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In the mid of 18th century, a Swedish physician, botanist, and zoologist Carl Linnaeus introduced a biological classification system, in the first edition of his books named Species Plantarum and the 10th edition of Systema Naturae. As the basis for Linnean taxonomy, these were the beginning of the most accepted botanical and zoological nomenclature at that time. Usually, the People gave names to objects as they looked without any experimentation or scientific knowledge, including plants and animals. But, Linnaeus was the first scientist to build a naming convention that transmitted information about the species (its name) and its closest relatives. The capability of the Linnean system to transfer complicated relationships to scientists worldwide is therefore widely accepted.
There are four different systems of classification of plants:
- Artificial system
- Natural classification system
- The phylogenetic system of classification
- Modern classification system
1. Artificial system of classification
In this system of classification, plants were classified based on general characteristics. The early system of classification was the most artificial system of classification.
2. Natural classification system
By the end of the 17th, many scientists proposed the description of a natural classification system. Also, the theory of Charles Darwin represented that the plants had descended through a series of modifications in response to changing environmental conditions. Therefore, closely related plants should naturally be grouped. Such a system of classification is known as the natural system of classification.
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3. The phylogenetic system of classification
The system that reflects evolution is said to be phylogenetic. The taxonomists tried to arrange natural groups of plants in an evolutionary sequence proceeding from simplest to more complex. Angular and parental classification systems are types of this system of classification.
4. Modern classification system
At present, the classification of kingdom Plantae is continuous to be modified as new information becomes available. This system of classification is called the modern system of classification. Information from the field of biochemistry, anatomy, etc. has been used in classifying the different plants. Electron microscopy also helps in the formulation of the modern system.
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