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The Differences Between Perennial, Biennial, and Annual Plants

I have enjoyed gardening for at least 30 years and enjoy sharing my experience with others. Gardening is my time to meditate and unwind.

One of the most frequently asked questions by new gardeners is, "What is a perennial?" or "What is an annual?" Then there are biennials. I'll explain the difference below.

What Is a Perennial?

Perennials will return year after year. This is considered a real bonus, since you don't have to replant every year. A few of these plants have a limited life. An example is delphinium, which has a lifetime of just 5 years. Most perennials will provide many years of pleasure. Some reseed themselves. Others survive so long that you'll find old homesteads where the plants have outlived the buildings.

There are hardy and tender perennials. A hardy perennial can survive cold temperatures. A tender perennial may need to be replanted every year in colder zones.

If you'd like a plant to return every year, be sure to check that it is hardy in your zone. Some perennials won't grow in warmer zones. They can't tolerate the heat and sun in those areas. Other perennials will die in the north once the weather gets too cold. So no matter which zone you live in, check for hardiness.

You can find perennial fruits, vegetables, and flowers. Some examples of fruits and vegetables are rhubarb, asparagus, and strawberries. Perennial flowers include shasta daisies, coneflowers, rudbeckia, daylilies, peonies, and many others.

What Is an Annual?

An annual is a plant that needs to be planted from seed every year. Some will reseed themselves if the conditions are right. You can either plant the seed yourself or purchase them at a greenhouse. Some annuals need to be started indoors in colder climates. A good example is impatiens. These flowers need to be started in January to bloom that summer.

Some annuals can be brought indoors and later started from cuttings. Indoor conditions usually don't have enough light, though. I've tried this with impatiens and coleus. Both worked, but only the impatiens did well. You can try with different annuals.

One advantage of these flowers is that many bloom all summer, if you keep the old blooms removed. This is known as dead heading. They are often used in baskets and containers or to fill in the perennial flower bed, since some perennials bloom for a short time.

For a beautiful display of color, plant some annuals this year. A few examples are marigolds, zinnias, petunias, and English daisies. Most vegetables are annuals.

Dianthus - A Biennial

Dianthus - A Biennial

What Is a Biennial?

A biennial takes two years from seeding before it will produce, and then it dies. In the first year, the plant grows a good root system and grows it leaves. The leaves then die off in the winter, and the plant goes into dormancy. The second year, it will bloom.

Some good examples of this type of plant are hollyhocks, Sweet Williams, and parsley. I have had all three of these plants reseed themselves, so they acted much like perennials. Some biennials will put on blooms the first year, such as foxglove and stock.


Valentina juliet on May 25, 2020:

Tanks so much for ur information it really helped me


Barbara Badder (author) from USA on March 07, 2012:

Eddy, Thanks for reading and commenting.

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Eiddwen from Wales on March 07, 2012:

Thank you so much for sharing this well informed hub on nature's wonders.

I love flowers and even though we only have a paved patio we grow all sorts in pots and everything thrives.

Great work here.


Isabella Mukanda from Fort Myers on February 23, 2012:

You are probably right. I need to buy soil because the soil is just the way you described it. Thanks.

Barbara Badder (author) from USA on February 21, 2012:

donnaisabella, I live in the north, so I can't tell you what went wrong in Florida. I do know that you can take seeds and wrap them in a wet paper towel and seal them in a plastic bag and they will germinate. Just keep checking on them. Once they sprout put them in the ground and keep them wet. I know most of the ground in Florida is sand that is made up of ground sea shells. It might be a hard place to grow things with out going to a gardening store and purchasing some bags of dirt to replace it.

Isabella Mukanda from Fort Myers on February 20, 2012:

I love gardening and all sorts of plants. I am however still learning the behavior of plants and flowers here in America, I admire the flowers that will soon start blooming around Florida and the vegetables and spices but I am not confident enough to start experimenting. This past spring I did a large patch to plant a lot of mixed flowers and took time to keep the ground moist as stipulated on the package, but not a single plant germinated, I was stunned. I hope to do better this time around, so help me God.

Barbara Badder (author) from USA on February 20, 2012:

Movie Master, Thanks for reading and commenting.

Movie Master from United Kingdom on February 20, 2012:

Hi Barbara, a very useful and interesting hub, I always get confused with these 3!

Voting up, best wishes Lesley

Barbara Badder (author) from USA on February 19, 2012:

mary615, Thanks for reading the hub.

Mary Hyatt from Florida on February 18, 2012:

As a flower lover, I love reading about them. You did an excellent job explaining the difference between the seasonal ones. It's confusing to a lot of people.

Barbara Badder (author) from USA on February 18, 2012:

pstraubie48, You are so lucky that spring is on the way. We see tulips and daffodils in early May and then we have to wait for the first perennials in June. Thanks for reading and commenting.

Patricia Scott from North Central Florida on February 18, 2012:

I love it when a surprise from the year before reappears. I love my perennials. It is trying to be spring here in Florida and lots of them are peeking through. Thanks you for sharing this...I don't think I knew about biennials..I think my Momma may have told me...she was a wonder with plants...but I think I forgot...

Barbara Badder (author) from USA on February 18, 2012:

Cardisa, Thanks for reading. I'm happy I cleared it up about the plant.

Carolee Samuda from Jamaica on February 18, 2012:

I had a plant that just up and died in December. I had it for nearly a year and I don't know what happened. Thanks for clearing that up Barbara, I had no idea of the difference between the three.

Barbara Badder (author) from USA on February 18, 2012:

sgbrown, I do the same thing. I'm starting to get there. Last year I didn't plant any annuals, but have been adding dahlia bulbs. You can dig these up and replant them the next year. Thanks for commenting.

Barbara Badder (author) from USA on February 17, 2012:

rebeccsamealey, Thanks for reading the hub. I'm happy I could teach you something new.

KimberlyLake, Thanks for reading and sharing.

Sheila Brown from Southern Oklahoma on February 17, 2012:

Good information here for beginners in flower gardening. I try to plant as many perennials as I can so I don't have to replace as many flowers each year. Seems like I always have to fill in with annuals. Great hub, voted up and useful! :)

Kimberly Lake from California on February 17, 2012:

I haven't heard the term "Biennial" before. This is an interesting Hub. Socially shared.

Rebecca Mealey from Northeastern Georgia, USA on February 17, 2012:

I never knew there was a third category! Biennials.Interesting.Thanks for the info!

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