a vision of a better ANC after these elections staged shows. A tinge closer to the Eurporia when the ANC ascended into power. Now, as we speak, they are pulling out all stops, and tactics to make sure they secure their rule.
Now, if you come to the Townships, the story of the ANC is something else. It is not only the ANC on the prowl for votes, but many 'strange' people tarry on the fringes on these ANC stronghold, and are not really getting traction. Many people around any corner, Tavern, household, street, Mall, funerals, talks with a certain amount of disdain for the opposition parties. When it comes to the ANC, they are more vicious. But come voting time like now, well.. "The Matter Of Fact Is That There Is some Changes We Can See..." Giving anyone a true sense of what's going to happen in the upcoming elections
But, now that votes are going to be needed, they are singing a different tune(Both the ANC and its voters), I guess it is because of the finality of the oncoming elections. Helicopters dronin incessantly in the skies over Soweto-are an irritation to the already hyped up voter core.
In one Instance, DA was reported by word of mouth, throughout the Kasi, that they are having a shindig in some part of the Hood. Some of the citizens, having imbibed some malt/hops, came to the gathering, and one of them, extremely inebriated, but said in the township colloquial:
"Who are you people? Why are you gathered in this Park? You don't even know anything about this park and yet ya'll congregating here.. This Park was built by the ANC for us here in Kasie. You then have the audacity to come here and tell us (expletive) about the ANC." Well, for 'ya'lls information, were it not for the ANC erecting this park, you would all be standing on a reedy marsh..."
Other views and different people in the Twonships talk about various and interesting points. Like a group of ladies and guys who were hanging our and having this Township logic palaver:
"The ANC has made our lives better with this "Mdende". Yes we know there are no jobs, and we are aware that not all of us, can be educated, as we are now.. "Let me tell you something," (a much more elderly lady began to speak).. "During the Apartheid day's, when my grandmother used to get her 'pension'. They received not more than Twenty Rands every other month", and another chirped-in, "It was what Ten Rand, what are you talking about?"One of their friends quipped in: "6 times a year". "Now you look and can say, the difference is huge." As they all nodded and concurred.
Whenever I am in our midst, I eavesdrop a lot, more so to listen and participate/observe 'us' in a social interactive mode and mindset - whilst taking-in at the views people espouse or utter in their state of frustration, elation, conviction, belief, self-assertion, and so on. These are the true markers, for me, of the thoughts people verbalize, especially regarding the matters of the present-day government with all its political gyrations. I think, within the Township people, one gets the rawness of how these issues impact them-and capturing the spirit of their delivery, is what is important. Capturing them in different settings is very hard because some points get lost in translation and writing. But it's worth trying.
My point is then at the point of the 'Bash' which I had begun to talk about in the beginning, and was dubbed "Marikana".. It was as Wild as events get in this corner of my hide-out. There was a throng of old and young bodies doing all sorts of illicit and nefarious, lewd acts that were really consecrating the Name of Marikana 'attached' to this boisterously noisy get-together. Liquor flowed and poured down the lips and gullets of the Youth shamelessly; All sorts of Drugs that were smoked there clogged the air space and a misty pungent form and smell settled on this cantankerous rowdy/bawdy and fierce-looking, seriously wild group.
Being there left one wondering about the lawlessness that was a feature of the this Bash thrown by these youth in the area I call my home.
The Music was disturbing, its tone, lyrics and repetitiveness..Add to this coming from more than 30 cars letting blare their fine custom-made stereos and speakers. The screaming, laughing, many groups going into a dance mode whilst wailing/screeching/barking and drunken-drugged singing-along pierced the night, and raising more and more and shouting at each steps-and tick of the clock.. right through the night .. with no respite. The Police? Where Were they? I had a gnawing feeling they had their feet kicked out next to their heaters, or car heaters.
The Bash was so loud and rowdy/noise from the youth, it somehow lulled us to sleep in the wee hours of the morning, and it was still going strong- with fight breakouts here and there-intermintently. This was a carry-over from the FNB stadium Rally where our leaders were prancing and sliding on the stage. Zuma stopped short of recreating Michael Jackson's Moonwalk. Really?
The Day after the elections, when the votes are in, and the 'winners' are announced, What Then? Having being given the election narrative as a dummy(Pacifier), like I have said somewhere, there's going to be a big downer, weaning ourselves from the present drug-like-intoxicating madness; and then, without any doubt or hesitation: Back Into The Vinegar Bottle, for All Of Us... Same old, Same old...
We are really facing some serious problems, and the future does not look that good. Perusing over some title headings in the press, the pundits lament: "Elections 2014: Everything And Nothing Remains The Same," "I am not Voting Against The ANC," "A Good Story To Tell, For Some," "Voting Is Not Enough: Beyond The 'Good Story/Bad Story' Debate,""A Personal Reflection On The election," KZN: Is The IFP Losing Ground?", "DA And ANC Youth Leaders Battle It Out," "Let The Youth Take Over The ANC," "How DA Rhetoric Propels Black Pathology Stereotypes," "Majority Still support The ANC,""Condemned To Obscurity: The State Of Our Population Register And The Right To Vote," "What Are '(post)Apartheid Conditions," "How The ANC's Gravity Defying Levitation Is Achieved," "On The Fall Of The ANC," which has been written by Siphokazi Magadla, I will cite a piece from her wherein she writeS:
“How did the ANC manage to dupe the people of South Africa?” ask Prince Mashele and Mzukisi Qobo, the authors of a new book, The Fall of the ANC: What next? The 20th anniversary of electoral democracy and the impending elections, all within weeks, force us to take seriously the place of time in the efforts to understand and diagnose the behaviour of the ruling party and thereby ease or feed our anxieties about the future.
"When placed across time, current events are exposed as unremarkable, unspectacular and temporary because time allows us to appreciate continuities and ruptures with the past. At the heart of Mashele and Qobo’s thesis is the view that, looking back, the ANC was not ready to govern and that “a great deal of what the party thought it would achieve was informed by an inflated sense of self and by sheer naivety”.
"For the authors, the end of apartheid caught the ANC by surprise. They posit that until the party started secret talks with the apartheid state in the late 1980s, the Freedom Charter of 1955 had remained the main point of reference of how the party envisioned itself in government until its adoption of the “Ready to Govern” policy document in 1992. It follows then that South Africans should not have been surprised at the drastic move by the governing party from the modest social democratic aspects of the redistributive Reconstruction and Development Programme to the far more distributively conservative Growth, Employment and Redistribution policy.
The ANC is accused of having been too preoccupied with painting itself as a “club of monks” whose outdated views of Marxism would carry the country into the ideal National Democratic Revolution. Time has thus exposed the party as both “naïve” about the requirements of governance and the bankrupt moral calibre of the party leadership, which has reduced it to the “Alleged National Criminal” (ANC) organisation.
"Furthermore, the authors argue that the ANC’s behaviour is no different to those of other national liberation movements in the continent because “the first two decades of democracy has unfolded very much in sync with the wave character of post-colonial Africa”. In this regard the party is placed within the same basket as Kenya under Daniel Arap Moi, Ghana under Kwame Nkrumah, and Zimbabwe under Robert Mugabe.
"South Africans are accused of allowing the ANC to highjack the ownership of liberation history and to use it to hold them hostage against voting the “rotting” party out of power. Thus by revealing the party as having been unprepared to occupy the seat of power, South Africans ought to feel no guilt with removing it as their government.
"Besides cataloguing, in a highly colourful fashion, the failures of the ANC, this book does not offer the reader a substantive way forward. Part of the challenge of the book is that the South Africans who are the audience are spoken to, instead of being spoken with — the tone of the writing is similar to Mamphela Ramphele’s book, Conversations with My Sons and Daughters. The book, which is based entirely on secondary data in its reading of the ANC in governance, places the focus almost exclusively on the manoeuvres of the leadership of the party.
"Ordinary members of the party are thus presumed to be mere spectators in the theatre of “Big Men” and not co-producers of such a political culture within the party. The ordinary people who are being encouraged to take charge of their hard-worn constitutional rights are not placed at the centre of the analysis in a manner that would have given Mashele and Qobo fresh insights into how the ANC can be buried, as in indeed they suggest.
"According to the authors, our best bet is the formation of a new party as the current opposition parties are rendered illegitimate. This insight is of course not new. Neither is the insight that the liberation generation is dying out and that future political leadership belongs to those with no liberation credentials.
"The distinguished Tanzanian scholar Issa Shivji has warned the current generation of African intellectuals to be vigilant about how we study our societies in the midst of the supposed changing position of Africa in the global order — where Africa is said to be “rising” while the lives of most Africans are declining. Shivji insists that in order to understand forces of change in the lives of African people emphasis must be placed on examining the sources of agency within African communities. So ordinary South Africans may not be faulted in declaring impatiently to Mashele and Qobo — undixelela zonke izigigaba zika rhulumente ngoba ucinga ukuba bendilele yonke leminyaka? (You are telling me about all the failures of the government because you assume that I have been asleep all these years?). Even further I would venture to say, why don’t you ask me what I think should be done.
"In a recent article in the African Affairs journal on “Neo-patrimonial Politics in the ANC” (2014), Tom Lodge argues that “the degenerative changes that are observed within the ANC … appear to reflect a global trend in which mass parties are being replaced by electoral machines that depend less and less upon militant activism” and more on transactional exchanges between the electorate and the political elite. Amid these electoral limitations, what becomes the source of agency for ordinary people to instruct change in governance?
"There is utility in showing the ruling party that the people are watching and taking account of the multiple ways in which the ANC is betraying its promises and thereby facilitating its own demise. But that project cannot be done sufficiently if the voices and actions of the people are not placed at the centre of the analysis that shows the party the ways in which the people are thinking about their futures beyond the ANC.
"The authors themselves state that intellectuals failed to predict the uprisings in North Africa and elsewhere precisely because little attention was given to the organising and thinking of ordinary people while scholars were fixated on the escapades of the leaders Zine el-Abidine Ben Ali, Hosni Mubarak and Muammar Gaddafi.
"Using the lives and thinking of ordinary people as a lens through which we arrive at answering “what next” after the ANC, none of us including the ANC, will be caught by surprise when they are eventually willed out of power by the people. After all, it is just a matter of time."
For me, the Xhosa citation is the whole article. What I have been saying above is that it is better that we begin to have an approach to our people and listen to them talk, for as I have said, their raw answers are a colorful way the express their misgivings and destabilized life, but they know how to answer the curious, and inform those seeking to know and understand their perspective-not according to some well-off person seating on a computer and not having a face to face encounter with the real and living ordinary people.
I also pointed out above that we, the voters, are regarded as just a percentage(say 63% of the voters will insert ANC into Power again).. We are nothing but that. In matters of how our wealth and rights are dealt with in our land, we are never consulted, and we really know nothing about the mal-administration Thuli pointed, that some of us are saying, investigate and purge the whole government. The problems for our inability to solve the present social ill in our "Nation" is that, for example, the articles I cited above are written by White authors for a White reading public. The White people are known to always talk amongst themselves, and this is not new. That schism, enables and empowers the present government to divide and conquer. there are many other examples of this divisive technique employed
Their SABC saga, for some Media Communication/Technology/Internet nerds, The ANC is trying to control the Internet, TV and with the help of the American investors, Radio and newspapers. Bills have been proposed to this effect of Censorship. This topic can be an article on its own, but suffice for now I will make mention of it in passing. With such a spirit of the times(some would crisply say "Zeitgeist"), we have to begin to wrap our heads around it all and begin to put it into focus and perspective. The elections that are upon us are nothing but a pacifier, to ensure the crooks get back into power, and can fleece, pillage and empty the public coffers for the next five years.
It is a fait accompli that our government is in the Deep pockets of Foreign and Local big Capital. It is also clear that our leaders are the small fries of the World leaders, and our(The Leader's) role is to gawk at them and obey. That is the diplomatic relations between Mzantsi and the much more powerful countries. In many ways, our leaders are lackeys of the governments that helped them in Exile, and their 'new' American friends (who used to label the ANC a terrorist organization, are now in cahoots with our handkerchief heads leaders.)
These elections like the four or so before them, are a fiasco, farce and a time to remind us how powerless we are. Things are purported to Change so that they can remain that way and the same. Whether the ANC is still learning on the job(if any learning on their part is evident?!), the way they have desecrated the Bill of Rights of their constituencies, who really do not know or aware of their rights and are 44% of the voters, is what will always hold us back.
I still believe people have some modicum of intelligence, although, collectively, we are still divided by the way Apartheid divided us, and are busy dividing ourselves into a myriad bits of pieces of no significance-that in a word. We are Being Disappeared as the Indigenous of Mzantsi. So then, it is either they(Crooks in government) are removed or we are 'disappeared' as the indigenous of South Africa. It is the 'removing' part of the ANC from power that has not yet satisfied the voters as being a real reason, and how to go about it, that is the conundrum
Our hope, I still believe, lies with our own people. If we can Master that, We will be able to form a Nation and control Our Country, Culture, History, and all its resources. But the main resources, still untapped, but ready to go, is our own People of Mzantsi.. We should raise our awareness and know-how on how to harness the power of the people-the people's power... And, there are many ways for us to achieving and attaining this power Through and with our people of Mzantsi..
Miseducation of Africans About Their History On Steroids
In order to put this article into its proper perspective, Chinweizu informs us thus:
"It was miseducation which sought to with from me the memory of our true African past and to substitute instead an ignorant shame for whatever travesties Europe chose to represent as African Past. It was miseducation which sought to quarantine me from all influences, ancient as well as contemporary, which did not emanate from, or meet with the imperial approval of, western "civilization." It was a miseducation which, by encouraging me to glorify all things European and by teaching me a low esteem for and negative attitudes towards things African, sought to cultivate in me that kind of inferiority complex which drives a perfectly fine right foot to strive to mutilate itself into a left foot. It was a miseducation full of gaps and misleading pictures: it sought to structure my eyes to see the world in the imperialist way of seeing the world; it sought to internalize in my consciousness the values of the colonizers; it sought to train me to automatically uphold and habitually employ the colonizers' viewpoint in all matters, in the strange belief that their racist, imperialist, anti-African interest is the universal, humanist interest, and in a strange belief that the view defined by their ruthless greed is the rational, civilized view. And by such terms of supposed praise as "advanced," "detribalized," and getting to be quite civilized," it sought to co-opt my sympathies and make contemptuous of examining what it should have been my duty to change and alleviate. For it was a distracting miseducation which tried in every way to avoid questions that were important to me and to the collective African condition. It tried to maneuver me away from asking them; it tried to keep me from probing them most thoroughly; it tried instead to preoccupy me with other matters. But the had realities of the Black(African) Condition kept insisting that I ask: Where did our poverty, our material backwardness, our cultural inferiority complexes begin and why? And why do they persist in spite of political independence?"
If the reader has read the whole quote up to here, Chinweizu is more than relevant here. He covers all the issues we have raised and tells us what to do in reconstructing African history, all the issues raised herein, affected everything about him and the world and real-reality he lives in day in and day out. What Chinweizu is discussing above, is what has been the Achilles heel of African progress and development in various ways.
Unlearning the Narcotized Colonial Miseducation
Chinweizu, true to form, delves even much deeper into his soliloquy in the following manner:
"When I turned to the official explainers and interpreters, and to the expert and benevolent meliorists of our condition, and asked for a flash of light, they wrapped my head instead with a should of double-talk and evasions; they thrust my head into a garbage dump of facts, facts and more bits and pieces of facts which merely confused me the more by their (deliberately?) disorganized abundance; they punctured the membranes of my ears with slogans, distinctions without preferences, smart phrases which brightly and engagingly misled; they offered me tools, supposedly analytic, which mauled what they claimed to explain, and left me constipated with jargon and dazed with confusion. the experience was thoroughly disillusioning. In my pain I began to suspect that my mind had been, over the years, held prisoner in a den where intellectual opiates were served me by official schools, by approved lists of books, by the blatant as well as subliminal propaganda of films, and by an overwhelming assortment of media controlled by interests inimical to, and justifiably scared of a true and thorough-going African Nationalism. suspecting that the glittering phalanx of experts spoke to my colonizers and their imperial interests, I felt that, even thoughI was not an "expert" in these fields, I should nevertheless conduct my own investigation into the origins and circumstances of the deplorable African stasis, learning the necessary skills "on the job" as it were."
The article above has been pointing out to the 'self-appointed' experts that have given themselves the task of explaining to the world, and on the internet what they 'think' they know about Africans in South Africa. In this article I contended that these so-called pros know nothing about the Africans of South Africa, and proceeded to breakdown these custom and cultures to make the point that African South African History, culture, customs, tradition and so on are not static nor non-existence, but, as according to the definition I utilized from Hall and Wilson, to gave us a definition of Culture, which it turns out is right down the pike it was with the culture of the Nguni/Bakone I have written about in this article. This was in an effort to aid Africans to begin to unlearn colonial history and learn their history anew and in a much more informed way and manner. After Chinweizu realized and learned that he can teach himself to morph into his own written account, educating himself about himself and his people anew, made him realized that by thinking so, and was ready to unlearn what he called the "narcotic colonized education" he had to overcome the challenges of deconstructing the Master's history and rewriting and recreating his own history in his own image and people. This is how Chinweizu addresses this part of the discourse I am talking above in the paragraph below:
"My official education was over. The overthrow of the allegiances programmed into me by it was in swift progress; but there were vital things I still had to learn-things they did not and would not teach me in school; things they would, if they could, keep me from coming into contact with even outside school; things in order to appreciate which I had to painfully unlearn much of what they had instilled in me at school. And so I began a journey of the mind; a journey by a mind thoroughly alienated from its imperialized miseducation. And the purpose of this journey was first to seek out the roots of the Black Condition within which my mind suffered. By the way, if any should think inappropriate my discussing colonial education through imagery of opium narcotics, let them consider that the British, from 1839 to 1842, waged war on China in order to force the Chinese to buy opium with her Britannic Christian Majesty's imperial agents grew in India. victory in the Opium War earned the British the "right" to addict so many Chinese to opium that much of the population, nodding and half asleep all the time, was supinely amenable to Western cultural aggression and imperialist manipulation. Now, if they could go that far, why should their use of intellectual opium to subdue, for the same ends, some other unlucky victims seem incredible and outlandish?"
We catch-up with Chinweizu after much articulation as to his transformation out of being 'narcotically miseducated by the colonizers', to being influenced bythe Frantz Fanon, Amilcar Cabral. Pablo Neruda of Chile, Malcolm X, Julius Nyerere, Mbonu Ojike, Aime Cesaire, Hamidou Kane, and so forth, to better understand the origins of the African stasis and, and to the task of understanding the workings of the system which maintained the deplorable Black Condition saying that "these have been and remain my teachers and my guides as I continue my efforts to cleanse myself of the pollutions from a colonial miseducation." We further learn from Chinweizu who clearly states that:
"Having listened to them, I would heed no more, and would more emphatically reject,the pious, self-serving propaganda given out as official and objective truth by the imperialist party. ... For I no longer believe the official voices of the West. They do not speak for the interests of the imperialized. I now realize that these "official husbanders of my consciousness" would take incredible pains to hide from me even elementary things, the better to conceal all clues that might lead me to correct answers to questions provoked by the Black condition. I have decided to listen closely to voices from the imperialized world, to share experiences and insights with them. What the voices from the imperialized world say, and some are anti-imperialist voices within the West say, continue to make sense tome as I try to understand our specific conditions."
Citing Chinweizu at such length is very important for the political/social historical theory for the presently dysfunctional people of South Africa. Learning and reading up on such works such as these presented by Chiweizu and those who are at the front of the African struggle and liberation, they who spin history to be user-friendly for the oppressed, in the process imparting knowledge and ways and means and new ways of learning and thinking about the what he calls the "Black Condition", are important links for Africans to use to manipulate and meander through all the obstacles that are thrown their way whenever they try to unlearn what Chinweizu calls 'narcotized colonized miseducation". At this juncture, we take some lesson from Chinweizu when he sutures, tightly, his argument and reasons as to why and how we should unlearn this devious form of miseducation of Africans by the West: Chiweizu finally points out that:
"If my experience of it is at all representative, colonial miseducation is something its victim need to cure themselves of. And this is not easy to do. We are all, I believe, rather a little like colonized boy who, we are told, had learned from his colonized milieu to be ashamed of his local Africans weather. In our efforts to wash from our consciousness the harmful pollutants deposited there by our colonial miseducation, we are apt to act like the child who rubs his/her belly endlessly with soap and water, doesn't touch any other part of his body, and when he tires of it all, runs to his/her mother to announce that he/she has taken a bath. Clearly we need something like a communal metal bath, one which we shall scrub the crud off one another's backs, and especially from those corners which our hands cannot thoroughly scour. ... I believe that even a layman ought to share his results with others, so we can move more rapidly to a deeper, more thorough, and more useful appreciation of our collective condition."
Chinweizu trudges on: "If we wait for our official experts, who knows when, if ever, they will dare feel free, or find it profitable, to talk candidly and intelligently to us? For there are three sorts of experts-those for our liberation; those against our liberation; and those who contrive to appear to be on our side while they are indeed subtly working against our liberation. Advice from an expert who is not on your side, or from one who is against you, can be far worse than no expert advice at all. The layman, I believe, ought therefore to be very discriminating in choosing what expert to heed. It is, in every situation, very much like choosing a lawyer. For there are some experts, some Africans included, who deeply cherish the privileges that go with defending or furthering the interests of the imperialists. Under the guise of professionalism, of offering objective advice, some will subtly legislate against, or turn the unwary client away, from things that are in the client's interest; some will gloss over differences that matter; some will conceal facts or omit considerations that are vital. Because of these kinds of experts genuinely on the client's side are as capable of honest error as anyone, the client ought always to exercise vigilance and common sense in taking advice from experts. For eternal vigilance, in all matters, especially over the minutest details, is still the price of liberty."
"Given the psychic and ideological foundation of our subjugation, of both the colonial subjugation from which we thought we had escaped a and the neocolonial form that has manacled us, any spirited drive for genuine freedom must begin with a thorough critique of the bourgeoise culture that has made us captives; of the process and content of the modernization that has lured us into captivity; and of the relation, if any, between technological modernization and the Christian bourgeois culture. " It is precisely the existence of such a milieu that is retarding African progress today, because these petty-bourgeois elite who kowtow and pander to the West and are flinging themselves pell-mell into its orb, disregarding any protestations nor opposition that stems from its African voting polity, as in the case of Africans in South Africa.
According to Chinweizu, we should be circumspect of experts , all of those pretenders and false analysts who make out as if they have African people's interests at heart, meanwhile, behind the scenes(mentally or otherwise) scurrilously fleece you to the marrow of your soul by denouncing every little thing about one, in order to dominate and confuse you. This is how Chinweizu concludes this matter:
"In exercising our rights as citizens, and in meeting our obligations to examine, discuss and pronounce upon all matters that affect our general welfare, we are bound to come up against the resistance of that kind of expert who rises up in arms whenever a layman "trespasses" on his "jargon-fenced bailiwick". Such experts, while misinterpreting facts and gerrymandering arguments, are prone to mount some high pedestal of laurels and reputation, and from there demand the "intruder's" credentials, in hopes or overawing him into irresponsible silence,or intimidating him/her into acquiescing in arrant nonsense."
ChinweizU concludes thusly:
In such situations, it is perhaps prudent to remind oneself that the loftiest credentials have never been a barrier to uttering nonsense; nor is a total lack of credentials a barrier to talking sense. A decolonized and re-educated African ought always to demand that matters be explained from an Afro-centric viewpoint, with scientific tools, and that the results be translated into intelligible common sense. By so insisting, we enable ourselves to spot and avoid ideologies, open as well as hidden, by which we are liable to be confused and misled, and attractive myths by which we are liable to be tricked and lynched en masse."
We need to raise our level of vigilance, read and know our history, find ways and means to get it from FB to the man in the street who has no such knowledge or awareness and expounded upon by Chinweizu; be able to break down these advices to be in tandem with the understand, needs and relevance to the the poor Africans of South africa. This is the job of all those who are reading this posted piece now to take it from here and make it reach the people , or print it to give it to the ordinary and poor people in community who do not have access to computers. We need to begin to use FB to inform and form positive dialogues with our poor masses who are denied such knowledge; we should not only boast about the fact that we are the only one who know this type of information, we should make it possible for the children, youth and elderly to have access to this information, whatever it takes. We, as Africans of South Africa, are much more better than what we are now experiencing and facing as a people.
Blood money: Democracy in arms way
Brent Meersman writes:
In the wake of the shooting down of a civilian airliner in the Ukraine, the British arms industry has once again come under fire, but as South Africans have found out previously, and the Seriti Commission enters phase 2, nothing is likely to come of it.
One could be forgiven for believing that the British Prime Minister’s real job is actually to go around the world pressing flesh with autocrats and selling them armaments while preaching democracy and human rights.
Arm sales are nothing new (though David Cameron appears particularly shameless), yet it is still worth remembering three low points that underscore how sleazy and hypocritical the arms business is: even late in his career, Tony Blair approved arms to Gaddafi and allowed sales to Mugabe; in 2011 as the Arab spring was in full swing, David Cameron (not long after taking office) was off on an arms sales mission to the Middle East telling the press it was “nothing to be ashamed of”; and Margaret Thatcher cut her son, Mark – he of the attempted coup in Equatorial Guinea, into a Saudi deal on one if her missions to sell arms netting him apparently £12million.
The arms industry is a key element in securing Western exploitation of resource rich countries
Only last year, the UK government approved sales of chemicals to the Assad regime capable of making nerve gas, but an EU ban prevented these from reaching Syria. There are countless more distasteful examples.
And things are never straightforward in this murky world of arms deals. While Cameron was decrying France’s military sales to Moscow, his government still had over 200 licenses in force with sales of £132million to Russia including sniper rifles and small arms ammunition. It is worth noting too that the Ukraine has long been in the top ten arms exporting countries in the world and in some years sold even more armaments globally than the UK (which is usually in the top five exporters). Ukraine only halted sales to Russia earlier this year, so Ukraine may well have armed the separatists.
The UK also sells weapons to other battlegrounds around the world – Israel and Egypt, Pakistan, Iraq, Sudan and the DRC among others. The UK Trade and Investment Defence and Security Organisation (DSO) among other things, sponsors space at exhibitions and gives support for delegations (Cameron always seems to have a few armament company bosses in his entourage on overseas visits). There are also export subsidies, trade bodies, and the diplomatic corps involved. Through a host of such channels, millions of pounds in taxpayers’ money grease the wheels.
But the sale of armaments does far more harm than bolster dictators, fuel civil wars, prolong conflicts and kill civilians innocently flying 10 000 meters above the ground.
As Africa bitterly knows, besides the obvious horrors of war, the arms industry also deliberately suppresses democratic governance, undermines judicial processes, corrupts states, and impoverishes whole nations. The arms industry is part of a much bigger picture; it is a key element in securing Western exploitation of resource rich countries through global finance and extractive industries.
Even nations at peace are not immune. This was the case with South Africa. The incipient democracy stepping out of the darkness of apartheid in 1994, facing no external threats and enormous social burdens, was immediately targeted for an economically crippling deal.
The actual hardware purchased is itself highly questionable. South Africans have been left long wondering what if anything did they get out of the deal – not even appropriate weaponry, much of it left languishing or already redundant. Time has proven (as with FIFA World Cup bids) that promises about how there would be economic spinoffs and jobs from the arms deal were nothing more than a ruse.
The arms deal has been steadily releasing its poison ever since 1999. The numerous allegations of corruption surrounding it hurt the country’s democratic institutions, some of which have not recovered. Questions over Jacob Zuma’s fitness to hold the office of president and more than one near Constitutional crisis can be traced directly back to the arms deal. Zuma’s financial advisor was imprisoned. The chairman of parliament’s defence committee was also sent to jail for taking a bribe. The most effective unit in the country for fighting organised crime was closed down because of the arms deal. Problems with the National Prosecuting Authority also have roots in the arms deal.
It is a truth that most British, Europeans and North Americans don’t want to know
The people’s faith in its democratic machinery to root out corruption has been shaken by the failure of one body after another over 15 years to credibly prove there was or was not wrongdoing.
And the saga continues. On July 18, former president Thabo Mbeki took the stand before the Commission of Inquiry into allegations of fraud, corruption, impropriety or irregularity in the Strategic Defence Procurement Packages (known as the Seriti commission). Mbeki’s appearance made a brief blip on TV news in the UK in a report that failed to mention that BAE Systems is seen as a major culprit.
Which brings one back to the truth that most British, Europeans and North Americans don’t want to know – that it is their military-industrial complex and their elected democratic governments that go around the world selling arms, corrupting governments and crippling developing countries.
The German company ThyssenKrupp, on behalf of the frigate consortium, admitted paying bribes and entered into a plea bargain fine. BAE also admitted it had paid commissions (read: bribes).
In 2009, Britain’s Serious Fraud Office (SFO) asked the Attorney General to prosecute BAE for corruption linked to numerous contracts including the South African deal. Four months later, BAE Systems admitted to two criminal charges and paid a “record fine” (but rather piffling in the context of the deals). Part of the UK fine went to charities in Tanzania.
"IIt is a truth that most British, Europeans and North Americans don’t want to know"
Investigations were then closed. Campaigners and activists are convinced this was as a result of Downing Street pressure. The files were shut and ordinary South Africans, the ultimate victims of the bribery are none the wiser.
The Seriti Commission now moves into Phase 2 with many openly hostile to the arms deal to be called to give testimony. Based on how the commission has been conducted, many of us doubt it will bring any clarity.
When the British SFO dropped charges into investigating bribery in the deal, Mbeki called it a “double standard” — developing nations are criticized, even lampooned as banana republics for not investigating their comrades for corruption, and yet the culprit nations simply close the door on their own grubby deals.
The whole truth is that with rare exceptions both the corruptors and the corrupted will be protected by their governments as the arms industry continues to play its sordid role in the world of geopolitics.
Truth = Knowing Our History...
Ways Of Knowing Ourselves, First...
Today is no more like yesterday in real terms about life of Africans in south Africa. The people are having a better understanding of their elected officials that they are no better than criminals and thugs. The past 21 years of ANC, has taught the Africans in the country that they are dealing with a a formidable people, our own, who are bent on self-enrichment and control. This process is taking too long to gel in the minds of the African people, but it is slowly becoming clearly apparent that the present dysfucntonal government is not good for our defveloplment as a people. One other thing, they have managed to sell us non-education over the years, and the result is that we have had twenty years to cover-under the rule of the ANC, plus the times before the ANC took power in order to ameliorate our imposed and impoverished ignorance today.
Before we can even talk about educating and freeing our people, we are going to have to begin with ourselves self. If one can work in such a way to be knowledgeable and very astute about all things and everything in and about our life, if we can at least talk at the same higher level. which is good for all the human good. we might see some semblance of freedom and some modicum of autonomy
There is no ready-made panacea towards this malady, except that I am learning from personal experience that we should first of all work seriously on our individual selves, and then radiate that knowledge to all those immediately around us. There will be takers and those that would not want to have anything to do with reading and learning about ourselves in the milieu. There are also people who have a vested interest in keep our people dumb and illiterate. The following aphorisms serve well to elaborate my theme above:
“He who knows others is wise; he who knows himself is enlightened.”
- Lao Tzu
“Life is like a game of chess.
To win you have to make a move.
Knowing which move to make comes with IN-SIGHT
and knowledge, and by learning the lessons that are
acculated along the way."
We become each and every piece within the game called life!” (Allan Rufus)
“The first thing you have to know is yourself. A man who knows himself can step outside himself and watch his own reactions like an observer.” (Adam Smith)
“No one is free who has not obtained the empire of himself. No man is free who cannot command himself.” (Pythagoras)
“Your own Self-Realization is the greatest service you can render the world.” (Samana Maharishi)
“We must not be defined by what we do, but we must be what and who we are, then only happen to do what we do!” (C. Joy Bell C)
“Know thyself and all will be revealed.” (Pamela Theresa Loertscher)
“You are not who you think you are. You are not your fears, your thoughts, or your body. You are not your insecurities, your career, or your memories. You're not what you're criticized for and you're not what you're praised for. You are a boundless wealth of potential. You are everything that's ever been. Don't sell yourself short. Every sunset, every mountain, every river, every passionate crowd, every concert, every drop of rain - that's you. So go find yourself. Go find your strength, find your beauty, find your purpose. Stop crafting your mask. Stop hiding. Stop lying to yourself and letting people lie to you. You're not lacking in anything except awareness. Everything you've ever wanted is already there, awaiting your attention, awaiting your time.” (Veronica Tugaleva)
“See everything, but judge nothing. Just choose your own path and let others choose their own. See everything, but judge no one. Just focus on your own path and let others focus on their own. See everything, but judge not what you see. You have your own inner worlds to conquer, your own inner gardens to water and to hone. You have your own inner gold to mine. See all, judge not, know thyself.” (C. JoyBell C)
“Know what you really want. Know why you want it and how you will get it. That's the key!” (Israelmore Ayivor)
“You can’t be a big dreamer if you don’t where you are going. You can’t know where you are going unless you first know where you are.” (Israel more Ayivor)
“Until you make peace with who you are, you'll never be content with what you have.” (Doris Mortman)
Know thyself has often been a corner stone rejected. “Can one know oneself” wondered the French poetess George Sand. “Is one ever somebody?” “When will I ever see that Am that I Am?” lamented the poet Rumi. Scores of poets and philosophers dedicated their lives to inquiring about the Self, seeking its elusive mysteries, digging deep to unearth that hidden stone without which all construction would be in vain.
Some attained remarkable results, attested to by the legacy of their works. Others never found an end to their quest. “I have an inner self of which I was ignorant,” confesses the Bohemian–Austrian poet Rilke in his diary, while the ninety-year-old art-historian Bernard Berenson tells a different story:
Yet, who is the real I, where does he hide from ME? I know who he is not, but how and what and if at all HE is, I have never discovered although for more than seventy years I have been looking for him.
It is the sincerity of such remarks as Berenson’s that touch the reader and direct his attention inwards, asking himself the very questions these authors posed in their times.
Although we may be technologically more sophisticated than our ancestors, the age we inhabit is in the same relationship as previous eras to this quest. Therefore, the primary aim of this site is to benefit from the ancient wisdom of our ancestors and apply it to our own period.
When asked what was the most difficult thing, Thales replied, “To know thyself.”
When asked what was easiest, he replied, “To give advice.”
Aldous Huxley averred:
If most of us remain ignorant of ourselves, it is because self-knowledge is painful and we prefer the pleasures of illusion.
There is only one corner of the universe you can be certain of improving, and that’s your own self.
People intoxicate themselves with work so they won’t see how they really are.
Writers write to influence their readers, their preachers, their auditors, but always, at bottom, to be more themselves.
“Most of us remain ignorant of ourselves,” observed Huxley. Know thyself, then, is a sobering command: it is a call to awakening and an invitation to grab hold of one’s life while there yet time. For of what value could a life be if lived in ignorance? And of what value can a human being be if ignorant of himself?"
In order for us to know ourselves, we are going tohave to know our stories and histories very well.
Remembering The Real Pat And Origin Of Our African People
We Must Use History To Progress And Build Our Societies And Nation
I am going to use the writing and musings of Amos Wilson to help me develop our stories and histories along the lines he advocates and teaches us about below. Wilson writes:
"Many of us(Including me) in Black(African) Studies who are reconstructing history (of the US and in my case, of South Africa), think that we are entering a new era in American/African history… We may think that the things we are witnessing today, i.e., the election of Blacks(Africans in our case) to political office and their appointments to various positions, their accomplishments in various corporations and so forth, are something new in American/(South African) history. Yet, the study of American reconstruction and south African history should quickly convince us that we are currently undergoing 'déjà vu.'
"Many of us view history as a continuing progression upward and onward. We have bought the American concept of progress: the idea that things must over time necessarily get better. There is no law in the universe that tells us our future survival is assured; that we will continue to exist now and into the future. There have been races and ethnic groups who have been virtually wiped out of this planet. There is no guarantee that our own group will not be wiped out as well.
"The idea that we must necessarily arrive at a point greater than that reached by our ancestors could possibly be an illusion. The idea that somehow according to some great universal principle we are going to be in a better condition than our ancestors is an illusion which often results from 'mot' studying history and recognizing that progressions and regressions occur; that integrations and disintegrations occur in history.
"History is not a fairy tale wherein certain things are accomplished and people live happily ever after. Many of us think the accomplishments we have made to this point mean we are only going to expand them in the future. We had better think about that again. I will point out today why we must not be so optimistic as to be foolish.
"There are so many of us who believe that fair housing laws, voting laws and so forth that guarantee our freedom. That is an illusion. What a flight into fantasy! Laws are no stronger that their enforcers. The same people who pass those laws are the same people who are responsible for enforcing them. If people who enforce the laws no longer decide to do so, the laws are of no value and have no power.
Ultimately, then, fairness rests not in laws but in the activities of people and in the attitude and consciousness of people. Therefore, if the people who responsible for enforcing those laws change their attitudes, then the treatment of those people whose freedom is protected by those so-called laws is changed as well.
"We cannot put our faith in White man's law and the laws enforced by Whites. I have warned and it bears repeating that if there comes a day when the society has to make a choice between feeding Black(African) children, no amount of civil rights laws or any other laws on the books will prevent those people from feeding their children first. It is a silly faith we have in laws. For Black(African) people in the 1970s, 1980s and 1990s to still rest their freedom on the basis of laws when history itself shows us that this cannot be done, we must question our sanity and what we have learned from the study of our own story and history.
I do not think I have to elaborate on this kind of attitude. We run into too many youngsters today who say, "Oh, that was in slavery[Apartheid] time. Oh, those were things we talked in the 1960s[Sharpeville and June 16th in our case], and '70s; we're in a new day now." We're not in a new day, ladies and gentlemen. The same words that we are saying today are the same words that people were saying over 100 years ago. Why are we in a new day saying the same thing that someone said 100 years ago?
"So, as I stated earlier, history contains both progress and regress. However, regressing at this point in history will not be a situation where we will be able to fight the battle all over again. Regressing at this point in history essentially spells annihilation for African, not only in America, but for Africans the world over."
Learning about and from our stories and history is very important for the edification of our struggle, which is still ongoing. Reading upon Wilson one sees oneself written all over the place by Wilson. We need to learn from such sages and pick the best of what he says we ought to do and practice it with our own people. We have to begin by knowing ourselves, first, and very well too. Then we can all talk from self knowledge and informed know-how about our nation and its people.
Old Is New: Same Old Same Old.. Things Change To Be Wrose
Has the ANC ushered in neo-apartheid?
According to the New Internationalist Magazine:
On the surface, the party has succeeded. Prospects are much improved since 1912 when the struggle began; black youth no longer face a narrow choice between miner and farm labourer. Many at the centenary celebrations will belong to a new black middle class, winners from the government’s Black Economic Empowerment programme. They have an international outlook, and see a world of possibilities.
Split society: shack dwellers in Cape Town are dwarfed by a huge billboard promoting a ‘brighter’ future. Eric Miller/Panos
But those present will be only too aware of the sprawling poverty outside. ‘The wage share of national income is dropping,’ says Mazibuko Jara of Amandla! magazine. ‘ANC policies have redistributed wealth to rich owners of capital, reproducing inequality and neo-apartheid geographies.’
Many poorer people have yet to reap the benefits from post-apartheid society. Although the ANC has made investments in housing and other public works, the speed of transformation is very sluggish.
The poor are now held hostage to subtler processes of class exclusion. Opportunities exist mostly for the educated and well-connected, and the interests of the new middle-class are increasingly diverging from those of the rural and urban poor.
‘There’s an ever-growing number of unemployed, or even unemployable, young people, many of whom will never find formal work. And by that I mean, ever,’ says education activist Nomalanga Mkhize. ‘What sort of society are we building?’
South Africa is still highly unequal. White males hold 73.1 per cent of top management positions while representing 6.7 per cent of the economically active population, according to the Commission for Employment Equity. Black professionals are gaining ground within state-owned enterprises, but the structures that guard access to jobs are blighted by patronage politics. Public works are bogged down by dubious tendering processes, and ‘irregularities’ are creeping into social services provision.
The failure of the ANC-led government to extend prosperity is creating serious tensions. In November 2011, President Zuma sanctioned the suspension of Julius Malema from the ANC, for ‘sowing discord’. But Malema was championing a decisive – and popular – solution to inequality: nationalization of mines and expropriation of white-owned land.
It’s South Africa’s dual economy that is sowing discord. Ayanda Kota of the Unemployed Peoples’ Movement believes the ANC has betrayed its ideals: ‘As [the revolutionary anticolonialist thinker] Frantz Fanon would say, the ANC is keeping us drunk on the memory of the past struggle. They say, “we’ve given you freedom, now go back to your caves”. They’ve forgotten the voices of the poor.’
The government has spent much time listening to outside investors. Now it needs to respond to the voices from within.
NON -POOR ONLY
This ongoing series of public artworks references apartheid era signs by using a ‘NON-POOR ONLY’ sticker to draw attention to the normalization of Neo- Apartheid discriminatory laws and practices. In the South African apartheid state legislation discriminated against the vast majority of citizens who were deprived of land and further condemned to a life of servitude through inferior education and low-paying jobs while being denied access to services and amenities. Public signage was the visual and textual markers of exclusion and inclusion that was used on public transport, public amenities, private and state institutions and departments as well as businesses.
The vaunted dismantling of Apartheid did not however ensure a more equitable society. Social and structural inequalities are now perpetuated through the ‘market-friendly’, neo-liberal policies and trickle-down economics that were part of the negotiated settlement which continues to entrench Apartheid era spatial and economic divides and serves to exacerbate and reinforce the exclusion of the majority of citizens through the public private partnerships entered into between municipalities and improvement district projects funded by local businesses which effectively further criminalizes the poor through profiling and private security surveillance and patrols. Thus the pass-book is no longer required as the marks of difference have been transformed into the body itself through dress, accent, language, class and cultural otherness which is deemed to have no place within these gentrified enclaves by both state and private security institutions. In its ongoing quest to turn more and larger parts of the city into these enclaves of ‘world class services’ that cater exclusively to the affluent and moneyed, the city is implementing and enforcing discriminatory by-laws that inhibit the rights of the poor, the homeless and informal sectors.
The stickers will be pasted in various locations across the country where residents are still being evicted, victimized, discriminated against or being denied access to services and amenities based on our socio-economic status.
Post Apartheid Drugged South Africa
Drugs, Guns And Death In The African South African Communities: Ugh! Azania...
Not All Of Us See politics in the same way... But we all Undergo The same Experiences...
According to Jose Marti:"We must state categorically that there is no salvation for our people unless we turn our backs on all the models that charlatans of all types have tried to sell us for twenty years. There is no salvation outside of this rejection. There is no development separate from a rupture of this kind. All those new intellectual giants who are emerging from their slumber — awakened by the dizzying rise of billions of men in rags, aghast at the threat of this hunger-driven multitude weighing on their digestion — are beginning to rework their speeches/[writings].
"Far it being for me to ridicule the patient efforts of honest intellectuals who, because they have eyes to see, are discovering the terrible consequences of the devastation imposed on us by so-called specialists in the development of the Third World. My fear is to see the fruits of so much energy co-opted by Prosperos of all kinds who — with a wave of their magic wand — spirit us to world of slavery dressed up in today's "fashions.
"My fear is justified even more by the fact that the educated petty bourgeoisie of Africa - if not the entire world — is not prepared to give up its privileges, either because of intellectual laziness or simply because it has tasted the Western way of life. Because of these petty bourgeois forget that all genuine political struggle requires rigorous, theoretical debate, and they refuse to rise to the intellectual effort of conceiving new concepts equal to the murderous struggle that lies ahead of us. Passive and pathetic consumers, they wallow in terminology Fetishized by The West, Just As They Wallow In Western Whiskey And Champagne In Shady-Looking Lounges.
"Ever since the concepts of negritude and African Personality, now showing their age, the search for ideas that are genuinely new produced by the brains of our "great" intellectuals is in vain. Our vocabulary and our ideas come from elsewhere. Our professors, engineers, and economists are content to simply add color — from often the only things they brought back with them from European/American universities that have produced them are their degrees and their velvety adjectives and superlatives!(Sankara is confirming what Andre Gunder Frank was saying above).
"It is both necessary and urgent that our trained personnel and those who work with the pen learn that there is no such thing as neutral writing. In these stormy times we cannot give today's and yesterday's enemies monopoly over "thought," "imagination," and "creativity."Before it too late — and it is already late" — This elite, these men of Africa and of the Third World, must come home to themselves, that is, to their societies and to the miseries we inherited. They must understand that the battle for ideology that serves the needs of the disinherited masses is not in vain. but they must understand, too, that they can only become credible on an international level by being genuinely creative — by "Portraying A Faithful Image Of Their People, An Image Conducive to Carrying Out Fundamental Change In Political And social Conditions And To Wrenching Our Countries From Foreign Domination And Exploitation, Which Leave Us No Other Perspective Than bankruptcy
."The citation above is an introduction to the piece I am posting below. The Drugs are decimating our people and everything, worse than Aids, with the same powerful destructive effect/affect, and devastating impact on us: especially in the community I am about to talk about.
Before I do, I want to preface my comments on the article above by saying: we might try very hard to play the game of the Ostrich burying its head in the sand, but, we are even more exposed by doing that, and cannot even see and deal with the dangers facing us, today.
In the Township of Orlando, the oldest one of all the various Soweto Townships that expand from it; drugs are wreaking havoc, and piercing at the core of the community more than many here on all the Social Media are willing to accede or acknowledge. I have written extensively here on Facebook about the drug pandemic that has assailed us, and promised will come back with new information and update about the Nyaope that is wiping us out. Seriously. I will post the earlier post on Maponya again, at the end of this piece.I have posted the fact that the ANC government has acknowledged that ''drug abuse'' poses an even bigger threat to its young people'(the children and youth of Mzantsi), than the HIV/AIDS pandemic. I think both are huge, and are really furiously gnawing away at our people and us.
Many diss and deride these users, but many of us today, who have to live with and amongst our African people in Orlando and witnessing first hand what is going down-We feel/see it; what is happening to us on a much grander and macabre state that many really nor care to know-it is what is our reality…When I write such articles, the supposed-elite-African-intelligentsia and other such opportunists, keep quite, and do not even do anything. Some pick up ideas and apply themselves and their newly found ideas in trying to do something for the people.
Be as it may, this present article is present a report, news that is not reported, and stories from the Township of Orlando, that are swirling throughout the denizens of Orlando, but are tangentially known by the rest of our edumacated elite-and they are national in scope. Orlando is but just a window into the whole cesspool and morass that is our decrepit existence, That is why I will not stop writing about these sad chapters in our lives, but, am writing them for posterity, and to preserve them as historical record for our children and people/Nation.
There are two things I would like to take a look at, and lastly try and interrogate the whole social miasma as it is shaped, to date.We have a rat-rodent problem which is being exacerbated by the corrugated iron shacks patched/made of boards, plastics and anything to build a dwelling for our people. Orlando is very well-known to have legions of this structures in their yards, and these have created this formidable rat invasion and other creatures, which causes that the people say things about their presence bordering on conspiracy theories.
Nonetheless, it is a fact that these rats and rodents are biting the people's doors; also, they are biting the children sleeping and creating a host of other ailments we have not even begun to deal with.The most recent posts I have dropped on all sorts of Social Media, are geared towards us beginning to write about our real realities and maybe many of us will begin to learn and see something that we had not even thought about, before.
Creating a literature from the grassroots reporting as I am about to do, is one way to go, of the many that can used. I am going to make sure that this disaster that the people of Orlando are facing, as I am onto this article, is exposed and written about as clearly, and as much in a raw way as I can conjure and write it down.I have waxed political and theoretical enough on the most recent two pieces I have posted here on Facebook and elsewhere.
Now, I want to delve into the environment I live and exist in and to make an attempt to caricature its reality and effects/affects on us. What is happening as I am onto this article in our Township is unconscionable. There is no moral justification as to what is happening to our youth, and the adult(children, baby population). This is a very serious thing happening to us here, and I think I will talk about it now.Here in Orlando we are facing a deadly and serious drug epidemic. Drugs are so rife, that we have several drug potentates planted throughout the whole Township and in many contemporary youth social events.
Pretext of an event is a carte blanche operation for the drug dealers and distributors. Drugs have a unique and not so sophisticated way the travel and are disseminated in our community here in the Kasi(Township). It would at one time help us to deal with this problem better if this were to followed up and exposed.Here in Orlando, we customarily call areas within Our Township of Orlando, by the first numbers of their street, in one part of Orlando, and others have their names for a general group of areas, but being Orlando too.
So, in the areas of the street known as '20, we have chaos that is replicated throughout Soweto and the whole hinterland of South Africa with similar ghettoes and decrepit life-style existences. These are the throw-back and creation of Apartheid, and from these enclaves, we find similar scenes and realities that I am describing below in Orlando.This is news that is not news in the traditionally White owned media and nor in the dialogue going on inside the country. What it is I am saying this is not important for no reporters ever take time to sit down and look at, participate in and try their darnest to bring this situation into light.
We as the grown up residents and former students who were involved in the 1970 Student Revolution, are looking at our and within our own Townships, and what we are seeing is some kind of carnage: Drugs destroying and decimating our famous, friends, society and the African race. This is what is happening now as I am onto this article.One of the general terms given to this devastating drug, it is called "Nyaope," a generic name for a killer drug that has left our youth being spooks and walking skeletons right in front of us. What a mess we are in as a people today in Orlando.. So sad to see… Heartbreaking and discouraging. What we have to live with everyday is spiritually.- soulfully taxing and seriously soul and spirit bruising.
I think one has to see it to grasp my meaning. I am going to try and get some pictures, very soon. Optics do serve a relevant tool and technique in what we have to try and contain and at the moment, are at loss what we can or should do.Nyaope Hell Holes And Meat GrindersAs I had said above, in the area of the Streets known as 20(this includes street No. 19) in Orlando, there is this wheelchair drug dealer thug called Nkesi. He runs a drug-dealing den in plain sight with tight security to go. His hirelings are destitute and jobless and lacking in education or dropouts, both girls and boys, who, even go to his hovel(home if one may say so) which is a terrible and a hell for drug-addicted girl teenagers, who would do anything for a fix.
That is where we get to see many victims come out/thrown from or these hell holes with HIV/AIDS, and other STDs that are still dismally afflicting and affecting our people, children, youth and elderly-either dead or sickly.When you see these youth and grown ups pining and crazily craving the drug, they steal water taps, fenced gates, copper wires from the electric poles and houses-ones heart and soul/spirit sinks to its lowest ebb. They have a favorite on their menu, which is these new Plasma TV Screen. It is said if they do not sell them, they imbibe the white powder they find therein, which is fatally destructive, but it is their high pick on the menu of drugs. They also sell them to earn money to go back and buy the Nyaope.
Known as 'Grootie'(Big Brother) or Ketsi, on his wheelchair is loathed by many of the this youth, and those brave enough, tell all about him. They talk of his crude and cruel ways of their treatment by him and many others of his foot-soldiers who run the errands of buying drugs from HIV/Aids patients-they are also enforcers. Some of these people afflicted with the HIV/AIDS disease, collect their rations of the ARV's from different hospitals and outlets, using various means, by moving from one place to the other-collecting the pills.
So that, In the end, they sell these pills to the dug-lords foot-soldiers, who in turn sell them to the distributors and providers of this Nyaope for a fee. This is the cycle, of how this whole operation gets done.Many people are affected in various dire and unknown ways by these burgeoning drugs. There are crews that operate in our midst in the trade of dealing or distributing drugs and raking in millions of Rands in their operations. The houses that they use for such illicit and illegal operations, are houses that the family in that house might have disappeared/wiped out, or is complicit in the trade, and there is no order, and some like Ketsi, have security tight operations that everyone knows, and have installed within their dens, the State Of The Art Cameras driven by some new and sophisticated technology.
So that, as these mini-factories churn out corpses and walking spooks/zombies, we have to live with the scourge-and all the time feeling downright helpless.The police are on the top of the pecking totem pole and order The bribes they get makes them look askance, and their drug-lords/partners in crime and genocide, are never arrested, but if they do, sit in front with the cop driving, and are out in a matter of hours. Bodies of young girls are found strewn in the street corners or the middle of the road, having been ravaged and no one investigates, and yet the locals know who did it-but the locals state that they are bodies thrown out of these caverns.
They dare not talk, for even the innocent ones have been killed for no other reason than that they were innocent and were never involved in anything of the kind of operations/drug-dealing or drug use, I have briefly discussed above.If one were to see these kids and elderly, they have this menacing/angry look, and the people say they are even more wild and daring/bold when they have not smoked their stuff/Nyaope. So that, this leads them to carrying out dastardly deeds, murder and what it takes just to get a fix.
They are jaded, ashen and very 'blackened' and gaunt-looking-Ghost-like, and never ever wash. The local lore has it that they no more beat them, once they catch them stealing, they simply pour water over them, and they end up howling like wild creatures with all the water coming down on them. Some say that this water acts like acid on them. There is some kernel of truth in that, but as to the validity of the claim, the jury is still out on that one.The behavior of these strung-up youth is appalling and galling. It is also sad to see a wasted life moving like an ogre or zombie out of whack and stone to the max.
This something to behold and it is devastating and crushing on some of our souls, mind and bodies. Our kids talk like they are having speech deformities, and they are bent and very wild-eyed-looking and are always on the prowl in search of another theft or robberies-to get another fix/high. Hooded thugs prowl the hood and rape and abduct and rob women as they are headed off to work in the wee hours of the mornings.
So many rapes, so many muggings-men are also mugged, and most times shot; assaults, murders and all kids of undeclared war on the our polity is causing a costly blow we will take many centuries to recover from, that I come here onto the Facebook collective and ask that something be done before it's too late, of which it is beginning to look like it is very late.As a temporary tangent, we have drug dealing in the coughing medicines sold in the Pharmacies or Chemist that are laced with cocaine, and now they are selling all over the place for around R15.00-are the hot item that is proliferating in our midst. The name of that guy is Adcock Ingram, and the cough syrup is manufactured by the famous 'Broncleer' according to the presenter, and whose name, the journalist or hostess of the show is Nkepile Mabuse and the name of the show is "Check Point" on e-TV it was aired on 02. 06. 15 at 10:00 pm-and that is where I got this bit of information from. People are now addicted to this concoction, and it is marketed by a person, whose company name appears of the cough drops for infants, and only our Ancestors know what they are putting in this old cures for babies.
This is another issue I will be talking a bit about whenever I complete my researches.In the manufactories spotting and dotting the landscape, some of these youth are telling of how they have to wear latex gloves when making this Nyaope or some obscure drug mix-because it is hot and burns the skin; they even volunteer information as to the fact that they make it inside some tires, for they do not destruct just as quickly and for whatever reason. There's a whole of deadly mixes of rat poison, Dagga, some disinfectant, ARV's Mandrax tablets and other natural salts/chemicals and an assortment of everything to produce this drug or drugs of the same ilk.As I am onto this piece, one of my friends just walked in complaining about the lack of electricity for the pas so many hours. He says that rumors has it that a copper cable has been stolen, just as I am writing about this issue here on this piece.
We are under an attack and deluge of thefts perpetrated by these Nyaope users, and that is why some houses and sections of Orlando do not have electricity now-this was not due to power-load sharing. People even steal water, that is in those locations that have these water meters. People are not working, and cannot afford pre-paid electricity, and metered water, which have been outsourced to foreign corporation/countries, and they are fleecing us so badly and leave us always in the cold and literally dry.Both youthful but shredded and emaciated looks of youth, girls and boys are dropping out of schools in droves and headed into these drug dens, they are emaciated, blackened, dry-deadened physiques, drooling and zombie-like spook-looking walking dead.
The poor once youthful great looking girls are smoking anything, have HIV/AIDS, sleep around with anyone and thoroughly abused sexually, sickly and bony looking with eyes drooping out of their sockets, very thin-looking, breasts sagging and wasted and gaunt faces; hair falling off, this for us is watching death incalculable and very dumbing and numbing-Daily.Then there's Madambi. The character too lives around the 20s Street, and he too is into high tech, eking money out of the inhabitants, and he too is destroying the youth for he has created a well organized enterprise and has his henchmen, but he is not bigger than Nektsi.
Funked-Up Society - A People On The Precipe Of The Dark Hole
This brings us to the "Hell House". So dubbed because in it everything and anything happens or takes place. This is where the meat-grinder modus operandi is churning out corpses, Murders are routine and there is a general sense of intimidation that is the norm and credo. As for the Cops, they are nowhere to be seen, or the same thing happens when they arrest the Drug-lords, the thugs are always let go and they bribe their way out.
Bribery is another scourge that is endemic amongst law-enforcement people in south Africa-it has become a sort of a culture of laissez fair and a carte balance spirit that has prevailed for some decades now. In the Noordgesig Colored Township, there are Old ladies who sell what they call "Space Cookies". These are bought and eaten by the students of Noordgesig High School, and this leaves the kids High And smoked out/High. Thus the persisting problem of school drop-out rate as I have just touched upon above.
At night, the poor working women, early risers and leavers headed to work in the dark, are susceptible to lurking murderers and rapist as they walk alone towards the required transportation to work. There were patrols by local guys, but this has been sparse and sporadic at best, and the issues of being paid take precedence before anything else, let alone local people's safety. So, we have less patrols in the ungodly hours of the morning. Some Youth in our Block have been encouraged to do this till 6 am.
This is not always the case, but the area is better now, for now.The other underlying but not oft looked important issue, is the fact that we as a people have already beed deadened and conditioned by Apartheid that we are having a hard time coming out of that stalag and mental gulag. Of course we have long been in the Concentration Camps and prisons of Apartheid functioning and operating like the aforementioned Stalag and Gulag meatgiinders and psyche-hospitals that have contributed immensely to our present state of being and existence of our African of South African people.
We now have events called Marikana, a ruse and guise to distribute the drugs and consume liquor and carry on sex by its organizers, that in the end, these place end up with armies of these drug dealers: foot soldiers-who advertise and sell their drugs in these events, the illicit drugs and all forms of booze, and this ends up being an orgy of drugged-out and highly intoxicated youth, which is a setting for other things beyond the pale.Ketsi's children and other such-like people, have their children going to the best schools in the land. This is unconscionable.
This Ketsi self-styled potentate drive all sorts of cars(sits on a wheelchair, mind you) and has many girlfriends… go figure. We have no power to fight against these interlopers, and destroyers of our youth and communities. There needs to be something the people of goodwill here in Mzantsi can do. This is going on as I speak and is not abating.It is a fact that the drugs have decimated families, youth and elderly people. It has left destruction and ruin in the townships throughout Soweto, but in this case, I will focus on Orlando.
Drugs like Cocaine and Mandrax pills started proliferating in the Township around the early eighties and has now become a pandemic throughout different communities of Africans, Coloreds and Whites. In Orlando East(Soweto), the inhabitants have been watching with dread and fear as their youth became zombies, sick, and died from this drug-which, when imbibed, makes its victims froth at the mouth and tear-up incessantly, walking unsteadily zombie-like walk and creates an ever increasing crave, leading to all sorts of crime that has this drug-besieged Township of Orlando teetering on the brink of lunacy and genocide.
This is a problem which has been thus far so utterly ignored that the residents of Orlando, rallied by the members of the CPF(Community Police Forum which was formed by the local Orlando station police force) along with and run by the local residents-who patrol and try to keep crime at a low minimum. On the second Major Saturday of August 2013, a coalition of local Orlando residents, Their CPF Team and several policemen in their cars descended on the drug dens dotting the Township in each and every street.
Recapping and reposting of the Maponya Saga [I penned many moons ago]: What The Citizens Of Orlando Have Attempted To Do Fighting Drugs In Their communities"Community Action and and Exhumation of Crime/Drugs" - Drug Ground Zero Soweto and Durban and Cape Town....As the article above aptly shows we take note on this part of the article that the same sound of singing, became protestations when the coalition I had described above descended onto to the drug houses and dens within Orlando.
A very disturbing picture began to emerge.The Jo'burg Metro police gave permission to the marchers, and provided the police force, and it was explained to the marchers that the agreement, and permission to approach the drug dealers was given. With placards and a huge number of people began advancing to the 'known' Drug dens, and those who sold from street corners or shop stoops.The people went to the houses, containers used as phone phones booths and other illicit activities including the selling of "Nyaope"; The mob advised the police that the Zimbabweans, Nigerians, Pakistanis, and some Coloreds[along with locals] should be arrested and searched for drugs.
In some houses in Orlando, they found drugs on the bodies of Old grannies, who were used as carriers.Heading the large group was Councilor Matlaka(Councilor of Dube), along with 8(eight) police cars, about 15 policemen ant eh CPF patrollers were about 30, and the rest of the group consisted of a large number of undisclosed members of the local resident. Five young boys were arrested and were found to have drugs on their persons. Some of these dealers were women who had come from the rural areas and were very secretive as to who their suppliers were.
Others were resistant to the mob but caved in when they saw the mob's menacing bearing and intent.In the part of the Township called "Roma"[which is still Orlando], two houses were searched and drug paraphernalia was found; they also found a lot of stolen IDs and Marijuana in bags, along with credit cards and guns. Some of this stuff was found under the beds in some of these houses, or carelessly strewn all over the dirty and unkempt houses.In another areas of Orlando around a store called "Goodluck" several houses were without owners, and all sorts of evil and illicit and sordid activities have been taken place in plain sight and nobody could anything about it…
In one "Pink" Big House, the occupants tried to run away, but were apprehended had had on their person both 'Nyaope' and Marijuana and two guns.Maponya - (The Nyaope Potentate whose fiefdom is Orlando)In the area around the Grounds and Tennis Courts(Known Generally as 'Escort'(Still in Orlando) is the headquarters of the Nyaope sales. Hoards of youth and well-off middle class Africans, along with cops(who are in the pay of this guy), who has in his employ, his grandmother, and siblings-the Police and local ANC honchos. One of the 'carriers' who serves his customers on his behalf, was found with six plastics bags and she was in a close to comatose state…
The locals who were in the march, alerted the police that Maponya's grandmother had all the drugs hidden in her body, underneath her clothes. She was very rude and arrogant and dared the police to touch her. She was arrested and searched on arrival in that the police station On seeing what's happening,
Maponya attempted to escape, put on a disguise but the citizens saw to it that he was apprehended.When he was brought into the parked police cars, he insisted that he should sit in the front with the police driver. All the time he was wagging his finger and berating the police, and none responded to his charade. From this incident it was apparent that the Police
Commander and his side-kicks(police grunts) were in the pay of this lilliputian drug potentate.The community, who have been seeing the police and other people of note come to buy or get paid by him over a period of time, lost their cool. They threatened to riot and demanded that Maponya be put in the back of the squad car with all other arrestees. Eventually he was put in the back with all other small-time drug dealers, and he was clearly miffed about this and he carried on his protestations.
What got him off the hook, was the directive the police said that he could not be arrested if he did not have any drugs on him. Those who worked for him refused to snitch or rat out on him. They all denied having received or brought this stuff from him-and the junkies were intimidated into denying that he supplied or sold them the "Nyaope"... This technicality, helped set him free and he was released without being charged.
The crowd moved to an area in Orlando too, called 'Paramount,' and they went into the ramshackle shacks filling up the yards of most houses in Orlando, and in them they found and routed drug dens , prostitution harems, and 3 people were arrested there-considered to be the main bosses. As far as one can tell, "Nyaope" is sold in each and every street in Orlando.The denizens of Orlando were disgruntled and felt betrayed, because everyone knew who(Maponya) was really distributing drugs wholesale in the Township, and he walked scot-free, due to a flimsy technicality in the law so that, in the end, the people wanted the Minister of the Police, Mrs. Raphiyega and the government to become involved.The people finally decided to call a meeting in a week of two, to report back to the community these events, and have decided to take the case to the Provincial government and they want the Premier to take this case over.
Most of those residents who partook in the raid, have to go around the Township armed"Drug And Chemical Warfare On the People Of Mzantsi"Below I will link an article which no longer talks about "Nyaope, but "Whoonga" which is a potent and highly addictive mixture of Marijuana, heroin, and HIV Medications. The same with "Nyaope" and other concoctions, which also include the life-saving pills for HIV-Aids, and literally makes waste of the users and death, sickness, crime, homicide, rape and so forth have spiked. This is a crisis, and it needs to be addressed aggressively, or we stand to loose not only generations, but a whole nation of people high on home-made designer drugs which are decimating communities throughout South Africa with unequaled impunity.Until the day we Africans of Mzantsi stop thinking of and for our individual selves only, until they day we Africans of Mzantsi say enough is enough; and, until we come to our senses and go and see for ourselves what I am talking about or everyone is writing about what these drugs are doing to us, our people, relatives and communities[Nation], we will forever be in our cocoons and do nothing, and we are clearly facing something more dangerous than HIV AIDs(Which is still battering and wiping the core of our communities), we will in the end taken-snuffed by the genocide we are now facing. There is more to the story as to how these drugs came into the country, and I will be writing an article tracing the origins of this scourge and addiction.We are really much better than this, lest we forget that.... We can all 'wax political' to our egos content.. But this, is not going away, instead, it is threatening our very existence as the indigenous of the country of South Africa... We are in the clutches of a very dangerous and deadly grip of a drug epidemic whose likes has never been seen before in our country. We need to begin to help ourselves and come to these communities and route the drugs and dealers consistently and brutally, or it is they, as we are seeing, who will run our Townships(they already are) or either its us who will have the finally say, and control and run our townships and communities... Whither Mzantsi....The article above was made possible by the people of Orlando I talked to. All I did was cobble up all the interviews, and these are what I formed into the narrative above. This is seriously Grassroots news and Grassroots intelligence, which is out there for all who wish to report on the events and issues that are taking place amongst our own people. The newspaper will not put it in the way that Malcolm explained above as I cited him. We have to begin to write our own news and stories, and talk to the people Face-To-Face, and can then afterwards post it on Facebook. Our people have the information as to what's going down in the Township… We just need to get out there, be amongst them, and write these stories, and show them what we have written, in order to get even more gruesome accounts of the lives of our African People Of Mzantsi, today,here on the Viral soup
Themes From Animal Farm
Long Time Has Past; So Much More Has Been Lost...
Colonialism Revisisted: 2015
Understanding Colonial Apartheid In South Africa, Africa and the Diaspora
What we see happening in Mzantsi today has its precedent in African History. If we look closely at what precipitated these events that we see today, then we will be in a better position to begin to understand and wrap our heads around the present decrepit social miasma we are existing in today… To enable us to do this, we are going to do some reading from Walter Rodney, who fills our gaps with this history:
"Faced with the evidence of European exploitation of Africa, many bourgeois writers once at least partially that colonialism was system which functioned well in the interests of the Metroples. However, they would then urge that other issue be resolved is how much Europeans did for Africans, and that it is necessary to draw up a balance sheet of colonialism.
"On that balance sheet, they place both the credits and the debits, and quite often conclude that the good outweighed the bad. That particular conclusion can quite be easily be challenged, but attention should also be drawn to the fact that the process of reasoning is itself misleading. That reasoning has some sentimental persuasiveness. It appeals to the common sentiment that, "After all, there must be two sides to a thing."
"The argument suggests that, on the one hand, there was exploitation and oppression, but, on the other hand, colonial governments did much for the benefit of Africans and they developed Africa. It is our contention that this so completely false. Colonialism had only one hand — it was a one-armed bandit.
"What did the colonial governments do in the interest of Africans? Supposedly, they built railroads, schools, hospitals, and the like. The sum total of these services was amazingly small.For the first three decades of colonialism, hardy anything was done that could remotely be termed a service to the African people. It was in fact only after the last war that social services were built as a matter of policy. How little they amounted to, does not really need illustrating. After all, the statistics which show that Africa today is undeveloped are the statistics representing the state of affairs at the end of colonialism.
"For that matter, the figures at the end of the first decade of African Independence, in spheres such as health, housing, and education, are often several times higher than the figures inherited by the newly independent governments. It would be an act of the most brazen fraud to weigh on the paltry social amenities provided during the colonial epoch against exploitation, and to arrive at the conclusion that the good outweighed the bad.
"Capitalism did bring social services to European workers - Firstly, as a by-product of providing such services for the bourgeoisie and the middle-class, and later as a deliberate act of policy. Nothing remotely comparable occurred in Africa. In 1934, long before the coming of the welfare state to Britain, expenditure for social services in the British Isles amounted to 6 pounds 15 shillings per person. In Ghana, the figure was 7 shillings 4 pence per person, and that was high by colonial standards. In Nigeria and Nyasaland(Tanzania), it was less than 1 shilling 9 pence per head. None of the other colonizing powers were doing any better, and some were much worse.
"The Portuguese stand out because they boasted the most and did the lest. Portugal boasted that Angola, Guinea, and Mozambique(Maputo) have been their possessions fro five hundred years, during which time a "civilizing mission" has been going on. At the end of five hundred years of shouldering the "White Man's Burden" of civilizing "African Natives" the Portuguese have not managed to train a single African Doctor in Mozambique(Maputo), and the life-expectancy in Angola was less than thirty years. As for Guinea-Bissau, some insight int the situation there is provided by the admission of the Portuguese themselves that Guinea-Bissau was more neglected than Angola and Mozambique!(Maputo!)
"Furthermore, the limited social services within Africa during colonial times were distributed in a manner that reflected the pattern of domination and exploitation. First ofto have all, White Settlers and Expatriates wanted standards of the bourgeoisie or professional classes of the Metropoles. They were all the more determined to have the luxuries of Africa, because so many of them came from poverty in Europe and could not expect good services in their own homelands.
In colonies like Algeria, Kenya, and South Africa, it is well known that whites created an infrastructure to afford themselves leisured and enjoyable lives. It means, therefore, that the total amenities provided in any of the colonies is not guide to what Africans got out of colonialism. In colonies like Algeria, Kenya, and in South Africa, it is well known that Whites created an infrastructure to afford themselves leisured and enjoyable lives. It means, therefore, that the total amenities privided in any of those colonies is no guide to what Africans got out of colonialism.
"In Algeria, the figure for infant mortality was 39 per 1,000 live births among White Settlers; but it jumped to 170 per 1,000 live births in the case of Algerian living in the towns. In practical terms, that meant that the medic, maternity and sanitation were all geared towards the well-being of the Settlers. Similarly, In south Africa, all social statistics have to be broken down into at least two groups - White and African - if they are to be interpreted correctly. In British East Africa, there were three groups: firstly, the Europeans, who got the most; then, the Indians, who took most of what was left; and thirdly, the Africans, who came last in their own country.
"The viciousness of the colonial system with respect to the provision of social services was most dramatically brought out in the case of economic activities which made huge profits, and notably in the mining industry. Mining takes serious toll of the health of workers, and it was only recently in the Metropoles that minders had access to the kind of medical and insurance services which could safeguard their lives and health.
I"n colonial Africa, the exploitation of miners was entirely without responsibility. In 1930, scurvy and other epidemics broke out in the Lupa Goldfields of Tanganyika. Hundreds of workers died. One should not wonder that they had no facilities which would have saved some lives, because in thee first place, they were not being paid enough to eat properly.
South Africa's large working class African population was in a sad state. The Tuberculosis Commission of 1912 reported that in the shanty towns:
"Scarcely a single family exists in which at least one member is not suffering or dying from tuberculosis, and other cases are simply sent home to die — and spread the infection. In some areas, a single doctor has to attend to the needs of 40,0000 people. The Natives(Africans) must pay for medical treatment. There is not provision for pauper patients. About 65% of the Native(African) children die before reaching two years."
"This was as early as 1912, when the basis of the South African Gold and Diamond empire was already laid. After this, the shanty towns increased, the slum conditions grew worse, and the government committed itself to pursuing the odious policy of Apartheid, which meant separation of the races so as better to exploit the African people.
"Many Africans trekked to towns, because (bad as they were) they offered a little more than the countryside. Modern sanitation, electricity, piped water, paved roads,medical services, and schools were foreign at the end of the colonial period as they were in the beginning — as far as most of rural Africa was concerned.
"The combination of being oppressed, being exploited, and being disregarded is best illustrated by the pattern of the economic infrastructure of African colonies: notably, their roads and railways. These had a clear geographical distribution according tot he extent to which particular regions needed to be opened up to import-export activities. Where exports were not available, road and railways had no place. The only slight exception is that certain roads and railways were built to move troops and make conquest and oppression easier.
"All roads and railways led to the sea. They were built to make business possible for the timber companies, trading companies, and agricultural concession firms, and for White settlers. Any catering to African interests was purely coincidental. Yet in Africa, labor, rather than capital, took the Lion's share in getting things done. With the minimum investment of capital, the colonial powers could mobilize thousands upon thousands of workers. Salaries were paid to the police officers and officials, and labor came into existence because of the colonial laws, their threat of [violence] of force, and the use of force.
"Take, for instance, the building of the railways. In Europe and America, railway building required huge impute of capital. Great wage bills were incurred during construction, and added bonus payments were made to workers to get the job done as quickly as possible. In most parts of Africa, the Europeans who wanted to see a railroad built, offered lashes as the ordinary wage and more lashes for extra effort.
"Most of the intolerable conditions are explained by the non-availability of capital in the form of equipment. Therefore, sheer manpower had to take the place of earth-moving machinery, cranes, and so on. A comparable situation prided by the construction of the Embakasi airport of Nairobi. Because it was built during the colonial era (starting in 1953) and with the United States loans, it is customary to credit the imperialists for its existence. But it would be much more accurate to say the people of Kenya built it with their own hands, under European Supervision."
I have cited the excerpt above at length from Walter Rodney, to begin to lay down some comprehensive history and story of African people under colonization and it meant, entailed and did to them, Also to give more concrete and focused historical timeline, events and situations that have led us to what we see today happening throughout Africa and Mzantsi. Many-a-times we talk abut colonialism, but few of us really know that story and history very well. My aim to give such a long citation from Rodney, is to begin to lay the ground work for our full understanding of the whole complex problem of colonialism. The more we learn and read about the history and sorry of colonialism, this helps us have a much clearer and better understanding of our present-day problems.
Rodney help us make our case here today in Mzantsi, wherein you find many of our opportunistic brothers who are workers or refugees or simply Africans who have run away from the terrible oppression in their mother countries, and are now here in South Africa, look down upon the indigenous Africans, and have been saying that we have no skills and are very lazy.
This is wrong for if one were to read what I have cited from Rodney above, any African, in Africa and the Diaspora, knows what I have just cited as told by Rodney. That is, colonialism has affected us all in Africa in many ways, and we better start talking to each other from the knowledge of our stories and histories, than from being opportunist who are just pleased to be paid less wages, as compared to local Africans, and that their labor power is exploited to the hilt, and that, they are more a problem to us than being on our side of our very long struggle.
Africans in South Africa built the infrastructure many Africans, after the coming into pseudo-power by the ANC, are seeing for the first time. We have seen many of our people being decimated by the effects and affects of the cheap labor wrought from our bodies and being; we have seen many die of various diseases and other strange ailments; poverty has been a constant with us, to date. Our education is the worst I have seen since Bantu Education-The present-day Educational system here in our country is worse than what we received from the Boers in the form of Bantu Education.
Our health system has gone bust and bankrupt, and the present cadre of nurses is terrible and disgusting-ignorant illiterates who have been half-cooked and poorly untrained nurses; Service delivery only benefits the White folks and all the African elite and overnight-rick millionaires, whilst we are stagnant in the Townships, with daily seeing the strikes against lack or poor service delivery.
Africans of Mzantsi built South Africa with their own hands, forced labor and lashes and torture to go with that. That much needs to be respected by our African bothers. Even if many can see that the power we have is a farce and unreal, and that the economy is controlled by Whites, who hire these African people, north of South Africa, in South Africa now, for a piddling wage. Many of these people newly arrived since the ANC took power, now behave and tell us to our faces we ain't shit, and they are better than us, because they have skills, they can work and are far much more better than the local African people. We need to call it as it is, and this is what we are having to deal with here, As Africans of Mzantsi.
So, by utilizing the historical background as provided for by Rodney, we can begin to set the record straight, as to why it is that we here in South Africa have so many issues that unresolved and are at the bottom of the pile in the country we claim has democracy, and that it is now, supposedly better than the time of the Boers. No, the ANC has worsened the situation and we are now back to square minus zero. Rodney puts it clearly, and tries to date us from 1912, and as I have posted this his piece in June 2015. It is also interesting to note how much Rodney recounts the colonial events and a lot of times cites colonial oppression and maltreatment of Africans, in south Africa, as one of his prime examples.
When we hear people from the north of South Africa becoming our harshest critics. Are the ones attacking and berating us, abusing our women, breaking our strikes against the government; accusing us of xenophobia in the end, we then take a step back as Africans of South Africa, and say: You are going to have to hear us now, by hook or crook. Many of our African bothers left their homes in their African countries and trekked to South Africa. But, when the ANC was in exile, it was never given the freedom of movement, jobs, and a carefree attitude as to where they can stay, live or have a decent life.
Instead, the bulk and the majority of the ANC cadre was interned in camps they had to build themselves from scratch. And many of our exiled people have been harrassed and arrested in these countries for breaking their curfew law. So that, now that they come and tell us that they helped us get ourselves free… We simply say, Yeah, right… How So? Protesting with us in London? US at the Unite d nations...
Meanwhile, doing all that, curbing the movement of our brothers and sisters in their countries, because they were too scared to raise the wrath of Apartheid, which occasionally attacked the ANC camps in their countries. Give me a break... Better find another reason for all the disrespect that has been shown to us by our African brothers and sisters from the north of South Africa. This needs to be addressed fully, honestly and forthrightly. I do not fear to say what I have already said, for I know damn well what I am talking about.
The very fact that our African brothers and sisters from the north of South Africa are working assiduously very hard for the White people, that in of itself says a lot about them to us. They do not respect us in this competition for the White-man's job, and when the backlash against their view and behavior towards us comes to the fore, they quickly yell, "Xenophobia!" But no one has yet come forward to show the type of xenophobia South Africans in Exile suffered from these clowns and their governments-some of whom were in cahoots with the Apartheid regime, still, then, and now, undermining our own struggles and interests here in Mzantsi. Let the Truth be told, and may the pieces of it fall where they might.
Sell-outs, throughout Africa have been many and would take the space of mu Hub. All I can say is that those who have trekked from other countries, found work and domicile in Mznatsi, are going to have to begin listening to us, We The People Of Mzantsi, and not some corny flunky of a politician who is in office to grease his pockets. We have had the 'Benzies" throughout Africa, and those leaders of many of these African countries assassinating their genuine and worthwhile leaders, and yet have the audacity to come and point fingers at us here in Mzantsi. We fought our struggles mainly alone. If any help was forthcoming, it was from safe distance and in their far-off lands hollering Away with Apartheid. But, in fact Africa was saved from the Ogre of Apartheid because we fought against it using our bodies, barehands, stones and whatever came our way.
There were none of these famed guerrillas that were marching down from Africa to help us fight Apartheid alone. We were the one who bore the brunt and wrath of the Apartheid machine, and the sanctions and protestations overseas helped a lot, but, people should not come into our country and poke their fingers into our eyes. We need the eyes to see where we are going… So, we cannot allow anyone to bully us around, again, ever. Disrespect by any language is still disrespect. Our country has accommodated the many Africans to the North, it is about time they listened to some of us here in Mzantsi who still have our wits together. Stop the abuse of the indigene of Mzantsi, respect us, and abide by our rules and laws. South Africa is not the country for All Africans, It is the land and country of the African peoples of South Africa. Period! Do not take our kindness for our weakness,
I do not mind saying all the things above because I know they are the truth. If we are going to talk about the histories of the countries north of South Africa and in the Diaspora, let soon begin. That is why I have introduced the piece above by Walter Rodney to edify my theses that it is better for the rest of Africa and the Diaspora that we begin to respect each other, and abide by the rules of the land of South Africa. Our laws may be tardy, but they are laws, and if our politicians are going to use those laws, bend them to earn riches, the very same laws are going to be used to prosecute them for malfeasance and other wrongs against the poor people of Mzantsi. Only time will tell.
Right now, here in Mzatnsi we have a long list of things to take care of. One of this not oft discussed is the importance and affects/effects of history on our lives. Rodney put all things considered into context. He traces the abuses for us, albeit I did not cite the whole chapter, so that we can begin to think much more better and in an informed way about our present-day situations and realities. Know what led us to be where we us is very important, so that we can better begin to deal with the present which is so overwhelming. But What Rodney does for us, if to keep us focused, so that as we mull over these issues, we have a reliable feedback from a solid authority on this subject-that is, he has already done the homework for us, our is to read it, understand it and apply it as we see fit.
I would have liked to cite some more from Rodney, but for now, thus far, what he has already informed us about, is good enough to begin to start the dialogue we need to be carrying out as Africans in south Africa, and those Africans from the north of south Africa-After we the indigenous have dealt with our immediate realities and issues. We too in Mzantsi, owe it to Rodney to come up with a better working strategy as to what we are gone to do as we build our nation. Following the present curve growth is a road leading to nowhere fast. What we ought to do is to be able to meld and cobble-together the myriad issues that we have to deal us, using and knowing-following the objective and other such conditions from the ground up(from the poor people to the richest). This is our only path towards solving our problems.
This applied too to the Africans in the Diaspora. South Africa is a poor caricature of America, and as we speak, cultural imperialism is taking over many of our lives, and has sidelined our culture and then some. I think the struggle today will also depend on the knowledge and awareness the incumbent Revolutionaries will be bringing to the African war table. Let's be clear about what I am talking about. Any change in Africa is going to have to be premised upon African beginning to see, respect and come together without the in-built colonial mind-sets. A much more clearer and deeper understanding of the whole struggle is going to have to be looked at with much more fresh and informed eyes and minds. Ignorance in this techno age is not an excuse, seriously.
Serious Drug Use In South Africa
Critique And Anti-Critique: Time To Palaver
Mzantsi: Let's Talk Sharp with One Another...
Having said what I wanted to say about the youth, the article below is more addressed to my peers and elders and all the youth that is interested in figuring out what's happening to us. With June 16th Celebration night.. This topic is apropos for this Zeitgiest...What's Going On Here In Mzantsi Today: A Close Up On social Reality In Mzantsi"As a media enthusiast, I have been viewing several Walls on FB that portend to carry out the struggle.
What these are, critically looking them, are just bellicose knee-jerk reactions and rants on our part, pretending to be caring and talking about our problems and plights. Well, in so far as the diatribes are concerned, it seems like a conscious people are engaged in a positive palaver, but that would be far from the truth. Our cream of the crop is rushing pell-mell into being accepted and seen as being European, and not African… This is a fact, and I can argue with anyone with contrary point of view on this matter.
In all earnestness, we have lost our bearings, moorings and campus in life. We are under great and grand delusions of grandeur, that if one were to accumulate more money, and sacrifice ones soul and human beingness(Culture, Customs, etc), that does not matter, but money does. We have dug ourselves, we Africans of South Africa, into a hole that we cannot climb out of.
We glorify, cherish, and work very hard to be a poor copies of other cultures and are strung-up on material wealth and technological gadgets and nothing more-we have forgotten about our history, culture, customs, traditions, etc., that there has arisen a dire need to begin to pay attention these matters and issues. We have become adept at scoffing and dismissing our cultural, linguistic, musical and other heritages that make us Africans of South Africa, and have become lackeys of other peoples around the world.
We are a confused, scared and dumbed-down peoples. We of Mzantsi, have no sense nor direction of what is happening. We are all filled with uncertainties, distrust, and have to live with an irresponsible petty bourgeoisie which is very opportunistic and Vulturistic. Ya'll Know Yourselves...
They have a tendency to enquire as to ones status in our meetings in any situation, what kind of car one drives, where does one live, or was edumacated, whether one is wearing western contemporary fashion, smudge ourselves with foreign perfumes, adorn jewelry(which we now put on our teeth, too), live in shameless opulence, and strive hard to maintain that type of status quo and wealth acquirement to the dissatisfaction orf our poor majority-and desire to be accepted as Europeans, not African-on the other hand constantly putting pressure on the poor to live it up…
Today, because we have become very good at rejecting our culture, we have become an illiterate nation, with a miseducated youth and totally blank adult population. The matric results are one indicator of this charge. We are becoming sick nowadays, most of us suffering from flues, pneumonia, dysentery, diarrhea, in the middle and heat of the summer. We do not control our water/food (by we, I mean the army of consumers of this drinking water and buyers of groceries). We are inept in all what we do.
We depend on nepotism, cronyism, which has been shepherded by a cabal of a motley crew of thugs posing as our government and leaders.The people that are supposedly being put in position of national social responsibilities are ignorant, inept, dysfunctional, unknowing, arrogant, and pilfering upon the public coffers; corruption is rampant; rape and murder are chronic in our communities; Alcoholism is a pandemic disease; drug abuse and proliferation has becoming the new normal in our midst; churches are fleecing their parishioners; the much touted and oft abused concept of Ubuntu is no more existent in our divided and shattered African collectives.
Our children do not even know our part history, custom, cultures, traditions languages and other sacred rites and their practices; and we, the present elderly, are not even helping them, nor we ourselves are functionally capable of capturing our culture, customs, traditions and the whole bit.People are scared of critiquing the ANC; the ANC has arrogantly abrogated to itself all powers and is distorting and making its own polity ignorant and uneducated, so's to rule over us effectively.
They, the present government, wants us to accept that all these social malaise are because we are now experiencing a new democracy, newly found freedoms, in the face of all that they, our present leaders, are doing that is wrong. No one wants to be told that we are a failure and being wiped out of the face of our land in all aspects of our decrepit existential reality. Yet we are...
Reading up on Wilson is an eye opener for us, if we will ever have the gall and guts to face our weakened state of being and try to ameliorate the stated conditions. Wilson writes:".. The way we think, the way we behave, helps to create the kinds of victimization from which we suffer. The oppressive configuration the White man has assumed in relationship to the African man is in good part the result of the fact that we have permitted ourselves to remain in complementary subordinate configuration conducive to his oppressive designs.
"The White man Cannot Be What He Is unless We Are What We Are As A People".
"And one way of transforming the White man is through 'self-transformation'. "He cannot be what he is if we are not what we are"."Therefore, we must take responsibility for that part of our personality, that part of our community, and that part of ourselves over which we have control, and change that part. And if we change those parts of ourselves and our community, we shall change this man. Who gives a damn about changing him anyway? It does not matter!
"One of our major problems is that African leadership has been involved in converting Whites. That misleads us time and time again. Give it up! One of the major steps in the rehabilitation of the African Man/Woman/Child, etc, is to give up the White man and forget about him!"This is one helluva tough thing for the African elite in Mzantsi to wrap their heads and thin skins around. Why should they give up their stolen and ill-beggoten loot? Why should they give up their income, life-styles, power, importance, and standard of living for the sake of the good for all Africans. Why should they? They are not prepared to do that.
This is the conundrum that that stops anyone of these 'latter-day' South african millionaires are faced with. Why should they not hobnob with the celebrities and people of power? Give up golfing? Have no "helpers' in their house? Are they not providing job creation, they wonder? Why should they not imbibe the accoutrements of the world of wealth and modernity?Why should they be bothered with paying obeisance and respect to an ancient and decrepit useless African culture, customs, etc, when the world is modern and moving along in the 21st century?
Yes, these people who ask these questions and more are part of us, they are us. Here is looking at us; here's talking to each other.We have to learn how to critique ourselves and accept our shortcomings and over-inflated sense grandeur. We should get rid of our confusion as to who we are as African People. We neither American nor European, nor will we ever be. We shall never be accepted as those people, instead, they would respect us more if we were our selves, without trying to ape others.Our culture should guide our thinking.
Our custom condition our behavior; our tradition determine ourselves as a people and nation. We cannot afford to be hoodwinked by television, and other western cultural imperial artifacts and gadgets. We should know these, but use them to suit ourselves. We cannot think like we are of European origin in our psyche and other distorted cultural unrealities we so apt to adopt, at the expense of our own indigenous cultures, traditions, customs and so forth.
On The Cusp Of An African Cultural Renaissance
When Fu-Liau visited Bahia Brazil, he was shocked to discover Congo descendants who still maintain their traditional ancestral cultural customs; far more authentic than what is practiced in the Congo today. He was startled after being invited to observe secret education systems which proved to be virtually identical to his own initiation in the Congo years ago; initiations long since destroyed by the colonials.Traditionally, varied rituals address every occasion in African traditional life.
The rituals provide individuals with an opportunity to stand before the community for naming ceremonies, enstoolment ceremonies, initiation rites, harvest festivals and other times to link and collectively give thanks to god, the ancestors, and nature. These rituals, and the purposes for them are common in Africa and the Diaspora. They provide an opportunity to promote community unity, to outline purpose and expectations, to reinforce the positive aspects of the culture, and to acknowledge the power of the Creator.
Most of these ceremonies give validation to the elders, the children, the leadership, and to any links that contribute to community health. Ceremonial practices help communities to affirm community ties and values.Our communities can benefit greatly if we could collectively resist the meaningless holidays and ceremonies which are promoted in contemporary capitalistic societies.
These holidays, and their aggressive [commercial] promotions, are meant to encourage spending to enrich certain businesses and corporations. These holidays have no positive transformative value for individuals and communities participating in them.Regardless of years of separation from Africa and constant pressure to ignore all things African, Africans in the United States have managed to maintain African Cultural Retentions.
One example of this is the strong community commitment to and participation in child-care and socialization in rural areas and in strong urban communities that persisted for years. Even when there was little money, these African communities were consciously and subconsciously committed to quality child development.A few of these practices include the use of folktales as a means of teaching about community mores, encouraging youth participation in all community activities, childbirth techniques, post childbirth rituals, natural healing practices, and more.
These diverse retentions could be found in may rural communities, such as Bay City, Texas, but they could also be found in pockets of urban communities those within Harlem, New York.African socialization practices served to assist communities in day-to-day operations, collective survival, interpersonal relations, and basic quality of life issues. The content of an African education and socialization process contains many components which are modified according to the specific goals and aims of a community.
'Madness(Mental Illness) And Rage'The African community must examine itself and see to what degree it has contributed to his own madness, demise, oppression and powerlessness.When one looks around our own communities, there's an exaggerated reality of madness and mental health. We learn from Wilson that""A part of the problem of mental illness in not what people do to each other, and not what mama, daddy, or somebody else does to a child.
A part of it is also how what mama does is reacted to on the part of the child. It is not so much that to the European we are inferior, and that, this and that, and, as the European maligns our character, et cetera: It is the reaction of anger, as Cobbs and Price point out, "The reaction of rage.""Yes, we are going to find rage in teenagers, and rage in people that destroy and prey on the community; and it is the this reaction that distorts reality, distorts the individual's creativity, distorts the necessary unity and distorts the very mechanism that can get the individual out of his/her behavior," writes Wilson.
"I was talking to one drug addict who was outlining the regular thing about mama; mama not loving her and mama mistreating her. And so she saw herself as having only two choices; either would become what mama said she would become, or she would become better than what mama said she would become-both being reactions to mama, both still tied to her mama, both making her a creation of mama.
"The African(Black) bourgeoisie is as much a creation as is the African(Black) criminal; they are both reactionary styles, and both a means by which people try to deal with their dilemma of White oppression. And quite often people think, (and she thought) that there are only two choices: Either I react to it that way or I react to it the other way; I react to it in terms of rage or I overachieve.
"But if reactions of rage, hatred, and vengeance are not permitted to capture the personality, to consume and concentrate consciousness and attention, perhaps then, another alternative, another approach will be discovered."This is the thing that we must recognize in ourselves as a people. Reactions in terms of depression, rage and anger, reactions in terms of compensatory mechanism, are reactions that help to deny the criminality on a certain segment of our people, and that obscures the behavior of may of our teenagers in our current situations — which help to maintain the situation in and of itself.
"Why can't our leadership deal with that issue? Why is it we say that African people are losing out in the so-called "alms" race. As they call it? Alms Race! Why aren't we questioning our leadership when since the 1950s (and 1960s), the situation of our people worsened? We have leadership, today, that refuses to confront forthrightly the issues and the circumstance in which we find ourselves.
"For not capturing economic and social control of our communities, and for not building up An African Orientated philosophy, and for not building our brains, and studying, and reading, and writing, and organizing, and developing, we must hold ourselves responsible, in part, for the madness. I therefore suggest that the issue then is not so much one of diagnosis for the patient, but a diagnosis of ourselves, a diagnosis os the system, and more so than that — getting on with the work of revolution." (Wilson)
I began by titling this piece as "Let's Talk Sharp With One Another". We can all wax revolutionary and political until we turn some other color either than our melanin, that will not alter the fact that we are in serious trouble here in Mzantsi. Our leadership is made up of quislings, sell-outs and turncoats. This is an undeniable fact. Some of us here in Mzantsi are averse to such talks for it threatens their present status and reality in our(the poor's) shredded present decrepit existential unreality. Well, talk, some of us will.Well, it's about time we started talking to each other and not past one another.
We have to talk and listen to one another and stop dictating our half-cooked mind-sets to those we deem to be lower than us, and yet we are in the same prison, the same devastated reality that we face as the Africans of Mzantsi. I am not going to be talking so much about White people in my posts, but will directly address ourselves(Africans) as to what is happening to us today.
We should not kid ourselves that this is a problem that is faced by Africans in South Africa only. African Americans, those who are naive enough and come here to South Africa and behave with some haughtiness and arrogance/ignorance, are in the same boat with us. I need not say this because I might be dismissed as an African in Africa, but Wilson bears out my assertions, and this is what Africans, all over the world, are having to deal with, equally and in the same way, no matter what.
You are not better because you are an African American in America, nor am I better because I am an African in the Motherland… We are all in the same ship, prison and enclosed in oppression, depression suppression and you name it, the same mess. It is at this juncture in this part of my first installments of the articles to make us aware of, the way, we, Africans in Africa, and all those in the Diaspora, desperately need for own sanity and survival as a people...
Wilson says we cannot be slaves and be Africans at the same time, because if one is to become what we see ourselves as today, slaves, we have to discard of our those characteristics that makes one Africa.As the celebration of June 16th Revolution approaches, it is encumbent upon us, and behooves us to recalibrate uour own self-induced and created State of the Nation we are now all existing in, Today.
The Drug Pandemic In Mzantsi, In Retrospect...
Thepiso Moche updates us thusly:
In its latest report, the SA National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence's (Sanca) has indicated that substance abuse in South Africa is on the rise.
Some of the widely available and abused drugs include heroin, marijuana, methamphetamines and cocaine. Another increasingly popular drug is “nyaope” a mixture of marijuana and heroin.
Here' A Synopsis of Drug repportage in South Africa:
A thirty eight year old woman and her two sons have been arrested for dealing in drugs at Chatsworth, south of Durban. Police discovered heroin straws with a street value of close to R9000 and R17 000 in cash.
Police spokesperson Thulani Zwane says police also raided a second house in the area.
Zwane says here police discovered more than R95 000 worth of cash bundles and the names of the suspected drug dealers or runners.
He adds that 356 straws of heroine worth more than R3000 was found in the first premises and that suspects between the ages of 17 and 33 years old were arrested.
Zwane says they will appear in the Chatsworth Magistrates Court on charges of dealing in drugs.
According to the Central Drug Authority, the substance abuse rate in South Africa among teenagers is on the increase and out of control.
Speaking on the SAfm's Forum @ 8 on Wednesday morning, senior social worker at Sanca, Erika Nel says more teenagers have now resorted to using more serious drugs like nyaope.
Nel adds that currently the use of nyaope is a huge problem in Gauteng, Mpumalanga and the Northern Province.
Addictions Consultant and a member of Tough Love South Africa, Sheryl Rahme says children as young as 11-years-old are using drugs. Rahme adds that alcohol abuse is also on the increase. Rahme has attributed the use of drugs among teenagers to breakdown in families.
Meanwhile, Counselling Psychologist, Dr. Adelbert Scholtz says drugs such as tick and alcohol abuse are most common in Cape Town.
Since Christmas, Cape Town police have seized drugs estimated to be worth more than R60 million in beaches in and around Mossel Bay.
Scholtz has urged everyone hooked on drugs to quickly seek help and has also advised those contemplating to start using drugs to also seek help.
Below I would like to post snippets of reports that have been coming trhough the press over the past years, to date. This is just to give the reader a smattering of what is taking place here in South Africa; i.e., why is it that we are talking about drugs. This is giving a brief piecture of regions wherein drug peddling has become so endmic, that the governm and plice are seemingly overwhelmed.
There are no stratesgies that are viable, and many of them are poor copies of American failed vision of "War On Drugs", and in fact, the local police and government officials are in the payaorll of these drug dealers in many ways.. So, I am just listing a few instances and issues that are happening and taking palce here In Mzatnsi, that it will keep the spirit with which I am writing this piece be informed and intact. This is what I have learned:
Belgium busts drugs ring with links to Africa
Belgium has charged 10 people with trafficking heroin and cocaine into Europe and North America, after raids on what it said was a smuggling ring with links to Africa.
Prosecutors in Leuven, near Brussels, said on Friday that some 100 police had carried out the raids in the two places this month, as part of an investigation that began last year into an international organisation possibly smuggling hundreds of kilograms of drugs per year.
"This led to the dismantling of an international drugs trafficking operation led from our country, which resulted in the detention of suspects living in Leuven and Brussels," prosecutors said in a statement.
The investigation also included drugs finds resulting from a request for information from Canadian authorities.
The gang, whose members were from Tanzania, Somalia, Rwanda and Burundi but living in Belgium, relied on couriers carrying drugs either swallowed or hidden in clothing or luggage.
Prosecutors said that of the 10 charged, three were Belgian nationals and one Dutch..
A Pakistani man has been arrested after R48 million worth of heroin was found in a house in Booysens, Johannesburg, on Monday morning, the Hawks said.
"It is alleged that he was going to deliver it to a certain location and we pounced on him," said Hawks spokesperson, Paul Ramaloko.
"We found 40kg, and each kilogram goes for about R1.2 million."
Ramaloko said the drugs were brought into the country, but he could not disclose where it was coming from as it would compromise their investigation.
The man was believed to be part of an international drug distribution network.
Police said more arrests were imminent. Two unlicensed firearms were also found in the house.
The man is due to appear in the Johannesburg Magistrate's Court on Tuesday on a charge of dealing in drugs.
Another Reoprt by SAPA adds:
Heroin usage is on the rise as drug users become younger across South Africa, the Sunday Independent reports.
"The trend by young people to use heroin in combination with other drugs, such as cocaine and dagga, remains a serious concern," Dr David Fourie, convenor of the SA National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence's (Sanca) research portfolio committee told the newspaper.
Sanca released a report on addiction based on figures obtained from 10,000 people seeking drug rehabilitation from April 2012 to March 2013.
Forty percent of those seeking help were teenagers from Grades Eight to 10.
A nine percent increase in the number of people using heroin was noted in the most recent research period compared to the same time in 2010/11.
Mpumalanga was identified as the province with the highest proportion users of heroin, and nyaope, which contains heroin, antiretroviral drugs, and rat poison.
Fourie also highlighted that over the last seven years dagga went from being used by 18 percent of drug users to being consumed by 31 percent of users.
Durban mother and sons in court for drug dealing...
A Durban mother and her sons have appeared in the Chatsworth Magistrate's Court on charges of dealing in drugs.
Indra Francis has been released on R25 000 bail while her son Cascarino paid R30 000 in bail. Her 17-year-old-son, who cannot be identified as he is a minor, was released in his parent's custody.
Their arrest follows a joint festive season operation by police who pounced on two premises. They found a bag containing 356 straws of heroin to the street value of more than R9000.
In the second raid, police recovered more than R95 000 of cash with the names of suspected drug dealers or runners.
SABC Informs us:
Women and two sons arrested for drug dealing
A thirty eight year old woman and her two sons have been arrested for dealing in drugs at Chatsworth, south of Durban. Police discovered heroin straws with a street value of close to R9000 and R17 000 in cash.
Police spokesperson Thulani Zwane says police also raided a second house in the area.
Zwane says here police discovered more than R95 000 worth of cash bundles and the names of the suspected drug dealers or runners.
He adds that 356 straws of heroine worth more than R3000 was found in the first premises and that suspects between the ages of 17 and 33 years old were arrested.
Zwane says they will appear in the Chatsworth Magistrates Court on charges of dealing in drugs.
We read from the SABC report that:
19 to appear in court on drug-related charges
Nineteen foreign nationals are due to appear in the Pinetown Magistrate's Court today after being arrested on drug-related charges at a house in the upmarket suburb of Kloof, west of Durban, this weekend.
Police confiscated straws of heroin valued at around R20 million, as well as 50kg of heroin.
More than 70 000 mandrax tablets, some already packaged, were also found.
The property is believed to have been used as a packaging and distribution warehouse.
The alleged drug dealers were arrested at the house and at an apartment nearby.
The entire drug haul is estimated to have a street value of just over R40 million.
SAPA Posted the following bulletin:
Drug Lab found in KZN, 19 arrested
Nineteen men have been arrested after a drug laboratory was discovered at a house in Gillits, in KwaZulu-Natal, police said on Sunday.
Drugs with an estimated street value of R41 million were found, said Lt-Gen Solomon Makgale.
Heroin straws, mandrax tablets, heroin powder and equipment were found in the laboratory on Saturday night.
The 19 men were all foreign nationals, aged between 18 and 37.
"We have no doubt that an operation of this magnitude is the work of a syndicate and we believe that we are making great inroads in bringing these major drug syndicates to its knees," said Makgale.
1 - A Historical Class Analysis of Guyanese Society - Dr. Walter Rodney
Killer Drug Of South Africans - Nyaope
A People's Government Selling Their Youth Out To The Highest Bidder
June 1976 Student Revolution: 40 Years Later: Damn! So-Called Youth Day...
We are fast approaching the 40th commemoration of the June 16th 1976 Student Revolution, and a word or so would be in order, here and now. Those of us who have lived through those Sad and Bad times, are fortunately still here to rehash that dreadful but liberating day.
The thing about June 16th Student Revolution is that we still need to keep things in their real and true perspective, and hoping that some of us will not Forget. Those who were not there, are the ones w changed it and called it Youth Day. They call Sharpeville Massacre "human Rights Day". For who? To who(m), and for the what?
Same answer, to appease the Masters of our local oppressors, and foreign deep fiscal pockets, these have been changed, and justified, all the time, by those who were not even in the country when the Struggle by the student was in full flight. Today they rule and Overseer over us with impunity.
I am writing this piece prior to the avalanche of claims and false history of this memorable day begin to flood the Social Media, today.
Many have dead on that day, the number still unknown… Today, millions are dying all sorts of death, and still we struggle on. Many have been disappeared, and millions more have been rendered scared and very poor and sick/confused. Still we struggle, and still we say, some of us who have survived, 'Forward Ever, Backward Never".
This day of June 16th 1976 Student Revolution was never seen as, nor regarded to be "Youth Day".. What a tepid and tired title towards what was a Revolution by our Youth. What has happened to they Youth?
They are being drugged by Nyaope, alcohol, poverty, sicknesses and death, so that, the engine of change is being fast eliminated and silenced.
We are the generation that was on the backs of the Women who went to Pretoria to demonstrate, and for more than half an hour, none of us let out a baby cry whilst our mothers stood in stoic and revolutionary silence in the face of overwhelming odds and fearsome forces.
Nobody or any race either than we the Youth of Mzantsi on that day will tell our narrative. It is our story, and many of the people now prancing all over our land in total arrogance and laissez fair attitude towards us the inhabitants know anything about this day. But what do you see, the people, those not of our country are the ones telling us our story, and claiming to have been there for us.. All lies and all are thinking some of us are dumb, and we do not know what happened..
Well, we, the youth of Mzantsi of the day of June 1976 Student Revoluition, will tell you what it was , why we claim and reclaim our story and history, and nobody else shall, nor will we sit idly by as they lie about our magnificent struggle.
Many of our people have really forgotten as to what really happened during the revolution of 1976 by the Students of south Africa. Many of us, who are now parents and grandparents, have not been able to culturally and historically transmit this Revolution with an authentic voice and knowledge.
It is at this juncture that I shall present an abridged history and it's contemporary reality for our readers here on FB. I have really written profusely and extensively on my blogs about this topic, I will only cull this paltry bit to edify the piece I am onto here on this Timeline.
Soweto !976 Redux In 2016: 40 Years Of Revolutionary History And Theories
"We Are Much Better Than This."
Well, what do I really mean, or what am I trying to say? What information or deed/action do I want parlay to those I say it to?
Well, the question above wants to know something about what should the youth's 'role should be in the community and overall society.' I can only answer this question if I talk about what we did in my youth, and I will post another article that deals with this phenomena from a revolutionary stand-point in another country, I will take up on it from our Kasi perspective and African people's collective experience and perspective.
Before I address the question, I will like to make some remarks about the part as to how we grew up, and we the unfortunate victims of the Institution of Bantu Education had to contend with. We were primed for failure and to be perfect savants (Savant syndrome is a condition in which a person has serious mental disabilities) of which are so rife today in our midst, it's amazing we are not even talking about it on FB, like that.
There are people on FB who really do not understand how the FB works. It is not a local thing, it is Global, and the sooner we grasp the implications of that, the quicker we will deal with other things that need our attention.
Anyway, with the advent of Bantu Education, our teachers imprinted into our minds in the lower and higher primaries as to the importance of reading and writing; we were encouraged to go to the library and take out books, or at times encouraged to sit there for hours reading.
We were told that 'we were better than this', and we had to do our utmost best to be the best. Some other teachers emphasized the African literature and other learning material or issues we needed to know; geography and math along with English and one African vernacular or 'mother tongue' was required; then there was gardening, or hand craft, sports-but the most important lesson everyday, for us was to be 'better than what we were because we were better than that'.
So that by the time we strode into the late sixties and seventies, we were already aware of the world, World News from many sources; we read profusely African literature,(of course European History and some African history(distorted of course), and learned things from Biko's Frank Talk(the original one),
Also, some of us attended different organization's meetings, and we were never forced to enter them, since we knew how to deal with community issues from learning about this from our grandfathers and fathers and mothers and grandma's 'what ought to be done', and how to do that, within and along and with the community.
There were many things we did; we took up on the young babies and those who could walk and strong enough to engage in any sport, library visits, and doing some hard work within our peers and upgrading and updating those that were slacking or lagging behind.
Oh well, there was also too on the other side of this youth who wanted nice time and parties and the whole shindig(this activity was called many names over the decades-but people said they were having "Jam' and other such nomenclature and jargon of the Townships(Kasi slang-then, in those days Known as "Tsotsitaal/Flytaal - Mis-named 'Thug' language)-as dubbed by the Boers-and it took hold onto the lingua franca of the Ghettoes of Johannesburg and the whole hinterland of African people's enclaves).
At times, we too would frequent these places, but they turned out to Booze orgies and loud music- and a lot of pettiness. And the side I am talking about above, was the one that were of the agitators and instigators of action spoiling for open revolt-what you would call enforcers and soldiers within and of the revolution of 1976.
I am talking her about people like Jackie Mashabela, who when realizing that they had been caught and captured by the police and were about to be interrogated, jumped on top of the table and dared the cops to take him on.
They obliged and pounced on him; he fought back gallantly and they outnumbered him and killed him on the spot. Biko was the same: one Boer cop slapped him in one interrogation after he was arrested; he slapped the Boer back and sent him sprawling and crashing badly on the tables and chairs nearby.
That is why when they interrogated him the final time of his death/murder, they(The Boers) stripped him naked and handcuffed his hands on his back, and five Boere cops went for him-His head, neck, and his lower and upper torso, while the rest pummeled him and held him down for others to snuff life out of him.
Ya, they, the same cops admitted in some court documents that, even with hands bound and naked, Biko gave them a real good fight for his life, when they then proceeded to brutally murder him(The photos of his badly beaten body can be Googled and images of Biko in his coffin can be found in the Web).
There were many of the youth who sacrificed their lives in the most amazing ways, that still need to be told. Some of the Youth Were Buried in Doornkop and Avalon alive. One Cemetery guardian told of children brought in helicopters and in black plastic bags and being buried alive in the dark of the forbidding and fateful night).
He told of one girl(inside plastic), who through a hole who said in 'Sesotho' she was asking for water, and the Boers covered her and others and finally filled this mass grave with dirt moving tractors-he had to run away to London for telling this and could not come back to Mzantsi.
The Youth of today should be working very hard to create and support and stand in the fight with and for the local people wherein they reside, grow up and so forth. They cannot do this today because as they are growing up, they are facing a dying population assailed by AIDS, Alcoholism, Drugs and other Deadly and devastating ailments which decimate a large number of their people.
The responsible adults are dying off too, and they, the elders that are left watch helplessly as the youth has become ineffective because they too, have been affected over the years by their Wars-with its type of low-intensity-warfare(I have published a Hub addressing the nature and patterns of this low-intensity conflict, today, in South Africa) Against leading finally to the coming of the ANC into power. This is another saga that has not been fully told. I will be posting about this time period very soon.
They see their elders dying off from hypertension, Sugar diabetes, cancer, alcoholism, kidney failures, HIV/AIDS, TV, Poverty, ignorance and generally debilitating existence. Some look up to TV and the Internet and whatever they see and do in both mediums, ape and copycat it.
There is no serious attempt to counsel the youth as the elders rush pell-mell into material looting and hoarding-Big houses, Foreign flashy cars, designers suits and perfume- and al the accouterments of gluttony and wanton material consumption of the turncoats and quislings that our contemporary leaders and monied Africans have become.
In the days leading to the 1976 revolution here in Mzantsi, although we, as the Youth of the day, were cognizant of our plight and seriousness of the struggle we consumed African High Culture, well along with those White musicians and actors as promulgated by the US Music industry and Hollywood with its films, and nowadays, Cable/Satellite TV rules-were critical in our consumption and exposure to all the splurged Imperial cultural 'zines' and 'memes'.
Inasmuch as we consumed everything I mentioned above, we did not lose sight of the struggle but also did not become dogmatic as to our ideas and life which was already dreadful and bleak, anyway.
Needless to say that there needs to be a serious vision adopted by all who are in the struggle to emancipate Africans. In order for me to put it into a better perspective of the local motion, pace and vibe, I will defer to others who make this subject much more clearer. Just as I am onto this piece answering the question, the articles and the videos
I have posted this one where we can use the media(social network to network and its viral splurge for our intentions and aims), like informing the Youth about those issues and events and realities of the past. In this case, using the social networking media as information bases and data collection, dissemination and propagation of our views, culture, history music, dances and so on, which are what we are and how we would be viewing ourselves and giving the world a heads up as to our gig- is but one way to go.
I like how Akbar talks about "The Vision For Black Men" Wherein he informs us:
"The visions for Black(African) men must have several elements. On the one hand, it must be panoramic in its integration of ancient and the pre-European-intervention in the African experience(African Holocaust, and Colonization), and it must away from the traditional social science.
"… The most important aspect is a recognition that our continued survival in spite of these conditions is a phenomenon of grater significance than the fact that the conditions which take and threaten our lives have not changed throughout this era.
"The fact that we still have casualties as a result of this unrelenting attack on our "Humanness" and our lives is far from a 'profound and positively lived experience'. With the ongoing economic, educational, psychological, political and even military assault on the Black(African) life, there is no wonder that we have prisoners of the war-poor, uninformed, self-destructive, and confused people."
This above is describing the Africans of Mzantsi as I am onto this article thus far. The condition above, as Akbar describes it, is the same as that of the Africans of Mzantsi living under the confused, opportunistic, gendarme, quisling, turncoats and cut-throat ANC, which has exacerbated this situation it took over from the Apartheid regime. When we pick up from where Akbar left of, we are informed that:
"Whatever modern techniques of warfare which might characterize this attack on Black(African) men, the conditions are essentially unchanged for the fallen dead and dying, whether in hubs of slave ships/ [or Townships], On southern plantations, in police inflicted urban ghettos, in the states, Europe and Africa, on AIDS death-beds… Death is death and death has been a constant companion to the Black Man and woman throughout our encounters with Europeans."
Every one knows or meets here in Soweto today is either dead, or going to someone funeral , and by the end of the day, he might attend several more before calling it a day. Funerals are everyday life, and used to be, not so long go we used to bury people on weekends only, but now, "it's an everyday thing, in the Ghetto" of Soweto and throughout the land of the Africans in South Arica. Akbar adds:
"We were never intended to survive and our survival has been in direct defiance of the most consistent and devastating assault on human life in the modern history of humanity.". Our concept of our experiences will be a constant state of correction rather than the restoration of an order which affirms our progress as human beings. This simply means that our society will be nothing more than a few handouts of transitory crisis intervention, remedial programs, methadone treatments, larger prisons,more effective crime control, drugs for human restraint and politics of compromise. This is not stuff that human progress is made of. Human Progress requires a vision." This is the reality we are faced with here in South Africa today, and we seriously lack people with a true vision for the whole country of south Africa.
Now, I cited Akbar to buttress the social malaise that has beset and is ravaging our people. It is like Akbar is talking to the situation in Mzantsi today. In order of us to figure out our problems, we will have to talk about them concretely.
Concretely speaking, then we are facing a very dire situation which in of itself with its myriad issue contributes to he ailing mental state of so many people, and acquirement of social status and acquiring lots of money is equal to power. To be a powerful person, you have to live by certain standards; adopt behavior that highlights one's status-this means a lot of things which in the end have nothing with helping or upgrading the poor.
The culture of imports is the practices carried by those who happen to harvest from the Gravy train, to date. We have even imported foreign cultures and other foreign customs and traditions into our very being that it is making us sick in various ways. We have no soul and "Ubuntu" of our own, our own way, so much so were just shells and poor caricatures molded by foreigners and made this present self to ourselves, that we have eventually become supra-amnesiac and that means we are extinct and nor more existent-"Disappeared and dis-eased...
The Youth need to learn by example because they are our children, so don't they grow emulating some elder in the family. The family, that where we have to start. There are families that need other families to help them up in various ways and means. There are many ways to implement the cultural dictates to present-day situation and these be put in real practice and made a way of life in the milieu that one wants to change their situation to better than it is, today.
Different generations deal with their predicament the best way they know how. The "Best" way, and the arrogance regularized and made common, instead of humility the youth is displaying in of itself is a hinderance towards them growth and grasping the larger issues and the world.
They emulate the adults who too, like kids, behave like they have been let-loose in a candy store and can hardly their glee and tend to over exuberantly be uninhibited and can hardly contain themselves-meaning irresponsible adult behavior in most cases results in teen revolt. The lack of Adults in our government and those irresponsible opportunist people, causes a generation gap that will remain forever there, and forever the people will mot be able to solve even their basic problems.
This is not only a problem with the Youth(of which problems they are), but it is a problem of a society where the adults went AWOL, and titillated and inebriated by the crumbs of the wealth of the inheritance of an imaginary free Rainbow society-which only exists in their wishes and imaginations-has still yet to be realized and lived.
Yes, I said Crumbs. They(We), have sold our commitment for the struggle of the Africans for mere left-overs on the table on the master(after he retires away from the table)-the quislings slither into the seats of their owners and eat their bellies full, for this opportunity was rare. It was not only crumbs in the form of food that was sought after by the enslaved and colonized africans. Akbar informs us that:
"These material objects or dregs of property became equate in the African-American[African of Mzantsi's] thinking with the full power of freedom and self-determination which the master enjoyed. We can observe a similar pattern in our developing children who play at being mama and daddy by putting on the object of their clothing of other objects associated with them.
(The legacy of such experience with property and materials, has made these objects powerful influential in the lives of many African-Americans(Mzantsi Africans). Large sums of money are thrown away yearly on expensive flashy clothes and cars. Uncomfortable, impractical and showy items of furniture drain our budgets and fail to satisfy our longings because of this persistent wish to look like the slave master. And we have still yet, others persist in trying to attain it.
"Many of our judgements about people and their worth are disproportionately determined by what those people own or wear. We spend great energy and wealth acquiring these objects associated with power rather than real human,social, political and economic power. There is a frequent tendency to confuse token of power with genuine power, based upon the slavery/colonial/Apartheid experiences.
"The major thinkers and scholars [potentially our most powerful agents of change] in African-American[Africans in Mzantsi] communities are often neutralized by a pittance of material goods. This socially destructive phenomena has its roots deep in slavery/colonial experience.
Too often the leaders in our communities have equated a small trinkets of material gain with "having arrived." The leadership is soon lost to the african-American(Africans in Mzantsi). It is a recurrence of the old image of wearing "Massah's", (Baas's) discarded hat and thinking you are "Massah".
(Like I have just shown above about slave sitting sat table and eating Massah's(Bass's left over food), and carrying on like they're Massah/Baas, when he has retire to bed.) This is a very real problem and we have a class that is willing to protect and maintain that type of life-style.
We are the most poor copies of our masters today, whatever we think or conceive of ourselves as being; the sweet taste of money, opulence and success is alluring and those with money couldn't care less about what I have just been talking about… It has become acceptable lore that money is life and life without it is meaningless and leaves one in the cold out there.
Seemingly this holds true for those demoted and thrown of the greasy gravy train, and cannot survive outside the cocooned world they were weaned within in the Fast Track Gravy Train(meaning, left-overs). This is one power lever that the ANC pulls on dissenters, and enables it to keep many of its cadres in line and in tow.
Youth lives in all this and sees it daily, how then can they be anything else when everything is going bye them and nothing is dribbling from the greasy hands and elbows of those pigging at the crumbs and public coffers? The problem is not only the youth but they exist in a milieu that is dysfunctional and that should not be the case, concretely speaking: adults bear the brunt of the blame fully and totally.
So long as a people we stand for nothing then we will fall for everything-so will our youth...
1. This Was Taken On June 15th 1976 - A Day Before The Students Revolted/Made Revolution(June 16th 1976).. This was the last time normal schooling took place in South Africa(Mzantsi)
2. Youth at a comrade's funeral and holding a banner aloftYouth in 1976 holding the frontline from the heaving masses behind them
3. Shot in the Stomach by an R1 Rifle bullet
4. The famous picture of 12 year old Hector Petersen's limp body after having been shot by rogue cops carried by Mbuyiselo away from the carnage of the day - June 16th 1976
5. Soweto 1976 was the Day of Stones, Dustbin Lids, Fire, and Ash. Students and locals engage in a nearly bare-handed, stones, sticks and using lids as shield in a battle against the soldiers who were using rifles and live ammo
© 2010 ixwa
ixwa (author) on May 03, 2020:
Thanks for the comment below, iwritestories... You are welcome to read as many as you would like of these published topics and articles.... Sorry to respond very late....
iwritestories on April 09, 2018:
My step dad is a political analyst. And there are lots of books in our house related to this topic,
Thanks for this hub
ixwa (author) on October 16, 2012:
Distant Mind: Thanks for visiting and reading the Hub above. True that, and I hope you took something away from it. I hope that despite its length, it is clear in its content and intent..
Distant Mind on October 16, 2012:
Wow, you really do have a lot to say. This is the longest hub I've ever seen here.