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Vignettes From Hardcore Hardknocks: African Zeitgeist at It Zenith

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Culture And National Liberaton By Amilcar Cabral

National Liberation and CultureAmilcar Cabral:

This text was originally delivered on February 20, 1970; as part of the Eduardo Mondlane (1) Memorial Lecture Series at Syracuse University, Syracuse, New York, under the auspices of The Program of Eastern African Studies. It was translated from the French by Maureen Webster.When Goebbels, the brain behind Nazi propaganda, heard culture being discussed, he brought out his revolver.

That shows that the Nazis, who were and are the most tragic expression of imperialism and of its thirst for domination--even if they were all degenerates like Hitler, had a clear idea of the value of culture as a factor of resistance to foreign domination.History teaches us that, in certain circumstances, it is very easy for the foreigner to impose his domination on a people.

But it also teaches us that, whatever may be the material aspects of this domination, it can be maintained only by the permanent, organized repression of the cultural life of the people concerned. Implantation of foreign domination can be assured definitively only by physical liquidation of a significant part of the dominated population.In fact, to take up arms to dominate a people is, above all, to take up arms to destroy, or at least to neutralize, to paralyze, its cultural life.

For, with a strong indigenous cultural life, foreign domination cannot be sure of its perpetuation. At any moment, depending on internal and external factors determining the evolution of the society in question, cultural resistance (indestructible) may take on new forms (political, economic, armed) in order fully to contest foreign domination.

The ideal for foreign domination, whether imperialist or not, would be to choose:-either to liquidate practically all the population of the dominated country, thereby eliminating the possibilities for cultural resistance;or to succeed in imposing itself without damage to the culture of the dominated people--that is, to harmonize economic and political domination of these people with their cultural personality.

The first hypothesis implies genocide of the indigenous population and creates a void which empties foreign domination of its content and its object: the dominated people. The second hypothesis has not, until now, been confirmed by history. The broad experience of mankind allows us to postulate that it has no practical viability: it is not possible to harmonize the economic and political domination of a people, whatever may be the degree of their social development, with the preservation of their cultural personality.In order to escape this choice--which may be called the dilemma of cultural resistance--imperialist colonial domination has tried to create theories which,

in fact, are only gross formulations of racism, and which, in practice, are translated into a permanent state of siege of the indigenous populations on the basis of racist dictatorship (or democracy).This, for example, is the case with the so-called theory of progressive assimilation of native populations, which turns out to be only a more or less violent attempt to deny the culture of the people in question.

The utter failure of this "theory," implemented in practice by several colonial powers, including Portugal, is the most obvious proof of its lack of viability, if not of its inhuman character. It attains the highest degree of absurdity in the Portuguese case, where Salazar affirmed that Africa does not exist.

This is also the case with the so-called theory of apartheid, created, applied and developed on the basis of the economic and political domination of the people of Southern Africa by a racist minority, with all the outrageous crimes against humanity which that involves. The practice of apartheid takes the form of unrestrained exploitation of the labor force of the African masses, incarcerated and repressed in the largest concentration camp mankind has ever known.

These practical examples give a measure of the drama of foreign imperialist domination as it confronts the cultural reality of the dominated people. They also suggest the strong, dependent and reciprocal relationships existing between the cultural situation and the economic (and political) situation in the behavior of human societies.

In fact, culture is always in the life of a society (open or closed), the more or less conscious result of the economic and political activities of that society, the more or less dynamic expression of the kinds of relationships which prevail in that society, on the one hand between man (considered individually or collectively) and nature, and, on the other hand, among individuals, groups of individuals, social strata or classes.

The value of culture as an element of resistance to foreign domination lies in the fact that culture is the vigorous manifestation on the ideological or idealist plane of the physical and historical reality of the society that is dominated or to be dominated.

Culture is simultaneously the fruit of a people’s history and a determinant of history, by the positive or negative influence which it exerts on the evolution of relationships between man and his environment, among men or groups of men within a society, as well as among different societies. Ignorance of this fact may explain the failure of several attempts at foreign domination--as well as the failure of some international liberation movements.Let us examine the nature of national liberation.

We shall consider this historical phenomenon in its contemporary context, that is, national liberation in opposition to imperialist domination. The latter is, as we know, distinct both in form and in content from preceding types of foreign domination (tribal, military-aristocratic, feudal, and capitalist domination in time free competition era).

The principal characteristic, common to every kind of imperialist domination, is the negation of the historical process of the dominated people by means of violently usurping the free operation of the process of development of the productive forces.

Now, in any given society, the level of development of the productive forces and the system for social utilization of these forces (the ownership system) determine the mode of production. In our opinion, the mode of production whose contradictions are manifested with more or less intensity through the class struggle, is the principal factor in the history of any human group, the level of the productive forces being the true and permanent driving power of history

.For every society, for every group of people, considered as an evolving entity, the level of the productive forces indicates the stage of development of the society and of each of its components in relation to nature, its capacity to act or to react consciously in relation to nature. It indicates and conditions the type of material relationships (expressed objectively or subjectively) which exists among the various elements or groups constituting the society in question.

Relationships and types of relationships between man and nature, between man and his environment. Relationships and type of relationships among the individual or collective components of a society. To speak of these is to speak of history, but it is also to speak of culture.Whatever may be the ideological or idealistic characteristics of cultural expression, culture is an essential element of the history of a people.

Culture is, perhaps, the product of this history just as the flower is the product of a plant. Like history, or because it is history, culture has as its material base the level of the productive forces and the mode of production. Culture plunges its roots into the physical reality of the environmental humus in which it develops, and it reflects the organic nature of the society, which may be more or less influenced by external factors.

History allows us to know the nature and extent of the imbalance and conflicts (economic, political and social) which characterize the evolution of a society; culture allows us to know the dynamic syntheses which have been developed and established by social conscience to resolve these conflicts at each stage of its evolution, in the search for survival and progress.

Just as happens with the flower in a plant, in culture there lies the capacity (or the responsibility) for forming and fertilizing the seedling which will assure the continuity of history, at the same time assuring the prospects for evolution and progress of the society in question. Thus it is understood that imperialist domination by denying the historical development of the dominated people, necessarily also denies their cultural development.

It is also understood why imperialist domination, like all other foreign domination for its own security, requires cultural oppression and the attempt at direct or indirect liquidation of the essential elements of the culture of the dominated people.The study of the history of national liberation struggles shows that generally these struggles are preceded by an increase in expression of culture, consolidated progressively into a successful or unsuccessful attempt to affirm the cultural personality of the dominated people, as a means of negating the oppressor culture.

Whatever may be the conditions of a people's political and social factors in practicing this domination, it is generally within the culture that we find the seed of opposition, which leads to the structuring and development of the liberation movement.In our opinion, the foundation for national liberation rests in the inalienable right of every people to have their own history whatever formulations may be adopted at the level of international law.

The objective of national liberation, is therefore, to reclaim the right, usurped by imperialist domination, namely: the liberation of the process of development of national productive forces.Therefore, national liberation takes place when, and only when, national productive forces are completely free of all kinds of foreign domination.

The liberation of productive forces and consequently the ability to determine the mode of production most appropriate to the evolution of the liberated people, necessarily opens up new prospects for the cultural development of the society in question, by returning to that society all its capacity to create progress.

A people who free themselves from foreign domination will be free culturally only if, without complexes and without underestimating the importance of positive accretions from the oppressor and other cultures, they return to the upward paths of their own culture, which is nourished by the living reality of its environment, and which negates both harmful influences and any kind of subjection to foreign culture.

Thus, it may be seen that if imperialist domination has the vital need to practice culturaloppression, national liberation is necessarily an act of culture.On the basis of what has just been said, we may consider the national liberation movement as the organized political expression of the culture of the people who are undertaking the struggle.

For this reason, those who lead the movement must have a clear idea of the value of the culture in the framework of the struggle and must have a thorough knowledge of the people's culture, whatever may be their level of economic development.In our time it is common to affirm that all peoples have a culture.

The time is past when, in an effort to perpetuate the domination of a people, culture was considered an attribute of privileged peoples or nations, and when, out of either ignorance or malice, culture was confused with technical power, if not with skin color or the shape of one's eyes.

The liberation movement, as representative and defender of the culture of the people, must be conscious of the fact that, whatever may be the material conditions of the society it represents, the society is the bearer and creator of culture.

The liberation movement must furthermore embody the mass character, the popular character of the culture--which is not and never could be the privilege of one or of some sectors of the society.In the thorough analysis of social structure which every liberation movement should be capable of making in relation to the imperative of the struggle, the cultural characteristics of each group in society have a place of prime importance.

For, while the culture has a mass character, it is not uniform, it is not equally developed in all sectors of society.The attitude of each social group toward the liberation struggle is dictated by its social group toward the liberation struggle is dictated by its economic interests, but is also influenced profoundly by its culture.

It may even be admitted that these differences in cultural level explain differences in behavior toward the liberation movement on the part of individuals who belong to the same socio-economic group.

It is at the point that culture reaches its full significance for each individual: understanding and integration in to his environment, identification with fundamental problems and aspirations of the society, acceptance of the possibility of change in the direction of progress.In the specific conditions of our country--and we would say, of Africa--the horizontal and vertical distribution of levels of culture is somewhat complex.

In fact, from villages to towns, from one ethnic group to another, from one age group to another, from the peasant to the workman or to the indigenous intellectual who is more or less assimilated, and, as we have said, even from individual to individual within the same social group, the quantitative and qualitative level of culture varies significantly.It is of prime importance for the liberation movement to take these facts into consideration.

In societies with a horizontal social structure, such as the Balante, for example, the distribution of cultural levels is more or less uniform, variations being linked uniquely to characteristics of individuals or of age groups. On the other hand, in societies with a vertical structure, such as the Fula, there are important variations from the top to the bottom of the social pyramid.

These differences in social structure illustrate once more the close relationship between culture and economy, and also explain differences in the general or sectoral behavior of these two ethnic groups in relation to the liberation movement.It is true that the multiplicity of social and ethnic groups complicates the effort to determine the role of culture in the liberation movement.

But it is vital not to lose sight of the decisive importance of the liberation struggle, even when class structure is to appear to be in embryonic stages of development.The experience of colonial domination shows that, in the effort to perpetuate exploitation, the colonizers not only creates a system to repress the cultural life of the colonized people.

He also provokes and develops the cultural alienation of a part of the population, either by so-called assimilation of indigenous people, or by creating a social gap between the indigenous elites and the popular masses.

As a result of this process of dividing or of deepening the divisions in the society, it happens that a considerable part of the population, notably the urban or peasant petite bourgeoisie, assimilates the colonizer's mentality, considers itself culturally superior to its own people and ignores or looks down upon their cultural values.

This situation, characteristic of the majority of colonized intellectuals, is consolidated by increases in the social privileges of the assimilated or alienated group with direct implications for the behavior of individuals in this group in relation to the liberation movement. A reconversion of minds--of mental set--is thus indispensable to the true integration of people into the liberation movement.

Such reonversion--re-Africanization, in our case--may take place before the struggle, but it is completed only during the course of the struggle, through daily contact with the popular masses in the communion of sacrifice required by the struggle.

However, we must take into account the fact that, faced with the prospect of political independence, the ambition and opportunism from which the liberation movement generally suffers may bring into the struggle unconverted individuals.

The latter, on the basis of their level of schooling, their scientific or technical knowledge, but without losing any of their social class biases, may attain the highest positions in the liberation movement.Vigilance is thus indispensable on the cultural as well as the political plane.

For, in the liberation movement as elsewhere, all that glitters is not necessarily gold: political leaders--even the most famous--may be culturally alienated people. But the social class characteristics of the culture are even more discernible in the behavior of privileged groups in rural areas, especially in the case of ethnic groups with a vertical social structure, where, nevertheless, assimilation or cultural alienation influences are non-existent or practically non-existent.

This is the case, for example, with the Fula ruling class. Under colonial domination, the political authority of this class (traditional chiefs, noble families, religious leaders) is purely nominal, and the popular masses know that true authority lies with an is acted upon by colonial administrators.

However, the ruling class preserves in essence its basic cultural authority over the masses and this has very important political implications.Recognizing this reality, the colonizer who represses or inhibits significant cultural activity on the part of the masses at the base of the social pyramid, strengthens and protects the prestige and the cultural influence of the ruling class at the summit.

The colonizer installs chiefs who support him and who are to some degree accepted by the masses; he gives these chiefs material privileges such as education for their eldest children, creates chiefdoms where they did not exist before, develops cordial relations with religious leaders, builds mosques, organizes journeys to Mecca, etc.

And above all, by means of the repressive organs of colonial administration, he guarantees economic and social privileges to the ruling class in their relations with the masses. All this does not make it impossible that, among these ruling classes, there may be individuals or groups of individuals who join the liberation movement, although less frequently than in the case of the assimilated "petite bourgeoisie."

Several traditional and religious leaders join the struggle at the very beginning or during its development, making an enthusiastic contribution to the cause of liberation.

But here again vigilance is indispensable: preserving deep down the cultural prejudices of their class, individuals in this category generally see in the liberation movement the only valid means, using the sacrifices of the masses, to eliminate colonial oppression of their own class and to re-establish in this way their complete political and cultural domination of the people.

In the general framework of contesting colonial imperialist domination and in the actual situation to which we refer, among the oppressor's most loyal allies are found some high officials and intellectuals of the liberal professions, assimilated people, and also a significant number of representatives of the ruling class from rural areas.

This fact gives some measure of the influence (positive or negative) of culture and cultural prejudices in the problem of political choice when one is confronted with the liberation movement. It also illustrates the limits of this influence and the supremacy of the class factor in the behavior of the different social groups.

The high official or the assimilated intellectual, characterized by total cultural alienation, identifies himself by political choice with the traditional or religious leader who has experienced no significant foreign cultural influences.For these two categories of people place above all principles our demands of a cultural nature--and against the aspirations of the people--their own economic and social privileges, their own class interests.

That is a truth which the liberation movement cannot afford to ignore without risking betrayal of the economic, political, social and cultural objectives of the struggle.Without minimizing the positive contribution which privileged classes may bring to the struggle, the liberation movement must, on the cultural level just as on the political level, base its action in popular culture, whatever may be the diversity of levels of cultures in the country.

The cultural combat against colonial domination--the first phase of the liberation movement--can be planned efficiently only on the basis of the culture of the rural and urban working masses, including the nationalist (revolutionary) "petite bourgeoisie" who have been re-Africanized or who are ready for cultural reconversion.

Whatever may be the complexity of this basic cultural panorama, the liberation movement must be capable of distinguishing within it the essential from the secondary, the positive from the negative, the progressive from the reactionary in order to characterize the master line which defines progressively a national culture.

In order for culture to play the important role which falls to it in the framework of the liberation movement, the movement must be able to preserve the positive cultural values of every well defined social group, of every category, and to achieve the confluence of these values in the service of the struggle, giving it a new dimension--the national dimension.

Confronted with such a necessity, the liberation struggle is, above all, a struggle both for the preservation and survival of the cultural values of the people and for the harmonization and development of these values within a national framework.

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My Musings On Religion And Then Some

"Edited And Cleaned Up Copy - Still Original-But Proof-Edited For Errors")..I have written in some quarters about Christianity in South Africa, but in that case, I used Biko's take on religious history. Where I had used this history as given by Biko, was in my blogs to try and make the point that we can recompose our history, and in this instance I used this long quote rom Biko to build up my case in my Blogs that we can rewrite our history, from our own experiences under Apartheid, and in the meanwhile culling from those who have dealt with whatever subjects we want to deal with.

In this case, I was addressing African Spirituality as explained from An African perspective by Prof. Clarke and the concept of European Religion. In order to make the narrative I was building, I had to talk about the history and concept of Christianity and its religion for which I deferred heavily to Biko.In the case of this article I am onto, I am going to post Biko's impressions and take on Christianity in Mzantsi in order to give the Africans of South Africa and Africans throughout Africa/Diaspora a sense of the history of what has the Christian Church been up to in South Africa.

I am also doing this in order to repost a response I made to Playthell Benjamin's post about the newly appointed Pope and will finally post the link as to how Playthell upgraded what I responded to him with relevant pictures and a much more better and advanced format in his blogs. It is the same post I made in replying or responding to the post he made(this can be seen on My Wall, with a picture of the African Pope's who could have been Pope).

But, Playthell, like a true scholar and advancer of the African cause, took my response and made it into a Blog post on his Internet Site, and will be posted below as a link for all to see what good job he did in enhancing the article, keeping it's written original form, adding magnificent pictures to highlight and edify the post, that, I wish we in Mzantsi we were not so wrapped-up with our dwarfed egos, but promote and work with each other to project "Our Story"(History) by any of us into a better light, and not to take others' work and make one's own, without giving credit to the originator which is wrong and very much underdevelopment - and disingenuous .

Now, I will first of all post Christianity and how Biko saw it article, then afterwards I will post the original response I wrote on Playthells's post on my FB Wall. I will finnish by giving the link to Playthell's blog so that the readers can see what he did to the article, and I would urge ourselves to begin to learn how to promote each other and spread the word-whether anyone disagrees with what I wrote, I am not worried about that because I have ample proof of what I am talking about.

What I am hoping and wishing for is that we begin to write our own "Stories"(History), of which I will be posting an article about the fact that we need to tell our stories, how and why, as we become exposed and not necessarily enamored with this new technology, exploit it and use it to meet our own needs and ends and develop our folks in the process(who are still suffering and not exposed en-masse to the Web, because they cannot even afford a laptop or some of these fancy brand name cell phones, that even if they do, they have to spend so much monthly installments, and that their stay on the Web is limited and dictated by the amount of air-time they can buy, and that is used for intra/inter communication amongst the people themselves, mostly).

We therefore learn from Biko, as he addressed the elders and other members of the church and community, a rare view and take about Christianity. This will help set the stage for the response I gave to Playthells's article-because the response I gave is from the Township view of one church and listening to other people who belong to other churches as to what they are doing or not doing and so forth.

Below Biko's views on the Church, Religion and Christianity helps us to better understand how this Christianity ensconced itself into the lives and communities of Africans in South Africa, which I think brings a much more cogent understanding of this whole religious farce and fiction that our people are steeped into: This is From Bantu Steven Biko..Biko's Speech on Christianity in South Africa:-Biko writes the following narrative as a 'young man giving his views of the church and christianity', helping us to better understand the subject of how christianity implanted itself into the lives and souls of Africans in South Africa.

Biko:"I am aware that today I am addressing myself to a group of people with whom I differ in two respects:'Firstly, I am a layman talking to a group of religious ministers. Secondly, I am a young man talking to fairly elderly people.'"These are perhaps the two aspects that brought me here. An attempt to close the generation gap is always fundamental in the re-examination of any hitherto orthodox situation which seems to be fast becoming obsolete in the minds of young people.. Also important, is the need to make common the concept of religion, especially Christianity, an understanding of which is fast becoming the monopoly of so-called theologians. For this reason, I am going to deal with the topic in a lay fashion.

"To my mind, religion can be defined as an attempt by man to relate to a supreme being or force to which he ascribes all creation. Our particular model at this moment is Christianity. It is not quite clear just how important it is for the various religions that exist in this world to be uniform. One thing is certain though, that all religions have got similar characteristics:

1. The form man's moral conscience; in other words, embodied within each religion is a set of moral stipulations that govern the spiritual well-being of a particular people with a given context.

2. The all attempt to explain the origin and destiny of man. All are agreed that man in the human form is a transient being in the world; all agree about man's origin as being from some force, the precise nature of which is defined differently. Where religions tend to differ is in the enunciation of the destiny of men.

3. All religions claim or almost claim a monopoly on truth about the mature of the supreme being and about the way to identify with His original intention about men."Each religion is highly ritualistic. Through years of practice, the religion develops a certain pattern and procedure that in later years become inseparable from the central message of that religion.

"If one takes religion as nothing else but what it is - i.e., a social institution attempting to explain what cannot be scientifically known about the the origin and destiny of man, then from the beginning we an see the necessity of religion. All societies and indeed all individuals, ancient or modern, young or old, identify themselves with a particular religion and when none is existent, they develop one. In most cases, religion is intricately intertwined with the rest of cultural traits of society. In a sense, this makes the religion part and parcel of the behavioral pattern of that society and make the people bound by the limits of that religion through a strong identification with it..

"Where people are subjected to religion that is removed from their cultural make-up, then elements of disgruntlement begin to be noted and sometimes open defiance is soon displayed. Hence, one can make the claim that most religions are specific and where they fail to observe the requirements of specificity, they they must be sufficiently adaptable to convey relevant messages to different people in different situations.

For indeed, each religion has a message for the people amongst whom it is operative."These are perhaps some of the things that never were uppermost in the minds of the people who brought Christianity into South Africa. Whereas Christianity had gone through rigorous cultural adaptation from ancient Judea through Rome, through London, through Brussels and Lisbon, somehow when it landed in the Cape, it was made to look fairly rigid. Christianity was made the central point of a culture which brought with it new styles of clothing, new customs, new forms of etiquette, new medical approaches, and perhaps new armaments.

The people amongst whom Christianity was spread had to cast away their indigenous clothing, their customs, their beliefs which were all described as being pagan and barbaric"Usage of the spear became a hall-mark of savagery. All too soon the people were divided into two camps - the 'converted'(Amaqhobhoka) and the pagans (Amaqaba).

The difference in clothing between these two groups made what otherwise would have been merely a religious difference actually become at time internecine warfare. Stripped of the core of their being and estranged form each other because of their differences, the African people became a playground for colonialists.

"It has always been the pattern throughout history that whosoever brings the new order knows it best and is therefore the perpetual teacher of those to whom the new order is being brought. If the White missionaries were "right" about their God in the eyes of the people, then the African people could only accept whatever these new know-all tutors had to say about life.

The acceptance of the colonialist-tainted version of Christianity marked the turning point in the resistant of African people."The church and its operation in modern-day South Africa has therefore to be looked at in terms of the the way it was introduced in this country. Even at this late stage, one notes the appalling irrelevance of the interpretation given to the Scriptures.

In a country teeming with injustice and fanatically committed to the practice of oppression, intolerance and blatant cruelty because of racial bigotry; in a country where all Black(Africa) people are made to feel the unwanted step-children of a God whose presence they cannot feel; in a country where father and son, mother and daughter alike develop daily into neurotics through sheer inability to relate the present to the future because of a completely engulfing sense of destitution, the Church further adds to their insecurity by its inward-directed definition of the concept of sin and its encouragement of the 'mea culpa" attitude.

"Stern-faced ministers stand on pulpits every Sunday to heap loads of blame on Black(African) people in Townships for their thieving, house-breaking, stabbing, murdering, adultery, etc. No-one ever attempts to relate all these vices to poverty, unemployment, overcrowding, lack of schooling and migratory labor.

No one wants to completely condone abhorrent behavior, but it frequently is necessary for us to analyze situations a little bit deeper than the surface suggests."Because the White missionary described Black(African) people as thieves, lazy, sex hungry, etc., and because he equated all that was valuable with Whiteness, our Churches through our ministers see all these vices I have mentioned above as manifestations of the cruelty and injustice which are subjected to by the White man, but inevitable proof that after all the White man was right when he described us as savages.

Thus, if Christianity in its introduction was corrupted by the inclusion of aspects which made it the ideal religion for the colonization of people, nowadays in its interpretation it is the ideal religion for the maintenance of the subjugation of the same people."It must be also noted that the Church in South Africa as everywhere else has been spoilt by bureaucracy.

No more is it just only an expression of the sum total of people's religious feelings, it has become in fact highly institutionalized not as one unit but as several powerful units,differing perhaps not so much on scriptural interpretation as in institutional aims. It has become inconceivable to think of South Africa without a Roman Catholic church or a Methodist Church or an Anglican Church, etc., in spite of the fact that the average Methodist from the street hardly knows how he/she differs from Anglican or Congregationalist.

This bureaucracy and institutionalization tends to make the Church removed from important priorities and to concentrate on secondary and tertiary functions like structures and finance, etc. And because of this, the Church has become irrelevant and in fact an "ivory tower" as some people refer to it.

"Going hand in hand with the bureaucratization and institutionalization of the Church is a special brand of problem which also makes the Church extremely irrelevant - the concentration of that bureaucracy and institutionalization i the hands of White people. It is a known fact that, barring the Afrikaans Churches, most of the Churches have 70, 80 or 90% of their membership within the Black(African) world. It is also a known fact that most of the churches have 70, 80 or 90% of controlling power in White hands.

It is still a known fact that White people simply don't know Black"African) people, and in most cases do not have the interests of Black(African) people at heart."Therefore, it can be reasonably concluded that either the Black(African) people's Churches are governed by a small non-sympathetic foreign minority or that too many Black(African) people are patronizing foreign Churches. Which of these two it is, is not quite clear, but let us assume that it is the former, since the majority of the people in this country are Black(African) people.

"In that case therefore, Black(African) people who are Christians are not only conniving at the hitherto irrelevant nature of Christianity as spelt out by the Churches, but they also allow a non-sympathetic minority which is not interested in making Christianity relevant to people remain in control of the workings of the Churches. This is an untenable situation if allowed to continue much longer will deplete from the already thinning crowds that go to Church on Sunday.

"Then too, the tendency by Christians to make interpretation of religion a specialist job, results in general apathy in a world which is fast departing from identification with mysticism. Young people nowadays would like to feel that they can interpret and extract from it messages relevant to them and their situation without being stopped by orthodox limitations.

This is why the Catholic Church with its dozens of dogmas either has to adjust fast to a changing world or risk the chance of losing the young constituency. In various aspects, this applies to all churches in the Christian world."Before looking at suggested changes within the Church, let me then summarize what I regard as my major criticism of it:

1. It makes christianity too much of a "turn the other cheek" religion whilst addressing itself to a destitute people.

2. It is stunted with bureaucracy ad institutionalization.

3. It manifests in its structures a tacit acceptance of the system, i.e., "White equals value".

4. It is limited by too much specialization."The most important area to which we should direct ourselves is gaining control that is rightfully ours within these Churches. In order to do this, we must agree that in fact we have a common purpose, a common goal, a common problem. Equally, we should agree that through living in a privileged society, and through being socialized in a corrupt system, our white Christian counterparts though brothers in Christ, have not proved themselves brothers in South Africa.

We must agree also that tacitly or overtly, deliberately or unawares, white Christians within the Churches are preventing the Church from assuming its natural character in the South African context, and therefore preventing it from being relevant to the Black(African) man's situation.

"It has been said by many a Black(African) Church man, that Whites are in power within the Churches, because the Churches are modeled on Western lines which White people know best. In order to be able therefore to change the Churches, we have first to gains ascendance over them in that white model, then thereafter turn that model into one we cherish, we love, we understand, and one that is relevant to us.

I can only point out here that it cannot be conceivable that all the White people in controlling positions within the Church are elected by other White people."Obviously, some get into their positions because they caucus vote-wielding Black(Africans) to put them in those positions.

It is high time that Black(African) people learn the highly tried method of caucusing to put other Black(African) people in control of Churches in which Black(African) people have something at stake. Such elected Black(Africans) will obviously have to function according to a mandate clearly outlined by the same Black(African) caucus that put them in power.

"The second area in which we must focus our attention is a thorough understanding of what many people have hitherto scorned, namely, Black(African) Theology. There is a truth in the statement that many people can say one thing differently because they look at it from different angles.

Christianity can never hope to remain abstract and removed from the people's environmental problems. In order to be applicable to people, it must have meaning for them in their given situation. If they are an oppressed people, it must have something to say about their oppression."Black(African) Theology, therefore, is a situational interpretation of Christianity.

It seeks to relate the present-day Black(African) man to God within the given context of the Black(African) man's suffering and his attempts to get out of it. It shifts the emphasis of man's moral obligations from avoiding wronging false authorities by not loosing his Reference Book(Called a 'Pass' in Apartheid times), not stealing food when hungry and not cheating police when he is caught, to being committed to eradicating all cause for suffering as represented in the death of children from starvation, outbreaks of epidemics in poor areas, or the existence of thuggery and vandalism in Townships. In other words,

it shifts the emphasis from petty sins to major sins in a society, thereby ceasing to teach the people to "Suffer Peacefully"(a la Malcolm X).""These are topics that Black(African minsters of religion must begin to talk about seriously if they are to save Christianity from falling foul with Black(African) people particularly young people.

The time has come for our own theologians to take up the cudgels of the fight by restoring a meaning and direction in the Black(African) man's understanding of God. No nation can win a battle without faith, and if our faith in our God is spoilt by having to see him through the eyes of the same people we are fighting against, then there obviously begins to be something wrong with that relationship.

"Finally, I would like to remind the Black(African) ministry, and indeed all Black(African) people that God is not in the habit of coming down from heaven to solve people's problem on earth."Response to Playthell's Article(found on my official FB Wall)Then I wrote a response to Playthell's article(which can be seen on my Wall which has pictures of two Africans who were legible to become Popes" My response:" The White(European) World is still hung up on pigmentation, and the cobwebs of Racism have not been cut off and dislodged from their collective.

The choosing of a Pope, from Africa, notwithstanding, is not about to happen, soon. I see them here of the Roman Catholic faith immersed into its symbolism and culture. There is this one Roman church here in Orlando. It has been there, and I found it there when I was born.

It was only active in the community in as far as it can recruit its pious members. As a child I was taken there by my aunt along with my cousins. We could not help but observe how the members after receiving sacrament had liquor smell on their breaths.

Or how they would walk in 'holy solemnity' after ingesting the dry and round morsel of bread(I think), and their lips moistened with the wine, that then you could see that these holy parishioners had just returned from heaven, the way they looked, hands clasped on their chest, walking ramrod-straight-like, and their eyes ogling at the White

Mary and small jesus, and jesus statues with an open palm showing blood, and others, hoisted on the wall above in the cathedral-like church, that we were always left wondering what is happening. I do not belong to any church, but have my Mtundu(Alter we make for the ancestors), with its candle, snuff and specific cloths for the main ancestors in the pantheon of the ancestors according to our family lineage/tradition.

We light a candle, spill some mixture of water and mealy meal, and sprinkle snuff for the eat and some snuff to smoke. Afterwards, having called them according to their seniority to last one who died most recently, we talk and tell them of our problems and plight and intone them to help us get ahead. This is what my grandma has taught me, and I have learnt even much more than the basic practice I am just describing over the years.

Now, the thing about it is that the very transformed members who ate the sacrament, when they get home, they take out their drums and jump into their traditional ancestral dress and call on the spirits and interact with them, in order to get instruction who to do about some cultural sacred rites to appease and satisfy and communicate with their ancestors.. for whatever outcome these acts will bring them(hopefully success and the like).

What I am saying is that the appointment of a Pope from South America, is going to have a damaging effect on the membership that is now dwindling and then this is helping foist rising force that is the Islamic religion here in South Africa. People are poor and they complain that these Churches, Anglican, Lutheran, Roman, Methodist and the rest of them are fleecing them penniless, and so people are going with the Religion of Islam, because they provide grocery and comfort and support, instead of asking for 'tithes' as is done in the aforementioned Churches.

The appointment of the Pope is coinciding with the Churches I have mentioned(the Roman Church in Particular, is going down in membership and relevance. the youth is worse. But, having said that, they will follow the Pope, whatever shape of form the doctrine will be decided by the parish.

I think that making Africa irrelevant was a big mistake, because, as I am onto this piece here, one can see and witness the cracks and splits that are occurring, and my take is that Africans will continue to evolve and revolve the church until, like the Anglican Church of Africa, had to break with the Church of England, at one point, and is now run by Africans called the Anglican Church Of Africa(divided into several different countries of Africa), is how most are named-according to the name of the country then Anglican Church, African Episcopal Church, of Africa-very close to and reminiscent of the naming of the churches in America by the Africans in America, in the early 18th or before that, as in the African Methodist Church, Or Ethiopian something Church....

My take of all this, is that the African people here in Mzantsi, having left and leaving the churches, are headed to traditional healers, or to some fly-by-night churches and others in African Traditional churches which are receiving many African peoples into their ranks and are burgeoning with in-coming new recruits from the "traditional" Christian Churches mentioned above.

As you say, they settled for a descendant of their former enslavers and colonialists of Argentina( Falkland War comes to mind), that the Papal'ocracy is a farce, for me, and it will not change anything with the appointment of this new Pope, because what is happening to their Roman Church base in Africa, maybe out of their hands to reverse or do anything about. I still talk and do the sacred practices and rites to and for my ancestors the way I was taught by my Grandma.

I know many more people are now practicing this part of our culture and spirituality from the way families are now doing things(may vary from family to family), but they retain the same protocol and form. This is the religious double vision they will have to come around to reckon with.. The Roman church and other such-like religious institutions have introduced gambling and is in cahoots with the gambling dens and their Moguls, and they are sprouting all over the South African landscape.

They bussed and are still bussing thousands of their members to these gamble caverns, start by giving them some paltry money to start gambling when they reach the fleecing dens-the rest they will have to cough-out of their own cash in order to continue gambling. People have now become addicted and are loosing huge sums of money/houses and jobs, and there is still yet no one addressing this decrepit and insidious, odious affair.

What the church is doing, is to constantly rebuild and renovate of establish new building and their old churches over the years. the folks around them are poor, and the children who go to their schools are made to pay exorbitant fees. So that, honestly looking at the arrival of the new Pope, I do not see any changes for the better in the African Roman churches here in South Africa, except those in the White Suburbs-well, that's another long story. This is what we see happening and then some, here in Mzantsi...

I do not see an African Pope coming in the next distant horizon, and the Roman Church here in South africa, is not doing that very well, and this has been going on now for many decades.. That too is another long yarn...Finally, the response I have just posted above, was taken by Playthell and given proper credit, and he enhanced it and made it much more suited for advanced Blogs which reach millions of people Worldwide.

I am very much indebted to Playthell who is very inspirational and a prolific writer of a magnanimous stature. So that below, I will post the response above to show what people of good intentions and conscience and progressive principles that rare breed leaders, those of African African descent around the world whose many purpose, among the many, is to advance the African people all around the world, can do. I also want to add his link so that people can look up on the broad range of topics he has been writing about over the years.

I am hoping that this link will serve the purpose of showing how we can help each other advance our course and advance the African struggle without ignoring and not propagating our original ideas here on the Internet(FB).My closing thoughts before I post the link of the response I gave on and made much more better by Plythell is that we need to do better than this because we are really better than this. I mean, whenever we tell our stories(History) we open up many possibilities and we begin to create a dialogue/mindset like a collective as to how we can work in tandem together to better ourselves.

The issue I raise and write about is what is retarding our progress for Africans. If we begin to realize that we are the living human part of our history, we should therefore learn more about us, talk about us and make sure that we raise the consciousness and awareness who will find that information relevant. We shall have to make our stories relatable to the majority of our African people, that, even if we want to argue about something, we would be better off informed about the topics or questions discussed.

The African Elite And The Black Condition

Underdeveloping Discourses from the African Mental MidgetsThis is what we have amounted, and we have running in our midst, nilly-willy and seriously ignorant mental midgets who really have no clue as to what is happening to Africa. This particular individual, who I think is a turncoat and quisling, charlatan and scoundrel who find a 'high' and kick' at making all the statements and other rubbish I have cited from him, that I will at times, from time to time, take time-out and issue a scathing and bruising attack on such.

He informs me that it is his Wall that all the 'crap' has bee deposited. I have made my points clear to him that I will not stop until he ceases and desists from uttering such platitudes and terribly negative information about a people he really does not know. we are not angels we Africans of South Africa, but we are also capable of facing, head-on, such rubbish and will not let go like I am a wild dog with its jaws locked on its prey.His FB name is "Mwalimu Kgabo-Senne Wase Azania", and he thinks by incorporating the names of the people he dislikes that we will swayed by the feeble effort.

I bet he really does not relate to nor know what Kgabo, and Senne is all about in a cultural sense of the meaning of these names.Be that as it may, the people and the fighters/patriots in the Chimurenga war in zimbabwe did not die for such cowards and dummies to be representing them in the world or any country. I do not think many sane Zimbabweans are in total agreement with his assertions and stupidity. I will not attack nor compare our people of south Africa with those of Zimbabwe. I know far much more better than that. One can gloss over a whole nation of people as this fool has done below,

I will still maintain my respect for the people of Zimbabwe and will chastise the weaklings like Mwalimu, who think that they have a license to disrespect us as a people here in south Africa. We need to be better than this as an African people. If our masters have edumacated us to be at this low-level, then as an African entity/collective on the African continent and in the Diaspora are is serious trouble. I really do not give a 'Rats Ass" whether he say he might apologize, I want him to, and if not,

I will not persist in my attacks too, on him and expose this type of tired 'speak' about a people he hardly knows. Though he speaks and claims to be South Africa, It is his type that I assail, those people who are prepared to throw the monkey-wrench in our suffering.

I will delve into whole harangue so long as there are fakes who sow confusion and sow ignorance in themidst of the African people using FB...Skhokho!Mwalimu Kgabo-Senne Was Azania:South Afrika vs Zimbabwe1. PresidentZim: 10 tertiary education qualificationsSA: No basic education2. Land ownershipSA: 87% owned by wyts n 13% by blacksZim: 91% by blacks n 9% by wyts3. Literacy levelSA: 83%Zim: 91%4. SoccerLatest resultsZim 2SA 0Yet South Africans think dey r better than Zimbabweans.Simeon Simon Makola:

You are comparing the presidents not the realities. South Africa,among 52 African states,it the richiest country.It is the only country with the best constitution.More than 90% immigrants are from Zimbabwe.They are causing major demages to our country.Amongst them,they live on PIRACY,prostitution,hawkering,working in the farms(low wages) etc.

At the other Mugabe is owning a land and he does nothing at all.Zimbabwe gained independence in 1981,but 1000millions of dollars can't buy a single rand.Mugabe and Zuma are somehow the same,both of them are selfish and cruel.Mwalimu Kgabo-Senne Wase Azania:Hi Makola, long tym since we spoke. Hope u r doing all fyn.Lol, I cnt bliv u stil think de way u used 2 wen we 1st met ay de campus a decate ago. I ddnt compare presidents per-se.

Remember presidents r voted by cotizens. Let's not talk abt reality unless if u wil 1st define de word.Yeah, SA is very rich. Rich in minerals. S.Africans r staying in shacks, foundationless RDP houses n selfmade mud houses wyl sum ppl in amerika n europe building houses wth proceeds made on SA mnerals. ... eeeeeh! Did u say SA has de best constitution? hahaha, ur funny dude.Maure Graffini: where did u get that defualt statistics?

This is where and when the post by Mwalimu was removed and I was responding to it below.

SKHOKHO!America, Europe, Corporate multinational Conglomerates, Japanese, Rich East Asians and Arabs... There is no such thing as empowered Local South Africans, and those who imagine they are, are lackeys, quislings and turncoats. The very words 'empower' you are using, are what your economic masters make you regurgitate. And of course, the economy of South Africa has been by design and since its inception been that of slavery.. nothing new here. The ones who own Africans(Because I do not consider myself Black in any shape, form or coloration) are the White Americans, along with their cousins, Europeans, and everyone who is not born in or is South African-race here includes "All" who feel they can talk to us here in south Africa, with disrespect and meanwhile, siphon everything for themselves and their countries. It is us, the people of Mzantsi, who are the most impoverished, debased, disrespected and abused by "All" who are not of Mzantsi. One thing for sure, we Africans of South Africa do not own our country, and it will be so so long as we have a gendarme-rreactionary and slave-dribving-master-pleasing thugs calling themselves the ANC. And then you have clowns who find it satisfying to debase and put us down, who are not from our land.. like I said, and I make note of the comment I was responding to was removed.. I will challenge any stupid who thinks that we are free game for abuse and derision, meaning we of Mzantsi. Some of us are not as gullible as most of the non-South Africans seem to have convinced themselves- of any foreign race. and the stupid response that was posted by Mwalimu Kgabo-Senne Was Azania, and either he or someone removed his 'rubbish' post, and that is why I challenged him. If push comes to shove, we shall have to duke it out here on FB or meet to settle some issues with such rugrats and 'palookas/Moegoes' like him. And I still challenge him for all his dumb comments in this thread and I hope he reads this, I am spoiling for a fight, and am willing to give him one he will never forget.. Stupido-clumsia.... If we are going to have Zimbabweans like him in our land, then our Chimurenga here in Mzantsi will be focused on him.. And I still call him a Sucker!! Our constitution is garbage(and I have my own sound reasons why I say so), and I agree/concur, and our economy, is a slave economy, and that is why most of the African people are Trekking down to Mzantsi-to be enslaved too!. Like I said, if we are going to attack one another, let's do it now!! And Mwalimu's initial post above buttresses my points, and I do not think I am better than any Zimbabwean, and there are 'good and conscious peoples amongst their lot. As fro the crass attacks on us here in Mzantsi by this deAfricanized African like Mwalimu are going to have free reign heaping all the negative attaks on us, including those dumb South Africans who are clueless about matters of nationhood and rule, I bunch all of them in one basket and garbage and dump them in the dustbin of history! Say What!!?? Mwalimu.. you have stirred the hornets next this time...Mwealimu Kgabo-Senne Wase Azania:@Skhokho, I agree wth u on most of ur articulation bt u did a terrible mistake sumwer. U said de bloody commnt ws made by me. Did u even realiz dat u r on my wall? Hw cn I challenge de status I myslf posted?Furthermore, I'm not de typ of a prson hu delete his own commnts 2 avoid challenge. If I messup, I'd rather apologise thn delete. Make corrections Skho.

SKHOKHO! I am not making any correction to anything. What you posted was the comment that was between my comments and those made by or questioned by silv itayi, wherein you compared the degrees held by Mugabe to nothing by Zuma and such rubbish. You better be careful what you are saying about the people of south Africa, and if you are in our country, better start now respecting us, for I have no patience to such nonsense! I really do not post much on dumb politics and most of the time I post music all over the Walls on FB. If this is your Wall, then, you need to begin to apologize and make your members of the errors of your ways in being enamored with and by South Africans who you find time and energy to compare with the people of Zimbabwe. You are Wrong. We are ot your problem-deal with Birain, USA and Australia et al, and stop deriding and attacking us, as if it make you much more better "African" by so saying and writing junk stats. You say I have said some bloody comments above, you ain't heard nothing yet sani... I do not care what you have to say about removing or challenging the status you have posted, I have a huge problem with your mindset and your attacking us, to please who? That is why I called you a quisling, and your posts appear on my Wall, and I will respond in kind. You can cut me off, I do not really care, But I will make my point and I will post it throughout the 100 or so FB Walls I am onto now, sir! And any way, the very original post above, is RUBBISH" and it has no positivity in it and very destructive. You need to check yourself and begin to work for a better Zimbabwe then a better Africa. You are just a bored slouch who has nothing better to write or to inform your members positively. I have many Zimbabwean friends and they are something different from you. If on your Wall you post such rubbish, then, I will challenge you and debunk your mythical self-centeredness and ego-driven narcissism. Cut me off your Wall and see if I care.. But, so long as you splurge and sprout such drivel, I will call you out in the nastiest way I can muster. And if you persist, I know for a fact that I am dealing with a mental dwarf who does not have the best interest of African peoples at heart! and I repeat again, you are a Sucker!!...

SKHOKHO!O tla phonyoha ka ho 'deleter' my comments, maar o bari and you are a SUCKER, and your type are invalids in our midst, and I fear you not, and if tla rohakana, and not delete your nasty references, me and you know you are just an ignoramus. Keep on deleting my comments, after you used salacious, malicious and swearing(which you have deleted, too, in your Wall, just to keep up the pretentious 'good face' to your hapless readers. I am not, and will make sure you never say such dumb things again and I am about finished posting this whole diatribe. I posted a reply and you deleted it because you are a coward and bari ya ko diplingo, Mpetje Yaka.. Sayonara! Ciao!...I do not beg away from the detractors of African people, and more specifically, African South Africans... It is either we begin to sift through the chaff of most of the falsification about us, whether it be from our former masters or these western edumacated proto-Africans(De-Africanized Africans)...There are a lot of Africanists Walls I post on, and suspect Mwalimu belong to them. I will post in them anyway, and the fact remains, amongst us, there are those who are confused and are not even aware of the damage they are causing with such posts.

vignettes-from-hardciore-hardknocks

Debunking Myths About Africa And Africans- June 20th 2013

The little piece below was written in the "Primordial Africa-

Archeology/Anthropology/Cosmology" Wall here on Fb, and has had 534 "LIKES" I gave my reaction to it below and took exception to the memories it has the way the Apartheidizers used to "Talk" or "Write"about us(Africans of South Africa, in their dumb and racist researchers in the fields that this Wall covers, here in Mzantsi (South Africa).

I am going to oppose anything that paints us in the negative light that the Boers during their total rule of us, and even today- That type of jabberwocky, I will challenge, at the risk of being blocked from such Walls. People who are not Africans of South Africa, better know that some of us are here, and will not keep quite when such drivel and misinformation about us is being made to go viral-

We will counter it by any means necessary...Primordial Africa - Ardheol./Anthr./Cosmo. - Wrote:Did you know that South Africa was one of the first African nations to gain its independence from colonial rule after the imperial period?

However, black residents of the state lived under a forced system of segregation called Apartheid (meaning “separateness”) until 1994 when the country held its first democratic elections with universal suffrage. The famous civil rights leader Nelson Mandela was elected as president.Skhokho's Response:The first sentence of the piece above is wrong and disinformation.

This is the case of people who are not South Africans who write like the Boers have been writing about African South Africans history to suit their schizoid perception about the history of the 'Republic of South Africa'-From being a Union, which was the time when the Boers got their own independence. The fact that this is not been clearly stated and is wrong also disinformation, needs to be addressed here and now.

The writer of the Piece above, clearly does not understand the history of Africans of South Africa, and I am taking it to task-I think this person who wrote the piece above needs to be schooled about South Africa-FROM AFRICAN SOUTH AFRICANS!! By the way, we do not refer to ourselves as "Blacks" but "Africans", first of all..

And the independence of Boer South Africa from Britain, was and had nothing to do with Africans.. I think we need to be careful and debunk such ignorant remarks as if the country of Mzantsi has no Africans who can tell their history without some pseudo-intellectual outsiders telling us as to what went down in our history as Africans of Mzantsi.

And the time that the "Nation" of the Boers got their independence from their British Cousins, was not and had nothing to do with the Africans here here in Mzantsi. If we are going to use "bootleg" history in talking about a people, some of us take offense, and will challenge anyone who uses a Boer's(white European's) perspective in talking about a history of a people they were oppressing, and putting themselves in a better light.

This is the history we were taught and forced to learn by the Boers, who prescribed a thick book written by some European called Boyce, who talked in the terms of the first line of the weak and lame piece above.

Some of us are nonplussed, and seriously unimpressed! We had to deal with the Boers demanding us, now we have these half-cooked Historians telling us the same junk the Boers have been telling us for years..

This is Rubbish, and we will call it what it is- Garbage History... Secondly, we are not "Residents" of South Africa, but we are the original and indigenous people of the country of Mzantsi/Azania(as we call it (And South Africa, as the Boers named it) .

The boers are interlopers, Settlers and foreigners in our country, and that ought to come out and be clear to anyone who wrote the article above "Loud And Clear". Mzantsi is an African people's country, which has its own culture, its own culture, customs, traditions, music, tradition dresses,with its own languages(11[eleven] of them, dances, sacred practices, and a whole way of life that anyone who wrote the piece above, does not know, but takes their information from some white person-or the persons who wrote it, is a White European person, and has no sense nor knowledge about Africans of South Africa.

I am going to negate anyone or anything wrong that is said about US here in Mzantsi... And by the way, Apartheid is still alive and well, and never went away when The 'sell-out' ANC took of power as the managers(Slave Drivers) of the very imperialism that has been oppressing Africans and still do to this day. I will say this whenever anyone writes about us as if we are appendages or side-kicks of white people in South Africa..

We Are Not! And we know our history, very well, and all those who want to write about "US", would be better off asking South AfricanAfricans"US"(Africans, than writing about us as if we some ignorant people who really do not what's going on or what time it is.

Well, whoever wrote this piece about Africans of South Africa, better know that we are here and we do not need misinterpreters of our Story(History) and we are very capable and able to tell our correct history without people telling the world about us-wrong and biased non-facts, and they do not even know anything about US!... I take this PERSONALLY! And... Am Ready To Rumble...

African History en Vogue - Whence Things Begin...

African History In Vogue:

The Origin Of The Zodiac; The Opinions of Count Volney

Should it be asked at what epoch this system [the zodiacal symbolism],took its birth, we shall answer on the testimony of the monuments of astronomy itself, that its principles appear with certainty to have been established about 17,000 years ago.

And if it be asked to what people it is to be attributed, we shall answer that the same monuments, supported by unanimous traditions, attribute it to the first clans(African People) of Egypt; and "when Reason finds in that country all the circumstances which could lead to such a system.

When it finds there a central point of the sphere of the ancients, a salubrious climate, a great, but manageable river, a soil fertile without art or labor, inundated without morbid exhalations , and placed between two seas which communicate with the richest countries, it conceives that the inhabitant of the Nile, addicted to agriculture, from the nature of his soil, to geometry from the annual necessity of measuring his lands, to commerce from the facility of communication, to astronomy from the state of his sky, always open to observation, must have been the first to pass from the savage to the social state; and consequently to attain the physical and moral sciences necessary to civilized life.

It was then, on the borders of Upper Egypt Nile, among a people of African descent-men and women, that was organized the complicated system of the worship of the stars, considered in relation to the productions of the earth and the labors of agriculture' and this first worship characterized by their adoration under their own forms and natural attributes, was a simple proceeding of the human mind. ...

As Soon as this agricultural people began to observe the stars with attention, they found it necessary to individualize or group them; and to assign them each a proper name. ...

First , the heavenly bodies, similar in form, offered no distinguishing characteristics by which to denominate them; and secondly, the language in its infancy and poverty had no expressions for so many new and metaphysical ideas. Necessity, the usual stimulus of genius, surmounted everything. Having remarked that in annual revolution, the renewal and periodical appearance of terrestrial productions were constantly associated with the rising and setting of certain stars, and to their position as relative to the Sun, ...

The mind by a natural operation connected in thought the terrestrial and celestial objects, which were connected in fact; and applying to them a common sign, it gave to the stars and their groups, the names of the terrestrial objects to which they answered..

Thus, the Ethiopian of Thebes named the stars of inundation or Aquarius, those stars under which the Nile began to overflow; stars of the 'lion, those under which that animal, driven from the desert thirst, appeared on the baks of the Nile; stars of the lamb, stars of the two kids, those under which these precious animals were brought forth...

Thus, the same Ethiopian having observed that the return of the inundation always corresponded with the rising of a beautiful star which appeared towards the source of the Nile, and seemed to warn the husbandman against the coming waters, he compared this action to that of the animal who, by his barking, give notice of danger, and he called this star "Dog", the barker (Sirius).

In the same manner he named the Stars of the crab, those where the Sun, having arrived at the tropic treated by a slow retrograde motion-like the crab or cancer. He named stars of the wild goat or Capricorn, those where the Sun, having reached the highest point in his annuary tract ... imitates the goat, who delights to climb to the summit of the rocks.

He named the stars of the balance, or Libra, those where the days and nights being equal, seemed in equilibrium, like that instrument; and stars of the Scorpion, those where certain periodical winds bring vapors, burning like the venom of the Scorpion. In the same manner he called by the name of rings and serpents and the figured traces of the orbits of the stars and the planets, and such was the general mode of naming all the stars and even planets, taken by groups of as individuals, according to their relations with husbandry and terrestrial objects, and according to the analogies which each nation found between them and the objects of its particular soul and climate."

African Historical Synthetical Synergy

Now, Count Volney has touched upon some very important issue in his excerpt above. I am think as an African, I accept his laying out the origin of Star-gazing, naming and mapping.

The way he describes it as it manifested itself in Egypt, is true to form and African ways of life: cultures, customs, tradition, history, knowledge gathering, naming the earth and the environments they lived in and existed from and in.The very ways through which Volney goes on to show how Africans were entrenching the into the historiography/to the present future we are in now, as AFricans of Egypt, had already been the practiced of the Africans of Mzantsi. When we here in Mzantsi say that humanity originated from here, we mean it in many ways.

But this should also be said in terms of where we came from and how we got here. That will be an entirely separate article. In this one, then, it is a fact that there has now been discovered material artifacts, material culture that nobody knew about, that is why we get the information from Volney about the Origin of the Zodiac from an Egyptian historical account- we are able to rehash our historical memory.

I do not have a problem as to how he links these origins with Egypt, but I take a different tack from the account of the fact it originated here in Mzantsi(South Africa. It is now being revealed that in South Africa, that there was a culture and civilization that predates Egypt by hundreds of thousands of years. Today, in South Africa has been found Pre-Stone age civilizations.

There are, so far as it stands now, inexplicable elements of a large numbers of ruins and settlements; the sheer size of the area they cover; the hundreds of kilometers of ancient roads; thousands of large stone monoliths and statues aligned to many celestial and geographic elements; thousands of kilometers of agricultural terraces; and very large size of the population required to build all these structure.

From the accounts of Joao de Barros it is more feasible that the mysterious inscriptions at the Great Zimbabwe was not the work of the new African settlers from the north, who most likely just occupied the structure, but an earlier Southern African civilization, who were well evolved in the art of building in stone, and more importantly, people who had the knowledge of writing. It is also important to study the present-day and past cultural, customary, traditional linguistic, sacred rites and practices, music and dance of the present indigenous people of South Africa.

This is a no brainer.. In order for us to understand the past, the present needs to be interrogated, too, as well as the past, to make sense in the present future we are in- to shape and form the far-off future much better. The Africans of South Africa have embedded within their cultures, custom, traditions the cosmos as part of our living culture.

This is used to check seasons, for planting and harvesting and doing a myriad other duties within the commune and community; Stars have been named and used for direction and to foretell events and anticipate the good and bad of life..

The herdboys would talk about them and the type of weather that is coming, and this learned by the fire when sitting next to the elders and they listening-in. so that, the events that affected the day-to-day lives of the Africans in South Africa have been accounted for whenever they are practicing their applied culture; they name their children and other things according to the stars' names, nature, animals etc., their behavior(stars) and their repetitive evolution during certain seasons and so forth-are recognized and tagged as it suited them.

My point is that, what Volney has accounted for above from the Egyptians and Ethiopians, has been what was going on here in South Africa within those disappeared civilizations, that today, the semblance of that can be seen and found amongst the Africans of South Africa-has been handed-down from Antiquated antiquity.

In order for us to talk about the past South African African civilizations, we should be erudite about the nature, form, manifestation, functioning, role, of all our cultural reality along with customs, traditions, and the whole bit. African Clutrual practices and manifestations are not just a fiction of life has has thus been characterized. They are as old as the continents were before their separation, then known by geologist to be Gondwanaland.

If one were to look at the map of the when it was said to have been conjoined in some fashion until Plate Tectonics kicked-in and moved the continents to as we see them today, it is important to look at the Position of Africa, and particularly that of Mzantsi(South Africa. It is at the center of everything, that is why it is place here pre-Stone Age material and artifacts are found from.

Therefore, we know that the civilization of Africa stretched from South Africa all the way to the Congo-it is that time period that is being contested. It is that position we are trying to fill up.

That is why I come also from the cultural, customary, traditional and so forth point of view to trace and give credence the history that is within these cultures that can be observed today, to those of the disappeared civilization that has been carbon-dated to beyond 200,000 B.C., of which I contend it is more than that, and it is still the same like the semblance of the culture we see today in contemporary South Africa.

This is important and need to be fleshed-out much further and deeper. All Ancient civilizations were one with the Stars. They observed them. worshipped them, tracked their movements, depicted them in art and rock engravings, and carved the images of celestial beings on stone. their knowledge of the cosmos was astounding.

The Maya civilization created precise calendars, which can measure time and cosmic events for millions of years into the past and the future. They knew about the 26,000-year precessional wobble of the planet(as Did the Dogon With sirius). The Mayas also knew about the constellation of Scorpio and Sagittarius point to the center of our galaxy, the Milky Way.

It was only in the latter part of the 20th century when scientists began to realize that these ancient people had a much more advanced knowledge of the cosmos than we have, and more scientists are joining this group of believers, daily... Frequently linked stars with earth life are Sirius, the Pleiades and Orion's Belt.Orion did play a major part in the alignments and construction of the Giza Pyramids, the Chinese Pyramids, the Mayan Pyramids and the Great Zimbabwe, it is Sirius that has caused many surprises.

It is also the key star in the construction of the Great Pyramid, while the Egyptian Gothic calendar is based on the same star. the second of the two southern shafts of the Great Pyramids points to Orion.

It is believed that these shafts represent the ascension of the Pharaoh's soul to the source of life, which was believed to be Orion and Sirius. This is just the tip of the iceberg regarding the vast ancient knowledge of the cosmos.

The cosmos and its mystique is deeply entrenched in the Ancient African tradition. Credo Mutwa relates that there are various 'star clans' in Africa that carry the Great Star's knowledge, and these people in South Africa today are known as the Ndebele who, in their traditional Oral history carry the ancient knowledge of the "Mbube" Star of the Orion -

The far-walking Constellation or "Umhambi" this, as we have learned from Volney above, strs had everything to do with African people's day-to-day lives, as when they are walking long distance from one place to another, this star would be their guide in all aspects of their journey and terrain.

The Adams Calendar, according to some writers, has shown that these ancient civilizations in the south were in touch with the stars long before anyone else. Some authors state that whole all of their first calculations showed Adam's Calendar has been aligned with the rise of Orion's Belt on the Spring Equinox some 75,000 years ago, he latest calculations point to a date well over 200,000 years B.C. Once we start to analyze the millions of stone ruins of South Africa, it becomes clear and evident that the ancient builders had a very sound grasp and knowledge of the cosmos.

One of the most compelling features of many of the larger stone ruins is that they are aligned with the cardinal points of earth, solstices, equinoxes and with Sirius, Orion and other key stars. These ruins expose the ancient skills of the first architect, and they can be found in South Africa, carbon-dated, most of them, to 200,000+ B.C.(See link below)

As I have started by saying, the other most important thing, if we can fully configure all this theoretical and other information, is to begin to tie it together to the Cultural, Historical , Customary Oral/Historical traditions Sacred Rites and Practices, Music, Dance, Cultural garb, and the whole bit, and suture it into the gaps that will result from putting a structure of the History of Africans Of South Africa into human origins historical context..

I concede the importance of Egyptian civilization as prime amongst the pantheons of civilizations in the world, I am merely adding that it was a continuation of already long established civilizations In South Africa, along with t the congo where it was the edges of the Civilization of Monomotapa, the Civilization of Mapungubwe, the Now being talked about the remote civilization of Mzantsi(South africa). Ours is to coordinate, synthesize and synergize the narrative and the material to project the African centeredness of all this remote and antiquated culture and its narrative, 'Eruditely'.

June 1976 Shorts

June 16th, 1976 - Sad Day; Revolution In Perspective: POWER!Apartheid was at its height, very arrogant and deadly. I was in high school at that time, and we were fed up with being oppressed. During that year, the small school of Thomas Mofolo, Naledi High school, Orlando West Junior High School and Belle rose against the Apartheid decree that all subjects, except English, were going to be taught in Afrikaans.

But, that was not only the issue fixated upon on the Wednesday of June 16th, 1976, It was the Apartheid rule and regime that we were prepared to deal with.There was no Social Media; no Internet, neither did we have TV as it is today. It was in fact the beginnings of TV broadcast in South Africa, with commercials every 30 minutes.

A confluence of abuses by Apartheid came to a head, and the school of Thomas Mofolo, Naledi High School, Orlando West Junior Secondary School and Primary school in Belle set the whole revolution into motion. These were followed by Naledi High and Orlando West Junior Secondary. The Roots Of Our Revolution were firmly anchored.Bantu Education, implemented by Verwoerd and his minions, was our battle cry-we really rejected it, and in the end, Bantu Education did the Apartheid system in..

There have been sporadic revolts by different students since the 1700s under Sir George Grey. These went on throughout the years, pre-and post world War Two. In fact, reading up on these struggles should be a matter of importance for today's people of Mzantsi. Nonetheless, from the 70s onwards, to date, schools have never stopped rebelling,and there have been dire consequences on the students and their parents in all these epochs.

These 'troubles' I would like to pick up from reorganization of African secondary schools entrance with the conditions bordering on chaos. This is part of of what led to the June 1976 story that few know about.In December 1974, all pupils in the sixth grade who obtained 40% would qualify for entrance to secondary schools. It was averred that this would double the number of high school entrants in Form 1.

This was later reported to prove to be disastrous.Kwa-Mashu, then with a population of 22,000 families, contained one secondary school and it was already overcrowded. After the 1974 December examinations Parents were informed that "Hundreds of standard six pupils who passed their standard six exams in 1974, were required to repeat standard six in 1975, because of shortage of classes."

In fact, in my High School in Soweto, when I was doing my Form three, we were 95 in our class that most of our teachers encouraged us to miss classes for lack of sitting space and class space. From 1972, there were strike all the way to 1976, there were school strikes reported in Parliament of Apartheid; there was violence, damage to property in at least five schools in 1972, 296 students were arrested and 37 convicted.

There was in 1973 widespread strikes and demonstrations in the two years following the World War II. By then, at least six schools or training colleges in Lebowa, Northern Transvaal, Two schools in the Transkei, and one each in the Ciskei and Kwazulu, in which over 600 students one 472 convicted by the courts. In 1973 at Cofimvaba High School in the Transkei, pupils stoned the principal's house, overturned a police car and looted the school shop.

One hundred and thirty were arrested, and 116 convicted, either fired from school or sentenced to be lashed by cane.Nine schools in the Transkei, in 1975, including five primary schools in Mariannhill near Durban, Hammanskraaal near Pretoria, the Moroka High School at Thaba Nchu in the Free State, and a school in the Ciskei, were all reported to have had some scenes of violence.

Over 2,000 pupils were sent home, some to re-apply for admission, hundreds were expelled, and large scale arrests were made.. One would find the similar strikes, violence and property destruction throughout the 20s, 30s, 40s and 50s.One has to bear in mind that from 1972-1975 all the principals and teachers were Africans of Mzantsi, and they were working, all of them, under the system of Apartheid.

This was part of what happened in a boarding school in High school I attended at one time, and when we striked, we were expelled, and I received my school report with a Big Red "NR"(No Return), and I went back to the high schools in the Townships. So that, when June 1976 hit the fan, I had been expelled from my boarding school in 1972, and belonged to the large cadre of vocal students about the conditions in our Townships schools.

I really never joined any party whatsoever, although there were many to go into. I belonged to the loose and independent students who were with any and all action that mattered to us students. There were various student bodies, SASM, SASO, BCM, later in 1976 SSRC. I was never a member of such groups, but was part and parcel of the armies of students who did some damage to Apartheid in many ways than one.

By the time Belle revolted, those of us who have had the experience of fighting as student, at least this, had the whole Township to operate within, unlike in the Boarding School's hostels and campuses, to which we were confined in 1972, when we struck and were expelled from our schools. Soweto was a perfect situation for one to cut ones Revolutionary teeth in.

This time, were were let loose into the Townships, wherein a lot of discussions and planning took place, with no organization to influence the events, and the action independent of any organization's interest and fighting Apartheid. Some people say it was spontaneous, but I reiterate, it was well planned, and even when the bullets were flying, there was a lot of damaging action that took place in the government infrastructures and their related assets.

Our Township consciousness was raised, in our midst, by events in Africa regarding liberation of African States, by the Literature we were able to read, beside the mind-numbing and dumbing material from Apartheid's Bantu Education. For some of us, this has been happening for the past fifty years, and has not stopped, even today. For us to understand this Historic day, we are going to have to seriously read and link the story and history of African students in South Africa From 1700 to 1976 ad beyond to really have a holistic view of this important day: June 16th, 1976 on a Wednesday of Power!...AMANDLA/MATLA!!! POWER!!!

The day on Wednesday June 16th dawned like any other normal school day. This had been preceded over the months by debates, arguments, and towards June, teachers were sidelined, and students had control of schools, which became total on June 16th 1976 onwards.We were miffed by then after the campaigns to Stop Afrikaans As Medium of Instruction sullied and went awry. These instructions were issued from the Office of Bantu Education Department that half the subjects in standard five and Form 1 be in Afrikaans.

This was immediately rejected by us the students and our parents. This opposition grew during the closing most of 1975. By early 1976 there were demonstrations in some schools against Afrikaans, and they refused to let the instruction be done in Afrikaans within their/our curriculum.

This widespread opposition to these draconian regulations brought together conservatives and radicals, teachers and students, and these differentiated strands revolted based on different premises, but united against more than an instruction over Afrikaans. It was patently a revolting Revolution against Apartheid1976 Students revolution had a much deeper manifestation of the deep resentment inside the Townships against the entire administration.

Afrikaans was regarded as the oppressors language and predominantly used by the hated SAP police goons, warders, pass-office officials, township administrators and the entire Apartheid Bureaucracy.Bantu Education was so inferior that the education we were given under this system was so low that a Junior Cetificate(Form 3) was the equivalent of standard six.

The Apartheid Godfather(Verwoerd) had no intentions of improving this education, one can only read what Verwoerd had to say about the Education of African children and what it should be like and mean: slavery.As early as March 1976, Thomas Mofolo was the first school to have Afrikaans imposed on it, and immediately there was a student protest. In March 1976, the the Principal was told to cool the students by the Apartheid authorities, and force them to accept Afrikaans. Some students from Naledi High School went there to investigate the problem.

Some of these students visited some schools in Meadowlands. They found out that the students were bitter about what the government was doing. They immediately stopped attending classes, and saw a need for a positive reaction.The Naledi High SASM branch also went to Orlando West Junior Secondary... The students there agreed with them and started destroying their text books and refused to attend classes. This was the first effective protest started in Soweto ....

Because the students were quite clear about what they wanted.... Despite the threat by Bantu Education Inspector that the schools will be closed..They remained firm ... And by May 1976, the school children's protest actions was common in many schools.In my school, there were constant discussions, debates and arguments, and classes were interrupted consistently, and no learning was not taking place, except that there were plans needed to stop this hideous idea of learning in Afrikaans.

We then began to see more and more Lower Primary schools, High schools closing down and students refusing to go into classes, but coming to schools for meeting and talks, arguments and discussions. It was lively and highly charged meetings, and no organization was in charge or in control, strictly speaking. By now, large swaths of students in many schools throughout Soweto were in an uproar. Some teachers joined in these students discussions and debates.

Everything political, locally and internationally, was discussed, fully..Change within South Africa was discussed; there was a lot of revolutionary talk from any meeting in schools throughout Soweto.We were there, saw and heard/were part of these talks amongst us as students, since we were part of the Soweto Students Body politic and revolutionary fervor.

The first overt violence was reported on May 27, since the Orlando West Secondary School students , about 1,600 of them had withdrawn from school. Some students in many schools, like mine, tried to return to classes-they even stoned the principal's office. That was when the Shit started hitting the fan on May 27th 1976A teacher at Pimville High School(Musi) was stabbed with a screw-driver. When the police arrived to arrest the student, they were stoned by the students.

The stoning became a trade-mark of the student's revolution, henceforth.On June 5, pupils at Belle Higher Primary stoned children who had returned to classes during an apparent lull in the boycotts.About this event:"Early in June the police sent their men to collet one of our colleagues(SASM's) They arrested one student, but he was later released. Then on the 8th they came again.

They were beaten and their car was burnt. On that day, they had to come to arrest the secretary of the local SASM in Naledi High... They said this was in connection with the student's protest.After having been informed that they would not write the year-end exams, on June 13 SASM called a meeting to discuss the entire issue.

There were about 400-500 students present who then decided to call on a huge demonstration, and this was the body that was renamed Soweto Students Representative Council(SSRC) after June 16th, and it led many of the events and not all of the events that were taking place in June 16th 1976.It was planned that, by hundreds of thousands of students, who marched , bearing placards and banners, all makeshift, which bore slogans simple to the point:"Down With Afrikaans," "Afrikaans is Oppressors language," "Abolish Afrikaans," Blacks are not dustbins - Afrikaans Stinks."..

To go and congregate in Orlando Stadium. We had planned, throughout Soweto, by word of mouth, it was transmitted that we were to all converge Orlando Stadium, from Deep Soweto, To Orlando West Junior Secondary school, and on the way, we raised fists and shouted, "Amandla!/Power".

As the columns of students wound though from Deep Soweto, to Orlando West, there were the police blocking the road leading to the bridge over the railway road, but Sophia Tema reported that she saw a policeman throw a tear gas canister into the crowd. Willie Bokala a journalist, said he saw a white policeman pick up a stone and hurl it into the crowd.

That was when some children scattered, and some children retaliated by picking stone and hurling them back at the police. One reporter put it this way:"I did not see the police give any order to disperse before they threw tear gas canisters into the crowd of singing school children. The children scattered in all directions.. The pupils then regrouped and when the policed charged again, they threw stones at the police. the police then fired many shots, a few in the air, mostly into the crowd.

They kept advancing on the police-the police kept on shooting now into the crowd more"More students were killed on that day and time and this is rarely spoken nor written about. This was the form and pattern that the fight between the police and the students took for the whole day on June 16th 1976 and beyond.The fight spread into the outlying streets of the Townships throughout Soweto.

There were running battles with cops who were shooting rubber bullets, so-called iron pellets, pistol shots, R1 gunshots and submachine gun from the helicopters. There was black smoke plumes and teargas dotting the landscape.There were burnt-out offices of the West Rand Board, and other institutions of the like. Some stores of considered sell-outs were burnt, very few schools were burnt.

Administration cars were burn and gutted.We were running all day from the cops, nailing those we caught in strategic areas; children to the elderly were shot and maimed. Many were killed in the police stations and hospitals; unknown numbers were buried in mass graves, dead and alive.

Beer halls and bottle stores burnt and liquor spilled to the ground.Yes, there were those who drank, and many paid for it in various ways too many to discuss here. Baragwanath hospital was like a total war zone. Many died there too and in the outlying clinics and homes.

Funerals became risky business for many were shot there too and died running into empty graves from the police volley of shots.Many were murdered and tortured in the secluded cells of BOSS(Bureau of State Security) and such like deadly murder squads.

Two white administrative officials, one caught in the administrative centre, were killed(the last one killed by being dragged from his car, , and brutally murdered, and covered with a pile of stones). Some of these officials were trying to work for the interests of Africans, but it was a very bad time for them. Putco buses were used to transport students from one venue to the other and later burnt and gutted;

Those in cars who did not raise their fists to shouts of Power!! their were cars stoned.June 16th Revolution was not about getting drunk and burning buildings. It was a build up, as I have shown in the beginning, of decades old struggle between the students and the Apartheid Educational and social system.

This time, for some of us, it was no longer a mater of the 'strike' in the Boarding schools, but it became a fully fledged revolution in the Soweto open terrain.As the struggle continued, we quickly learnt that when organizing a march towards confrontation, it was essential to begin in 'home' territory, and march out, so that there is somewhere for people to stream back to if this proves necessary.

I can recollect such march to the city by Way of Canada route, and just beyond Noordgesig, we were blocked by several Hippos, and eventually teargassed. and driven to the White-man-made mountains, where-upon, those who ran to the top, they were waylaid byR1 riflemen who tore them to shreds.POWER! sent the chills down the spines of the system managers and puppets alike.

The day when we were shouting for Power! in 1976, it resonated and meant just that.. Amanda!/Power! This was the day that changed South Africa, not to be what it is today, but gave Africans a breathing space from the Jackboot of apartheid on our backs and throats for 48 years-unceasingly.

This is our story, our history, and although I would have liked to delve even much more deeper than I have above, I hope the historical and the part actual account will receiving favorability and attention of many of the readers here on the Social Media.

I have used a few citations because one could not have been all places at once, also to knead and weave our narrative so that it remains prime and important in our psyches, minds, bodies and souls and spirits.

I have written a lot of pieces, and have published an even much more in-depth article on the Soweto Students Revolution. This article is to mainly flesh out some points that are not necessarily the schtick of the 40th anniversary of this event. I also want to make the younger and also the older readers aware of the fact that we can write our own stories and history, and we can do so with due diligence and deft articulation

The war on June 16th 1976, was against the Apartheid System and everything it stood for and as understood by its victims: Africans of South Africa.. The Day before the Revolution on June 15th-Students going to school.

The beginning of the Power March Of June 16th 19763. Hector Peterson, One of the first Victims Of Police Shootings in Orlando West on Wednesday June 16th 19764. Some of the student grazed by an R1 bullet during the Revolutionary melee of June 16th 19765. Students fighting police using stone as missiles and dustbin covers as shields during the fight with the police on June 16th 1976.

Children And Youth!!

I would like just to pick up on Abongile'sv(In the Wall Called: "The Society For Social Change" Here On FB) stated his question thusly:"What is the role of The Youth In Our Communities and Society At Large?"I answered this question glibly, I thought after reviewing it.

Say this site has 'Youth" as its members, how would I answer the question poised by Abongile above, attempting to catch the Youth's attention and at the same time imparting something that, if they picked up on it, might have positive effect on them and good results in their performance of their duties.I do have a tendency to stretch my rap thick and long. That is not necessarily a bad thing, as I aver over it.

For instance, what do I mean about the statement I have just made? We can take the wryly spun sense in my feeble attempt to answer Abongile, of which I stated "Partake and help develop their society, nation, families and African Mzantsi here in Mzantsi in all social endeavor, grow into doing and helping their people. We did it in 1976, and I can talk at length about it."So that, on the surface, such comments sound reasonable and cogent.

But given the dysfunction we exist in, I need to do more than that. Usually when when I write articles, I offer a salutation that says "We Are Better Than This."Well, what do I really mean, or what am I trying to say? What information or deed/action do I want parlay to those I say it to?

Well, the question above wants to know something about what should the youth's 'role should be in the community and overall society.' I can only answer this question if I talk about what we did in my youth, and I will post another article that deals with this phenomena from a revolutionary stand-point in another country, I will take up on it from our Kasi perspective and African people's collective experience and perspective.

Before I address the question, I will like to make some remarks about the part as to how we grew up, and we the unfortunate victims of the Institution of Bantu Education had to contend with. We were primed for failure and to be perfect savants (Savant syndrome is a condition in which a person has serious mental disabilities) of which are so rife today in our midst, it's amazing we are not even talking about it on FB, like that.

There are people on FB who really do not understand how the FB works. It is not a local thing, it is Global, and the sooner we grasp the implications of that, the quicker we will deal with other things that need our attention.

Anyway, with the advent of Bantu Education, our teachers imprinted into our minds in the lower and higher primaries as to the importance of reading and writing; we were encouraged to go to the library and take out books, or at times encouraged to sit there for hours reading.

We were told that 'we were better than this', and we had to do our utmost best to be the best. Some other teachers emphasized the African literature and other learning material or issues we needed to know; geography and math along with English and one African vernacular or 'mother tongue' was required; then there was gardening, or hand craft.

Sports-but the most important lesson everyday, for us was to be 'better than what we were because we were better than that'.So that by the time we strode into the late sixties and seventies, we were already aware of the world, World News from many sources; we read profusely African literature,(of course European History and some African history(distorted of course), and learned things from Biko's Frank Talk(the original one).

Also, some of us attened different organization's meetings, and we were never forced to enter them, since we knew how to deal with community issues from learning about this from our grandfathers and fathers and mothers and grandma's 'what ought to be done', and how to do that, within and along ad within the community.

There were many things we did; we took up on the young babies and those who could walk and strong enough to engage in any sport, library visits, and doing some hardwork within our peers and upgrading and updating those that were slacking or lagging behind.

Oh well, there was also too on the other side of this youth who wanted nice time and parties and the whole shindig(this activity was called many names over the decades-but people said they were having "Jam' and other such nomenclature and jargon of the Townships(Kasi slang-then, in those days Known as "Tsotsitaal/Flytaal(Thug language)-as dubbed by the Boers-and it took hold onto the lingua franca of the Ghettoes of Johannesburg and the whole hinterland of African people's enclaves).

At time, we too would frequent these places, but they turned out to Booze orgies and loud music- and a lot of pettiness. And the side I am talking about above, was the one that were of the aigitators and instigators of action spoiling for open revolt-what you would call enforcers and soldiers within and of the revolution of 1976.

I am talking her about people like Jackie Mashabela, who when realizing that they had been caught and captured by the police and were about to be interrogated, jumped on top of the table and dared the cops to take him on. They obliged and pounced on him; he fought back gallantly and they outnumbered him and killed him on the spot.

Biko was the same: one Boer cop slapped him in one interrogation after he was arrested; he slapped the Boer back and sent him sprawling and crashing badly on the tables and chairs nearby.

That is why when they interrogated him the final time of his death/murder, they(The Boers) stripped him naked and handcuffed his hands on his back, and five Boere cops went for him-His head, neck, and his lower and upper torso, while the rest pummeled him and held him down for others to snuff life out of him.

Ya, they, the same cops admitted in some court documents that, even with hands bound and naked, Biko gave them a real good fight for his life, when they then proceeded to brutally murder him(The photos of his badly beaten body can be Googled and images of Biko in his coffin can be found in the Web).

There were many of the youth who sacrificed their lives in the most amazing ways, that still need to be told. Some of the Youth Were Buried in Doornkop and Avalon alive. One Cemetery guardian told of children brought in helicopters and in black plastic bags and being buried alive in the dark of the forbidding and fateful night).

He told of one girl(inside plastic, who through a hole who said in 'Sesotho' she was asking for water, and the Boers covered her and others and finally filled this mass mass grave with dirt moving tractors-he had to run away to London for telling this ahd could not come back to Mzantsi.

The Youth of today should be working very hard to create and support and stand in the fight with and for the local people wherein they reside, grow up and so forth. They cannot do this today because as they are growing up, they are facing a dying population assailed by AIDS, Alcoholism, Drugs and other Deadly and devastating ailments which decimate a large number of their people.

The responsible adults are dying off too, and they, the elders that are left watch helplessly as the youth has become ineffective because they too, have been affected over the years by their Wars Against the Boers and Apartheid instigated Wars leading finally to the coming of the ANC in power.

This is another saga that has not been fully told. I will be posting about this time period very soon.They see their elders dying off from hypertension, Sugar diabetes, cancer, alcoholism, kidney failures, HIV/AIDS, TV, Poverty, ignorance and generally debilitating existence. Some look up to TV and the Internet and whatever they see and do in both mediums, ape and copycat it.

There is no serious attempt to counsel the youth as the elders rush pell-mell into material looting and hoarding-Big houses, Foreign flashy cars, designers suits and perfume- and al the accouterments of gluttony and wanton material consumption of the turncoats and quislings that our contemporary leaders and monied Africans have become.In the days leading to the 1976 revolution here in Mzantsi.

Although we, as the Youth of the day, were cognizant of our plight and seriousness of the struggle we consumed African High Culture, well along with those White musicians and actors as promulgated by the US Music industry and Hollywood with its films, and nowadays, Cable/Satellite tV rules-were critical in our consumption and exposure to all the splurged Imperial cultural 'zines' and 'memes'.

Inasmuch as we consumed everything I mentioned above, we did not lose sight of the struggle but also did not become dogmatic as to our ideas and life which was already dreadful and bleak, anyway.Needless to say that there needs to be a serious vision adopted by all who are in the struggle to emancipate Africans. In order for me to put it into a better perspective of the local motion, pace and vibe, I will defer to others who make this subject much more clearer.

Just as I am onto this piece answering the question, the articles and the videos I have posted is one where we can use the media(social network to network and its viral splurge for our intentions and aims, like informing the Youth about those issues and events and realities of the past. In this case, using the social networking media as information bases and data collection, dissemination and propagation of our views, culture, history music, dances and so on, which are what we are and how we would be viewing ourselves and giving the world a heads up as to our gig- is but one way to go

.I like how Akbar talks about "The Vision For Black Men Wherein he informs us:"The visions for Black(African) men must have several elements. On the one hand, it must be panoramic in its integration of ancient and the pre-European-intervention in the African experience(African Holocaust, and Colonization), and it must away from the traditional social science."..

The most important aspect is a recognition that our continued survival in spite of these conditions is a phenomenon of grater significance than the fact that the conditions which take and threaten our lives have not changed throughout this era. The fact that we still have casualties as a result of this unrelenting attack on our "Humanness and our lives is far from a profound insight'

With the ongoing economic, educational, psychological, political and even military assault on the Black(African) life, there is no wonder that we have prisoners of the war-poor, uninformed, self-destructive, and confused people."

This above is like describing the Africans of Mzantsi as I am onto this article thus far. The condition above, as Akbar describes it, is the same as that of the Africans of Mzantsi living under the confused, opportunistic, gendarme, quisling, turncoats and cut-throat ANC, which has exacerbated this situation it took over from the Apartheid regime.

When we pick up from where Akbar left of, we are informed that:"Whatever modern techniques of warfare which might characterize this attack on Black(African) men, the conditions are essentially unchanged for the fallen dead and dying, whether in hubs of slave ships/ [or Townships], On southern plantations, in police inflicted urban ghettos, in the states, Europe and Africa, on AIDS death-beds..

Death is death and death has been a constant companion to the Black Man and woman throughout our encounter with Europeans."Every one knows or meets here in Mzantsi today is either dead, or going to someone funeral , and by the end of the day, he might attend several more before calling it a day.

Funerals are everyday life, and used to be, not so long go we used to bury people on weekends only, but now, 'it's an everyday thing, in the Ghetto" of Soweto and throughout the land of the Africans in South Arica. Akbar adds:"We were never intended to survive and our survival has been in direct defiance of the most consistent and devastating assault on human life in the modern history of humanity. "..

Our concept of our experiences will be a constant state of correction rather than the restoration of an order which affirms our progress as human beings. this simply means that our society will be nothing more than a few handouts of transitory crisis intervention, remedial programs, methadone treatments, larger prisons,more effective crime control, drugs for human restraint and politics of compromise.

This is not stuff that human progress is made of. Human Progress requires a vision."Now, I cited Akbar to buttress the social malaise that has beset and is ravaging our people. It is like Akbar is talking to the situation in Mzantsi today. In order of us to figure out our problems, we will have to talk about them concretely,.

Concretely speaking, then we are facing a very dire situation which in of itself with its myriad issue contributes to he ailing mental state of so many people, and acquirement of social status and acquiring lots of money is equal to power. To be a powerful person, you have to live by certain standards; adopt behavior that highlights one's status-this means a lot of things which in the end have nothing with helping or upgrading the poor.

The culture of imports is the practices carried by those who happen to harvest from the Gravy train, to date. We have even import foreign cultures and other foreign customs and traditions into our very being that it is making us sick in various ways.

We have no soul and "Ubuntu" of our own, our own way, so much so were just shells and poor caricatures molded by foreigners and made this present self to ourselves, that we have eventually become supra-amnesiac and that means we are extinct and nor more existent- "Disappeared and dis-eased...

The Youth need to learn by example because they are our children, so do't they grow emulating some elder in the family" The family, that where we have to start. There are families that need other families to help them up in various ways and means.

The are many ways to implement the cultural dictates to present-day situation and these be put in real practice and made a way of life in the milieu that one wants to change their situation to better than it is, today.Different generation deal with their predicament the best way they know how.

The "Best" way, and the arrogance regularized and made common, instead of humility the youth is displaying in of itself is a hinderance towards them growth and grasping the larger issues and the world. They emulate the adults who too, like kids, behave like they have been let-loose in a candy store and can hardly their glee and tend to over exuberantly be uninhibited and can hardly contain themselves-meaning irresponsible adult behavior in most cases results in teen revolt.

The lack of Adults in our government and those irresponsible opportunist people, causes a generation gap that will remain forever there, and forever the people will mot be able to solve even basic problems. This is not only a problem with the Youth(of which problems they are), but it is a problem of a society where the adults went AWOL, and titillated and inebriated by the crumbs of the wealth of the inheritance. Yes, I said Crumbs.

The have sold their commitment for the struggle of the Africans for mere left-overs on the table on the master(after he retires away from the table-the quislings slither into the seats of their owners and eat their bellies full, for this opportunity was rare. It was not only crumbs in the form of food that was sought after by the enslaved and colonized africans.

Akbar informs us that:"These material objects or dreg of property became equate in the African-American(African of Mzantsi's) thinking with the full power of freedom and self-determination which the master enjoyed. we can observe a similar pattern in our developing children who play at being mama and daddy by putting on the object of their clothing of other objects associated with them."

The legacy of such experience with property and materials, has made these objects powerful influential in the lives of many African-Americans(Mzantsi Africans). Large sums of money are thrown away yearly on expensive flashy clothes and cars. Uncomfortable, impractical and showy items of furniture drain our budgets and fail to satisfy our longings because of this persistent wish to look like the slave master.

"Many of our judgements about people and their worth are disproportionately determined by what those people own or wear. We spend great energy and wealth acquiring these objects associated with power rather than real human,social, political and economic power. The is a frequent tendency to confuse token of power with genuine power, based upon the slavery/colonial/Apartheid experiences.

"The major thinkers and scholars (potentially our most powerful agents of change) in African-American(Africans in Mzantsi) communities are often neutralized by a pittance of material goods. This socially destructive phenomena has its roots deep in slavery/colonial experience. Too often the leaders in our communities have equated a small trinkets of material gain with "having arrived."

The leadership is soon lost to the african-American(Africans in Mzantsi). It is a recurrence of the old image of wearing "Massah's", (Baas's) discarded hat and thinking you are "Massah".(Like I have just shown above about slave sitting sat table and eating Massah's(Bass's left over food), and carrying on like they're Massah/Baas, when he has retire to bed).

We are the most poor copies of our masters today, whatever we think or conceive of ourselves as being; the sweet taste of money, opulence and success is alluring and those with money could care less about what I have just been talking about.. It has become acceptable lore that money is life and life without it is meaningless and leaves one in the cold out there.

Seemingly this holds true for those demoted and and thrown of the greasy gravy train, and cannot survive outside the cocooned world they were weaned within in the Fast Track Gravy Train(meaning, left-overs).

Youth lives in all this and sees it daily, how then can they be anything else when everything is going bye them and nothing is dribbling from the greasy hands and elbows of those pigging at the crumbs and public coffers?

The problem is not only the youth but they exist in a milieu that is dysfunctional and that should not be the case, concretely speaking: adults bear the brunt of the blame fully and totally.So long as a people we stand for nothing then we will fall for everything-so will our Youth!!

Solomon Mahlangus Last Words Before His Execution By The Apartheid Minions And Goons

Solomon Mahlangu...(Addressing his Gaolers)

Don't be puzzled that I smile even in the moments of anguish

Don't be sullen that I keep my spine uprigh tin this grim den

in this intended graveI am a free man

In your leper camp

I remain a full man

question not then my piercing stare,

my goring gaze is born of truth lived.

This stream, this tapped fountain of life

weaned gathered storm of hardship born of nauseating uncertainty

bears thorns which prick my sou lcold torture

which steels my being

chilling suspense that cracks my brain

Your lawless claws kill unborn babies

you enjoy to bend us to endless humiliation

AN ANIMAL DEATH!!

But as you grope around corners for borrowed peace and purseI

offer my people echoes of happiness

You have dread the mysteries to come

You who curfew your minds with your backs to the prison wall

cradle it until you stoop

until it drills your chest

Until you bow to melt into broken pieces of hope

bow to fate

hold its quivering tailI touch this darkness and give meaning.

Executed 6 April 1979 by the Apartheid Regime...

Christianity in South Africa: A Revelation

"Edited And Cleaned Up Copy - Still Original-But Proof-Edited For Errors")..I have written in some quarters about Christianity in South Africa, but in that case, I used Biko's take on religious history. Where I had used this history as given by Biko, was in my blogs to try and make the point that we can recompose our history, and in this instance I used this long quote rom Biko to build up my case in my Blogs that we can rewrite our history, from our own experiences under Apartheid.

And in the meanwhile culling from those who have dealt with whatever subjects we want to deal with. In this case, I was addressing African Spirituality as explained from An African perspective by Prof. Clarke and the concept of European Religion. In order to make the narrative I was building, I had to talk about the history and concept of Christianity and its religion for which I deferred heavily to Biko.In the case of this article I am onto.

I am going to post Biko's impressions and take on Christianity in Mzantsi in order to give the Africans of South Africa and Africans throughout Africa/Diaspora a sense of the history of what has the Christian Church been up to in South Africa. I am also doing this in order to repost a response I made to Playthell Benjamin's post about the newly appointed Pope and will finally post the link as to how Playthell upgraded what I responded to him with relevant pictures and a much more better and advanced format in his blogs.

It is the same post I made in replying or responding to the post he made(this can be seen on My Wall, with a picture of the African Pope's who could have been Pope).But, Playthell, like a true scholar and advancer of the African cause, took my response and made it into a Blog post on his Internet Site, and will be posted below as a link for all to see what good job he did in enhancing the article, keeping it's written original form, adding magnificent pictures to highlight and edify the post.

That, I wish we in Mzantsi we were not so wrapped-up with our dwarfed egos, but promote and work with each other to project "Our Story"(History) by any of us into a better light, and not to take others' work and make one's own, without giving credit to the originator which is wrong and very much underdevelopment - and disingenuous .Now, I will first of all post Christianity and how Biko saw it article, then afterwards I will post the original response I wrote on Playthells's post on my FB Wall.

I will finnish by giving the link to Playthell's blog so that the readers can see what he did to the article, and I would urge ourselves to begin to learn how to promote each other and spread the word-whether anyone disagrees with what I wrote, I am not worried about that because I have ample proof of what I am talking about. What I am hoping and wishing for is that we begin to write our own "Stories"(History).

Of which I will be posting an article about the fact that we need to tell our stories, how and why, as we become exposed and not necessarily enamored with this new technology, exploit it and use it to meet our own needs and ends and develop our folks in the process(who are still suffering and not exposed en-masse to the Web, because they cannot even afford a laptop or some of these fancy brand name cell phones.

That even if they do, they have to spend so much monthly installments, and that their stay on the Web is limited and dictated by the amount of air-time they can buy, and that is used for intra/inter communication amongst the people themselves, mostly).We therefore learn from Biko, as he addressed the elders and other members of the church and community, a rare view and take about Christianity.

This will help set the stage for the response I gave to Playthells's article-because the response I gave is from the Township view of one church and listening to other people who belong to other churches as to what they are doing or not doing and so forth. Below Biko's views on the Church, Religion and Christianity helps us to better understand how this Christianity ensconced itself into the lives and communities of Africans in South Africa.

Which I think brings a much more cogent understanding of this whole religious farce and fiction that our people are steeped into: This is From Bantu Steven Biko..Biko's Speech on Christianity in South Africa:-Biko writes the following narrative as a 'young man giving his views of the church and christianity', helping us to better understand the subject of how christianity implanted itself into the lives and souls of Africans in South Africa.

Biko:"I am aware that today I am addressing myself to a group of people with whom I differ in two respects:'Firstly, I am a layman talking to a group of religious ministers. Secondly, I am a young man talking to fairly elderly people.'"These are perhaps the two aspects that brought me here. An attempt to close the generation gap is always fundamental in the re-examination of any hitherto orthodox situation which seems to be fast becoming obsolete in the minds of young people..

"Also important, is the need to make common the concept of religion, especially Christianity, an understanding of which is fast becoming the monopoly of so-called theologians. For this reason, I am going to deal with the topic in a lay fashion."To my mind, religion can be defined as an attempt by man to relate to a supreme being or force to which he ascribes all creation. Our particular model at this moment is Christianity. It is not quite clear just how important it is for the various religions that exist in this world to be uniform.

"One thing is certain though, that all religions have got similar characteristics:

1. The form man's moral conscience; in other words, embodied within each religion is a set of moral stipulations that govern the spiritual well-being of a particular people with a given context.

2. The all attempt to explain the origin and destiny of man. All are agreed that man in the human form is a transient being in the world; all agree about man's origin as being from some force, the precise nature of which is defined differently. Where religions tend to differ is in the enunciation of the destiny of men.

3. All religions claim or almost claim a monopoly on truth about the mature of the supreme being and about the way to identify with His original intention about men."Each religion is highly ritualistic. Through years of practice, the religion develops a certain pattern and procedure that in later years become inseparable from the central message of that religion."

If one takes religion as nothing else but what it is - i.e., a social institution attempting to explain what cannot be scientifically known about the the origin and destiny of man, then from the beginning we an see the necessity of religion. All societies and indeed all individuals, ancient or modern, young or old, identify themselves with a particular religion and when none is existent, they develop one.

In most cases, religion is intricately intertwined with the rest of cultural traits of society. In a sense, this makes the religion part and parcel of the behavioral pattern of that society and make the people bound by the limits of that religion through a strong identification with it."

Where people are subjected to religion that is removed from their cultural make-up, then elements of disgruntlement begin to be noted and sometimes open defiance is soon displayed. Hence, one can make the claim that most religions are specific and where they fail to observe the requirements of specificity, they they must be sufficiently adaptable to convey relevant messages to different people in different situations.

For indeed, each religion has a message for the people amongst whom it is operative."These are perhaps some of the things that never were uppermost in the minds of the people who brought Christianity into South Africa. Whereas Christianity had gone through rigorous cultural adaptation from ancient Judea through Rome, through London, through Brussels and Lisbon.

Somehow when it landed in the Cape, it was made to look fairly rigid. Christianity was made the central point of a culture which brought with it new styles of clothing, new customs, new forms of etiquette, new medical approaches, and perhaps new armaments.

The people amongst whom Christianity was spread had to cast away their indigenous clothing, their customs, their beliefs which were all described as being pagan and barbaric"Usage of the spear became a hall-mark of savagery. All too soon the people were divided into two camps - the 'converted'(Amaqhobhoka) and the pagans (Amaqaba).

The difference in clothing between these two groups made what otherwise would have been merely a religious difference actually become at time internecine warfare. Stripped of the core of their being and estranged form each other because of their differences, the African people became a playground for colonialists.

"It has always been the pattern throughout history that whosoever brings the new order knows it best and is therefore the perpetual teacher of those to whom the new order is being brought. If the White missionaries were "right" about their God in the eyes of the people, then the African people could only accept whatever these new know-all tutors had to say about life.

The acceptance of the colonialist-tainted version of Christianity marked the turning point in the resistant of African people."The church and its operation in modern-day South Africa has therefore to be looked at in terms of the the way it was introduced in this country. Even at this late stage, one notes the appalling irrelevance of the interpretation given to the Scriptures.

In a country teeming with injustice and fanatically committed to the practice of oppression, intolerance and blatant cruelty because of racial bigotry; in a country where all Black(Africa) people are made to feel the unwanted step-children of a God whose presence they cannot feel; in a country where father and son, mother and daughter alike develop daily into neurotics through sheer inability to relate the present to the future because of a completely engulfing sense of destitution.

The Church further adds to their insecurity by its inward-directed definition of the concept of sin and its encouragement of the 'mea culpa" attitude."Stern-faced ministers stand on pulpits every Sunday to heap loads of blame on Black(African) people in Townships for their thieving, house-breaking, stabbing, murdering, adultery, etc. No-one ever attempts to relate all these vices to poverty, unemployment, overcrowding, lack of schooling and migratory labor.

No one wants to completely condone abhorrent behavior, but it frequently is necessary for us to analyze situations a little bit deeper than the surface suggests."Because the White missionary described Black(African) people as thieves, lazy, sex hungry, etc.,.

And ,because he equated all that was valuable with Whiteness, our Churches through our ministers see all these vices I have mentioned above as manifestations of the cruelty and injustice which are subjected to by the White man, but inevitable proof that after all the White man was right when he described us as savages.

Thus, if Christianity in its introduction was corrupted by the inclusion of aspects which made it the ideal religion for the colonization of people, nowadays in its interpretation it is the ideal religion for the maintenance of the subjugation of the same people."It must be also noted that the Church in South Africa as everywhere else has been spoilt by bureaucracy.

No more is it just only an expression of the sum total of people's religious feelings, it has become in fact highly institutionalized not as one unit but as several powerful units,differing perhaps not so much on scriptural interpretation as in institutional aims. It has become inconceivable to think of South Africa without a Roman Catholic church or a Methodist Church or an Anglican Church, etc., in spite of the fact that the average Methodist from the street hardly knows how he/she differs from Anglican or Congregationalist. This bureaucracy and institutionalization tends to make the Church removed from important priorities and to concentrate on secondary and tertiary functions like structures and finance, etc.

And because of this, the Church has become irrelevant and in fact an "ivory tower" as some people refer to it."Going hand in hand with the bureaucratization and institutionalization of the Church is a special brand of problem which also makes the Church extremely irrelevant - the concentration of that bureaucracy and institutionalization in the hands of White people. It is a known fact that, barring the Afrikaans Churches, most of the Churches have 70, 80 or 90% of their membership within the Black(African) world.

It is also a known fact that most of the churches have 70, 80 or 90% of controlling power in White hands. It is still a known fact that White people simply don't know Black"African) people, and in most cases do not have the interests of Black(African) people at heart."

Therefore, it can be reasonably concluded that either the Black(African) people's Churches are governed by a small non-sympathetic foreign minority or that too many Black(African) people are patronizing foreign Churches. Which of these two it is, is not quite clear, but let us assume that it is the former, since the majority of the people in this country are Black(African) people."

In that case therefore, Black(African) people who are Christians are not only conniving at the hitherto irrelevant nature of Christianity as spelt out by the Churches, but they also allow a non-sympathetic minority which is not interested in making Christianity relevant to people remain in control of the workings of the Churches.

This is an untenable situation if allowed to continue much longer will deplete from the already thinning crowds that go to Church on Sunday."Then too, the tendency by Christians to make interpretation of religion a specialist job, results in general apathy in a world which is fast departing from identification with mysticism.

Young people nowadays would like to feel that they can interpret and extract from it messages relevant to them and their situation without being stopped by orthodox limitations. This is why the Catholic Church with its dozens of dogmas either has to adjust fast to a changing world or risk the chance of losing the young constituency. In various aspects, this applies to all churches in the Christian world."

Before looking at suggested changes within the Church, let me then summarize what I regard as my major criticism of it:

1. It makes christianity too much of a "turn the other cheek" religion whilst addressing itself to a destitute people.

2. It is stunted with bureaucracy ad institutionalization.

3. It manifests in its structures a tacit acceptance of the system, i.e., "White equals value".

4. It is limited by too much specialization."The most important area to which we should direct ourselves is gaining control that is rightfully ours within these Churches. In order to do this, we must agree that in fact we have a common purpose, a common goal, a common problem.

Equally, we should agree that through living in a privileged society, and through being socialized in a corrupt system, our white Christian counterparts though brothers in Christ, have not proved themselves brothers in South Africa. We must agree also that tacitly or overtly, deliberately or unawares, white Christians within the Churches are preventing the Church from assuming its natural character in the South African context, and therefore preventing it from being relevant to the Black(African) man's situation.

"It has been said by many a Black(African) Church man, that Whites are in power within the Churches, because the Churches are modeled on Western lines which White people know best. In order to be able therefore to change the Churches, we have first to gains ascendance over them in that white model, then thereafter turn that model into one we cherish, we love, we understand, and one that is relevant to us.

I can only point out here that it cannot be conceivable that all the White people in controlling positions within the Church are elected by other White people

."Obviously, some get into their positions because they caucus vote-wielding Black(Africans) to put them in those positions. It is high time that Black(African) people learn the highly tried method of caucusing to put other Black(African) people in control of Churches in which Black(African) people have something at stake. Such elected Black(Africans) will obviously have to function according to a mandate clearly outlined by the same Black(African) caucus that put them in power."

The second area in which we must focus our attention is a thorough understanding of what many people have hitherto scorned, namely, Black(African) Theology. There is a truth in the statement that many people can say one thing differently because they look at it from different angles.

Christianity can never hope to remain abstract and removed from the people's environmental problems. In order to be applicable to people, it must have meaning for them in their given situation. If they are an oppressed people, it must have something to say about their oppression."Black(African) Theology, therefore, is a situational interpretation of Christianity.

It seeks to relate the present-day Black(African) man to God within the given context of the Black(African) man's suffering and his attempts to get out of it. It shifts the emphasis of man's moral obligations from avoiding wronging false authorities by not loosing his Reference Book(Called a 'Pass' in Apartheid times), not stealing food when hungry and not cheating police when he is caught, to being committed to eradicating all cause for suffering as represented in the death of children from starvation, outbreaks of epidemics in poor areas, or the existence of thuggery and vandalism in Townships.

In other words, it shifts the emphasis from petty sins to major sins in a society, thereby ceasing to teach the people to "Suffer Peacefully"(a la Malcolm X).""These are topics that Black(African minsters of religion must begin to talk about seriously if they are to save Christianity from falling foul with Black(African) people particularly young people.

The time has come for our own theologians to take up the cudgels of the fight by restoring a meaning and direction in the Black(African) man's understanding of God. No nation can win a battle without faith, and if our faith in our God is spoilt by having to see him through the eyes of the same people we are fighting against, then there obviously begins to be something wrong with that relationship."

Finally, I would like to remind the Black(African) ministry, and indeed all Black(African) people that God is not in the habit of coming down from heaven to solve people's problem on earth."Response to Playthell's Article(found on my official FB Wall)Then I wrote a response to Playthell's article(which can be seen on my Wall which has pictures of two Africans who were legible to become Popes" My response:"

The White(European) World is still hung up on pigmentation, and the cobwebs of Racism have not been cut off and dislodged from their collective. The choosing of a Pope, from Africa, notwithstanding, is not about to happen, soon. I see them here of the Roman Catholic faith immersed into its symbolism and culture. There is this one Roman church here in Orlando.

It has been there, and I found it there when I was born. It was only active in the community in as far as it can recruit its pious members. As a child I was taken there by my aunt along with my cousins. We could not help but observe how the members after receiving sacrament had liquor smell on their breaths.

Or how they would walk in 'holy solemnity' after ingesting the dry and round morsel of bread(I think), and their lips moistened with the wine, that then you could see that these holy parishioners had just returned from heaven, the way they looked, hands clasped on their chest, walking ramrod-straight-like, and their eyes ogling at the White

Mary and small jesus, and jesus statues with an open palm showing blood, and others, hoisted on the wall above in the cathedral-like church, that we were always left wondering what is happening.

I do not belong to any church, but have my Mtundu(Alter we make for the ancestors), with its candle, snuff and specific cloths for the main ancestors in the pantheon of the ancestors according to our family lineage/tradition. We light a candle, spill some mixture of water and mealy meal, and sprinkle snuff for the eat and some snuff to smoke.

Afterwards, having called them according to their seniority to last one who died most recently, we talk and tell them of our problems and plight and intone them to help us get ahead. This is what my grandma has taught me, and I have learnt even much more than the basic practice I am just describing over the years.

Now, the thing about it is that the very transformed members who ate the sacrament, when they get home, they take out their drums and jump into their traditional ancestral dress and call on the spirits and interact with them, in order to get instruction who to do about some cultural sacred rites to appease and satisfy and communicate with their ancestors..

For whatever outcome these acts will bring them(hopefully success and the like). What I am saying is that the appointment of a Pope from South America, is going to have a damaging effect on the membership that is now dwindling and then this is helping foist rising force that is the Islamic religion here in South Africa.

People are poor and they complain that these Churches, Anglican, Lutheran, Roman, Methodist and the rest of them are fleecing them penniless, and so people are going with the Religion of Islam, because they provide grocery and comfort and support, instead of asking for 'tithes' as is done in the aforementioned Churches.

The appointment of the Pope is coinciding with the Churches I have mentioned(the Roman Church in Particular, is going down in membership and relevance. the youth is worse. But, having said that, they will follow the Pope, whatever shape of form the doctrine will be decided by the parish, I think that making Africa irrelevant was a big mistake.

As I am onto this piece here, one can see and witness the cracks and splits that are occurring, and my take is that Africans will continue to evolve and revolve the church until, like the Anglican Church of Africa, had to break with the Church of England, at one point, and is now run by Africans called the Anglican Church Of Africa(divided into several different countries of Africa), is how most are named-according to the name of the country then Anglican Church, African Episcopal Church, of Africa-very close to and reminiscent of the naming of the churches in America by the Africans in America, in the early 18th or before that, as in the African Methodist Church, Or Ethiopian something Church....

My take of all this, is that the African people here in Mzantsi, having left and leaving the churches, are headed to traditional healers, or to some fly-by-night churches and others in African Traditional churches which are receiving many African peoples into their ranks and are burgeoning with in-coming new recruits from the "traditional" Christian Churches mentioned above.

As you say, they settled for a descendant of their former enslavers and colonialists of Argentina( Falkland War comes to mind), that the Papal'ocracy is a farce, for me, and it will not change anything with the appointment of this new Pope, because what is happening to their Roman Church base in Africa, maybe out of their hands to reverse or do anything about.

I still talk and do the sacred practices and rites to and for my ancestors the way I was taught by my Grandma. I know many more people are now practicing this part of our culture and spirituality from the way families are now doing things(may vary from family to family), but they retain the same protocol and form. This is the religious double vision they will have to come around to reckon with..

The Roman church and other such-like religious institutions have introduced gambling and is in cahoots with the gambling dens and their Moguls, and they are sprouting all over the South African landscape. They bussed and are still bussing thousands of their members to these gamble caverns, start by giving them some paltry money to start gambling when they reach the fleecing dens-the rest they will have to cough-out of their own cash in order to continue gambling.

People have now become addicted and are loosing huge sums of money/houses and jobs, and there is still yet no one addressing this decrepit and insidious, odious affair. What the church is doing, is to constantly rebuild and renovate of establish new building and their old churches over the years. the folks around them are poor, and the children who go to their schools are made to pay exorbitant fees.

So that, honestly looking at the arrival of the new Pope, I do not see any changes for the better in the African Roman churches here in South Africa, except those in the White Suburbs-well, that's another long story. This is what we see happening and then some, here in Mzantsi... I do not see an African Pope coming in the next distant horizon, and the Roman Church here in South africa, is not doing that very well, and this has been going on now for many decades.. That too is another long yarn...

Finally, the response I have just posted above, was taken by Playthell and given proper credit, and he enhanced it and made it much more suited for advanced Blogs which reach millions of people Worldwide. I am very much indebted to Playthell who is very inspirational and a prolific writer of a magnanimous stature.

So that below, I will post the response above to show what people of good intentions and conscience and progressive principles that rare breed leaders, those of African African descent around the world whose many purpose, among the many, is to advance the African people all around the world, can do.

I also want to add his link so that people can look up on the broad range of topics he has been writing about over the years. I am hoping that this link will serve the purpose of showing how we can help each other advance our course and advance the African struggle without ignoring and not propagating our original ideas here on the Internet(FB).

My closing thoughts before I post the link of the response I gave on and made much more better by Plythell is that we need to do better than this because we are really better than this. I mean, whenever we tell our stories(History) we open up many possibilities and we begin to create a dialogue/mindset like a collective as to how we can work in tandem together to better ourselves.

The issue I raise and write about is what is retarding our progress for Africans. If we begin to realize that we are the living human part of our history, we should therefore learn more about us, talk about us and make sure that we raise the consciousness and awareness who will find that information relevant. We shall have to make our stories relatable to the majority of our African people, that, even if we want to argue about something, we would be better off informed about the topics or questions discussed.

A Contemporary historical Event In Real TimeTales From The Oppressed And Wretched Of Mzantsi

The article below, "THE ORLANDO EAST DRUG SAGA; POLICE MEET WITH LOCAL COMUNITY OF ORLANDO" was posted by a very well known and prolific Fb'er who eventually got banned from Facebook for reasons still mysterious and unclear.

When "Mgeve Ixwa" had his Wall Up, she was a constant thorn and critic of the ANC-led government, and a champion of the poor people's struggle and she had a way of capturing the essence of the suffering Africans without the usual clap-trap-crap Jabberwocky and pretentious verbiage and tired jargon one sees here on Facebook in many instances and regular interaction, but Mgeve Ixwa kept it real, simple and straightforward.

What "Mgve Ixwa" was doing and had done(as in writing) was frame the concrete conditions of the Africans of South Africa in stark and and bold relief revolutionary terms of their decrepit inhuman existence and historical narrative, in terms of his writing style, context and content.

He was on the cutting edge of a new Mzantsian with a sound grasp as to the material condition of Africans in South africa on the ground, street, Townships and the African people(also had a legion of White people as her followers and 'friends.'), and she was the most natural and intelligent observer of the 'coping' people have to do and deal with in the face of the Drug scourge scouring their families, communities,

Townships. She captured the hard-core reality as it played itself out in front of her and the nation of began to ask questions and propagate and disseminate the real nitty-gritty down-basic issues that hound and still harass the poor Africans of Mzantsi today.

She was their mouth piece, reporter, spokesman and propagator of their causes without compromising her writing style nor watering down the issues that people faced and are still facing today. She called and told of it as is-and as it unfurled itself in real time-and she made it with oodles of Township feel, flair and poignancy. She never colored nor couched his narrative or tried to emulate anyone or steal some lines from somewhere to cobble-up the type of writing she did.

She was the megaphone of the African people of Orlando, Soweto and Mzantsi as a whole, and a legend in the folklore and FB Wall posters that affected action, albeit paltry, in moving, changing and shaking things .

What the effects and affects her writing activism did was made the local police take notice, to the extend that a station commander wrote on her answer block acknowledging the things she was talking about in the article below-aand promised to take action.

What I can garner from such an event is that Facebook, if used intelligently and strategically, can move the african people's struggle forward. What she managed to do, which is still to be picked up by the users of Facebook from South Africa, was how to ply and apply the idea in our struggle today with her writing style.

She did not write theories about the media, but took the media that she had at her exposure and rigged it such it yielded and by her constant pounding it by posting stinging articles of the calibre if one below results and she got reaction from the authorities-in this case she used the Township yarn and day to day realities.

She was was observing, which she crafted into the article below to not only make Africans aware of their situation, but sort-of embarrass the police officials to take action because as this article exploded in the Viral Media Datasphere, the PR office of the police force throughout Soweto went into action and something was being done at last... for now, though...

The erudition she brought to the FB post and articles, are still unsurpassed to this day here on Facebook. She was also a constant and harsh critic of the Facebook 'goons, police, and 'trolls', 'spooks',[in some cases attacked Corporations like Monsanto, etc, and she used some of the jargon and verbiage that disturbed a lot of people, and she to castigated and exposed the fakes, charlatans and quislings who were betraying the peope.

She did not only attack the officialese that were running the country down, she also provided very in-depth and well-researhed pieces that were educive to the the army and collective masses and polity of the poor of Mzantsi, of which she was a champion and ardent servant without let-up. T

his did not endear her to the 'powers-that-be' who saw her potential and her being dangerous to the present state of the use of the media in South Africa today, more specifically, how she exploited the new media and its technologies, and this was what the presently ANC-led government could not 'ignore' as they did other issues raised by many people on FB.

They also monitored her and government officials and parliamentarians were signing in up on her page just to read what she posted or listened to the music she was video-jaying here on the FB Walls, for all races, but was more focused on the people of South Africans this article below shows.

The point she was raising and addressing were live events that were part and parcel of life as lived in Orlando and the actions that were taken or not taken, and through caricaturing the article in the manner she did, she struck an official nerve.

These then are the lessons we got from Mgeve Ixwa, that is, in order for one trying at "understanding the media", how one should ply, apply, effect and affect the media to create and make possible change through action.

Facebook is a weapon we should learn, understand and know how to manipulate and make it work for us. We have real stories in our midsts and collectives and polities dotting the South African landscpae.

These new merging and emerging media and mediums with the gizmos need to be put to work in relaying and propagating our reality, not as TV or some media moguls and and minions and spin doctors dictate, but what it should say to the world about our plight and struggle and people-of which the messaging and propagation should be dictated and controlled by .

I am going to be posting an update and expand on what Mgeve Ixwa had started and achieved and will be giving a much more extensive background as to understanding Mgeve Ixwa's background by telling a bit of the history of Orlando East and its activism over the decades. Sobukwe cut his revolutionary teeth in Orlando East, although he lived in Mofolo(another Township of Soweto).

Mgeve Ixwa and some of us were raised in a very revolutionary and activist environment in Orlando East, and I will give also the emerging contemporary short history of organizations that are shaping up throughout Orlando East today.

I hope that those who had the opportunity to read Mgeve Ixwa's posts, will appreciate her handy-work below, and remember her for the effort she was making in making us understand the present-day technologies, their gizmos, technique and spin, so that we can do likewise.

but in this case, as Mgeve did passionately and also intelligently did, for our people and ourselves as we try to build a nation(I have posted articles on this issue here on my Wall and other Pan Africanist and so forth Walls.Meve Ixwa and her writing are important for the Africans of South to begin to pick up the patch work of stories nd events in contemporary South Africa.

And if writing about the history of South africans today, could be well advised to follow in the step of such writers as Mgeve Ixwa to being to compose and rewrite an also recreate the history of AAfricans in South Africa from yesteryear to date. Part two and a sequel to the article of Mgeve will be posted as the second part of the Update on the drug crisis in South Africa and then some.

THE ORLANDO EAST DRUG SAGA; POLICE MEET WITH THE LOCAL COMMUNITY OF ORLANDO"

The most Brilliant article that I have read here in a very long time. Its long, but every bit is worthwhile reading. The power of the Facebook as a virtual 'meme' and 'zine' spreader is apparent in this article. .............

Just by posting on several Walls on the FB, and the quick police response indicates that the authorities are listening-in, and for those of them that are conscious, they have decided to begin to do the right thing."(The Facebook Blurb was posted from and for Mgeve Ixwas Facebook Wall by Faried De Bruyns)Mgeve Ixwa

THE ORLANDO EAST DRUG SAGA; POLICE MEET WITH THE LOCAL COMMUNITY OF ORLANDO

When I started to surreptitiously enquire and start digging into the Drugs problem amongst the locals, I noticed their reluctance to really talk about this issue. Some feared for their lives, and others just took a passive approach and mostly did not want to even talk about it.

But drug peddling and the constant traffic was increasing dramatical every three or four minutes of squads of youth walking zombie-like to the drug pen/den. The condition of these boys, girls and grown ups caught up in the drug swirl and haze was still ongoing and was still raising ire of the community each day.

The other thing I got to know was the fact that some of the neighbors were in the pay of (the Drug wholesaler dealer) and were ratting on their neighbors who dared question this activity, or reported to 'Maponya' and his menacing henchmen/boys who was saying and doing what countered his interest/trade. Some neighbors have had their houses burnt down or beaten to pulp because when they called the police,and if the locals complained aboutthat the police would tell Maponya as to who was it that snitched on him.

The locals also complained that Maponya had some hired thugs used to terrorize and pummel anyone they considered a foe to their enterprise. It all led to the fear that gripped the local collective that was when the people started telling me that they would like that something should be done because at that juncture, they did no have many options, in fact, none whatsoever, to deal with this social malaise.

They went on to tell me that if ever there was something that could be done to contain this menace, they might be able to talk and take action.So I decided to piece together the sparse details I was able to collect and post on the few Walls I had access to and they did receive some fired-up response.

This Article was reposted for the benefit of those who had not seen, and I had just gotten access to various FB sites I could not get in the post to all and everybody. But there is something that makes me think, believe and say that the top honchos in government follow us on FB and they 'follow' up on what the people are talking about.

Prior to my posting the aforementioned post, there was absolutely nothing the police were doing, of which they only 'visited' Maponya's house to make pretend, maybe arrest a few lackeys, and if he happens to be around(Maponya) was also hauled to jail and in a few hours he would hit the streets again and resume his illicit trade with great abandon this time..

But ever since I made the post on FB about the gangrene decimating the poor, I think the authorities feared that their image will take a hit, and I think the bosses within the government sent a memo to their underlings to take care of this situation as quickly as possible.Four days ago, the police had mounted a humongous raid on some of the houses adjacent and closer to Maponya's house and this time they took everybody(young girls and boys-teens) to jail.

The locals knew this was the way in which the police have acted and operated in the past, so there was nothing new. The only difference this time was that the number of the police that came was much bigger than before, and this left the locals baffled. Nonetheless, they swept away everybody, and within a few hours, the business of drug selling resumed and was operating like nothing had happened a few hours ago.

This really got to the people who were incensed and wondering how long this charade and farce was going to end. After the police raid, there was a total lull in police activities, and the business picked up with a very rapacious pace- and this time, drug dealing, trafficking and consumption came back with a vengeance, and locals were left feeling forlorn, dreary and destitute- they felt that their police and government have betrayed them like before, so, why should they care.

Then, the police organized a meeting with the locals through 'word-of-mouth' that they will hold a meeting with them in an open space that lies between the Ditawana Lower Primary School and the Anglican Church in Orlando on the 22 of April. The meeting started at 2 pm in the afternoon until 5.30 pm in the evening. The police had come in full force, and this time, the residents of Orlando showed up, and formed a motley crew of about 200 people.

The meeting was heated, yet cordial and the inhabitants of Orlando were demanding the arrest or taking of the life on Maponya, The Police seemed to have come prepared for the crowd which was oozing with anger and venting. Some were offering information as to where he shacked throughout the Township of Soweto in several domiciles they named and some even gave the addresses as to his whereabouts in those houses he lived.

Then the talks between the police and the residents took on a more affirmative and positive turn. The Police(here I will not state the things that were agreed upon in any particular order) and the locals agreed that the Drug Problem was very serious and that the police will work with the community to: - Create Patrol groups made entirely of the trusted people in the community and they encouraged the people to sign up and volunteer.

The Police and the people agreed that these volunteers needed to be paid, and that the residents of Orlando should each fork-out R10.00 a month and this will go into paying the patrolling volunteers; - Some residents were impressed that this will also create job opportunities and enhance their safety and erase the drug trade; -

The police suggested that this patrolling entities will have to wear some type of uniform, have torches and whistles; - Because the inhabitants of Orlando had complained that some of the traffic was coming from the adjacent Diepkloof township, the police and the people resolved to have constant patrols on the tar road that divides both townships; -

This came from the talk the Township folks were vehemently saying that crime was high-housebreaking, assault, homicide and general criminal behavior had become the norm- so that, whenever they chased these thugs, they would run back into the Township of Diepkloof- so that, and it was it was now agreed-upon that all residents coming into Orlando from Diepkloof will be stopped, frisked and questioned. -

The Police suggested to the people that this organization has to work within the law, and will be required to be made legal and will operate under the auspices of the Police Station of Orlando and the civic and street blog groups- that is, liaise with the police as to their performance and operations- and this should be done once a month; also, -It was also proposed that this group, which will also be closely monitored by the local block associations and civic organizations, will have to make meeting with the locals to report on their progress; -

Some suggested that the monthly payments that will be eked out the poor inhabitants should not be banked(and the locals were totally opposed to the idea of banking, but to be paid out in cash to the patrollers to avoid scams and such like thing when money is involved(this is till going to be fleshed-out by the residents and their respective organizations- but the consensus is behind the idea of avoiding banking); -

The executive that was chosen would be required to hold meetings with the Police on monthly basis in the Police station and with the communtiy once a month; - Mr. Maduna, who is the Chief of the Community Policing(CPF) Forum for the greater-Soweto offered to help and suggested that the patrollers needed to be registered and made legal so that the patrollers can be insured; -

There was also a discussion as to when the patroller could start doing their job-it was agreed upon, based on the advice by Mr. Maduna that they should start immediately(though few days left that they should get paid- and amongst the residents. Some suggested that the inhabitants of Orlando should pay, by the end of the month, their R10.00 so that the patrollers should get paid, rather than wait to start working at the end of the month.

The police counseled that the people must be careful not to report lies (because personal grudges and other disagreements they might have with their neighbors), because doing so would result in the perpetrators being arrested ; - If the residents report any type of drug dealing, the police assured the residents, and the police mount a raid and find it to be true, there will be a reward of R40.000.00.(A gasp could be discerned coming from the crowd)

The police offered this as an incentive to make the residents report crimes of drug trafficking and the like, and they were beginning to build trust from and with the police- this the police offered so that they can have cooperation with the local people in matters of crime and so forth, and be able to establish a better rapport with the locals.

The police were participating fully, by answering questions from the people who really seemed concerned with patience, advices, encouraging people to come or phone them immediately and that they are prepared to help since the residents are the ones seeing and living with this scourge.

And the felt that they needed to upgrade their policing within the collective-along with the help and cooperation with the local Orlando sector and peoples.; -The police advised the locals to make sure that they set a date and appointment so that the Cops will know when that the date is set up, they can arrange to meet specifically with this community and patrol groups, since they the police, they pointed out, are working in various hot-spots around the Township and Soweto.

This they thought would enable efficiency and quick response to the community needs; and, one of the Sergeants offered to personally attend to the Orlando locals of the area of drug dealing and Orlando as a whole because he wants to do a personal follow-up on all reported crimes in the area affected and the whole township, with the intentions of "cleaning" these drug Dens and Businesses.

Now, this morning, there seems to be a change that has occurred from the meeting yesterday which was held from 2 pm to 5 pm in the afternoon, and this change being that one is now beginning to see the patrollers in their newly created positions and areas- there is action and a different atmosphere that presented itself,.

And those who were working for some time on this issue of drug possession, dealing and use amongst the residents, along with those who signed and joined yesterday, have begun to carry-out their scouting and their patrolling duties duties around the townships have begun their routines- which is going to be a 24/7/365 shift.

People are standing in groups, and those that did not sign-in yesterday are coming in droves and offering to sigh-up and be part of the newly created defensive and patrolling operation now underway as of the writing of this post.

There is now a certain exuberance and an air of expectancy pregnant with hope and the possibility of stability that has been forged between the Local community and their local police force; people who live in the immediate block or in it, were not clearly represented at the meeting with the police.

Maybe this was due to the fear that they have been living under, so they were fearing the repercussions that would follow as has been the form in the past.But this morning, one sees the block residents offering themselves up to signing and to be part of this operation, and their realization that they have just been empowered and some modicum of normalcy is beginning to manifest itself as I am standing here and taking it all in.

The power of the Facebook as a virtual 'meme' and 'zine' spreader is apparent in this article. What has happened here is that a single article, which was seen by the authorities who desperately want to adjust their image of community policing and effectively clamp down on drug dealing, has taken a life of its own, and I have a sneaky suspicion that they saw the post.

The police's prompt response and addressing the community head on, and making sure that prompt action and delivery was afforded the local, along with guaranteed safety, has set the local communal adrenaline flowing and is now steroidical in its impact and affect/effect of and for the whole community.

Just by posting on several Walls on the FB, and the quick police response indicates that the authorities are listening-in, and for those of them that are conscious, they have decided to begin to do the right thing.

As for the community, they are still stumped by this positive reaction and some still remain leery and distrustful.The only thing that perplexes them less, this morning, is the immediate response and affect this is having on the community. the sort of feel like they are now in-charge.

The use of the FB begun to get the ball rolling for the Poor and huddled masses, and has injected a spirit of 'doing for oneself', an air of the self , self-dependency, actualization, self realization, self awareness and communal unity and community self-edification, as human beings and people of Mzantsi.

If the FB can be used in many creative ways, that speak truth to power and tell the people the truth all the time, and the results are amazing when the people recognize and see the power they can have given the present situation they are dysfunctionally steeped-in, this helps move forward the revolution and change.

This is a teachable moment for all to begin to realize that the FB is a tool for mass mobilization and action. Action is amongst and within the toiling masses. Immersing oneself and embedding ones work within their milieu, helped bring together a technological gadgets and gizmos, and the demands and needs of the masses to work in tandem.

It is good to give people material and reading material online, but it is more enthralling to work with all types of the poor, being them and among them, listen and make mental and observational notes, talk to various individual in order to get the overall mood and feel of public opinions and discourse.

There is a lot of practical work that is gained from such inside work with the poor, in the process one develops a language that is easy to understand for the armies of the poor, and this helps the worker to be able to be accepted, protected and known by the masses.

I have always believed in the intelligence of the masses, it is just that there are no books written about how to get them into meaningful hands-on participation and change.

Practicing democracy is not theory when it comes from the mass mind and amorphous society we call the people of Mzantsi.There are issues that Affect Africans and other ethnic in different and same ways at the same time. To sift through "what ought to be done", as Lenin asked, is to go down dirty into the communities, societies that are infected with these issues which inhibit and destroy their humanity.

I am not waxing philosophical here, but working with and amidst our people is the most revolutionary thing that most of us can do. We are living today in a technological and result-based and orientated society.

If we are to compete in the world that is fast changing every six months, we cannot afford to be always trying to catch up with the lost six months that we have even lost count as to how far back we are retreating and regressing into oblivion and maybe extinction? (Just wondering).

The approach to changing and making life better for South Africans cannot be found outside South Africa. The people of the country themselves are better molders, movers and shakers of their own destiny. Any ideas that come from outside, should be culled in order to customize to local and national needs.

We can read and listen to all speakers from the world about the suffering of other people(which is a good thing- or theories of revolution or change- all good), but it is the actual being-there-and-doing and applying tactics and strategies that benefit the poor.

And who in turn will make it possible for anyone working for their concerns to be well catered for-listened to and their actions they propose to to the masses are carried out to the letter-word-wise and action-wise by a whole collective of poor Africans.We cannot play the game of Ostrich-head-in-the-sand approach... this indeed is shirking our responsibilities as a people.

The Facebook should become a revolutionary tool for change, for all, and for the "Good of All South Africans". But if we are to start within and around our people, as I did with your own, that is good enough too; I think the mannerisms and patterns of social interaction and inter-ethnic relation can be tested and experimented with as in getting all well-informed about how we begin to create a new society- shed-off the carcass of the Dead Apartheid order and regime, and begin developing inter-ethnic visits amongst different people, not as tourist, but as South Africans.

Anyone knows or does not know about the story of the Rugby Team, the Bulle(Bulls) who came to play in Orlando Stadium for the first time, would be well served if they wee to refresh theimselves. The Bulle stadium stadium was shut down, in the White suburbs so that they had to move their final match elsewhere, and Soweto, specifically, Orlando East was picked for the match.

This was due to the fact that the highways and stadiums were being prepared for the World Cup, that the Bulle and their Fans came to Soweto(Orlando), got stuck on the Soweto highway(because of construction)- left heir cars on the side of the road and walked through the Townships(Diepkloof, Noordgesig and into Orlando); white fans with their families, children, uncles, grandma's, wives, girlfriends, boyfriends you name it, was there and walking barefoot in and around the township headed for the stadium.

As they walked through the Township street, en masse and en-route to the stadium, what they witness and was done for them in Orlando, they stepped into the ululating sounds made by the locals, of the Township of Orlando East.

This was one of the most strangest sights and forms of communal interactions ever seen in South Africa to date: thousands and thousands of White people walking in all streets available in all around Orlando East as they headed to the stadium.

This has never ever happened, That White people in hundreds of thousands of their group marching into an all African Township, and the White fans were 'really taken aback by the reception and the cordial welcome and greetins and hands-clapping for them, by the African local people of Orlando East, as they passed through in different streets they have never known existed nor had ever set their foot there, until now.

Meanwhile, the Township residents were standing on the side of the streets, of top of their roofs, hailing and clapping and hollering- in a greeting and happy way, waving and whistling and talking in a bantering back and forth way with the many passing White people, shaking hands with the locals, hugging and all of them carrying-on like that.

that I say, in the history of the land and peoples of south Africa, nothing like that ever happened. In fact, the residents of Orlando were saying that "we never had nor saw the World Cup Fans in our Township, but we had our World Cup, better than any, with the fans of the Rugby club who came to Orlando Stadium on that day".

The White Rugby fans and the players were giving out cash to young kids, that after the match, the fans went into the township full force. Instead of heading back to their cars parked by the roadside of the Soweto Highway, most of them they spilled into the "Kasi"(Township of Orlando East and some others into the one called Orlando West.

They were entering and seated in the "Mekhukhus" eating and drinking whatever was offered to them by the residents; dancing and 'braaing' and drinking and having uninhibited fun, learning the language of the people on the spot, others were given African names and so forth that I say, there are possibilities even if there are not as we speak at present, of fashioning a better and new South Africa-this incident and scene gave people a perfect example as to how to begin to handle themselves and social interaction with other ethnic group..

There were a few incidences of violence, but it was the Africans who made sure that did not happen in the large scale than it should up to that point. There are pictures of White people having been robbed and beaten up, but in turn the locals caught up with the perpetrators and beat the hell out of them.

The Bulles adopted Orlando Stadium as their Rugby field and have been donating toward the education of some African kids, that I say, in our current state of racal tensions, calmer minds and people with revolutionary ideas of a new type of social engineering should be given the platform to air and try-out their new ideas on how to ameliorate the racial implosion that is about to blow off.

The people of Orlando are feeling and beginning to see a new day with renewed hope and courage. This is but one of the many things we can do as two people or a group, at times alone to affect positive change and encourage less racial tensions. As our African culture teaches us that "Respect' ("Hlompho/Inhlonipho") is the key to racial harmony- if that possibility is still here in Mzantsi.

"Only as equals, can respect become manifest in a country like South Africa.We are better off as a people realizing and learning this concept of "Ubuntu"(so overused and over-marketed and emptied of its cultural value, customary essence, traditional application, and practice as a rite of balancing social relation, creating and enhancing respect as the first order of the day, and also respecting other humans and human.)

But has a liberating value of practicing it in recognition of the humanity of the self and that of others. The people of South Africa, especially Africans, have to begin thinking about how to really work with the masses in order to succeed in trying to improve, develop and launch the Poor into this new millennium that is still young.

For now, the people of Orlando are trying to pick up the pieces, and for those who do not really know Orlando East, it is about time you visited the residents there, as I said, not as a tourist, but as neighbors would visit each other..

There's a lot to learned from Soweto and the Soweto's throughout Mzantsi; there is no more need for us to be entrapped by the past legacy of Apartheid. I am not going to allow what was done to me and our African people dictate nor control my being and thinking.

I prefer to work to see to it that our people's need to be seen by all and sundry as to their Human face and grace and as Human beings-be made into a reality. I do not ask nor beg anyone to do this, but doing it will in the process will reset the present state of life as it exists here and now.

This is what I have to say and will be going back to the locals and observing further what is happening since they have started to pick up the shattered and broken pieces...MGEVE IXWA)

I will be posting a follow up on this article and expand on the themes and issues that Mgeve raised, along with those I have been working on myself.

At this point, I do Not really Care What I say And How It Comes Out- If It's True, So Be it: "Truth!

We seem to have lost the way of looking at our women here in Mzantsi.. We are drifting into chaos by accosting, assaulting and 'Not Loving Our women", and Not Protecting Our women; we are guilty of not growing Up with our women; cherishing them and honoring them; we have forgotten what it was like for us men when we looked at our women and we are no more lauding our women.

We care less what is happening to them and us as their men; we have lost the manly spark that went with how we looked at and ought to care for our women as our culture dictates; we ape and copy-cat what we do not know of the ways of other cultures, nor have practiced what we been doing for the eons we have been in Mzantsi; we are defiling and debasing our women; we offer no comfort and negatively confront them;.

I am speaking of the multitude forgotten children, young girls and teens, young adults and adults frown up; and our elders.. The women in all these categories are being dismembered; they are being looked at as sex objects; they are referred to as 'things' and other unsavory demeaning and degrading names and looks/attitudes.

Jealousy and ignorance has overtaken our manly responsibilities, and as men because we are incapable of applying and regulating our own culture, customs, traditions, languages, scared rites and practices in an orderly and disciplined fashion and serious way.

We are raping our women and acting as if it'[s our manly right to do so. We do not like this truth to be said or relayed; we are killing the bearers of our children, those who bore us, and those that gave our parents lease on life here on earth; we talk in amnesic terms about our plight as if it is something in some country far away; we pay attention to and obey and worship money because it empowers us over our poverty-stricken sisters and women-raping them for a Rand.

We retort that we are men and are practicing our rights, our power and putting women in their place; there is so much that we are not doing for women, but that which we do is overwhelming and very regular; we have declared a low intensity( harshly executed).

War on our women children grandmothers, aunties, dogs and chickens- we rape them all; we beat our women; kill them; infect them and we too in the final analysis are infected by them; we are creating a cesspool and orgy of rape and lying in the filthy and damned morass of self immolation and self-afflicted genocide.

Because we 'clearly know what Apartheid has done to us' we all know that we are dying from all sorts of imaginable disease: gout, hypertension; sugar Diabetes, Stress, Angst, Tension, Uncertainty; some of us unmitigated obesity; some of us, malnourished and perpetually hungry and emaciated; TB, AIDs, Cholera, Pink Eyes, Dysentery; alcoholism, drug-addiction, pre-and post Colonial War Mental disorders; social malfunctioning and dysfunction.

Yet, we pose to the world as if the world are cameras for them to take us pictures and see us as a very progressive and south African they knew when we were fighting against apartheidWith all this, there is still no set program as what we should do, as of yet.

And the Rape and abuse of our women continues unabated and is fraught and full of stigmatization, tired and manufactured beliefs as to the role of culture and what our culture has to say about women; compounded by the many years under Apartheid rule, where women in the Apartheid totem, were at the bottom and abused a shell.

This has worsened nowadays with self-proclaimed "ngangaras' and not-so-rich potentates who creepy-crawly on the young and vulnerable women; whereby we find high incidence of abuse, millions of fatherless children and rape rampant amongst the highly educated and monied scalawags of what present elite society.

All of us as men are responsible for the state of the country and the insecurity and abuse of our own women. We have never been able to hold on to the radar of the ship we are supposedly about to vote for and drive. Apparently, men as drives went awol or have jumped ship for more safe land, comforts and material well-being. We never really talk directly about this anomaly, which has now been taken for a new normal.

Our leaders are in a hurry to cut deals with other corrupt business leaders and leaders of other nations, and pooh-pooh all the cries and screams of help from the destitute army of the poor. We ignore that which challenges our present comfort zones and life-styles as the rich and powerful of this awful existence; we indulge in opulence that is mind boggling: wastage.

We are spiritual hypocrites and some of us pretend to be Christians yet harbor ulterior motives which bring tidings of destruction and more suffering for the armies of poor africans here in Mzantsi.Not that our women are free of blame for the state of the nation, but what can they do when boys refuse to be men and act responsibly. Not that all Africans in South Africa treat their women as thrash.

But if you view it from my vantage point here in the township, much has not yet been said nor corrected for the women in these enclaves. None! No One! Sexual terrorists and sexual mercenaries are running amok and the scourge of drugs is crippling and dismembering our communities; health care is appalling and our hospital no more give food, sanitary and clear or any bedding(Go Check-out Baragwanath/Chris Hani Hospital); women give birth and carry their new born babies heading home into the taxis.

Everybody knows everything; no one knows or does squat! Everybody is little chief or boss or knowledge-bearer - no one acts on what they know artificially; we are the joke of Africa and they see us as trying to be White, American, European-Very Dizzy! Disorder should not be the new normal-we need to begin to apply ourselves as to who we are.

We know who we are; we need the will to do it right, form now on, and we are really impressing no one, but we are depressing our national growth and humanity(Botho)We Should Stop The War On Our Beautiful African Women Here In Mzantsi.. Now! As men, We need to pick up the cudgel and do Justice for and by our Women and Nation..

A Review Of The Posted Cultural Videos Of The People Of Mzantsi..

I have just finished a series of videos that I had started by posting first with an article articulating my objectives(See Older Posts): to create a format and structural form of our music and culture and frame it such that it has a National body and appearance.

What I mean by this is that, I made some means of collating our 'different,' 'variegated,' 'variable' and 'diverse' culture, which up to the point before I started posting it in that manner, and having written a preface to my intentions, had never been done like so.

Also, what I did was create the bios or small histories of each of the musicians, performers and bands so's to lay out a matrix that most of the South Africans on FB, might get a glimpse of it holistically.This exercise in Cultural defenseis not a "practice in Promoting My music " as has been claimed by those who are left behind in what I was doing. It seems there is culture of obfuscating the 'right' things for our people in order to "Dumb Them Down".

Our people of Mzantsi are prohibited by a new species of "Censurers" and "Gatekeepers". not on the TV and radio only, but viciously here on these social media that can reach millions of people in Mzantsi and the world over.Some of us are patently ignorant of these new, burgeoning, emerging, converging, moving-at-the-speed-of-viral-data phenomenon and gizmos.

Our people who are in different privileged position are scared of an Independent African South African, who has the potential to learn, and become better, if not different from the. Some of these leaders are cloaked in Pan Africanism of a "Type".

The Pan Africanism that cannot even recognize Africanism in the efforts some of us are trying to disseminate, without us being crass and ignorant about what we are posting and how we are posting it-as African peoples.

The response might not have been an earth shaking event when I posted all the videos, short histories of the 11 people of Mzantsi, namely: The Zulus, Pedis, South Sothos, Shangaans, Vendas, Ndebeles,Swazis, Xhosas, Tswanas, Vendas, Colored and the Khoisan. The main thrust of posting such music, was not, and I still emphasize, to "Promote My music/videos" on the Pan African Sites on FB.

Apparently there are people working as spooks and moles of the FB owners, and the present ANC government, of which they are on its pay and beckon-and-call.

The aim of laying these viral videos was specifically to, in a coordinated and structured way(that of choosing relevant 'cultural ' videos with as much 'authentic' dances and live videos as such as possible), to help us beggining to learn much more better and in a 20/20 way the breadth and depth of our cultural matrix and mosaic as it has manifested itself in our daily realities.

And, undergirding this first aim, was the second one, wherein I was trying to parlay an ideas, way of seeing, and conceptual ability of our people to begin to see that we are really one people, as opposed to the apartheidized way of seeing, thinking and being that we are a different disunited collectives of "TRIBES". A Term I have consistently rejected, until we end up having a "French Tribe", "British, Italian, Danish," and so forth tribes, then I might reconsider.

But, since that is not what I am talking about, we need certain perceptive ways and perspective of beginning to realize ourselves not as a collection of different "Tribes", but a nation with a diverse, vibrant,energetic, similar and one culture. Even if we were to try and interrogate or investigate the notion that our languages are different and not the same, and that they emerged from our trekking South from the north, is utter balderdash!

We have always been here in Mzantsi for eons, and now there is proof of 'supposedly' disappeared civilization of here in Mzantsi, andit can be traced back to 170,000 B.C, and there is a lot of physical material proof that we have been here since the formation of the earth!

So that, when I use our music, culture, customs, dances, languages and their practices, techniques and uniqueness, I am working toward reconstructing our Nation (through all the mentioned building blocks, and making them real through our Music,

Dance and interpretation of our Culture) and that they should be viewed as being one,, not different or unrelated to one another-but one National Culture, etc..For us to see ourselves as a Nation of Africans in Mzantsi, we need to see ourselves, in some shape of form, as one people who are having a diverse culture, which is in essence, one culture.

It is one culture when one starts listening to the music, which we can group into Mbaqanga and those songs unique to different groups in various regions throughout South Africa.

We need to have a sense and way of seeing our different cultures as they seemingly are different, but see them for their commonalities, originality, energy, similar dances, hand-clapping, rhythmic foot-stomping, movements of all kinds, from the gyration of the Shangaan women, to the active and energetic synchronic dances of their men; to the smooth foot-shuffling ad gentle stepping Batswana , Swazis mass singing, and for the men Zulu-type of dancing; up to the easy, steady and deliberate dance of the Basotho men, with their "kotos" always held high and the foot-stamping well calculated and seemingly off rhythm, but on the beat; to the 'mokgibo' of their women kneeling on the ground, chest-vibrating to their musical rhythm-along with the Xhosa mix of the Batswanas, khoi, Zulu and Sotho cultural dance nuances.

As in the case of the "Xhosa" who perform the "Mtjitjimbo" same as the Basotho women, but in a Xhosa male stylistic fanfare(and of the older Xhosa women generation, more akin to the the Basothos) in dance, actions and technique; and the Khoisan animistic dance, projecting the action of different animals(they hunt) in a dance form and which too is related in style and presentation to the Zulus, Xhosas, Pedis and all the other groups.

We saw children put up their best efforts, imitating their parents, in dance and song and style(which promises continuity). That in the final analysis, what I am saying here, is not quoted or cited from some book, but what we are creating through viewing the Music I have been posting, and I do not get paid a cent, and do not own these videos, nor composed anything in them, or am I gaining in any way, shape or form.

This is part of my contribution to our struggle, and am using much needed innovative ways of teaching all and reaching all-through creating, form the old, new ideas and ways of seeing for our self on our own.I intensely dislike our detractors, whether they be Africans of Mzantsi or from anywhere else.

I have a passionate and offensive attitude when it comes to us and now we are blocked by those ignoramuses who are in service of deep vested fiscal pockets. Nobody said I should do what I am doing. I am doing it because we need many different ways of executing and making sure our struggle survives, but we will not get this from those who Police

The Pan Africanist Walls, which are humming and howling for revolution, and the truth is that there is not one way to making a revolution: ask the Zimbabweans with their Chimurenga; learn from the Angolans and their MPLS; Frelimo.

I mean, from all revolutionaries if whether in executing their revolutions, they listened and worked on one single idea. That is an inexact way of making a revolution. A revolution uses all that is relevant to it to succeed. Not a prescribed panacea from some Facebook revolutionaries who are really out of touch with the people in the country, and how we should be trying, our darnest, to liberate them.

By Any Means Necessary [a la Malcolm X).I have been viciously attacked here on face book on different sites and in my in-box. I can be just as vicious too, but I do so tactfully. I cannot stand Bullies and Ignoramuses. Most of us are in position that prevent our people from dreaming big, and bettering themselves. It does not mean that posting here on FB is not "Free".

No, according to the minions that are in service of Big Capital and they themselves vulture-capitalist and self-serving-morons, they do so at the expense and to the detriment of people learning and yearning to becoming much more better. I beg down to no such quislings!

These gendarmes tell us of "Bottom Line" as they have been instructed to trumpet that by their handlers in various places, institutions and the whole bit! They attack our culture that I am working on here on FB with venomous vengeance, and multiple 'exclamation marks" to drive their point home. The Defend the Master's wish that our people should remain dumb, not made to be awake, by anyone.

If some os us remember, when the ANC and some of the PAC people came out, I have the press cuttings, many of the revolutionary ANC cadre and PAC cadre were mercilessly murdered by goons of the Death and torture squads of the mode of the Vlakplaas executioners, and they worked with some of our brother(terrorists) who made it their business to eliminate all fierce and what they considered to be vexatious elements amongst our worthwhile and erstwhile stalwarts.

Is it not then a wonder that some of them(african quislings) have morphed into the FB police, when we should now be working with our people to create a Sane Society and an independent and well -self-willed and developed polity. No! we have people telling us that they are "Guarding some Walls", and they are the first ones to eat up what they claim to dislike..

I am not really scared of such quirks, but I will use the FB too, to go for their tainted and fattened jugulars. Our African Cultures, Customs, Traditions, Languages, Rites, Histories and Practices, they too need Warriors. They need fearless and very culturally self-loving and defending Warriors. It is not only the gun "revolution" that has have to be monitored, but our cultural revolution, too.

This methodology I have carved up in laying out our culture Bare and bringing them to the fore, with their own structure they already have, but am giving form, meaning and dignity, is what ought to preoccupy us. Or attaining power will be the one way that will be made realistic by relearning, and developing 'new ways of seeing and looking', shedding off the Apartheid blinkers in the process, will be what might do for us in moving the struggle forward our own culture of which we live-daily-by our knowledge, control and ownership of our culture....

Our struggle is lined to the International African diaspora and Africa itself. I have posted music of Africans from Cape to Cairo; from South America to North America-and throughout the world, to show how same its its matrix and mosaic-in all genres- that in actual reality(in the Garvey-ite mode and sense). I posted all the different nations of Mzantsi to show the 'similarities', 'commonalities' and 'converging' points of performance, technique and style(both musically and dance-wise) to be of one people-one nation.

We are one nation, but we have not yet even ready to energetically defend and protect it, if not develop what we have as a culture because, as I usually say say, most of us have been 'edumacated into ignorance', and 'we are running away from ourselves'. If fact, there are still people in our midst who are still ashamed of, and deride our culture as backward, because they have been conditioned to be so by their masters whom they now serve with zeal and gusto.

They go out of their way to please the master-they might as soon take the disease plaguing their controllers/master and have it manifest itself on them-on his behalf. There are some who attack the way I use this foreign language of English. Well, my take is that, if we ever do anything, we better do it well, and good.

This will not and does not take away from me being an African of Mzantsi. It is just like presenting the videos that I have been posting or have posted thus, I still hold on to the belief that we need to do our own things right. We need to taken control, shape and form, mold and design our cultures, customs, traditions, history, music, dance and all its styles and techniques fully and correctly.

It is amazing that going through YouTube, one discerns the way the Cultural imperialists are using all manners of obfuscation, censorship, and licensing and holding on to information pertaining to our music, cultures, dances-pattened to be released at their own discretion.

When researchers like me come and look for the music, artist, it's either there's limited information of the bio, or the music has not yet been uploaded or are ignored, or we have not yet developed ourselves to be in a position to really own, control and disseminate our culture as we see fit: to be able and be also in a position to disseminate our data in any form we wish to.I hope the thrust of the small idea I have implemented on all the PAC Walls should be seen as me 'showcasing our music.

I put a lot of short history for the listener/reader to get an idea about what they are listening to, and I posted it en-masse as I did because I was swelling the viral stream with positive vibes and dances.

On some other far flung and rare FB Walls, our music rules; our music rocks; our music makes people all over the world come back wanting more- whether it is contemporary music, or traditional/cultural music we make. For people who think that I have backed off from posting music and originally written articles about various, they have got another think coming..

We are much better than this- Ons is nie 'Moegoes', and have never been di-Bari, never! For me, I post what I like, and like what I post, and if anyone on any site needs to block me, go ahead, make my cultural day! I will post, if not create my own Wall on various topics and keep on working for our people for no Renumeration..

None at all..All I have done was collate a culture of music and dance that has already survived for itself without me doing what I am doing, so what I did was that I made sure that it becomes well structured and well-formed for the world to see that we are who we say we are; we have a powerful, colorful, variegated, diverse and same and one culture here in Mzantsi.

And I thought that my presenting it as I did by posting it on the Pan Africansts Walls, will be seen for what it is-and yet, what does one see, cultural quislings who have no regard or use for their own culture, and personalize their dimwitted-myopic and narrow-minded selves and work assiduously to prevent its being made too look as great as it is.

Look for yourself, without ass-licking anyone, at all the different posts I have brought forth.. Is that a culture that should be oppressed(apparently this has not worked with the Boers-but our brothers are working around the clock to suppress and depress it).

Well, so long as I do not have arthritis, I will type and post; I will use "Word" and "Image" to put out Culture of Mzantsi of the Glogal Cultural Map-and put it up to speed with the spreading and speed of the viral stream. For me, to Date! ... there is no other better culture than our culture in Mzantsi...

Xhosa Culture And Its Accoutrements

The amaXhosa people are African people and Xhosanspeakers living in south-east South Africa, and in the last two centuries throughout the southern and central-southern parts of the country. Xhosa people currently make up approximately 18% of the South African population.

By number: in 2008: Botswana 9,900; Lesotho 22,000; South Africa 7,529,000; Zimbabwe 29,000During the seventeenth century, a gradual migration of the Nguni took place which led thousands of people from the southern Zaire Great Lakes area to move south, displacing the original Khoisan hunter gatherers of Southern Africa.

The Xhosa culture (and Nguni culture as a whole) has borrowed from the Khoisan culture and language, and the two peoples lived symbiotically and even intermarried. The Xhosa people speak a language called "Xhosa" which is known as a "click" language, having three basic clicks, borrowed from the Khoisan languages.Xhosa peoples were well established by the time of the Dutch arrival in the mid-17th century, and occupied much of eastern South Africa from the Fish River to land inhabited by Zulu-speakers south of the modern city of Durban.The Xhosa and white settlers first encountered one another around Somerset East in the early 18th century.

In the late 18th century Afrikaner trekboers migrating outwards from Cape Town came into conflict with Xhosa pastoralists around the Great Fish River region of the Eastern Cape. Both the Boers and the Xhosa were stock-farmers. The competition for grazing land led first to quarrels between the two groups, and eventually it came to a number of wars.As South Africa shifted politically between British and Dutch rule, clashes with the Xhosa grew in magnitude, as with the Zulu in the Natal area farther north.

The politics of the colonial government attempted to enforce the separation of white and black settlement areas with the Fish River as the border. But the more the colony developed into a modern state with a strong military organization, the more the whites tended towards a policy of land annexing and the subjugation of the black population.. Following more than 20 years of intermittent conflict, the Xhosas were forced east by British colonial forces in the Third Frontier War.

This dislocated Xhosa clans and disrupted the traditional lineage-family homesteads and social system. The Xhosa were pressed into highland areas where the terrain offered some defence. In the 1830s and 1840s, after major battles, the British stripped the Xhosa chiefs of effective power.

Certain areas were finally designated as semi-autonomous territories, while the British settlers took the prize areas.Many Xhosa-speaking clans had also been pushed west by expansion of the Zulus, as the northern Nguni put pressure on the southern Nguni as part of the historical process known as the mfecane, or "scattering".The Xhosa-speaking southern Nguni people had initially split into the Gcaleka and the Rharhabe(who had moved westwards across the Kei river)

In British South Africa, traditional areas of the Xhosa and other peoples were preserved as autonomous territories. These later became administrative districts of the Union of South Africa in 1910. The Union remained part of the British Empire and Commonwealth until after WW II. In the election of 1948, the Afrikaner National socialist party won control, restoring Afrikaner control to South Africa for the first time since the annexation of the Boer Republics by 1879.

The Afrikaner government withdrew South Africa from the Commonwealth and imposed the segregation policy called "apartheid" (apart-ness), which created separate regions that were described as Bantustans (homelands) for black people of African descent. Two regions—Transkei and Ciskei—were set aside for Xhosa people, and proclaimed independent.

Thousands of people were forcibly relocated there and denied South African citizenship.The Xhosa were active in the following decades in opposing this policy, while they were persecuted and separated from most civil and legal rights. Xhosa and other black African peoples did have access to some education and there was some economic freedom.

There were Xhosa lawyers (like Nelson Mandela) and business people who worked within the system to oppose apartheid until it was finally dismantled with the change to democracy in 1994.AmaXhosa Clan Lineage TraditionsAccording to tradition, the leader from whom the Xhosa people take their name was the first King of the nation.

Another tradition stresses the essential unity of the Xhosa-speaking people by proclaiming that all the Xhosa subgroups are descendants of one ancestor, Tshawe. Historians have suggested that Xhosa and Tshawe were probably the first Xhosa kings or paramount (supreme) chiefs.

One of Xhosa's descendents, named Phalo, gave birth to two sons: Gcaleka, the heir, and Rharhabe a son from the Right Hand house. Rharhabe, the warrior, wanted Gcaleka's throne but was defeated and banished and settled in the Amathole Mountains. Maxhobayakhawuleza Sandile Aa! Zanesizwe is the King in the Great Place in Mngqesha.

The Zwelonke Sigcawu was crowned King of the Xhosa on June 18, 2010.Major Xhosa-speaking nations or groupsAmaMpondo (their kingdom is in dispute, like that of the amaXhosa )The AmaMpondo have their separate lineage that is traceable from Sibiside to Dlemini to Njanya, to Mpondo and Mpondomise (twins) and Xesibe. The descendants of Mpondo are Santsabe, Sukude, Msiza,

Ncindise, Cabe, Gangata, Bhala, Chithwayo, Khonjwayo, Ngcoya, Hlamandana, Tahle, Nyawuza and many others.AmaMpondomise (their kingdom was destroyed by British colonists in revenge for the killing of magistrate Christopher Hope by Mhlontlo's forces during the Anti-Colonial Revolt of 1880.

The revolt was led by Mhlontlo of the amaMpondomise together with Gecelo of the amaGcina, Dalasile and Stokwe of the amaQwathi and Squngathi of the abaThembu).AmaXesibe (The descendants of Xesibe are Ntozabantu to Ndzuza to Miyana to Bimbi to Nondzaba who begot Hlabe to Mthetho to Mtshutshumbe who founded the amaQwathi nation.

Mtshutshumbe begot Mndwana begot Ncobe begot Nkovane begot Ntswayibana begot Dikela.)AmaQwathiAmaXhosa (the kingdom is in dispute between amaGcaleka and amaRharhabe)AbaThembu (their kingdom is in dispute between the Matanzima and Dalindyebo descendants).AmaBhaca (descended from Madzikane, chief of the amaNgwane, killed during the invasion of Thembuland in 1828)AmaMfengu (amaHlubi, amaBhele, amaZizi, amaNgwane, etc.)

AmaGqunukhwebeAmaVundleThe amaMpondo, amaMpondomise, amaXesibe and amaQwathi nations are related but the amaQwathi settled in Thembuland more than 350 years ago and as a result Qwathi chiefdom is more Thembu in culture and political association.

The “Iziduko” (clan) matters most to the Xhosa identity (even more than names and surnames), and are transferred from one to the other through oral tradition. Knowing your “Isiduko” is vital to the Xhosas and it is considered a shame and “Uburhanuka” (lack-of-identity) if one doesn’t know one's clan.

This is considered so important that when two strangers meet for the first time, the first identity that gets shared is “Isiduko”. It is so important that two people with the same surname but different clan are considered total strangers but the same two people from the same clan but different surnames are regarded as close relatives.

This forms the roots of "Ubuntu" (neighbouring) - a behaviour synonymous to this tribe as extending a helping hand to a complete stranger when in need. Ubuntu goes further than just helping one another - it is so deep that it even extends to looking after and reprimanding your neighbour's child when in the wrong.One traditional ritual that is still regularly practiced is the manhood ritual, a secret rite that marks the transition from boyhood to manhood (Ulwaluko).

After ritual circumcision, the initiates (abakhwetha) live in isolation for up to several weeks, often in the mountains. During the process of healing they smear white clay on their bodies and observe numerous taboos. Girls are also initiated into womanhood (Intonjane). They too are secluded, though for a shorter period. Female initiates are not circumcised.

Other rites include the seclusion of mothers for ten days after giving birth, and the burial of the afterbirth and umbilical cord near the village. This is reflected in the traditional greeting Inkaba yakho iphi?, literally "Where is Your Navel?" The answer "tells someone where you live, what your clan affiliation is, and what your social status is and contains a wealth of cultural information.

Most importantly, it determines where you belong".A clan comprised of a number of groups, each led by a chief, or Inkosi, who owed his position to his mother's status (the society, however, was a patriarchal one in which women weren't formally accorded political authority and were expected to leave their families to live with their husband's family.) The Xhosa are polygynous (though today only the wealthier men have more than one wife). Marriages are arranged by the families.

The family of the boy approaches the family of the girl and begins "negotiations". The lobola, or bride price, must also be agreed upon. It is typically 10 cows or the equivalent in money. The bride is captured by the groom's family and taken to live with them. In secular settings, they are considered married.

In Christian settings, they proceed to the church for a two day service in which one day is spent at the groom's village and the other at the bride's village. The migrant labor system has put great strains on the traditional family. Some men have established two distinct families, one at the place of work and the other at the rural home.

With the end of apartheid, some of the families previously separated by the labour laws are beginning new lives in urban areas.Name Giving:Xhosa clan names (iziduko) are family names which are considered more important than surnames. Much like the clan system of Scotland, each Xhosa person can trace their family history back to a specific male ancestor or stock. Mentioning the clan name of someone you wish to thank is the highest form of respect.

Thus Nelson Mandela is called by his clan name ‘Madiba’ in SA.When a woman marries she may take her husband's surname, but she always keeps her own clan name, adding the prefix Ma- to it. A man and a woman who have the same clan name may not marry, as they are considered to be related.Children are usually named by their fathers or grandparents and all names have special meanings. When a woman marries, her mother-in-law gives her a new name.

When children are old enough to attend school, they were often given an English name.(Why?)Names in Xhosa often express the values or opinions of the community. Common personal names include Thamsanqa (good fortune) and Nomsa (mother of kindness). Adults are often referred to by their isiduko (clan or lineage) names. In the case of women, clan names are preceded by a prefix meaning "mother of."

A woman of the Thembu clan might be called MamThembu . Women are also named by reference to their children, real or intended; NoLindiwe is a polite name for Lindiwe's mother.A few names of amaXhosa and related ethnic groups include:Bhayi (Khetshe, Mkhumbeni, Msuthu – they belong to the amaVundle people)Bhele (divides into several sub-clan groups: Dongo, Langa, etc.)Cethe (ooChizama)Cirha (ooNcibane)DeyiDebeza – OoDebeza, ngoJebe, Nonyanya, Nongoqo, Mbeka Ntshiyini Bathi uqumbile, Khonkcoshe Mbokodo engava mkwetsho (These are royalty in the Amampondomse group.

Their main concentration is in the former Transkei, in Tsolo, Qumbu and Umthatha in the Eastern Cape.)Dlamini (or Zizi,Jama kaSjadu, the clan name of Thabo Mbeki, an Mfengu subgroup)DlaneDlomo (different lines, Thembu or Hlubi subgroups)Dontsa- oNoDlidlu, oNoDlabathi, oSwahla, oMntungwa uNdukuMkhonto, uShembe, bath' uDontsa akananyongo kant' abay'bon' uba igqunywe ngesbhadlalala so mhlehlo...

(Hlubi clan)DosiniDuma (Nxuba)Faku (Nyawuza, Thahla, Ndayeni, Mpondo, Hlamba ngobubend'amanz'ekhona)Gaba (Mngqosini, Mjobi, Thithiba, Cihoshe, Nozinga, Mnt'womlambo, Thikoloshe, Ndoko, Mbokodw'emnyama Kahili, Msuthu)GadlumaGanuGebe (a Bomvana clan name)GqunuGqwashu (with Khoi-khoi ancestry)Gxarha (Mpodomise subgroup clan name)HegebeJola SingaMampondomise ngohlanga, oJola, oomphankomo, nomakhala, njuza, sthukuthezi, sithandwa mhla kukubi, hoshode, hakaha, mfaz'omabele made oncancisa naphesha komlamboJwarha (Mtika, Mazaleni, Jotela, Khatiti, Mnangwe, Mayarha, Mbelu, Ndabase, Bantw'abahle noba bapheth' izikhali,KhawutaKhiwa (Khonjwayo, ama Pondo clan)Khumalo (Mfengu clan name)Khwetshube (Mpondo clan name)Kwayi (Ngconde, Togu, Ubulawi, Ngcond'oneentshaba, etc.)Madiba (the clan name of Nelson Mandela, a Thembu.

Important rulers and chiefs include Mthikrakra, Ngangelizwe, Dalindyebo, Joyi, Jumba, Sabatha, Buyelekhaya)Maduna (Gubevu, Nokhala, an Mfengu clan name)Manci(Mbali, Wabane, Tshitshis'intaba, Mdludla ka Bekiso, Zinde Zinde Zinemiqala)Maya (omaya oyem yem osophitsho, omagwa, ongqolomsila, obhomoyi)MahlanguMatshaya MbathaneMbanjwaMbathaMbothoMdlangathi: Mome mome Sirhama Somntwana, JutaMfene (Olisa, Ojambasi)MhagaMiya, GcwaniniMjoli (Qubulashe, Wushe)Mkhwemte Dabane Sgadi Mekhi Ntswentswe Fulashe Nojaholo Ncibane Qhanqolo Ntlokwenyathi Ngququ vengeMpehle (Mpodomise subgroup clan name)Mpemvu (a Thembu clan name)Mpinga (Mawawa): the clan of Enoch Sontonga, author of "Nkosi Sikelel' iAfrika", part of Nationa Athem of Republic of South Africa.Mtakwenda (Leta, Libele, Tyebelendle, Ngcwadi, Kwangeshe, Mentuko, Mboyi, Solizembe)Mvulane (Ncilashe, Msuthu – they belong to the amaVundle people)Myirha Mzondi Sampu Ziyeka (Ithambo lenyoka lihlaba elimzondayo)NcuthuNdala (Ndala ka Momamana, uMncotshe, Msunu Sdumbu, Thole, Ngxunga Smukumuku, Ndithinina )Ndlovu Mntungwa Gengesi Malunga Mancoba (zidlekhaya ngokuswela umalusi)NgcitshaneNgxongoNgwanyaNkomo (Mntungwa, Khumalo – amaMfengu.

They are originally Ndebele from Natal and arrived in as refugees in Thembuland in 1828 during the time of the Mfecane wars.)Nkwali (Mfengu/Hlubi clan name: bhukula, Mkhwanazi, Nkwali ye Nkosi)NqarhwaneNtshilibeNxasanaNxuba (Mduma, Rhudulu)Nyawuza (Faku, Mpondo ruling line, chiefs including Faku, Sigcau, Bokleni, Ndamase)NzothwaMqadi Ngqwili NondlobeQhinebe - Gqugqugqu, Zithonga-zthathu, Haha, Mlunjwa, Mkhomanzi, Duka namahlathiQocwa (Zikhali Mazembe, Jojo, Tiyeka, Butsolo Beentonga Mbizana, Mabombo)QomaQithi (Ndinga, Zondwa, Thembu)Mqwambi, HolomiQwathi - Iinkomo zikaXesibe, zikaJojo, zikaMtshutshumbe, ogqaz'indlel'ebhek'ebuNguni. (The amaQwathi are not a clan but an independent nation founded by Mtshutshumbe kaMthetho who split from the amaXesibe nation and settled in the Mqanduli area in Thembuland some 350 years ago.

Later they settled in their present capital of Engcobo during the reign of King Dlomo of abaThembu, about 1680. This small but fiercely independent and anti-colonial nation divides into several clans: amaDikela, amaTshaba, ooSdindi, ooBhlangwe, ooBhose, amaNzolo, imiNcayi, amaNtondo, amaKhombayo, ooMkhondweni, amaVumbe, ooKhebesi, amaBangula, amaDumba, ooMhotho, ooCakeni, ooBhabha, amaMvala, amaDabisa, ooS'ximba, etc. Prominent chiefs include the heroic anti-colonial Stokwe ka-Ndlela, the courageous Dalasile kaFubu, the great Fubu himself (who fought and killed both Rharhabe and his son Mlawu in 1872, defended his capital and defeatedMadzikane of the Bhaca in 1824 and Matiwane of Ngwane in 1828 during the Mfecane wars triggered by Shaka, etc), Zwelakhe (present chief))Rhadebe ndlebentle'zombini (amaHlubi)RhoyiSithathu – means "third" (the third Khoi-khoi ancestry clan)[oChisana, Khopoyi, Ndebe, Hasa,Lawu]SikhosanaSkhoji (A group of Xhosa speaking people who mainly occupy the small town called Tsolo on the Tsitsa valley. They are the direct descendants of a Scottish man by the name of William Saunders who befriended a Xhosa girl and later had issue.)ShiyaSohobeseSonaniSukwini (with Khoi-khoi ancestry) – [Chwama, Dibashe ,Lawu'ndini, Nja-bomvu, Sandlala-ngca, Ithole loMthwakazi].Thangana (Krila, Rhaso, M'bamba, Bodlinja, Gobingca)Thole (Gqagqane, Buzini, Ndlangisa, Mzimshe, Lwandle)Tolo (amaMfengu – Dlangamandla, Mchenge, Mabhanekazi, Zulu, Mabele-made)Tshangisa (Zulu, Skhomo, Mhlatyana, Rhudulu, Nxuba, Mngwevu)Tshawe (the ruling house among all the Xhosa. Chiefs include Hintsa, Sigcawu, Sarhili, Xolilizwe, etc.)Tshezi (the ruling Bomvana clan of the Jalamba-Gambushe line, with European shipwreck ancestry)Tshomane (with shipwreck ancestry, split from the ruling Nyawuza clan of the Mpondo)Xesibe (AmaXesibe are a nation made up of several clans and tribes but their history is not well documented.

Common clan names are: Nondzaba, Mbathane, Tshomela ka Matsho).Xhamela (They are also called amaGcina, found in Thembuland).Zangwa (Khwalo – amaMpondo).Traditional Culture Veneration of the ancestors, sometimes called "ancestor worship," is very prominent among the Xhosa people. The ancestors are still considered part of the community of the lineage. They believe the ancestors reward those who venerate them and punish those who neglect them. Many mix ancestor worship with their Christian faith.

There is a strong sense of loyalty among the tribe or community. The land was communally held; and great emphasis placed on giving according to need: everything was shared, in bad times as well as good; Xhosa families still routinely help one another with such tasks as hut-building.

The body of Xhosa lore has much in common with that of the other Nguni peoples such as the Zulu and Swazi. Animism, and recognition of the presence and power of ancestral spirits and of a supreme authority, are basic elements of belief.

Misfortune and illness are attributed to unnatural of supernatural influences (such as the tokoloshe, a hairy and potentially malevolent goblin who attacks at night). Other figures are the huge lightning bird (Impundulu), and the gentle aBantu bomlambo, human-like beings believed to live in rivers and the sea, and who accept into their family those who drown.

The Xhosa also have amagqirha or diviners in their tribes. The diviner is the Xhosa's healer. There are herbalists amaxhwele, prophets izanusi, and healers inyanga for the community. The diviners are mostly women. They wear a shawl and headdress of fur most of the time. It takes about five years of being an assistant to a diviner until you become one yourself.

The key figure in the Xhosa oral tradition is the imbongi (plural: iimbongi) or praise singer. Iimbongi traditionally live close to the chief's "great place" (the cultural and political focus of his activity); they accompany the chief on important occasions - the imbongi Zolani Mkiva preceded Nelson Mandela at his Presidential inauguration in 1994. Iimbongis' poetry, called imibongo, praises the actions and adventures of chiefs and ancestors.[1] Xhosa traditional music places a strong emphasis on group singing and handclapping as accompaniment to dance.

Drums, while used occasionally, were not as fundamental a part of musical expression as they were for many other African peoples. Other instruments used included rattles, whistles, flutes, mouth harps, and stringed-instruments constructed with a bow and resonator.Another point is that part of the National anthem of South Africa is a Xhosa hymn written in 1897 by Enoch Sontonga.

The BASOTHO .. MOUNTAIN PEOPLE

Basotho People:This history part, if there's anything objectionable, I will be pleased to correct it..The Basotho are a group of people from a cluster of tribes united under King Moshoeshoe I (Moo shway shway) during the early 1800’s. Moving south from the Transvaal region of South Africa, they settled in the Orange Free State and on into the mountainous area now known as

The Kingdom of Lesotho. Lesotho, with an area of 11,720 square miles, is completely surrounded by the Republic of South Africa. Rugged, beautiful Lesotho ranges from five thousand feet in the western lowlands to more than eleven thousand feet in the majestic Maluti Mountains, which cover the majority of the country.It is often called “the roof of Africa.”

With few good roads, many areas are accessible only by horseback or light plane. Today, approximately 2.3 million Basotho live in the mountain kingdom of Lesotho while another 3 million live in the Republic of South Africa. Lesotho itself is severely overpopulated in the lowlands. Life expectancy is approximately 52 years of age but with the onslaught of AIDS this is reducing.

The majority of the Basotho in South Africa reside in the Orange Free State Province which borders Lesotho; however, there is also a large population in the city of Johannesburg.Politics & EconomyLesotho received it’s independence in 1966; however, the country has never experienced much political stability in the ensuing years.

The tiny mountain kingdom, completely surrounded by South Africa, has lurched from crisis to crisis since gaining independence over three decades ago. In the early years of independence the country was ruled by the military until the first free elections were held in 1993. Presently, the country has a king (King Letsie III), a prime minister and a Parliament composed of elected representatives and traditional chiefs.

After the May 1998 elections, opposition groups protested the election results resulting in political tensions which intensified in August, when members of the army joined the protestors. Eventually, South African troops intervened in September to prevent a coup but were met with fierce resistance from rebels and from ordinary citizens, many of whom viewed the intervention as an invasion.

The result was widespread rioting and looting which swept Maseru, destroying much of the city, and throughout towns in the lowlands. Years later, the country is still recovering from the crisis with many businesses still not yet rebuilt. Lesotho suffers some of the worst ecological devastation in the world. There is severe soil erosion and soil exhaustion.

There are very few trees. In a country that has traditionally based wealth on cattle and sheep, many of the animals have died during prolonged drought. A large percentage of the animals are now in the hands of a relatively small percentage of the population. The principal source of wealth is livestock raised on the country's grazing land. Lesotho's rivers and mountainous terrain offer potential for hydroelectric development.

A major diamond mine still exists in the mountains with a major diamond (633 carats) found in August 0f 2006. This was the 15th largest diamond ever found.There is a growing disparity in the standard of living between the mountainous areas and the lowlands, where there are more jobs. Only 10% of the land is arable. Lesotho depends heavily on foreign aid to survive economically.

Most Basotho in South Africa live in African townships, are laborers on farms owned by Afrikaners or work in the mines. CultureThe Basotho have a patriarchal society. A woman belongs to, or is incorporated into, the husband’s family. Lobola, the bride price, is still very important in the culture. All men have to pay the bride price even though some now use money instead of cattle.

In Lesotho, traditional authority is still firmly exercised through a system of chieftancy extending from the paramount chief (king) and his court, down through senior chiefs and sub-chiefs, to headmen and sub-headmen at the local level. Families and clans still cluster together as units in small villages. The hut of the chief is usually in the center of the village. There are kraals, or enclosures, for the animals. Boys start herding cattle/sheep when they are five or six years old.

Many teenagers and young men herd the flocks in remote areas and stay in little huts high in the mountains away from family for months at a time. Winter in the mountains may be severe and sometimes herd boys are cut off by snowstorms. Two distinctve features are the people’s love of horses and blankets.

The small, surefooted Basotho pony is often the only means of transport in the rugged country of Lesotho. Donkeys are also widely used to haul goods. Both men and women wear bright blankets as cloaks and fasten them with an oversized safety pin. They also wear a Sotho hat woven from reeds into a conical shape with a unique topknot.

The Shangaan, Thonga, Tsonga

If ever there is anthing objectionable about any part of the post, please make me aware and I will adjust it accordingly. someone just cursed me for using the word 'Shangaan. If we need to change our names, it would be better if we wrote about it and informed people about that change...

The Tsonga are a diverse people, generally including the Shangaan, Thonga, Tonga, and several smaller ethnic groups. Together they numbered about 1.5 million people in South Africa in the mid-1990s, with some 4.5 million individuals in southern Mozambique and Zimbabwe.

The Shangaan cclan came into being when King Shaka of the Zulu, sent Soshangane (Manukosi) to conquer the Tsonga people in the area of present-day southern Mozambique, during the Mfecane upheaval of the 19th Century. Soshangane found a fertile place inhabited by scattered communities of peace-loving people, and he decided to make it his home rather than return to Shaka.

The Shangaan were a mixture of Nguni (a language group which includes Swazi, Zulu and Xhosa), and Tsonga speakers (Ronga, Ndzawu, Shona, Chopi tribes), which Soshangane conquered and subjugated.Soshangane insisted that Nguni customs be adopted, and that the Tsonga learn the Zulu language.

Young Tsonga men were assigned to the army as 'mabulandlela' (those who open the road). Soshangane also imposed Shaka's military system of dominion and taught the people the Zulu ways of fighting.Soshangane’s army overran the Portuguese settlements in Mozambique, at Delagoa Bay,

Inhambane and Sena, and during the next few years, he established the Nguni kingdom of Kwa Gaza, which he named after his grandfather, Gaza.The Gaza Kingdom comprised parts of what are now southeastern Zimbabwe, as well as extending from the Save River down to the southern part of Mozambique, covering parts of the current provinces of Sofala, Manica, Inhambane, Gaza and Maputo, and neighbouring parts of South Africa.

Another army, under the command of Dingane and Mhlangana, was sent by Shaka to deal with Soshangane, but the army suffered great hardship because of hunger and malaria, and Soshangane had no difficulty, towards the end of 1828, in driving them off.

During the whole of this turbulent period, from 1830 onwards, groups of Tsonga speakers moved southwards and defeated smaller groups living in northern Natal; others moved westwards into the Transvaal, where they settled in an arc stretching from the Soutpansberg in the north, to Nelspruit and Barberton areas in the southeast, with isolated groups reaching as far westwards as Rustenburg.

After the death of Soshangane in 1856, his sons fought over the chieftainship. Soshangane had left the throne to Mzila, but Mawewe felt that he should be chief. Mawewe attacked Mzila and his followers, causing them to leave Mozambique and flee to the Soutpansberg Mountains in the Transvaal.Mzila stayed with João Albasini at Luonde.

Albasini, who had been appointed by the Portuguese Vice-Consul to the Zuid Afrikaansche Republiek (ZAR) in 1858, employed many of the Tsonga men as 'indhuna' (headman), and defenders of his fort-like home at the foot of the Piesangkop near the modern town of Makhado (formerly known as Louis Trichardt).Aided by Albasini and traders at Lourenço Marques, Mzila gained the upper hand, returning and defeating Mawewe in 1862.

Mawewe fled to Swaziland, where he sought the help of King Mswati I, finally settling in northern Swaziland on the border with Gazaland. Ngungunyane, who succeeded Mzila, was defeated by the Portuguese in 1895, which caused the collapse of the Gaza kingdom.The Tsonga came to João Albasini for protection and they considered Jiwawa (the Tsonga version of his name) as their chief.

Between 1864 and 1867, the Tsonga were involved in the battles between Paul Kruger's commandos and the Venda chief Makhato. For their services they were rewarded some land near the town of Schoemansdal.This area became known as the 'Knobneusen Location', because of the habit the Tsonga had acquired of tattooing the nose.

Later the Shangaan people fled to the Lowveld after the Portuguese conquered them. The descendants of both Tsonga and Shangaan lived together in the area and a great deal of interaction occurred between the two groups.The Tsonga-Shangaan homeland, Gazankulu, was carved out of northern Transvaal Province during the 1960s and was granted self-governing status in 1973.

The homeland economy depended largely on gold and on a small manufacturing sector.Only an estimated 500,000 people - less than half the Tsonga-Shangaan population of South Africa - ever lived there.

Many others joined the throngs of township residents around urban centres, especially Johannesburg and Pretoria.Traditionally, each Tsonga family had its own 'village' composed of a few houses and a kraal, surrounded by the fields and grazing areas.

From 1964, the government started resettling the people in rural villages of 200 to 400 families.These resettlements brought tremendous changes in the life of the people, some for the better (roads, schools, water, etc), some for the worse (scattering of the enlarged family, lack of privacy, problems with cattle, distance form the fields, and so forth).Social and Cultural LifeTraditionally, the Tsonga lived mainly by fishing for subsistence.

A few goats and chickens were raised, and crop cultivation was important. Their tsetse fly-infested coastal lowland habitat made cattle raising an uncommon practice.

By the 18th Century, most Tsonga were organised into several small and independent chiefdoms in which inheritance by brothers, rather than sons, was a defining feature of the social system, a practice common in many Central African societies but rare among other South African groups.

Compared with common western family structures, the traditional social structures of the Tsonga tribes are quite complex. The smallest social unit that can be determined is the ‘nuclear family’, consisting of a woman with her own hut and cooking area, her husband and their children.

For Tsonga men, the possibility of having more than one wife exists. In cases of polygamy, ‘extended families’ came about, consisting of a group of nuclear families, headed by the same man.

When the sons of an extended family married, a settlement, or muti came about, consisting of a man, his wives, their unmarried children and the families of their married sons.Traditionally, these settlements appeared as circular living areas, surrounded by wooden walls.

Inside this circle, various huts and cooking spots were built. Large thatched conical roofs typify the style of their homes. Wide beaded necklaces and heavy metal bracelets are also popular.Within the Tsonga community, different social units exist.

Aside from the family units mentioned above, lineages or nyimba exist, consisting of persons who can prove they descend from the same ancestors. The various lineages can be grouped into clans or xivongo, consisting of all persons, who descend from the same ancestor.In present times, the Tsonga community structure is based on tribal relationships.

A tribe is a group of people, which recognises the authority from one tribal chief or hosi, and is living in a specific tribal area, or tiko ra hosi.Belief SystemWhilst generally in African culture, and specifically in Shangaan-Tsonga culture, a Supreme Being is acknowledged, far more relevant are the powers of ancestors who are believed to have considerable effects on the lives of their descendants.

The ancestors appear mainly in dreams, but sometimes manifest themselves as spirits.Some spirits or ancestors are believed to live in certain sacred places where ancient chiefs have been buried. Each clan has several of these burial grounds. The ancestors are propitiated by prayers and offerings, which range from beer to animal sacrifices.

The Sangoma, on behalf of the community, makes offerings in times of trouble or in cases of illness, and on special occasions. Care is taken to please the ancestors, as restless ancestors can cause trouble. Children are named after their ancestors to ensure continuity in the family.

According to the Tsonga, there exists a strong relationship between the creation (ntumbuloko) and a supernatural power called Tilo. Tilo refers to a vaguely described superior being, who created mankind, but it also refers to the heavens, being the home of this creature.The Tsonga believed that man had a physical (mmiri) and a spiritual body with two added attributes, the moya and the ndzuti.

The moya is associated with the spirit, enters the body at birth, and leaves at death to join the ancestors.The ndzuti was associated with the person’s shadow and reflected human characteristics. At death, in the spirit world, it left the body.

This meant that the spirit was attached with the individual and human characteristics of that person. Inherent in this concept is not only the belief in life after death but also that the dead retain very strong links with the living. Passing over into the spirit world is an important stage in the life of a Tsonga.

The members of the family performed a welcoming ceremony to help ease the passage of the dead person into the spirit world. The death of a member of the family also caused all the other members in the homestead to become unclean and they all had to go through ritual cleansing ceremonies.

These ceremonies were performed at different times of the day over the next few months. During religious ceremonies, the family gathered at a special area to pay homage to the ancestral spirits. Food and drink was offered to the ancestors to thank them for providing for the people.Face scarring in Shangaan–

Tsonga culture had its origin in deterring Arab slave traders but it is now considered a sign of beauty. The transition from youth to adulthood is a truly warlike affair, where patterns are burnt into the skin.It is important to know that in the traditional Tsonga worldview, society is an overall unity, consisting of both the living and the dead.

Aside from their belief in serving the ancestral spirits, there exists also a strong belief in magic, which can be used for evil purposes (vuloyi), practised by evil servants (valoyi), with the purpose to harm the community.Good spirits brought rain and caused good things to happen, and evil spirits, controlled by sorcerers, caused great harm to the community.

Illness or persistent bad luck usually indicated the presence of baloyi (evil spirits) but occasional illness was accepted as part of everyday life.However, if the illness was serious or the cycle of bad luck persisted, a cure had to be found through divination. Traditional healers (tin’anga) consulted the ancestral spirits by “throwing” the bones (tinholo), shells or other artefacts and were thus able to determine the cause of the bad luck and suggest ways in which to get rid of the cause.

Traditional healers, also combine magic and the knowledge of medicinal plants (mirhi) in favour of the community.Music and dance:In the Shangaan–Tsonga tradition, the storyteller is the grandmother or elder woman of the family who is the respected transmitter of the old stories.

The old woman, called Garingani, or narrator, begins her storytelling by saying “Garingani, n’wana wa Garingani!” - “I am Narrator, daughter of Narrator!” after which the crowd cheers “Garingani”. The crowd chants her name after each line of the story.With a love for music, the Shangaan–Tsonga people have developed a number of musical instruments.

The 'fayi' - a small, stubby wooden flute that produces a breathless, raspy, but haunting sound, and is often played by young herd boys. The 'xitende', is a long thin bow tied on each end by a taut leather thong or wire - which runs across a gourd. This was often used to alleviate boredom on long journeys.

The Shangaan-Tsonga is well known for their mine dances, carried out to the beat of drums and horns and wide variety of musical instruments such as the mbila. Shangaan–Tsonga male dancers performed the muchongolo dance, which celebrated the role of women in society, war victories and ritual ceremonies.

Life of the Shangaan TodayA living monument to the Shangaan culture was officially opened on 23 February 1999 near Hazyview, Mpumalanga. The Cultural Village aims to enhance tourism and contribute to job creation, foreign currency earnings and economic development.

Today, the Shangaan live in areas mainly between the Kruger National Park and the Drakensberg Mountains, in South Africa's Mpumalanga and Northern Provinces. Their sister tribe, the Tsongas, inhabit most of southern Mozambique..

Wilson On Black Oppression And White Power

Miseducation of Africans About Their History On Steroids

In order to put this article into its proper perspective, Chinweizu informs us thus:"It was miseducation which sought to with from me the memory of our true African past and to substitute instead an ignorant shame for whatever travesties Europe chose to represent as African Past.

It was miseducation which sought to quarantine me from all influences, ancient as well as contemporary, which did not emanate from, or meet with the imperial approval of, western "civilization."

It was a miseducation which, by encouraging me to glorify all things European and by teaching me a low esteem for and negative attitudes towards things African, sought to cultivate in me that kind of inferiority complex which drives a perfectly fine right foot to strive to mutilate itself into a left foot. It was a miseducation full of gaps and misleading pictures.

it sought to structure my eyes to see the world in the imperialist way of seeing the world; it sought to internalize in my consciousness the values of the colonizers; it sought to train me to automatically uphold and habitually employ the colonizers' viewpoint in all matters, in the strange belief that their racist, imperialist, anti-African interest is the universal, humanist interest, and in a strange belief that the view defined by their ruthless greed is the rational, civilized view.

And by such terms of supposed praise as "advanced," "detribalized," and getting to be quite civilized," it sought to co-opt my sympathies and make contemptuous of examining what it should have been my duty to change and alleviate. For it was a distracting miseducation which tried in every way to avoid questions that were important to me and to the collective African condition.

It tried to maneuver me away from asking them; it tried to keep me from probing them most thoroughly; it tried instead to preoccupy me with other matters. But the had realities of the Black(African) Condition kept insisting that I ask: Where did our poverty, our material backwardness, our cultural inferiority complexes begin and why? And why do they persist in spite of political independence?"

If the reader has read the whole quote up to here, Chinweizu is more than relevant here. He covers all the issues we have raised and tells us what to do in reconstructing African history, all the issues raised herein, affected everything about him and the world and real-reality he lives in day in and day out.

What Chinweizu is discussing above, is what has been the Achilles heel of African progress and development in various ways.Unlearning the Narcotized Colonial MiseducationChinweizu, true to form, delves even much deeper into his soliloquy in the following manner:

"When I turned to the official explainers and interpreters, and to the expert and benevolent meliorists of our condition, and asked for a flash of light, they wrapped my head instead with a should of double-talk and evasions; they thrust my head into a garbage dump of facts, facts and more bits and pieces of facts which merely confused me the more by their (deliberately?) disorganized abundance; they punctured the membranes of my ears with slogans, distinctions without preferences, smart phrases which brightly and engagingly misled.

They offered me tools, supposedly analytic, which mauled what they claimed to explain, and left me constipated with jargon and dazed with confusion. the experience was thoroughly disillusioning.

In my pain I began to suspect that my mind had been, over the years, held prisoner in a den where intellectual opiates were served me by official schools, by approved lists of books, by the blatant as well as subliminal propaganda of films, and by an overwhelming assortment of media controlled by interests inimical to, and justifiably scared of a true and thorough-going African Nationalism.

Suspecting that the glittering phalanx of experts spoke to my colonizers and their imperial interests, I felt that, even thoughI was not an "expert" in these fields, I should nevertheless conduct my own investigation into the origins and circumstances of the deplorable African stasis, learning the necessary skills "on the job" as it were."

The article above has been pointing out to the 'self-appointed' experts that have given themselves the task of explaining to the world, and on the internet what they 'think' they know about Africans in South Africa. In this article I contended that these so-called pros know nothing about the Africans of South Africa, and proceeded to breakdown these custom and cultures to make the point that African South African History, culture, customs, tradition and so on are not static nor non-existence.

But, as according to the definition I utilized from Hall and Wilson, to gave us a definition of Culture, which it turns out is right down the pike it was with the culture of the Nguni/Bakone I have written about in this article. This was in an effort to aid Africans to begin to unlearn colonial history and learn their history anew and in a much more informed way and manner.

After Chinweizu realized and learned that he can teach himself to morph into his own written account, educating himself about himself and his people anew, made him realized that by thinking so, and was ready to unlearn what he called the "narcotic colonized education" he had to overcome the challenges of deconstructing the Master's history and rewriting and recreating his own history in his own image and people.

This is how Chinweizu addresses this part of the discourse I am talking above in the paragraph below:"My official education was over. The overthrow of the allegiances programmed into me by it was in swift progress; but there were vital things I still had to learn-things they did not and would not teach me in school; things they would, if they could, keep me from coming into contact with even outside school; things in order to appreciate which I had to painfully unlearn much of what they had instilled in me at school.

And so I began a journey of the mind; a journey by a mind thoroughly alienated from its imperialized miseducation. And the purpose of this journey was first to seek out the roots of the Black Condition within which my mind suffered. By the way, if any should think inappropriate my discussing colonial education through imagery of opium narcotics, let them consider that the British, from 1839 to 1842, waged war on China.

This was in order to force the Chinese to buy opium with her Britannic Christian Majesty's imperial agents grew in India. victory in the Opium War earned the British the "right" to addict so many Chinese to opium that much of the population, nodding and half asleep all the time, was supinely amenable to Western cultural aggression and imperialist manipulation.

Now, if they could go that far, why should their use of intellectual opium to subdue, for the same ends, some other unlucky victims seem incredible and outlandish?"We catch-up with Chinweizu after much articulation as to his transformation out of being 'narcotically miseducated by the colonizers', to being influenced bythe Frantz Fanon, Amilcar Cabral. Pablo Neruda of Chile, Malcolm X, Julius Nyerere, Mbonu Ojike, Aime Cesaire, Hamidou Kane, and so forth.

To better understand the origins of the African stasis and, and to the task of understanding the workings of the system which maintained the deplorable Black Condition saying that "these have been and remain my teachers and my guides as I continue my efforts to cleanse myself of the pollutions from a colonial miseducation." We further learn from Chinweizu who clearly states that:

"Having listened to them, I would heed no more, and would more emphatically reject,the pious, self-serving propaganda given out as official and objective truth by the imperialist party. ... For I no longer believe the official voices of the West. They do not speak for the interests of the imperialized. I now realize that these "official husbanders of my consciousness" would take incredible pains to hide from me even elementary things, the better to conceal all clues that might lead me to correct answers to questions provoked by the Black condition.

I have decided to listen closely to voices from the imperialized world, to share experiences and insights with them. What the voices from the imperialized world say, and some are anti-imperialist voices within the West say, continue to make sense to me I trying to understand our specific conditions."

Citing Chinweizu at such length is very important for the political/social historical theory for the presently dysfunctional people of South Africa. Learning and reading up on such works such as these presented by Chiweizu and those who are at the front of the African struggle and liberation.

They who spin history to be user-friendly for the oppressed, in the process imparting knowledge and ways and means and new ways of learning and thinking about the what he calls the "Black Condition", are important links for Africans to use to manipulate and meander through all the obstacles that are thrown their way whenever they try to unlearn what Chinweizu calls 'narcotized colonized miseducation".

At this juncture, we take some lesson from Chinweizu when he sutures, tightly, his argument and reasons as to why and how we should unlearn this devious form of miseducation of Africans by the West: Chiweizu finally points out that:"If my experience of it is at all representative, colonial miseducation is something its victim need to cure themselves of. And this is not easy to do.

We are all, I believe, rather a little like colonized boy who, we are told, had learned from his colonized milieu to be ashamed of his local Africans weather. In our efforts to wash from our consciousness the harmful pollutants deposited there by our colonial miseducation, we are apt to act like the child who rubs his/her belly endlessly with soap and water, doesn't touch any other part of his body, and when he tires of it all, runs to his/her mother to announce that he/she has taken a bath.

Clearly we need something like a communal metal bath, one which we shall scrub the crud off one another's backs, and especially from those corners which our hands cannot thoroughly scour. ... I believe that even a layman ought to share his results with others, so we can move more rapidly to a deeper, more thorough, and more useful appreciation of our collective condition."Chinweizu trudges on:

"If we wait for our official experts, who knows when, if ever, they will dare feel free, or find it profitable, to talk candidly and intelligently to us? For there are three sorts of experts-those for our liberation; those against our liberation; and those who contrive to appear to be on our side while they are indeed subtly working against our liberation. Advice from an expert who is not on your side, or from one who is against you, can be far worse than no expert advice at all.

The layman, I believe, ought therefore to be very discriminating in choosing what expert to heed. It is, in every situation, very much like choosing a lawyer. For there are some experts, some Africans included, who deeply cherish the privileges that go with defending or furthering the interests of the imperialists.

Under the guise of professionalism, of offering objective advice, some will subtly legislate against, or turn the unwary client away, from things that are in the client's interest; some will gloss over differences that matter; some will conceal facts or omit considerations that are vital.

Because of these kinds of experts genuinely on the client's side are as capable of honest error as anyone, the client ought always to exercise vigilance and common sense in taking advice from experts. For eternal vigilance, in all matters, especially over the minutest details, is still the price of liberty."

"Given the psychic and ideological foundation of our subjugation, of both the colonial subjugation from which we thought we had escaped a and the neocolonial form that has manacled us, any spirited drive for genuine freedom must begin with a thorough critique of the bourgeoise culture that has made us captives; of the process and content of the modernization that has lured us into captivity; and of the relation, if any, between technological modernization and the Christian bourgeois culture."

It is precisely the existence of such a milieu that is retarding African progress today, because these petty-bourgeois elite who kowtow and pander to the West and are flinging themselves pell-mell into its orb, disregarding any protestations nor opposition that stems from its African voting polity, as in the case of Africans in South Africa.According to Chinweizu, we should be circumspect of experts , all of those pretenders and false analysts who make out as if they have African people's interests at heart.

meanwhile, behind the scenes(mentally or otherwise) scurrilously fleece you to the marrow of your soul by denouncing every little thing about one, in order to dominate and confuse you. This is how Chinweizu concludes this matter:"In exercising our rights as citizens, and in meeting our obligations to examine, discuss and pronounce upon all matters that affect our general welfare, we are bound to come up against the resistance of that kind of expert who rises up in arms whenever a layman "trespasses" on his "jargon-fenced bailiwick".

Such experts, while misinterpreting facts and gerrymandering arguments, are prone to mount some high pedestal of laurels and reputation, and from there demand the "intruder's" credentials, in hopes or overawing him into irresponsible silence,or intimidating him/her into acquiescing in arrant nonsense."ChinweizU concludes thusly:In such situations, it is perhaps prudent to remind oneself that the loftiest credentials have never been a barrier to uttering nonsense; nor is a total lack of credentials a barrier to talking sense.

A decolonized and re-educated African ought always to demand that matters be explained from an Afro-centric viewpoint, with scientific tools, and that the results be translated into intelligible common sense. By so insisting, we enable ourselves to spot and avoid ideologies, open as well as hidden, by which we are liable to be confused and misled, and attractive myths by which we are liable to be tricked and lynched en masse."

We need to raise our level of vigilance, read and know our history, find ways and means to get it from FB to the man in the street who has no such knowledge or awareness and expounded upon by Chinweizu; be able to break down these advices to be in tandem with the understand, needs and relevance to the the poor Africans of South africa.

This is the job of all those who are reading this posted piece now to take it from here and make it reach the people , or print it to give it to the ordinary and poor people in community who do not have access to computers. We need to begin to use FB to inform and form positive dialogues with our poor masses who are denied such knowledge; we should not only boast about the fact that we are the only one who know this type of information, we should make it possible for the children, youth and elderly to have access to this information, whatever it takes.

We, as Africans of South Africa, are much more better than what we are now experiencing and facing as a people.

CDr. Clarke On TheHistory Of Ama-Zulu..

Zulus In Short...

Today there are about 3 million Zulus, who mostly live in the Natal Province of South Africa. This area is some- times called Zululand, and has a very warm climate.HISTORY. The Zulu started as a clan that belonged to a larger group of people called the Nguni. The Nguni migrated south from central East Africa in the 16th century to the Natal region.

As they settled the Zulu built beehive shaped grass huts to live in.The Zulu people believe that they are the direct descendents of a chief called Zulu (which means heaven in the Nguni language). After the death of Zulu, his descendants called themselves abakwaZulu (people of Zulu). The Zulu people also call themselves Abantsundu, which means "brown people".By the early 19th century the Zulu had become the strongest military force in southern Africa (under the leader- ship of the powerful but violent Shaka).

They raided and killed many neighbors and took their land, goods and women. Soon after this, however (around 1830), they had to face the growing colonial presence of the British, who wanted to control the entire southern part of Africa.It was not the first time that Europeans had seized control of land in Southern Africa.

The first white Europeans arrived in 1488. Many whites (English, Dutch, German and French) went to the nearby Cape of Good Hope to settle starting around 1600. There, the Europeans imported slaves to work for them and a society was created of free whites and blacks with very few rights.

Many white settlers did not like British rule, however. They called themselves Afrikaner or Boer (the Dutch word for farmer) and used their own language, called Afrikaans (which resembles Dutch). The Afrikaners and English fought for power for many years.After much tension between the Zulu people and the Europeans a war broke out in 1879.

Though the Zulus had some success in driving back the British in the very beginning, the superior weapons and horses of their enemies led to the rapid defeat of the Zulu. The last military attempt to keep their land free of the British took place in 1906.After the British defeated the Zulu and the other native peoples of South Africa a period of British white colonial domination began.

The Union of South Africa was created in 1910, and South Africa thus became officially inde- pendent. Afrikaans became the dominant language. Whites had all the power and wealth in this new nation and the black population became second class citizens with almost no political power.

In 1948 a racist government came into power that started the practice of Apartheid. New Apartheid laws soon made Zulus and other blacks (as well as other ethnic groups) officially inferior to whites, and kept the different groups completely separate.

During the Apartheid period the Zulus tried to resist the domination of the whites in every aspect of life, but they had little power to live the lives they wanted.Since the transition to democracy in 1994 (when Nelson Mandela became president), and the end of Apartheid, the Zulus have struggled against the new South African government for the right to run their own affairs.

This has led to a lot of violence in the last ten years.RELIGIONThe Zulu religion is based on the creator god Unkulunkulu and the worship of ancestors. The creator god is almighty, but has little to do with everyday affairs. The spirit world, on the other hand, is always present in tradi- tional Zulu religion. It is believed that when a person dies this person's spirit will watch over the others from this spirit world.

People can come into contact with the spirit world and one's ancestors during special ceremonies.The spirits of the ancestors like to be remembered. People make offerings (like beer and meat) to the spirits to show them that they have not been forgotten. Because it is so important to honor the spirits there are many rituals in Zulu daily life that are meant to please the spirits.

According to the more traditional Zulu belief all misfortune is due to evil magic or to spirits that have been offended. Another important part of Zulu religion is cleanliness. People will bathe up to three times a day.At the end of the1700s, missionaries attempted to convert the Zulus to Christianity (mostly Protestant); due to the Zulus strong beliefs and community, this has only been partially successful.

Many Zulus today practice a type of religion that is a mixture of Christianity and their own traditional religion.SOCIETY, ECONOMY AND POLITICSIn the past centuries the Zulus preferred to live in homesteads (a group of huts called kraals) instead of villages. The huts in the homestead formed a circle. There was a cattle pen in the middle of the circle where the Zulus kept their livestock.

Traditional huts were built by using small trees with grass mats on top. The floor was made of clay and cow dung that was rubbed hard into a smooth and shiny surface.Traditional Zulu society has chiefs and a king. Several homesteads were traditionally run by one chief, who made the important decisions. There was one Zulu king who represented all the Zulu. He played an important role in the politics of the Zulu territory throughout history and has represented his people internationally.

Today, Zulu kinds are still respected but this traditional power structure clashes with the central and democratic government of South Africa.The Zulu who live primarily in the rural part of South Africa tend to raise cattle and also grow corn and vegetables (such as corn, beans, yams and millet). The men and boys have been traditionally responsible for the herds of cattle, goats and sheep, while the women have been responsible for the planting and harvesting of crops.

Men play the dominant role in Zulu families. The men own the huts, make the decisions, receive visitors and go to war. They are also allowed to have more than one wife. When they are young, girls learn to cook, plant crops and take care of the children. After marriage, Zulu brides traditionally move in with their husbands and their husbands' families.

The husband and his family give the bride's family some cattle as a gift in return. In the past, the only way to inherit property was through the father. Mothers are primarily responsible for their children, but children tend to grow up with a large number of other people who are all seen as family.

The Zulu who live in urban areas are still suffering from the history of Apartheid. They have a hard time competing for jobs and most do unskilled labor (men) and domestic work (women).CULTUREThe Zulu have close ties to other Nguni people such as the Swazi and Xhosa, and their cultures are quite similar.

Zulus speak the Kwazulu language, which is a mixture of several other languages.Traditionally men and women are involved in different types of arts and crafts. The Zulu women are best known for their beadwork and basket making, while men are known for their wood carvings and for the objects they make out of animal skins.Poetry has long been an important art form among men.

The poems of the past praised kings and national heroes. Poems today are often more political and talk about the history of Apartheid and Zulu life today. Story- telling and riddles have also always been popular form of entertainment.

Dr. Ben On Egyptian History

Historical Side-Bar: Egyptian Historical Perspectives: Mzantsi Fo Sho

The post I am making is from another blogging site(not FB), I am engaged in its discussion and dialogues and participate in contributing to questions asked and sometime become embroiled in hard and serious arguments about subjects and topics, depending on the questions asked. I usually do not post these here on FB, but this little, I felt would help in educating ourselves.

Due to limited space one has in these Sites, I maxed out on my reply and had to heavily edit my response and ran out of the allotted number of characters allowed for one to talk or discuss thoroughly the things we have not yet even touched upon in some of our diatribes here on these different Sites/Blogs and here on the FB.

Nonetheless, the little bit I have here would help in informing ourselves about these issues. Knowledge of African History is useless without ones recognition and full understanding and knowledge of Egyptian history and all it has to offer(it offers too many things which I will not go into here).

Now A Guy named Andrew, in this particular site asked the following question: Andrew: "What Books Were Burnt in The Library Of Alexandria?" Somethblue replied:"Julius Caesar usually gets the blame for the fire that destroyed the Great Library of Alexandria in his War against Pompey but others have also been mentioned."

Depending on which source you choose to believe over 400,000 scrolls of priceless antiquity were destroyed. One must remember that 'books' were written in that time as one continuous scroll not as individual pages but one long page read top to bottom."As for what 'books' were destroyed no knows . . . because they were destroyed, get it? As in they cease to exist, they are no longer with us, they are ashes, they are burned, they are destroyed . . . Hello? Anyone home?"

Skhokho's Response:"Tough Question. This has been an ongoing one for millennia and there seems to have been no definitive answer. I will simple give you some general answers at this point. We now know for a fact that the Egyptians educated the Greeks. Also, that the Egyptians were the the first to civilize the Greeks. It is well know too, that Alex and his marauders burned

The books and library. There's already ample scholarship that point to the fact that what has become the Memphite Theology was an inscription on a stone now kept in the British museum, and contains the theological, cosmological and philosophical views of the Egyptian. It is dated 700 B.C, and bears the name of the Egyptian Pharaoh who stated that he copied it from his ancestors.

I need to do an article on its three supplementary parts, 1. Gods of Chaos, 2. Gods of order and Arrangement in Creation, and 3. The Primate of the Gods, or Gods of Gods."Now, this is a very huge task to answer your question given this little space, but, from my own research sources, the Athenian philosophers, Socrates Plato and Aristotle and all their different philosophies, doctrines and the books they wrote(as in the case of Aristotle), are of Egyptian origin and can be traced there.

The 'supposedly large number of books' that Aristotle has purported to have written were and had their sources traced to the library of Alexandria as their true origin, because of the lack of uniformity between the list of books thus pointing to doubtful authorship."There was also the rarely discussed Curriculum of the Egyptian Mystery system, i,e.,

The education of the Egyptian Priests according to their Orders; the education of the Egyptian Priests in a. The seven Liberal Arts; b. Secret systems of languages and Mathematical Symbolism; c. Magic; d. and that "

A comparison of the Curriculum of The Egyptian Mystery System" with the list of books was drawn up by Aristotle himself."

The authorship of books by Plato is even disputed by modern scholars, and ancient historians deny his authorship of the 'Republic' and 'Timeas', because the allegory of the charioteer and winged steeds is traced to its Egyptian origins."

The doctrines of Socrates are traced to their Egyptian origin, and he taught nothing new(not originated by him)"In a nutshell,

"Plagiarism has now been shown to have been a common practice among the Greek philosophers who borrowed from each other, but chiefly from Pythagoras, who got all from the Egyptians.

This is a tough subject, but there's research and not guess work."Synergy and SynthesisI wish I had more space and would have really broken it down to its minutest details to really drive home the point that African Scholarship has now advanced and moved in to areas most of us have not yet come across, and there are still those people out there who just answer anything from old and decrepit, tired writing about African Historical, etc., subject matters they have not given themselves enough time to read-up on nor research extensively and thoroughly.

Well, in contemporary times, African historiography is now in a position to answer and defend falsities that are being spread by some ignoramuses about African folks and they consistently try to, show , for all the wrong reasons, still find they can nothing of value even in the most of the advanced African Civilization of any at any time in Antiquity .

At the same time, I have now researched that the South African Civilization of Mapungubwe was not just an aberration or accident of African ancient history. Instead, for that matter, I have even pushed it further, wherein I am now deep into a research that shows that in South Africa, we Africa, we have a history that predates any history and of which tis history which can be traced as far back as 200,000 years B.C., with architectural and any types of discipline being applied and hauled-in to shore-up this claim and physical pictures and proof of ancient runs and dwellings that dot the South African landscape, that had been hidden from us.

There's so much work out there to be done on behalf of our people that the narrow-minded-myopic views adopted by some of us is regressive and very detrimental to our own development.

Some of us no more care what the White man says, we are and have been able to, if not still research, some of the most difficult areas and topics that we, as the people of Mzantsi and then Africa and the whole Diaspora need to talk about and make sure we dig them out, and offer them to our people to learn from.

Some of us, steal the works and efforts of others without crediting them for their efforts so that they appear 'clever' or 'smart' of something they are not. A lot of us "Plagiarize others'"(that is steal it!) work, and some ignore it as if it does not exist. Well, as I have pointed out somewhere in my post, 'running away form yourself' will not cut it. My African "Master Teachers have taught me well in learning how to be original and challenged.

Most of us-their historical neophytes, to work on producing scholarly contributions that they have rescued from oblivion, and be able to demonstrate with impeccable and impeccable proof that much of the standard fare in the History of philosophy and African history, culture traditions and customs, is precisely that which we say it is.

without asking anyone for their opinion, which, after-all, up to the point we raise some of these conclusive historical and philosophical concrete, they have been maintaining, and still maintain that Africans have no history, and nothing to show for that.

Balderdash! We, African people today, are up to the task to tackle these falsification of African histories, cultures, custom, traditions, languages and practices with gusto and forthrightness.Mental bondage is invisible violence. Formal physical slavery had ended around the world(in a way). Mental slavery continues to the present day.

This slavery affects the minds of all people, and , in one way, it is worse than physical slavery alone. That is, the person who is in mental bondage will be "self-contained." Not only will that person fail to challenge beliefs and patterns of thought which control him, he will defend and protect those beliefs and patterns of thought virtually with his last dying effort.

As as we can see today in Mzantsi, our general public accepts anything any fool trumpets, at times because they have money and status("ma-shayela tops") whose opinion is respected based solely on that rickety assumption.

For example, when an occasional scholar, priest, or member of the general public discovers new questions and new treatments of information, especially information that challenges the bedrock of the belief and think system, that person is frequently met with "silence," "denial," "isolation," even "death."

Well, as I have always said in on other sites or blog-posts:"We Are Going Nowhere Very Fast" here in Mzantsi... And, "We Are Still Hurrying Up Slowly"...

African Music

Developing Talking Musical Cultural/Historical Points And Shifting the Paradigm: African Polyrhythmic-Roots-Rocking-Rhythms

Any culture does not allow for stagnation; each culture manages to learn from other cultures, but keep itself unique to itself. Many races or people throughout the world perform and manifest their culture whilst maintaining this uniqueness, that which one can can discern by interrogating certain aspects of those cultures, like in my case, music.

I have been posting various types of music in their specific genres, and this means that different music is sung in different languages, since the music I post is from different countries, this means that whoever is listening might not understand the language, but the music is universal (that is, the rhythm, sound melodies and the playing of various instrument and different dances), and most them have different musical style, tones and accentuation as do their languages..

But what is important and common about these musical acts and sounds, is that they are being selected from an African centered perspective. Were people to find time and read-upon the origins and histories of these groups, one would be struck at the similarities of experiences experienced by these musicians, in their different countries throughout their different struggles.

This is important to note.If one were to listen to Eldridge cleaver, his issued this aphorism in the same spirit of what I had just discussed above when he informs us that:"Until Black(African) people as a whole gain power, it's not a question of where you are geographically if you Black (African); it's a question of where you are psychologically.

No matter where you place Black(African) people under preset conditions, they'll still subject to the whims and decisions of white political, economic and [psychological] apparatus."Why I am using this citation is the simple reason that we have to begin to understand our situation not only regionally, nationally or continentally, but look at it from a global perspective.

This helps us become more aware and sensitized to this issue of African musical culture is really Global-and if that is hard to conceive, we cannot change or shift any existing paradigms that chain us to our colonial past and continued existence. We will operate with blinkers in a Globe that is Web-driven in its vastness and content. We cannot dig in into our heels when we need to move into the 21st century.

This means knowing, learning and understanding the African struggle as it is International as much as local where it is based for each individual.In fact, some of us are so caught -up with trying to be very Europeans in how they imbibe or groove to the music so long it is not their local music, and not African, in many cases.

This you can find all over the globe, and it is not unique to one people. But it applies to all the oppressed because most of us have not yet been liberated in ourselves and in our societies. Ourselves are chained , to our societies which are incarcerated.

.I remember reading somewhere about Duke Ellington that he moved the music which we know as Jazz from "Jungle Music" to what we call Jazz(I guess-bleached sounds). African Music globally is not "Jungle Music", but it is human music. Imagine we have to actually say that and try to qualify and uplift it to the level of it being human-preposterous!

Yet, this is what we, those oppressed around the world, have been sold to, bamboozled with and dry-cleaned to the extend that we ignore our music, cultures and so forth, because we are avoiding and ignoring ourselves-as Bob Marley sings: "You Running Away From Yourself.."

Then there is this perception that when one plays or posts music, they are not 'seriously' carrying out the struggle. That could not be far from the truth. The Music of any people is the soundtracks of their lives, culture and so on. It as as one as breathing is to our lives.

You ignore music that uses a language that you do not understand, or have been conditioned in a sort of "Kraal" enclosure in one's existence by the laws, regulation, tricks, fraud, corruption and use of force that is administered to to those who resist-and you cave in-you lose; so that, the act of brutal oppression, increased the intensity of the production of radical music as one would breath hard when fighting.

Writing is just like music. One needs to compose it. In the case of writing, you compose whatever it is from social experience-as does music. When as a people you originate ideas and other such things, you become more legit and real. You cannot live your life as a duplicate of a manufactured you. One cannot live a life that is not relevant to their lives. You cannot listen to music that does not harken back to your own social experience.

To ignore or refuse to acknowledge that ones music is a pathway to sanity, then, one will be left lollygagging within a mix which corrodes their inner core and souls.Just like writing, we develop our musical talking points about music that originates from our inner sanctum and soul. To shift paradigms is to totally change a way that is not compatible with ones well-beingness.

Music appreciation is something one grows up and finds people one is born into listening or playing it. This also means that, since then it is human music, it compels one to spread one's listening preferences.

If what we say amongst ourselves, we do not trust nor believe it, because one of the same oppressed as us is saying it, means that when we begin to listen and participate, imbibe and consume our 'high' culture, we have shifted a preset, concrete reality that was an inhibitor to our spiritual, musical, intellectual or otherwise development.

We change the way we are conditioned and are made to see, think and behave, it is in this way that we will see ourselves anew and begin to see the way we are educing ourselves to.I for one believe in the emancipation of Africans throughout the world, even music is one way of the many ways of doing it.

Another way is cobbling together our musical experiences into an article such as this one to begin to expand and extend our listening range to music we are not familiar with, which can be found in a narrow category, world-wide, and I choose to simple dub it to be African Music Systems- is to shift gears in appreciation of this art form.

We should 'validate' ourselves and not wait for someone to box us or keep us in a cage that we sit in and be satisfied with. We dare explore ourselves and sounds without let-up as part of waging our struggle for psychological liberation of a people who still have to realize that freedom.

If people gave themselves time and opened themselves to the possibility that we have a "high Culture" in music, their consciousness and actions and appreciations would change.

The would stop being people to be spectators(as Biko so pithily concurred) or their daily oppression, depression, dehumanization and suppression that so disdainfully and cruelly manifested itself in their collective midst and psyche so boldly throughout their history and current reality, that in the end, an attempt or serious effort at dislodging, shifting of displacing these current deadening and dumbing -down post-colinial paradigms is also pressing as urgent and of critical importance - like any crucial part or point of the Struggle of african people.

Our African music is powerful and soulful, we just need to listen, or take it, for its out there in the musical viral stream.

Cultural Edification- The Video Story Of Africans and their Cultural And Customary Dance Routines With Their Accompanying Retinues..

My Resolution for 2013 is to wage a defensive and offensive war against anybody who thinks that our culture is dead and that it is no better than the American or European cultures. I am an unashamed "Cultural Warrior", and I battle more intensely and passionately on that forgotten front- Music, Dance and Poetry/Drama. In this article,

I am concentrating on the War against Africans and their culture, and I will utilize all the cultural dances of the Zulus, Sothos, Xhosas, Pedis, Tswanas, Shangaans, Vendas, Ndebeles, Swazis the Khoisan, "Colored" people through videos.I have been posting a lot of music from all over the world, and specifically, that is, 98.5% of the times I have been exploring music of Africans from South Africa,

The Whole of Africa, South America, Latin America, the Caribbean and the USA. The next coming posts are going to be strictly from the 10-12 Peoples(nations) of South africa. It is important that we, in Mzantsi, begin to start dispelling these false notions that we are a different people from each other as instructed and promoted by the Boers and their lackeys.

What I found on YouTube about our African South African Music and culture, it is more admired by the listeners of other cultures all over the world, but only a motley crew and paltry few of us even care to comment or listen to our own productions and our performed cultures, traditions, dance and music. This says a lot about our mind-set, and it is a shame that we are doing what Bob Marley, who I have cited often, singing, "You Can't Run Away From YOurself".

We are avoiding ourselves; we feel edified if we identify with western culture and its mores and norms-msuic and culture. We are so dumbed-down, we think that our own culture, which we perform with such gusto, energy an, finesse,grace and energy that it is still baffling the people of the west-were one to read some comments on YouTube of the people who have watched these videos, is of no consequence.

There are some South Africans who chirp and chip-in on the videos and make some great comments. But, in all, we hardly see our culture presented and produced as I am about to do, very intensely and in a big way, that is, in its variegated form, for all the 10-12 peoples of Mzantsi.

I have already mentioned above, present our dance and music on a lot of musical videos.Clear Channel, an American Conglomerate, owns all the Radio stations in Mzantsi, and the diet of the programming is heavily biased, tinted and leaning towards the American music and artists.

Television leaves less to be desired. The constant image that is being filtered and disseminated on our Plasma TV and those old fat TV boxes we the poor own, is nothing but American Cultural Imperialism.Bob Marley sings in his track "Trenchtown Rock" that "..We Feed People With Music.".

He was right and he knew what it was he was saying and singing about. If one were to give oneself a chance to look at our dance and music as I will be posting them here on FB, one begins to discern various patterns in style execution and technique that they are of 'One People'.

This is the nub of the problem and issue that bedevils our development as a people. We have as yet to come around to embracing our culture with all that it has to offer us in order to "BE"! Some of the music we dance to profusely is infused with Mbaqanga music which runs the gamut of this 'whole' culture.

In other instances we use the homegrown and original music of the culture itself, of any of the 10-12 people I have mentioned above. We have been dislocated from understanding and fully appreciating that, like in wearing our cultural pride on our sleeves and not giving a care in the world who says what, so long it is us who are owning, controlling and disseminating our culture, without making excuses to no one-nor asking for permission to do so.

Some of us are good at explaining things to "White" tourists, and if one listens carefully, they do not really know what they are saying, and they are spreading falsities about our our own cultures, customs, traditions and practices/performances and wrong interpretations about and on our languages-because they do not really know it, nor are committed to it, and are trying their level best to accommodate the "Tourists."

As I was researching the music and dances of South Africa and Africa throughout the Diaspora, I have seen how censorship and ownership of our music, dances, and culture is owned, "Under Some Bogus license" and therefore, one is hard-pressed to get information about these artists, and is hardly accessible.

In some instance, the Websites beg people to 'edit't the biographies of these african Artists, musicians and performers because they do not know them too.There can be no successful revolution of wholesome struggle if we leave behind the cultural relevance of our people.

One need to look at their faces, at the effort they pour-into and put-forth in their singing, dancing and performing[everythig thy got] as if that there is nothing else that matters to them and for them, as a nation with diverse, but same culture, but their culture which has been stymied in many ways.

We have not yet given ourselves time to talk about, analyze, put into proper context that which is our cultures, customs, traditions practices/performances because we a are still suffering from "Apartheid Hangover(Setlamatlama-Babalazi).The crowds that are in the different videos, are attentive, observant, not as to the beauty of cultures, dances or music only, but also as to whether the performers are interpreting everything 'rightly' and in a way that they approve.

At time some people, in some videos are seen giving money to the performers by putting it on the ground. In some videos they ululate and participate by encouraging the dancers using certain words and encouraging and cajoling utterances, which are positive. Our culture is so vibrant and energetic and "ORIGINAL", that we need to begin to really pay attention to it, and respect it-teach to our children and youth.

The little children are a marvel to watch whenever they are given a chance to perform. The Babies and the under ten year olds are magnificent. The youth-teenagers and young adults are really pros on it. The women are strong looking and perform well on the Xhosa, Sotho, Tswana, Zulu and the Sahngaan/Tsonga videos,

The men are incredible, especially the Shangaan men who are supra energetic and vigorously agile, fit and energetic-in synchrony; the Basotho are stoical and easy going and take their own time and keep a different rhythm which is in sync with their singing-you find some others in the troupe of the Basotho men singing doing some actions which do not take from the whole performance, but have an aded value and differentiated concept, but the same dance theme and response to the music and dance.

The Xhosa dancers and the Batswana have same patterns towards rhythm and dance, of foot-stomping, rhythmically and hand-clapping along with ululating.Viewing and reviewing our Cultural-customary and traditional dances and music in a holistic manner affords us a learning opportunity about ourselves and our capabilities, not as segregated "TRIBES of which we are really not-why is there no French, British, Italian tribes, but us?

I dismiss such references to us with disdain and am ready to rumble with anyone from anywhere who dares name us that way. We learn from others in our midst, the performers and players of our culture, what ought to be and where and how does acquiring power come into even much more sharper focus the part of our collective african polity Our wholesome culture, seen in a very intense and differentiated form,is where our power and energy and rallying point lies.

One cannot be a self-proclaimed revolutionary and is not cognizant of their own abd other cultures, besides their own, as important.Screw Marx and all the Western philosophers, I'd sooner listen to, and be closer to the men and women who are on these videos elaborating our culture to edify and confirm myself as a person of Mzantsi with being apologetic to nobody. He or She who knows not my culture is useless, and I do not want our culture to be seen as something exotic.

No! It is self-sustaing, evolving, but remaining constant, and empowers us by mainly watching it in its differentiated form, that in the end it become one united and seamless pattern of performance that can be only found in and amongst the Africans of Mzantsi. No one can argue that, and I expect no one to, because, in reality, what I will be posting here will speak for itself, without any need for me to interpret it.

The whole African people of Mzantsi understand it, even if they pretend to be European. some men, in their best shits and shoes, forget themselves and join in the cultural fray and celebration(albeit inappropriately) but they get taken by the spirit exuded by the dance ad music.Many people here on FB call for a revolution amongst our people. But are they with the masses when they perform these cultural and dramatic performances?

Our dancers travel the world and fill up halls and theaters, and leave the crowds overseas begging for more. Our people in the rural areas and townships partake in these cultural events, and seem to be oblivious to all that, and ignore it to our own peril. Do we know about that, and what have we done with it?

I really do not care if people come to my Wall or not or on those FB Walls wherein I post these videos, or whether they comment or not. I am not looking for that, inasmuch as it would be good to see some response from ourselves about these postings.

I am working, more or less, towards vitalizing and viralizing our cultures, customs and traditions on the Web to the extent that there will eventually be people, over the decades, centuries and millennium who will find these videos and admire them and maybe, respect us for who we are and how we present ourselves to the world.

That is my goal, and I seek no renumeration for it, but am doing it for the dignity and respect that African people of Mzantsi deserve.Amos Wilson intones: "The clarion call for the writing/[disseminating] of a restorative Afrikan-centered historiography/musicological and 'performance arts' - a critical undertaking - is a call for the healing of the wounds of Afrikan peoples; for Afrikan unity' for the freeing and expansion of Afrikan consciousness; for the reconquest of Afrikan minds, bodies,lands, resources [and I might add, music, dance, performing arts and crafts, traditions, customs, etc.], and Afrikan autonomy.

"To manipulate history is to manipulate consciousness; to manipulate consciousness is to manipulate possibilities; and to manipulate possibilities is to manipulate power." For us to control and won and disseminate our own cultures, customs, traditions, history, music and damce.is to manipulate the possibilities of empowering ourselves."

Eurocentric history writing and controlling our music, is essential an exercise in apologetics and cultural imperialism for the European oppression of Africans. It seeks to impose a social/historical/cultural and amnesic tax on the heads of Afrikan peoples and thereby rob them of their most valuable resources - their knowledge of truth and reality of self; their cultural heritage and identity, minds, bodies. and souls; their wealth,lands, products of their labor, as in music and dance and menial or professional work, and their lives, specifically.

Every Eurocentric social institution conspires with Eurocentric historiography and cultural imperialism to handcuff and incarcerate African consciousness, to justify and facilitate the subordination and exploitation of Afrikan peoples." So that, according to Wilson, "... when an individual or a group is compelled by various circumstances to repress important segments of his/her its formative history, he/she or it at the same time loses access to crucially important social, intellectual and technical skills associated with that history.[culture, customs, traditions, practices, languages, music dance, and arts and crafts-my two cents), , which could be used to solved current problems."

I have seen the response one gets from posting various videos here on FB, and those that pertain to our African culture, is often scorned, ignored or paid no mind, at all. Those that are from His master's voice and technology-Music or dance enculturation(some kids are taking ballet lessons, and cannot even dance their own African dances nor sing the community of local peoples songs), will need to re-ducate ourselves about our culture.

Our children are aping the Hip-hop music at the expense of their own musical idioms, dance and culture.Restoring our culture cannot only be paid lip-service to, but involves the action one sees some of those petit-bourgeois who jump into the dances, in an inopportune time, and do their thing.

I have no problem with kids learning ballet or ballroom dance, nor the elite forgetting their immaculate dress, to duke it out on the village dust or township tar roads-instead, what bothers me is the lackadaisical attitude and an attitude we hold on to, and if one is confronted and affronted with this 'backward culture' meaning, their backward-selves, which, having being 'edumacated' in western education, are instead the ones that are vehemently opposed to our own cultures, and would give their lives defending White culture, etc.

Our cultures, customs, traditions, histories, language are staring at us in the face, and we veer away or look askance from it, and shun it, and in the end dismiss it, deny it and finally ignore it. We are very good at that, and very adept at being 'poor copies' of other peoples dance and music, etc..

And when the white tourists or some other ethnic groups come into our midst, we are the first ones to interpret for them our culture which we have avoided and paid no attention to, nor know it very well, and become the cultural spokespeople of our people.

Most of us are hung-up of Westernization that we feel that what we have, as the remnants of our culture, is irrelevant and out of sync with the supposedly "modern world' of our imaginations and wishes- which is far from the truth. Some invent how we feel and think and appreciate music or anything African culture as being backwards and irrelevant.

I plan to be in "ya'lls faces" all the haters and detractors of African South African culture, no matter your race, creed or religion you are. I welcome and applaud those who will show respect and will to understanding our Culture.For me and those I am in action with about music and dance in Mzantsi, I am dedicating the year 2013 to an all out offensive distributing and disseminating African Culture.

Oh, I might add, I will also be playing music of the Colored people of South Africa(whom I regard as Africans) and some Indian artists, too, because they too, the Indians, are African. I will soon be posting a barrage of videos about African traditional music from all the Nguni/Bakone(11 to 12 peoples) of Mzantsi, and it is for all those who wish to sit and lean on the African Baobab tree and enjoy its shade that they are 'all ' welcome'.

I will take some time off, and will then begin posting these African traditional music videos all the way into next year.

The Amaswazi en Vogue

The Swazis of the Mountain Kingdom of Swaziland are a proud but peaceful people; occupying a small landlocked country in Southern Africa surrounded on three sides by South Africa and on the fourth by Mozambique. Swaziland is the smallest country in the Southern Hemisphere with an area of only 6,704 sq. miles. Swazis also live in the neighboring areas of Mozambique and South Africa.

Those in South Africa outnumber those in SwazilandHistory: Swazis have lived in present day Swaziland since around 1750. Ethnically, Swazis are a part of the Nguni People Group, originating from the Great Lake areas of Central Africa. Their ancestors were part of the general, gradual migration of Bantu language speakers from Central Africa.

The Nguni sub-group, Nkosi-Dlamini, broke from the main group and settled in Mozambique, eventually moving into the area known today as Swaziland.The Swazi developed from the Ngwane, one of the Dlamini sub-groups, whose separate history can be traced to about 1750, in the southern side of Delagoa Bay, opposite Maputo.

There they associated with the Tembe people and engaged in the heavy commerce along the coast, including the export of ivory through sea trade. The Ngwane involvement was one factor that led to the Tembes' loss of monopoly on commerce.As the Boers expanded, treaties established boundaries with Transvaal.

Though there were wars with the Zulus, the Swazi king Mbandzeni refused a British request for help in 1879 in the Anglo-Zulu war. Shaka never attacked the Swazi during his expansionist activity. In the mid-1800's Dutch (Boer) and English groups settled in the realm by contract with the king on various occasions.Identity:

A few years ago, Swaziland has one of the highest population growth rates in the world — 3.7%. In the 1990s, the Swaziland Department of Planning projected 1.1 million by the year 2001.

The rate of growth has slowed, due to the heavy toll of AIDS in the last decade. In 2007 an educational crisis developed because of the great numbers of AIDS orphans who had no one to pay school fees for them. The government decided in 2007 it could not pay their fees either.Fifty-five percent of the population lives in the Mbanane to Manzini area. Three out of ten Swazis live in towns or cities.

The estimated population of the country in 2008 is 1,128,814.Swaziland has a reputation as one of the most prosperous countries in sub-Sahara. Swaziland's economy is tied to the South African economy through the Rand Monetary Area and the Common Customs Area.

Although considered by many, including World Bank, as a middle income nation, a "third-world" economy emerges when one looks closely.The Swazi people are closely allied with the Zulu, Ndebele and other Nguni peoples by culture, language and history. The Gwane maintained a separate identity and were not always on good terms with their cousins.

The establishment of Swaziland was a strong factor in their maintaining their separate identity. The Swazi people today make up a little over half the population of Swaziland but it is ruled as a Swazi kingdom.Language: Swati is the home language of the Swazi people. Business and commerce are conducted in English. Zulu was used in literature and education before independence.

Many Swazis also speak Zulu. Swati and its neighboring languages are written in Latin characters, following the spelling conventions used in Nguni languages.One source says that there are about 2.5 million speakers of the Swati language. However, the 2005 edition of the Ethnologue, world authority and ISO standard for information on the languages of the world, gives the total in all countries as 1,706,924. 1,013,193 of these live in South Africa (1996 census), only about 650,000 in Swaziland.

The Swati (or Swazi) language is a member of the Nguni language family, which includes Xhosa Ndebele and Zulu. The ancestors of the Nguni came into contact with the Khoisan-speaking peoples, whose language has click sounds as consonants. The Nguni languages now have several borrowed sounds from these languages and some vocabulary items.

Swati has lost all but one of the click sound sets. Swati is the mother tongue of all the ethnic Swazi people and the language is spoken by many people of other ethnic groups.Political Situation: Swaziland is a peaceful country, having struggled for years against outside forces, Zulus, British, Boers and land-hungry settlers.

The country of Swaziland was the tribal land of the Swati people under their hereditary rulers. Swaziland was recognized as an independent nation by Britain, Portugal and South African entities in a series of treaties conventions and negotiations, dated from the early 1800's.In 1894 Swaziland requested to become a British Protectorate to halt the encroachments of Boers and Portuguese.

During the years of British consolidation in southern Africa, Swaziland remained separate. They did not participate for instance, in the Union of South Africa, formed in 1910. Swaziland preferred to remain a protectorate. (It was never a colony.) The country gained independence in 1968.

The royal line continued in administration over the decades of the Protectorate. Changes in government introduced a new-found democracy with multi-party elections held for the first time in 1993 for seats of the lower House of Parliament. The king is still highly respected. King Mswati III was crowned king in 1986 at the age of eighteen.

During the 20th century many Swazis have felt free to move freely into South Africa.Customs: The Swazis love colourful ceremonies and traditional dress is commonly worn even today by both men and women. Marriage arrangements are initiated by a request to the fathers of the couple by the mothers of the couple.

There are two types of marriages. First, a civil rite based on western marriage conventions, prohibiting polygamy, but allowing divorce. The second category is traditional marriage. In this kind of marriage, the husband can take additional wives, where dowry (lobola) is paid by the man's family for each wife.

For a woman, this marriage is binding and even if her husband dies and she remarries according to civil rites, the children of the new marriage are considered to belong to the first husband.Girls help around the home, care for younger siblings and collect water. Boys herd cattle and goats.

Training children begins as soon as the child is able to speak. Children do not rise when an elder enters the room but respect must be shown in various ways.Incwala is a sacred ceremony of kingship and is observed as an annual festival of thanksgiving, prayer and atonement. Its the most important and sacred of all ceremonies. It is called the Ceremony of Kingship because it is led by the king.

Umhlanga is a reed dance, a ceremony meant to attract unmarried girls, from whom the King chooses new brides.The AIDS problem has grown to greater and greter visiblity for the country of Swaziland.

One source reported in 2000:A quarter of Swaziland's population of one million is said to be infected with HIV and the age expectancy has dropped from 38 to 30.One royal health advisor created a national uproar by suggesting quarantining all the AIDS-infected persons in the country.Religion: T

he majority of the Swazis associate with some form of Christianity. Traditional religions which mix tradition with Christianity are predominant. Although many Swazis claim to be Christian and associate with mainline religions, during times of extreme need they will return to traditional beliefs and intermediaries (Tinyanga — medicine men, traditional healers or Tangoma — diviners).Some sources indicate that approximately 80% of the Swazi nation consult traditional healers such as physicians, prophets, priests, herbalists and diviners.

This is the same percentage of the population that consider themselves cultural Christians. Actual participation in formal churches is very low.Christianity: Christian work began among the Swazi people in 1844 when a Wesleyan missionary conference in South Africa responded to a request from king Mswati II's request for a missionary:

James Allison and Richard Giddy came with two Sotho evangelists from what is now Orange Free State.The Swazi responded vigorously to Christian work and many churches now have extensive work among this comparatively small people group. Churches that have work in Swaziland are Nazarenes, Anglicans, Roman Catholics, Assemblies of God and Evangelical Church.

Baptists were added to the list when they also began work in the country in 1983. Response has slowed in the current generation and cultural Christianity may be a disincentive to personal conversion.About 80% of the Swazi people claim to be Christian, but only about 27% are active in church.

Actual church membership is even lower than worship attendance, about 20%. Reports indicate that over half of the population is claimed as members by the African Independent Church, also known as Zionists. While this movement promotes Christian spiritual gifts like healings and speaking in tongues, they also have a strong emphasis on traditional customs and practices.

The endemic AIDS situation has not only decimated the population and created a social crisis, but commentators also reflect that it has called into question the moral foundations of the people of Swaziland..

The Nguni Peoples Of Mzantsi Mixed Bag

lthough the origins of the South African Ndebele are shrouded in mystery, they have been identified as one of the Nguni tribes. The Nguni tribes represent nearly two thirds of South Africa’s Black population and can be divided into four distinct groups; the Central Nguni (the Zulu-speaking peoples), the Southern Nguni (the Xhosa-speaking peoples), the Swazi people from Swaziland and adjacent areas and the Ndebele people of the Northern Province and Mpumalanga.

The two Ndebele groups were not only separated geographically but also by differences in their languages and cultures. The Ndebele of the Northern Province consisted mainly of the BagaLanga and the BagaSeleka tribes who, by and large, adopted the language and culture of their Sotho neighbours.The North Ndebele people resided an area stretching from the town of Warmbaths in the south, to the Limpopo River in the north and from the Botswana border in the west to the Mozambique border in the east.

However, they were mainly concentrated in the districts of Pietersburg, Bakenberg and Potgietersrus.Mpumalanga, much of which consists of the area known as the Lowveld, stretches from the town of Piet Retief in the south to Lydenburg / Pilgrim’s Rest in the north and from the towns of Witbank and Groblersdal in the west to the Mozambique border in the east.

The Springbok Flats separated the North Ndebele and those in the east from one another.Historical BackgroundThe history of the Ndebele people can be traced back to Mafana, their first identifiable chief. Mafana’s successor, Mhlanga, had a son named Musi who, in the early 1600’s, decided to move away from his cousins (later to become the mighty Zulu nation) and to settle in the hills of Gauteng near where the capital, Pretoria is situated.

After the death of Chief Musi, his two sons quarrelled over the chieftainship and the tribe divided into two sections, the Manala and the Ndzundza. The Manala remained in the north while the Ndzundza, also known as the Southern Ndebele, travelled to the east and the south.

Both groups remained distinctly Ndebele.In 1883, during the reign of the Ndebele chief Mabhogo, war broke out between the Ndzundza and the (Boer) Zuid-Afrikaansche Republiek (South African Republic). For eight months, the Ndebele held out against the onslaught by hiding in subterranean tunnels in their mountain stronghold at Mapoch’s Caves near the town of Roossenekal.

From time to time, Mabhogo’s brave warriors crept past the enemy lines undetected to fetch water and food. However, after two women of the tribe had been ambushed in the nearby woods and tortured, one revealed the Mabhogo’s whereabouts.

After Mabhogo’s defeat, the cohesive tribal structure was broken up and the tribal lands confiscated. Despite the disintegration of the tribe, the Ndebele retained their cultural unity.Social and Cultural LifeInternal political and social structuresNdebele authority structures were similar to those of their Zulu cousins.

The authority over a tribe was vested in the tribal head (ikozi), assisted by an inner or family council(amaphakathi). Wards (izilindi) were administered by ward heads and the family groups within the wards were governed by the heads of the families.The residential unit of each family was called an umuzi

The umuzi usually consisted of a family head (umnumzana) with his wife and unmarried children. If he had more than one wife, the umuzi was divided into two halves, a right and a left half, to accommodate the different wives.An umuzi sometimes grew into a more complex dwelling unit when the head’s married sons and younger brothers joined the household.

Every tribe consisted of a number of patrilineal clans or izibongo. This meant that every clan consisted of a group of individuals who shared the same ancestor in the paternal line.Personal adornmentNdebele women traditionally adorned themselves with a variety of ornaments, each symbolising her status in society.

After marriage, dresses became increasingly elaborate and spectacular. In earlier times, the Ndebele wife would wear copper and brass rings around her arms, legs and neck, symbolising her bond and faithfulness to her husband, once her home was built.She would only remove the rings after his death.

The rings (called idzila) were believed to have strong ritual powers. Husbands used to provide their wives with rings; the richer the husband, the more rings the wife would wear.

Today, it is no longer common practice to wear these rings permanently.In addition to the rings, married women also wore neck hoops made of grass (called isigolwani) twisted into a coil and covered in beads, particularly for ceremonial occasions. Isigolwani are sometimes worn as neckpieces and as leg and arm bands by newly wed women whose husbands have not yet provided them with a home, or by girls of marriageable age after the completion of their initiation ceremony.

Married women also wore a five-fingered apron (called an ijogolo) to mark the culmination of the marriage, which only takes place after the birth of the first child. The marriage blanket (nguba) worn by married women was decorated with beadwork to record significant events throughout the woman’s lifetime.

For example, long beaded strips signified that the woman’s son was undergoing the initiation ceremony and indicated that the woman had now attained a higher status in Ndebele society. It symbolised joy because her son had achieved manhood as well as the sorrow at losing him to the adult world.

A married woman always wore some form of head covering as a sign of respect for her husband. These ranged from a simple beaded headband or a knitted cap to elaborate beaded headdresses (amacubi).Boys usually ran around naked or wore a small front apron of goatskin. However, girls wore beaded aprons or beaded wraparound skirts from an early age.

For rituals and ceremonies, Ndebele men adorned themselves with ornaments made for them by their wives.Art and CraftsNdebele art has always been an important identifying characteristic of the Ndebele. Apart from its aesthetic appeal it has a cultural significance that serves to reinforce the distinctive Ndebele identity.

The Ndebele’s essential artistic skill has always been understood to be the ability to combine exterior sources of stimulation with traditional design concepts borrowed from their ancestors.Ndebele artists also demonstrated a fascination with the linear quality of elements in their environment and this is depicted in their artwork.

Painting was done freehand, without prior layouts, although the designs were planned beforehand.The characteristic symmetry, proportion and straight edges of Ndebele decorations were done by hand without the help of rulers and squares. Ndebele women were responsible for painting the colourful and intricate patterns on the walls of their houses.

This presented the traditionally subordinate wife with an opportunity to express her individuality and sense of self-worth. Her innovativeness in the choice of colours and designs set her apart from her peer group. In some instances, the women also created sculptures to express themselves.

The back and side walls of the house were often painted in earth colours and decorated with simple geometric shapes that were shaped with the fingers and outlined in black. The most innovative and complex designs were painted, in the brightest colours, on the front walls of the house.

The front wall that enclosed the courtyard in front of the house formed the gateway (izimpunjwana) and was given special care.Windows provided a focal point for mural designs and their designs were not always symmetrical. Sometimes, makebelieve windows are painted on the walls to create a focal point and also as a mechanism to relieve the geometric rigidity of the wall design.

Simple borders painted in a dark colour,lined with white, accentuated less important windows in the inner courtyard and in outside walls.Contemporary Ndebele artists make use of a wider variety of colours (blues, reds, greens and yellows) than traditional artists were able to, mainly because of their commercial availability.

Traditionally, muted earth colours, made from ground ochre, and different natural-coloured clays, in white, browns, pinks and yellows, were used. Black was derived from charcoal. Today, bright colours are the order of the day.

As Ndebele society became more westernised, the artists started reflecting this change of their society in their paintings. Another change is the addition of stylised representational forms to the typical tradtional abstract geometric designs.

Many Ndebele artists have now also extended their artwork to the interior of houses. Ndebele artists also produce other crafts such as sleeping mats and isingolwani.Isingolwani (colourful neck hoops) are made by winding grass into a hoop, binding it tightly with cotton and decorating it with beads.

In order to preserve the grass and to enable the hoop to retain its shape and hardness, the hoop is boiled in sugar water and left in the hot sun for a few days. A further outstanding characteristic of the Ndebele is their beadwork.Beadwork is intricate and time consuming and requires a deft hand and good eyesight.

This pastime has long been a social practice in which the women engaged after their chores were finished but today, many projects involve the production of these items for sale to the public.Special OccasionsInitiationIn Ndebele culture, the initiation rite, symbolising the transition from childhood to adulthood, plays an important role. Initiation schools for both boys and girls are held every four years.

During the period of initiation, relatives and friends come from far and wide to join in the ceremonies and activities associated with initiation.Boys are initiated as a group when they are about 18 years of age when a special regiment (indanga) is set up and led by a boy of high social rank.

Each regiment has a distinguishing name. Among the Ndzundza tribe there is a cycle of 15 such regimental names, allocated successively, and among the Manala there is a cycle of 13 such names.During initiation girls wear an array of colourful beaded hoops (called izigolwan) around their legs, arms, waist and neck.

The girls are kept in isolation and are prepared and trained to become homemakers and matriarchs.The coming-out ceremony marks the conclusion of the initiation school and the girls then wear stiff rectangular aprons (called amaphephetu),beaded in geometric and often three-dimensional patterns, to celebrate the event.

After initiation, these aprons are replaced by stiff, square ones, made from hardened leather and adorned with beadwork.Courtship and marriageMarriages were only concluded between members of different clans, that is between individuals who did not have the same clan name.

However, a man could marry a woman from the same family as his paternal grandmother.The prospective bride was kept secluded for two weeks before the wedding in a specially made structure in her parents’ house, to shield her from men’s eyes.

When the bride emerged from her seclusion, she was wrapped in a blanket and covered by an umbrella that was held for her by a younger girl who also attended to her other needs. On her marriage, the bride was given a marriage blanket, which she would, in time, adorn with beadwork, either added to the blanket’s outer surface or woven into the fabric.

After the wedding, the couple lived in the area belonging to the husband’s clan. Women retained the clan name of their fathers but children born of the marriage took their father’s clan name.Belief SystemIn traditional Ndebele society it was believed that illnesses were caused by an external force such as a spell or curse that was put on an individual.

The power of a traditional healer was measured by his or her ability to defeat this force. Cures were either effected by medicines or by throwing bones.All traditional medicine men and women (izangoma) were mediums, able to contact ancestral spirits.

Some present-day Ndebele still adhere to ancestral worship but many have subsequently become Christians and belong to the mainstream Christian churches or to one of the many local Africanised churches.

Ngugi - African Intellect

Diop on African Matriarchy in African Culture: African Story

What is important to us today is not the legacy of warrior queens, but a thorough analysis of the primary system of social organization around an economically self-sufficient or self-supporting matricentric cultural unit and a gender free or flexible gender linguistic system, which is the legacy of African Matriarchy.

We need to understand its associated goddess-foussed religions and culture which helped women organize effectively to fight the subordinating and controlling forces of patriarchy, thereby achieving a kind of system of checks and balances. This is basically so-called monotheistic and abstract religions of Islam and Christianity ruling Africa today subverted and continue to attack.

The fundamental question to those proposing these religions as a possible means of achieving a pan-African unity or federation is this: are these religions able to accept and accommodate our goddesses and matriarchy, that is, African women's true primordial cultures in the present politics, of primordialism, manipulated by nationalists and fundamentalists?

Hinterland Africa proper which had such structures which favored the rule of goddesses, queens, etc., is indeed still present with us today. But, these systems are facing erosion, as elite African men manipulate the new and borrowed patriarchies to forge a most formidable 'masculine imperialism', yet unknown in our history.Somewhere else Diop observes:

"Matriarchy is not an absolute and cynical triumph of woman over man; it is a harmonious dualism, an association accepted by both sexes, the better to build a sedentary society where each and every one could fully develop by following the activity best suited to his/her physiological nature. a matriarchal regime, far from being imposed on man by circumstances independent of his will, is affected and defended by him."

As Diop says correctly of militant or military female contingents in Africa, 'the hatred of men is foreign to them and they posses the consciousness of being 'soldiers' struggling for the liberation of their country.'Because Diop took on the fundamental issue of matriarchy from an Afrocentric perspective and interest, as opposed to a compromised struggle for women's rights in patriarchal systems, what scholar will match the feminism of Cheik Anta Diop?

For him, matriarchy is an 'ensemble of institutions favorable to womanhood and to mankind in general. As he said, male controlled social science has only seen in this 'dangerous freedom which is almost diabolical'. One wonders why western matriarchy theorists do not cite the work of Cheik Anta Diop?

The rage against Diop by White scholars and Western self-intere has not abated. If anything, it is very often these days, parroted by a particular class of Africans themselves, who are still under their tutelage, supervision and control, the copycats. As for African men, they feel contended to cite only those aspects of the work of the great thinker which serve their purpose, especially reclaiming of ancient Egyptian civilization.

The fundamental theses of his work, which rests on African Matriarchy, is the least given importance and applied.In the most recent findings in Western search for human racial origins, a racist invention and concern of the West alone, Diop is vindicated time and time again as the the primary role of the African mother, whether in the bequeathing of the gene or language to the human race continues to be 'very scientifically proved'.

But racist appropriation continue, even in this era of deconstruction - if these youngest of our children do not call humanity's African mother Lucy, they call her Eve! So, we see again in this, the appropriation of the nineteenth century. to even scientists, it is unthinkable that the fossil of our African mother, found on the African continent, should retain an African name!

This crystalizes and symbolizes the nature of the relationship of European civilization with that of Africa. This structure of appropriation can be found in every other field of relations.Diop had prayed, "may his work contribute to the strengthening of the feelings of goodwill which have united Africans from one end of the continent to the other and this show our organic cultural unity."

He made it imperative that a full knowledge of lessons must be learnt from the past in order to 'keep one's consciousness the feeling of historical continuity essential to the consolidation of a multinational state. Like Diop, because of our history of colonialism, African intellectuals,if they are to be free from self-negation, must deconstruct, invalidate and reconstruct.In this project of reconstruction, a gender and class aware social history is a priority.

The racist term anthropology, which really should have been social history, must be banned altogether. we must adopt and elaborate the historiography of Cheik Anta Diop, using his multidisciplinary approach to write an African social history and enforce the teaching of [African] social history in our curriculum.

Present-day African scholarship only knows the chronological history of Kings, Queens and conquest. Since in our schools and colleges, there is no [Africa]social history, nor grassroots history from the bottom and the history of our indigenous social institutions, how then can we begin to build and Afrocentric history and unity without this knowledge?

As Diop said, let the general commitment of intellectual activism lead to the liquidation of all colonial systems of imperialism.

As long as there are men and women in this world and as long as the West persists in its history of patriarchy, racism and imperialism, there remains then a desperate and dire need to reconstruct our culture and history from an African centered perspective along with the edification of matriarchy as part of the protocol and prerequisite towards rebuilding and fashioning our contemporary African histories, cultures and societies anew.

Bob Marley On African Liberation Lyrics...

Re-awakening the Core of our Buntu/Botho-Culture: An Inner View

The nation of Africans in South Africa, that all that should be understood about them and their cultures, custom, traditions and practices should be taken into consideration and and forever be it known that , just like the Europeans trace their history from the Greek and Roman civilizations,

South Africans must link and trace their history, culture, customs, traditions and practices from those of Egypt and Mapungubwe, in particular. For us to know and understand African culture, we should try and reconstruct it(in part) from the different groups within the 10(ten) peoples of South Africa; they have to use their perceptions, and conceptions of themselves, through their languages, in order for them to begin to know and learn more about their peoplehood, and human-being hood, about the nation.

This runs contrary to what those of the crew of Black Consciousness (excluding Bantu Biko) who consistently spoke against their traditional cultures and traditions. This was clearly articulated by Prof. Njabulo Ndebele is his early writings(Now the Vice Chancellor of Cape Town University) in the early 1970s that:"

The Blacks(Africans) must set about destroying the old and static customs that have over the past decades made Africa the world's human zoo and museum of human evolution.

When customs no longer cater for the proper development of adequate human expression, they should be removed. Almost all the so-called tribal customs must be destroyed, because they cannot even do so little as to help the black man get food" (1973: 82)

To believe that the present state of African culture, traditions, rites and practices show a total misunderstanding of one' culture and its role in African people's lives-neither is it Kosher for Africans to see the same person now a vice-chancellor of an elite European University(maybe by making such statements, the Professor was preparing himself for the kind of position he now holds today).

Someone wrote that this reflects the a-historical view which has so dominated academic debate in South Africa, a perspective that believes that people want to leave their traditional roots behind for "development" or "modernity".

Such hogwash! Balderdash!Before dealing with culture and so forth of the Africans in South Africa, when it comes to issues of ancestors, this really raises some questions about the African professor who says that Africans must discard of the old and decrepit culture for modernity.

But,then, here is what Chief Seattle, in his 1854 Oration had to say about immortality and ancestors:"Your dead cease to love you and the land of their 'nativity' as soon as they pass the portals of the tomb and wander away beyond the stars. They are soon forgotten and never return.

Our(Red-man [so-called Indians]) never forget this beautiful world that gave them being. They still love its verdant valleys, its murmuring rivers, its magnificent mountains, sequestered vales and verdant lined lakes and bays, and ever yearn in tender fond affection over the lonely hearted living, and often return from the happy hunting ground to visit, guide, and console, and comfort them.

Let him be just and deal kindly with my people, for the dead are powerless. Dead, did I say? There's no death, only a change of worlds."In order to make my point clear about the importance of culture which other consider to be a 'zoo' and museum' that should be discarded, we will cite Inayatullah who militated:

"As American indians told the New Age appropriators, 'if you desire to us our symbols, our names, our dances, our mysticism, then you must as well participate in our pain, in our defeats, in our anguish. You must also see us in humanity, good and evil, and not as 'noble savages'. It is the arbitrary exclusion of certain dimensions of history and self that become problematic."

It is therefore important for Africans to begin to re-evalutate and write down their lived cultural experiences and not asking for directions from anyone who really does not know anything about their culture, customs, traditions,history, languages, rites and practices.

Quotes From The Crypt With An African Bent

History acquires meaning and objectivity only when it establishes a coherent relation between past and future.

- "Edward Hallett Carr.

"It is a marvelous country. What is its spell? I cannot tell you, nor wherein lies its strange and unfathomable charm. It lays its hand upon you, having once felt its compelling touch, you never forget it."

- Princes Marie Louise in 1925

"Africa is no vast Island, separated by an immense ocean from other portions of the globe, and cut off through the ages from men who have made and influenced the destinies of mankind. she has been closely connected, both as a source and nourisher, with some of the most potent influences which have affected for good the history of the world."

- Edward Wilmot Blyden

"While revolutionaries as individual can be murdered, you cannot kill ideas."

- Thomas Sankara.

"Here is a tree rooted in African soil, nourished with waters from the rivers of Africa. Come and sit under its shade and become, with us, the leaves of the same branch and the branches of the same tree."

- Robert Sobukwe,

"The wheel of progress revolves relentlessly and all the nations of the world take their turn at the field-glass of human destiny. Africa will not retreat! Africa will not compromise! Africa will not relent! Africa will not equivocate! And she will be heard! Remember Africa!"

- Robert Sobukwe

"It is better to die for an idea that will live than to live for an idea that will die."

- Onkgopotse Tiro.

At the bottom of education, at the bottom of politics, even at the bottom of religion, there must be for our race economic independence."

- Booker T. Washington..

"The power of the White world is threatened whenever the Black(African) man refuses to accept the White world's definitions."

- James Baldwin

"The philosophy of Africanism holds out the hope of a genuine democracy beyond the storm sea of struggle."

- Robert Sobukwe

"We Must, therefore appreciate our role. We must appreciate our responsibility. the African people have entrusted their whole future to us. And we have sworn that we are leading them, not to death, but life abundant."

- Robert Sobukwe.

"Let me plead with you, lovers of my Africa, to carry with you into the world the vision of a new Africa."

- Robert Sobukwe.

"We of Africa protest that, in this day and age, we should continue to be treated as lesser human beings than other areas."

- Robert Mugabe...

"Capitalism means that the masses will work, and a few people - who may not labor at all - will benefit from that work. The few will sit down to a banquet, and the masses will eat whatever is left over."

- Julius Nyerere..

"...Our wounds are too fresh and too painful still for us to drive them from our memory. We have known harassing work, exacted in exchange for salaries which did not permit us to eat enough to drive away hunger, or to clothe ourselves, or to house ourselves decently, or to raise our children as creature dear to us."

- Patrice Lumumumba

"As a people, our most cherished and valuable achievements of spirit. With an Afrocentric spirit, all things can be made to happen; it is the source for genuine revolutionary commitment."

Molefi Asante

For a colonized people the most essential value, because the most concrete,is first and foremost the land: the land which will bring bread and, above all,dignity."

- Frantz Fanon

"Capitalism is a development by refinement from feudalism, just as feudalism is development by refinement from slavery ... Capitalism is but the gentlemen's method of slavery."

- Kwame Nkrumah

"The thing to do is to get organized; keep separated and you will be exploited, you will be robbed, you will be killed. Get organized, and you will compel the world to respect you."

Marcus Garvey.

"My Heart yearns for an Africa that is no more, but I shall labor for a new, free, independent and sovereign Africa that shall be respected by nations of the world."

- A.M. Lembede.

"The central objective in decolonizing the African mind is to overthrow the authority which alien traditions exercise over the African. This demands the dismantling of White supremacist beliefs, and the structures which upholds them, in every area of African life. It must be stressed, however, that decolonization does not mean ignorance of foreign traditions; it simply means denial of their authority and withdrawal of allegiance from them."

- Chinweizu Ibekwe

"When the Missionaries arrived, the Africans had the land and the Missionaries had the Bible. they taught us how to pray with our eyes closed. When we opened them, they had the land and we had the Bible."

- Jomo Kenyata

"The job of a revolutionary is, of course, to overthrow unjust systems and replace them with just systems because a revolutionary understand this can only be done by the masses of the people. so, the task of the revolutionary is to organize the masses of the people, given the conditions of the Africans around the world who are disorganized, consequently all my efforts are going to organizing people."

- Kwame Toure (Stokely Carmichael)

"The Black Skin is not a badge of shame, but rather a glorious symbol of national greatness."

- Marcus Garvey.

Always bear in mind that people are not fighting for ideas, for the things in anyone's head. They are fighting to win material benefits, to live better in peace, to see their lives go forward, to guarantee the future of their children."

- Amilcar Cabral.

"We're a sentimental people. We like a few kind words better than millions of dollars given in a humiliating way."

- Gamal Abdel Nasser.

"In the past, we spoke of poverty, misery only in the south. Now there is a lot of misery, a lot of bad that creates victims in the north as well. This has become manifest: the global system was not made to serve the good of all, but to serve multinational companies."

- Ahmed Ben Bella

"If we maintain a certain amount of caution and organization we deserve victory....You cannot carry out fundamental change without a certain amount of madness. In this case, it comes from nonconformity, the courage to turn your back on the old formulas, the courage to invent the future."

- Thomas Sankara

"African nationalism is meaningless, dangerous, anachronistic, if it is not, at the same time, pan-Africanism."

- Julius Nyerere.

"Africa will write its own history, and it will be, to the north and to the south of the Sahara, a history of glory and dignity."

- Patrice Lumumba

"The land is ours. It's not European and we have taken it, we have given it to the rightful people... Those of white extraction who happen to be in the country and are farming, are welcome to do so, but they must do so on the basis of equality."

- Robert Mugabe.

"We are fighting for the noblest cause on earth, the liberation of mankind...there is only one race, the human race. Multi-racialism is racism multiplied."

- Rober Sobukwe.

[Some of us[in Mzantsi] have forgotten or conveniently ignored or are ignorant of Sobukwe's Maxim above]

"Revolutions are brought about by men men [women], by men [women] who think as men [women] of action and act as men [women] of thought."

- Kwame Nkrumah.

"What I call middle-class society is any society that becomes rigidified in predetermined forms, forbidding all evolution, all gains, all progress, all discovery. I call middl-class a closed society in which life has no taste, in which the air is tainted, in which ideas and men are corrupt. And I think that a man who takes a stand against this death is in a sense a revolutionary."

- Frantz Fanon.

Notes To Note

On A Cultural Tip and Trip...Wilson writes: "Under certain social-economic circumstances, cultural identity can become an instrument for the expression of power of the predominant cultural system which molded it, and may also become the instrument used by the dominant culture and its members to further its survival and enhance its empowerment.

Black cultural identity, even in its stratified and diffused state, even on the individual level, is a political economy or essentially an organization of lacks, deficiencies, interests, needs, desires, passions tastes, ideals, motives, values, etc., the response to which on the part of Blacks helps to maintain or enhance the social power relations, prerogatives, and integrity of the White dominated racial status quo.

The salvation, empowerment and liberation of African peoples require an appropriate, thorough, pragmatic cultural analysis of the deculturation and reculturation of ourselves by dominant European peoples, of reactionary "Black culture," and their social products as represented by reactionary Black identities.

We must analyze how these identities, whether considered prosocial or antisocial, function to maintain the oppressive power of Whites and the subordinate powerlessness of black. Our salvation requires that we perceive White supremacy as the major social, political, and spiritual problem to be resolved by African peoples, and that we ask and answer definitively the questions:

What kind of a culture must we construct in order to overthrow White supremacy? What kinds of social identities, relations, arrangements, alignments, institutions, values, etc., which when actualized, will allow us to attain and protect our liberty?; enhance our quality of life?

What kinds of socialization practices must we institute in order to empower ourselves to become the kinds of people we must become if we are to secure our right to be free? Certainly, the answers lie in the direction of the reclamation of our African identity and the reconstitution of our African-centered consciousness supported by commensurate African-centered cultural, social, political and economic values, institutions and relations.

It is very important to keep in mind that a culture is to a significant extent a historical product, a social product; a culture is socially manufactured, the handiwork of both deliberate and coincidental human social collusions and interactions.

A culture also manufactures social products, and some of the most important social products it generates include its own cultural identity, and the social and personal identities of its constituent group and individual members."

Africans must confidently build and recreate their own culture from the remnants of the culture that they have today. There is a motivation for such actions that need to be carried out by Africans of South Africa to begin to rebuild their people who are steeped in dysfunction and confusion..

Dr. Clarke On Marcus Garvey

Changing Thoughts On The Periphery Of The Wretched Of The Ghetto

Closing Thoughts: FB and The Making and Discourse about "Change" in Mzantsi To add up and add another perspective from Wilson who says that according to Ronald Leifer (1969) defined the ethnicization of psychotherapy "as the molding and polarization of behavior so that it conforms to prevailing cultural patterns. It is indoctrination or training for culturally specific traits, attitudes, and actions." thus, Wilson states that "The aim of ethnicized psychotherapy is to return the deviant to "Normal", i.e., to instill in the deviant a set of particular traits, attitudes, values, behavioral orientations, and goals which when pursued or realized, support and maintain the political-economic social status quo along with its ruling elite ...

Ethnicized psychotherapy, too, views any form of behavior and stat4e of consciousness which do not conform to the norms or political-economic interests of the ruling establishment or group as, "by definition, a reflection of individual maladjustment, emotional immaturity, mental pathology, or some other negatively valued concept". Thus, problems which may be reflective of social and political problems are dismissed as the ailments of isolated individuals, as evidence of individual maladjustment, the epiphenomena of a distorted personality and economic forces which generate their existence from. "

This, according to me, and also, according to your quote above, is designed and 'guaranteed to make us sick and crazy" as we are now here in Mzantsi....! "Hepi!" Tshiks, and hope you have a greatest next incoming year...Tshikosi cited this piece from Amos Wilson:SUCCESSFUL FAILURE:

Success can be a type of failure.That is one reason why success does not bring the kind of personal satisfaction and peace that many people seek. And why often the individual, despite all of the material evidences of having succeeded, still feels psychologically cheated - because one can achieve for the wrong reason. So when we achieve to prove to somebody else, to show the white-folk that we can do it as good as they do it, it is a success that still is guaranteed to make us sick -

Dr.Amos Wilson Skhokho Added:Wilson says that according to Ronald Leifer (1969) defined the ethnicization of psychotherapy "as the molding and polarization of behavior so that it conforms to prevailing cultural patterns. It is indoctrination or training for culturally specific traits, attitudes, and actions."

Thus, Wilson states that:

"The aim of ethnicized psychotherapy is to return the deviant to "Normal", i.e., to instil in the deviant a set of particular traits, attitudes, values, behavioral orientations, and goals which when pursued or realized, support and maintain the political-economic social status quo along with its ruling elite ...

Ethnicized psychotherapy, too, views any form of behavior and state of consciousness which do not conform to the norms or political-economic interests of the ruling establishment or group as, "by definition, a reflection of individual maladjustment, emotional immaturity, mental pathology, or some other negatively valued concept".

"Thus, problems which may be reflective of social and political problems are dismissed as the ailments of isolated individuals, as evidence of individual maladjustment, eht epiphenomena of a distorted personality and economic forces which generate their existence from. "

This, according to me, according to your quote above, is designed and 'guaranteed to make us sick and crazy" as we are now here in Mzantsi....! Well, Tshiks, I hope you have a greatest next incoming year...

Both of us are cognizant of the fact that we are sick and made so in a myriad ways, and we're immersed in and embedded into this oppressive juggernaut and it feels like we are still riding the back of a tiger, and that we need to begin to learn and read about the causes of our dysfunction and sickness without being belligerent, ignorant and spiteful of each other, as we have see happen here on the Facebook.

Getting our act together is recognizing and diagnosing our social malaise, and act in the midst of our people by affecting their suffering and creating programs and helping, without sounding of like dummies knocking against each other on the FB; and, in the final analysis, the madness, sicknesses and psychological malfunction needs to be checked, and as I have been saying throughout this year now ending- we need to come up with better results next year and hope that will be the case-we are far much more better than what and where we are now.

However one uses "ENGLISH", so long as it drives home concrete lesson and teachable moments which are so sorely needed-who cares how that "ENGLISH" is used, and the very critics use the same 'masters language to crush those they dislike', for dumb, ignorant, vindictive and regressive reasons like "how they write English-As if that a point worth talking about in this dire time in Mzantsi.

Instead of the ideas and the information this "ENGLISH" is sharing by the one using it-to elucidate(clarify) some points about the struggle of Africans here at home. This is part of our sickness and madness, and the sooner we recognize it as such, the better we will be able to combat and rectify these sicknesses, as per Wilson, and what we can see for ourselves where we live(for some of us who still live in Kasi( mo-lokishini, and never left it) ...

As I have said, I join and belong to no organization, but by virtue of being an African of Mzantsi, I have the right to my opinions and have to respect other's opinions too. With this spirit in mind, "Hepi"!, Tshiks, and you've been a sport, especially for me, and I felt I should talk it out here on FB, when it come to you 'le botho ba hao". You are great, along with all those positive people you are with...

Each one Teach one; Each one Reach one...

Marcus Garvey As Written And spoken

MARCUS GARVEYMessage of Marcus Garvey to Membership of Universal Negro Improvement Association from AtlantaPrisonAugust 1, 1925Fellow members of the Universal Negro Improvement Association and co-workers in the cause of African redemption:It is with feeling of deep love and thoughts of a great future of the Negro(African) race that I address you.

My months of forcible removal from among you, being imprisoned as a punishment for advocating the cause of our real emancipation, have not left me hopeless or despondent; but to the contrary, I see a great ray of light and the bursting of a mighty International political cloud which will bring you complete freedom.

We have gradually won our way back into the confidence of the God of Africa, and He shall speak with the voice of thunder, that shall shake the pillars of a corrupt and unjust world, and once more more restore Ethiopia to her ancient glory.Our enemies have seemingly triumphed for a while, but the final battle when staged will bring us complete success and satisfaction

.The wicked obstructive elements or our own race who have tried to defeat us shall meet their Waterloo, and when they fall we feel sure they shall not rise again. For many years since our general emancipation, certain elements composed chiefly of a few octoroons and quadroons who hate the blood of our race (although part of us) with greater venom, scorn and contempt than the most prejudiced of other races, have tried to undermine and sell us to the mighty powers of oppression

And within recent years, they have succeeded in getting the ear of the leading statesmen of the world, and have influenced them to treat the bulk of us Negroes(Africans) as dogs, reserving for themselves, their kind and class, all the privileges and considerations that, as a race, would have been otherwise granted us and merited.

The National Association for the Advancement of Colored(African) People, although pretending to be interested in and working for the race, is really and truly the active representative of this class.

I trust you will not believe that my opposition to the National Association for the Advancement of Colored)African0 People(NAACP) is based upon any other motive than that of preventing them from destroying the Negro(African) race that they so much despise and and hate.I am always glad and ever willing to co-operate with all Negro(African) organizations that mean good by the race, but I am perfectly convinced and satisfied that the present executive personnel of the National Association for the Advancement of the Colored(African) people is not serious nor honest in intent towards the Black(African) race.

When they shall have have remove their White and Colored(African) officers who believe in the racial extermination of the Negro(Africa) type, and honestly promote a program for race uplift, then we can co-operate with them for the general good, until then we regard them as among the greatest enemies of our race.

They teach race amalgamation and inter-marriage as the means of destroying the moral purity for the Negro(African) race and our absorption within the White race which is nothing less than race suicide.You must not forget that we have enemies also within our own organization-men whose motives are selfish and who are only seeking the "loaves and fishes" and not honest in heart in serving the people.

Yet we have to make the "wheat and tare" grow together till the day of harvest. It is impossible to know all our enemies at one and the same time time. some are our enemies because they dot want to see the Negro(African) rise; some because the organization supplies the opportunity for exploitation; others because they are unable to resist the temptation of the evil one who would have them betray us in our most righteous effort of racial love and freedom.

I feel that my imprisonment has helped to open the eyes of the world to your true position, and has made friends to your cause. Men and women of other races who were mis-informed and deceived by our enemies, are now seeing the light. The graves that the enemies of race pride and purity dug for us may not yet entomb them.Hold fast to the ideal of a dignified Negro(African) race.

Let us work together as one people, whether we are octoroons, quadroons, mulattoes or Blacks(Africans for the making of a nation of our own, for in that alone lies our racial salvation.The few who do not want to be with us will find out their mistake sooner or later, but as for us, let us all unite as one people.

It is no fault of ours that we are what we are-if we are black, brown, yellow or near White, the responsibility for the accident is not ours, but the time has now come for us to get together and make ourselves a strong and healthy race.

The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People want us to all become White by amalgamation, but they are not honest enough to come out with the truth. to be a Negro(African) is no disgrace, but an honor, and we of the Universal Negro(African) Improvement Association(UNIA), do not want to become White.

We do not seek for the White man's company more than he would seek after ours. We are proud and honorable. we love our race and respect and adore our mothers. we are as proud as our fathers were in the days of old, and even though we have passed through slavery in the Western world, we shall not hang our heads, for Ethiopia shall again return to her glory.

The Universal Negro(African) (UNIA) is a union of all groups within the race. We love each other with pride of race and great devotion and nothing in the world shall come between us.The truth has to be told so that we may know from whence our troubles cometh. Yet we must never, even under the severest pressure, hate or dislike ourselves.

Even though we oppose the present leaders of the NAACP, we must remember that we are al members of one race, rent asunder by circumstances. Let us help them by advice and conversion. Men like Du Bois need our sympathy. We should teach them to love themselves, at least, have respect for the blood of their mothers, our mothers, who have suffered so much to make us what we are.

We should take the truth to the innocent members of the National Association and save them from from the mis-leadership of the White and Colored(African) persons who seek to destroy our race by miscegenation an use them as a pawn toward that end, and to foster their own class interest.

Let us reach out and convert these unfortunate people and thus save them from a grave error. They should not be left to the tender mercies of their vile leaders, for they are good people and of our race,they mean good, but are mis-directed.I have to return many thanks to you, the member of UNIA for the loyal support you have given me during my trials and troubles, suffered for you.

I can realize that you have at all ties done your best for me, even as I have done the best for you, as God has directed me to see. It it were not for your, I could have been left helpless and comfortless.

I shall never ever forget you. If it were not for you the members and some of the officers of local divisions, i would have been left penniless and helpless to fight my enemies and the great powers against me, and to even in the slightest way give protection to my wife whom I neglected and cheated for the 'cause' that I so much love.

It is surprising how those we serve help most can be ungrateful and unkind in our absence, and generally seek to take advantage of the one who cannot help himself. My name I leave with you the people. For you I have built up a organization of International standing. Every sacrifice has been made. My youth, money and ability were freely given for the 'cause'.

The 'cause' you now see. It was not made in a day, but took years of steady work and sacrifice. Other will now try to take advantage of my predicament to rob and exploit in my name, and blame the absent and helpless, but ever remember that, from nothing, I raised up an organization through which you may see the light; let others, if they may, show the ability to carry on that which they have found, and not seek to exploit, to ruin and then blame the absent one as is so easy to do.

It was during my absence in the West Indies when I was helpless to act, the traitors within and enemies without did the deeds of dishonor that placed me for the Black Star Line where I am. Let not the same characters succeed to enrich themselves at the cost of the name of one who cannot protect himself or protect you.You must protect yourselves-the time has come.

My full tale of warning is not to be told here, but suffice to say that on you I rely for the ultimate success of our great effort, and but for you I would have been hopelessly defeated in the great struggle to "keep the fire burning." Probably I should not have expected better for even our Blessed Master feared worse when his chief disciples failed him.

I am not complaining, but I warn you against treachery, deceit, self-seeking, dishonest and racial disloyalty. Personally, As I have so often stated, I counted the cost years ago, but the responsibility is not all mine, but equally that of the one whom I love with great devotion and fondness.

You, I feel sure, have done your duty by her and will continue to shield and protect her, while, because of my imprisonment for you, I find it impossible to do my duty.The God of our Fathers will raise up friends for the 'cause' of Africa, and we who have struggled in the wilderness for all this time shall surely see the promised land.

Hold fast to the faith. Desert not the ranks, but as brave soldiers march on to victory. I am happy,and shall remain so, as long as you keep the flag fling.I hope to be with you again with greater energy and force to put the program over. I have yet to let my real voice and should be heard in Europe, Asia and Continental America in plea for the Negro's(African's) right and for a free and redeemed Africa. Yet, I have not spoken.

Cabral On The People

What Lies Between Theory And Practice: The People!

We need to grasp and come to grips with one thing that the late Oagyefo Kwame Nkrumah once said that: " ... All people of African descent, whether they live in North Or south America, the Caribbean, or any other part of the world are "AFRICANS", and belong to the AFRICAN Nation...

"There are some of us here in these social media that seem to take umbrage with the fact that there are other Africans around the world and in Africa who are Africans, and do not need to be told that they are how to act or be an African by some charlatans who arrogantly abrogate themselves the role of determining what and who is African and what behavior is African or not.

Well, I would like to think and talk a different stance and position of this latter statements. Some of us are not going to accept that some shrill ranting is legit just because some people portray themselves as being so. I dislike bullies of any stripe or bearing. In order for us to be able to "win the hearts and minds" of African people, we will have to earn it from them, than intimidate and do the name-calling and agitation that is dumb and retrogressive.

There are those of us who make the struggle their "personal" pet-project and use language and approach that does not endear them to anyone here on the FB or among the suffering masses. We cannot be arrogant and yet we want to free our people. We can not use inflammatory language to win nor justify our course and cause. There are many ways to skin a cow, but thus far, at times, we have people who are really missing the point of what the struggle really is all about.

Right now we are all engaged in trying to find a median between Theory and Practice. Most of us purport to be fighting for the people in their present struggle. In order for us to be clear what we are dealing with, we had better come with some better ways and means of achieving this goal A case in point is made much more clearer by Amilcar Cabral:

"But there can be no doubt that it is our people who wage our struggle, through their children as militants, leaders, combatants,militia, etc. the fundamental strength is our people, themselves. Our population, or rather the population linked to the work of our Party, "mobilized and organized" by our Party, has from the beginning fed our struggle, borne sacrifices for our struggle, and so has been the principal strength of our struggle.

It would have been impossible for us to wage the struggle, in the era of clandestinity, were it not that our people kept us alive among them like a fish in water...."Cabral continues to counsel us thus:"Our people no do really feel that the struggle is theirs. Not only because it is their children who have the weapons in their hands. Not only because it is their children who study and are trained as cadres, nurses, doctors, engineers, technicians, etc.

Not only because it is their children who lead. But also because even in the villages, the militiamen or civilian population take up what principally symbolizes our struggle: weapons.It is not by chance, or for any other reason. It is not by chance that Our Party gives weapons and constantly gives more, to our population.

It is precisely so that no one should take it into his head that only those who take up arms in the people's arm or in the guerilla force are effectively struggling for results in this struggle.

The more weapons there are for our supporters,the more certainty our population and our people will feel that the struggle is really theirs, and fewer "illusions there will be in the heads of our combatants and leaders that the struggle is their exclusive concern."

Cabral further adds: "Moreover we have organized within the framework of our Party a large proportion of the population of our land. this was for the principal political strength of our struggle, which provided the potential for our struggle to advance as well as it has advanced. We must train our people,we must train ourselves - leaders and militants - to defend at all costs the conquests our people are making through their struggle.""...

But various Party comrades, with high or low responsibilities, and even ordinary combatants have not understood this very well. They have tried to turn the struggle a little to their advantage, after all they are people, it would seem. The struggle of our people, by our people, but for them. this is one of the most serious mistakes that can be made in a struggle like ours.

We cannot in the least allow our armed forces, our militants or our responsible workers forget for a single instant that the greatest consideration, respect and dedication is owed to the people of our land, to our population, above all in the liberated areas of our land.

"ANYONE WHO IS READY TO DIE FROM SOME BULLET IN THIS WAR BUT IS ABLE TO SHOW LACKOF RESPECT FOR OUR PEOPLE, THE VILLAGE FOLK, THE POPULATION, WILL DIE WITHOUT KNOWING WHY HE IS DYING, OR DIES," under a "DELUSION".As Professor Clarke put it:

The fundamental message to [Pan Africanists] is that they should stop rehearsing and get the show on the road to total liberation and freedom so that we can ossify our ranks to create our own common Pan-African nationalist Home/fortress Africa 2100 in order to challenge European Nationalism/fortress Europe 2100 in the twenty-first century.

Petty jealousies and ignorance will not do it. We need to begin to appreciate each other for what we all bring to the table and quarters of the People's struggle. We need to be cognizant of the fact that we need to achieve all this, in the works of Malcolm X, "by any means necessary".

So, some of us need to get real, grow up, both mentally, physically, intellectually and spiritually. This struggle is not for and about one 'persons', but about a people or a whole population of Africans still suffering today. Even PROF. was very well aware of the need for our struggle to have an international dimension, flavor and approach to it... Go figure...

African Pedagogy

Noam Chomsky on The IMF And World Bank

One More Thing: That Structural Adjustment Issue of the IMF and World- And The ANC and their Vested Interests

Some Things Become Clearer When We Understand The Machinations of Deep Pocketed Big CapitalIt is obvious that the gaining of political democracy, e.g., equal access to public accommodations by Africans, will not resolve potentially explosive racial and political conflicts which threaten to destabilize the whole South African nation unless and until economic democracy is also instituted for Africans.

This simply means that ownership and control of South Africa's wealth, land economic resources and production must be equitably and proportionately shared between its White and non-white populations.

Moreover, this means that Africans must, through individual, corporate, and institutional means not only found, buy and establish or expand new and existing businesses which operate both the national and international economies, but must acquire high levels of equity in the major corporations and financial institutions now exclusively owned and controlled by Whites.Given the poor state of African's state of existence.

We begin to see the same effects that although there are notions of Apartheid may have been uprooted within South Africa, but it has resurfaced in the African municipalities with the Implementation of externally-led neo-liberal economic policies.

When one gleans through the Local Government White Paper(LGWP), it is clear that it favors free market conditions, but it also fails to recognize the despondent state of discombobulated wretched existential realities of its electorate.

Patrick Bond and Mzwanele give us a clearer picture of the economic conditions prevailing on the ground for the imperiled African hewers of wood and drawers of water in their own country.Bond and Mayekiso open up their narrative and discourse as follows:

"The deterioration of municipal services and declining standards of infrastructure have become commonplace in post-Apartheid South Africa an housing has become a policy farce. All of this is not because South Africa is now under "black rule," as many conservatives would have it, but on the contrary, because of a combination of factors reinforcing residual white power remain.

These factors are evident in the profoundly anti-redistributive, market-orientated policies on municipal services designed in late 1984 by the World Bank and inexplicably adopted by the Reconstruction and Development Program (or RDP) office in 1985 and Department of Constitutional Development (DCD) in 1996 once the RDP office closed and local infrastructure became DCD's responsibility.

DCD, which was led by Minister Valli Moosa, a former UDF member, carried over South Africa's worst bureaucrats, i.e., the white men who designed the complex systems of racial segregation(Apartheid).

Moosa, in challenging the Apartheid -era planning, invoked the neo-liberal principles, an alternative program that merely compounded the problem for the poor.According to Bond and Mayekiso: "Others like Dr. Crispian Olver, who was once in the ANC underground activist and a student activist, as the governments main infrastructure bureaucrat, was challenged about his failure to adopt RDP provision that services such as electricity and water should be cross-subsidized.

Reminded that, Alusaf, the big aluminum in Richards Bay, receives electricity at roughly R0.02 per kilowatt hour while rural consumers often pay as high as R0.48 per kilowatt hour, Olver responded to Mail and Guardian that "if we increase the price of electricity to users like Alusaf, their products will become uncompetitive and that will affect our balance of payments."

He later went on to blame the opposition to privatization by the trade unionists for the failure of the RDP. In both cases, however, Olver was simply articulating principle established by World Bank teams who have come to South Africa to design national policy but also to invest in privatized municipal infrastructure (through a US$25 million rate return equity stake made by their subsidiary, the International Finance Corporation, in a fund that promises a 28% US$ rate of return).

This clearly generates conflicts of interest as, for instance, when Bank staff went to Port Elizabeth in 1996 to study the capital expenditure on household water supply and after a week produced a plan with only one option: privatization.

Beyond shrinkage of the state through privatization - supported, ironically enough, by former radical community activists of the South African National Civic Organization (SANCO), whose near-bankrupt investment fund allied with the British water firm, Biwater, to bid for the first big municipal contract,

in Nelspruit - another sign of declining standards suffered by low-income black South Africans is the level of essential services they can expect when [or if] new infrastructure is built in the coming years.Which has partly been built for the World Cupt hus far)Bond and Mayekiso further unpack the way the structure of the New ANC functions by stating:

"For those with below a R800(around $100) per month income who live in municipalities with no other means of topping up the subsidy, services will be reduced to a pit latrine(not flush toilet), low voltage electricity (not enough to run a heater or hot plate), a yard tap (not even in an internal sink), high-Mast lighting (the type found throughout Soweto, making it look like a concentration camp), and gravel roads(of which some have been paved by now).

The World Bank contributed to the declining standards of African people, which is worse than Apartheid planning -which were established in March 1995 infrastructure investment report which are justified mainly by refusal of both DCD and the Department of Finance to cross-subsidize the provision of reticulated water and electricity.

These services are now considered so expensive at non-subsidized costs that low income families will be denied the ability to flush their excrement or to turn on an appliance that requires more than 5 amps to run." [A point to Note!]

Some of the issues just discussed above are now already in play in Townships throughout the South African landscape: water in the Townships gets shut down for hours to days at a time; electricity is shut down(mostly in winter and on very hot days for the inhabitants of these Townships].

The locals are forced, coerced, tricked into buying electricity and paying exorbitant sums on water bills.A casual perusal of the IMF and World back is necessary here to give some historical perspective to the way both have a joint location in Washington, systematic consultation about each other's activities, regular co-operation (even complementarity), their identical ideologies perspectives, similarly of objectives and common programs under "Structural Adjustment".

As such, it is possible to identify four major IMF-World Bank programs in Africa. They are: (i) anti-poverty programs[which has worsened poverty in poor countries]; (ii) growth-orientated programs[which have destroyed and shut down local economies], including infrastructural development[which in the case of South Africa is accelerated to crumble and deteriorate] (iii) balance of payments stabilization programs; (iv) structural adjustment programs(SAP) or economic recovery programs (ERP).

Of these, the first two are the main concerns of the bank, the third of the Fund, while the fourth is a joint concern of both institutions.The ANC, the World Bank and the IMFPatrick Bond writes: "Just how dangerous is the World Bank and its neoconservative president Robert Soellick to South Africa and the global climate?

Notwithstanding South Africa's existing US$75 billion foreign debt, on April 8 2010 the bank added a $3.75 billion loan to South Africa's electricity utility Eskom for the primary purpose of building the world's fourth largest coal-fired power plant, at Medupi.

It will spew 25 million tons of climate pollutant carbon dioxide into the air each year. South Africa's finance minister Pravin Gordhan has repeatedly said that this the World Bank's "first" post-apartheid loan, yet the bank's 1999 and 2008 Country Assistance Strategy documents show conclusively that Medupi is the 15th credit since 1994.

Gorhan claimed the loan will help South Africa "build a relationship" with the bank. He 'conveniently' forgets the bank co-authored the African National Congress (ANC) government's neo-liberal growth, Employment andRedistribution GEAR) program, which led us to overtake Brazil as the world most unequal major country, as black people's incomes fell below 1994 levels and White people's income grew by 24 percent according to official statistics.

Gordhan neglects that the World Bank itself regularly brags about its "knowledge bank" role here.

In 199, for example, after economist John Roome suggested to then minister Kader Asmal that the government impose "a credible threat of cutting service" to the people who cannot afford water, the bank's Country Assistance Strategy reported that its "market-related pricing" advice was "instrumental in facilitating radical revision in South Africa's approach".

As a result, the cholera epidemic the following year - catalyzed by water disconnection - killed hundreds. Similar misery will follow the Eskom loan. Medupi will be built in a water-scarce area where communities are already confronting extreme pollution.

Forty new Limpopo and Mpumalanga coal mines will be opened to provide inputs to Modupi and its successor, Kusile. Meanwhile, the World Bank is trying to lend nearly US$4 billion to the Johannesburg-based state-owned utility Eskom, the world's fourth-largest power company and Africa's largest carbon emitter (with 40% of South Africa's total emissions.

The loan is mainly for constructing the World's fourth most CO2-intensive coal-fired plant, Medupi.(Bond) The ANC-led government is in service of the IMF, World Bank and the international and local big capitalGoing Against the GrainBond further informs us thus: "More worryingly,power-plant construction plans include a pay-off of $135 million profit for the ANC, whose investment arm own a quarter of Hitachi, which received a $5 billion Eskom contract.

So blatant is the conflict of interest that the government's Public Protector last month judged Valli Moosa - then chair of Eskom and an ANC finance committee member - to have acted improperly The potential sale of the ANC's shares in Hitachi within the next six weeks (announced and then retracted) doesn't mitigate matters, given Medupe's high cost escalations (from 5.5 billion to $18 billion) and the increased value of Hitachi's shares thanks to the improper and corrupt contract.

Five dozen SA civic, environmental, church, academic and labor organizations began a campaign against the World Bank loan in February.

They are concerned not only that catastrophic climate change will be hastened, along with privatization of electricity generation, but worse, Medupi's main beneficiary will be the world's largest metal and mining corporations, which already receive the world's cheapest electricity thanks to multi-decade deals cut in the last years of Apartheid.

This was being pushed at a time of intense controversy surrounding Eskom mismanagement in its last annual reporting period. The caption above demonstrates clearly that the ANC is in Cahoots with Big International and local capital, and being advised by the IMF and the World among this path.The manufactured, one-dimensional, pro market-market world view results restricts both freedom and democracy.

As South Africa enters its second decade of democracy, with new freedoms and civil liberties, further evaluation of this relationship between the media, the state, and the market becomes increasingly vital. According to Noam Chomsky, "the U.S. media serve, and propagandize on behalf of, the powerful societal interests that control and finance them.

The newspapers cover forestry, terrorism, and the New African Partnership for African development, to be exact, about 1797 newspaper articles and examined the use of sources quoted and revealed censorship of alternative voices. The qualitative analysis examined the vested interests and various players have in a pro-market, censored representation of NEPAD, the forestry industry, and terrorism.

The study revealed that capitalism and the resulting interlocking capital of board members, newspaper owners, advertisers, and the government, cause newspapers to engage in self-censorship and exclusion of threatening voices to advance the interests of the elite. (Noam Chomsky)The ANC's election manifesto is just as slicker and a more sophisticated version of its predecessors.

If we peel away the electioneering layers that distort and obscure the truth of present-day South African society, then the realities of ANC "delivery are exposed:* Nearly half of South Africa's population have no formal job and the casualization/outsourcing of work has turned million of workers into virtual beggars.*

Two-thirds of South Africans now live on the verge of, or in, poverty, struggling to put enough food in their stomachs an enjoy even the most basic necessities of life; meanwhile, a small minority of old White capitalists and their new, but paltry in number African brethren get richer and fatter by the day.*

Millions still have no access to basic services like water,electricity, housing, [toilets] and healthcare. Millions cannot access those services that have been "delivered" because of privatization and corporatization has driven the prices up; meanwhile, the mining corporations, capitalist farmers, private medical schemes and property developers make super profits and consume record amounts of publicly subsidized basic services.

Meanwhile the poor have no jobs and have become much more poorer.* Apartheid-era land ownership patterns remain virtually unchanged and farm-workers and rural dwellers continue to live under oppressive, near feudal relations. Meanwhile, rich foreigners and an emergent domestic bourgeoisie buy-up, and speculate on, prime agricultural, industrial and residential land(See the sub-heading below on Monsanto).*

The ANC's manifesto says that the ANC wants to enter into a "people's contract" with all South Africans in order to "create work and roll back poverty". Such a "contract" will supposedly be achieved by everyone embracing a "spirit of responsibility and volunteerism".

If the majority buy into this contract(as they will soon be having elections this 2013), and vote for the ANC, then the ANC says it will fulfill all the election promises and more) which it has failed to deliver in the past 18+ years. The ANC's so-called "people's contract" offer the exact opposite - a South Africa built on continued capitalist alienation, elite accumulation and class exploitation. The illusion still continues unabated and undisturbed.

Something About Our Past Resonates with Our Present:Looking Back To Understand And Control the future: Back to the Now

Equal Dis-equlibrium in the Heart of a DemocracyDismembered Hopes; Shattered DreamsWe have seen how Winnie addresses this issue of dreams deferred, destroyed and delayed that have the people feeling very much discouraged. Long before Mandela was released, the old regime had already dismantled the trappings of segregation in South Africa and implemented what became known as "Petty Apartheid".

Within the South African government, pressure built up for some kind of change that would gain support of at least a part of the black population against the existing Apartheid structure. The key to these changes was to preserve the existing structure[Apartheid] and not destroy it].

The solution the government decided upon entailed building up a group of Africans with some stake in the existing system, described, not entirely correctly, as a "black middle class". Apartheid had hitherto blocked the formation of such a group. By law, Africans could not work in skilled jobs, could only own some types of businesses, could not employ whites, and so on.

Further, even if they made some money, Africans were limited in what they buy with it. They could not own a house or property in urban areas(which was later changed and came to be known as a 99 years lease towards ownership), in urban areas-especially townships, and they could not get a good education in South Africa, they could not even eat in the best restaurants.

The new government policy was aimed at enabling a small number of Africans to prosper; this group would then have reason to ally themselves with the white government against the aspirations of the black community. As Patrick Laurence, the Rand Daily Mail's political correspondent summarized in December 1978:"The strategy was to woo the black middle class as an ally of the white minority, or, as an Afrikaans newspaper put it, to consolidate the middle class as a bastion against attack on South Africa's free capitalist way of life.

The Nationalist Party appropriated the liberal strategy of alliance with the black bourgeoisie and grafted it on to its earlier way of winning over the hearts and minds of the people, chiefs and the headmen through their homelands policy ... The success of the policy was of crucial importance to the future of South Africa. On it it will depend the extent to which the authorities could win black allies and on that, in turn, would determine in what measure the insurgents(ANC) were isolated."

They(The ANC), on coming into power in 1994, left intact the most important part, which was and is still economic apartheid, which is reinforced by the ANC. Mzwanele observes: " I think we are being designed like the United States; divided by class, which generally means race.

Since democracy, little has changed. Wealthy white farmers continue to control more than 80% of the land, and their existing property rights are guaranteed in the new Constitution{People or readers should heck-out the Freedom Charter]. Out of 22,000 land restitution cases, only a handful have been settled. Ramaphosa and others have spoken a great deal about "black empowerment" as a "philosophy"for the new South Africa.

What this really means is the inclusion of a small group of black in South Africa's white corporate masonry, which is overseen by the power of five companies dominating the Johannesburg Stock Exchange. This co-option allows foreign and South African companies to use black faces to gain access to the ANC establishment.

One new executive stated it this way: "I am the black ham in the white sandwich." This is still true of the newly crated African petit-bourgeoisie today in South Africa.Given that Africans have lost their national consciousness and compass, we find people like Chinweizu writing in the following manner: "Having lost a clear and detailed sense of our identity, we have naturally also our ability to create a point of view of the world strictly our own. With our scrambled sense of reality we have forgotten how to see things in terms of our separate and concrete interests.

We behave as if the interest of the West were necessarily our own, as if the western point of view were the one and only valid one. Worse still, we behave as if it were some sort of betrayal to discover and insist on our point of viewing the world. One of the most devastating legacies of our satellization to the West is that our culture has become eccentric. Instead of being Afrocentric in our thoughts and actions, we are Eurocentric.

What Europe does we automatically assume as the standard we must imitate in order to appear civilized. As a result, we have lost the ability to define ourselves. We gladly accept every ridiculous definition of what we are supposed to be, so long as it is proffered by the West. Without a strong sense of ourselves, we accept whatever the West wants us to believe about our past. We even refuse to define our cultural and political constituency for what it is - Africa, Black Africa.

But that is indeed our Pan-African constituency, a constituency defined by our separate history, our separate historical situation."Chinweizu continues to inform us as follows: "Along with our delusions of freedom goes another - the delusion of respectability. We think our participation in the spotlighted drama of international conferences a sign of worth.

We think our respectability has something to do with being admitted to the United Nations, or with the customary manners of protocol when even a weak lunatic must be accorded every formal respect lest the strong should feel ridiculous in talking to him. We have to wipe from our eyes all delusions of freedom if we are to see clearly our way to real freedom." (Chinweizu)

We should also pay attention to the fact that large corporate control and monopoly over production and distribution diminishes representative government by limiting the range of productivity, distribution and range of ideas available to citizens. One of the acts taken by the Apartheid regime to wrest the historical realities of Africans, was to work towards wiping it out of the historical memory and conscience of African using various means.

The ANC made sure Africans suffered severe amnesia , delusions of grandeur, fear and drug addiction, as a present way of life.Issuing a critique against the sent government is not hating it, but merely pointing out to those issue that need to be talked about, known, discussed and adjusted, to suit and copy with the wishes of the Majority Africans in South Africa.Erasure of Historical Memory Of Africans in South AfricaSouth Africa:

A Study in MaldevelopmentThe ruling Apartheid masters set out to work on wiping off the historical memory of the Africans in South Africa. Ntsebeza and Bell help us get some of the origins of latter-day liberal post-neocolonial colonial capitalist system.

When Apartheid was being replaced by the ANC-led government, and "as prospects of a democratic transition in South Africa drew close, tons of files, microfilm, audio and computer tapes and disks were shredded, wiped and incinerated in little more than six months in 1993, while the political parties of the Apartheid state negotiated with the representatives of the Liberal movements (The Apartheid rulers were negotiating from a position of power and strength- my addition),

Aome forty-four metric tons of records from the headquarters of National Intelligence Service alone was destroyed. There was so much material that state incinerators could not cope: the furnaces of private companies such as the steelmaker Iscor also had to be used. Into these flames disappeared the last echoes of the voices of thousand of victims.

It was a paper Auschwitz, an attempt to eradicate all evidence of the nightmare memories of the tortured and the living dead, to obliterate all trace of those victims whose physical remains lay scattered countrywide in unmarked graves."Into the flames too went the files of the frightened ones, their craven acceptance of compromise and collaboration etched in dry officialese, but still sweating fear from every syllable. there were also the records of the venal individuals whose greed had driven them to verbal betrayal and beyond.

The pasts of thousands of part-time whisperers of secrets and betrayers of trust were turned to ashes. Who and what they talked about, to whom and why, was either vaporized in the furnaces, or shredded to strips, then sold by the kilogram to companies as Nampak and Sappi to be pulped. A new eco-friendly generation would pen its own secretes on the recycled remains of much of a nation's memory.

This is not the first time that collaboration between the state and private business have taken place, . Such disposals were purely business transactions,with no questions asked. It enabled business representatives later to appear before the Truth And reconciliation Commission(TRC), to plead ignorance of gross human rights abuses, and even deny that they had any sense profited from a system which had, at the very least, guaranteed for decades a cheap and malleable labor force. (Bell/Ntsebenza)

Evidence of the destruction of archives surfaced in 1991 at the Convention for a Democratic South Africa(Codesa) forum where government and anti-Apartheid representative eventually agreed their compromise for a transition to a non-racial parliamentary democracy.

This brought about immediate demands, especially from anti-Apartheid representatives, to halt the destruction of state records, to keep the national archive reasonably intact. However, there was relatively little protest, for it was not only the governing National Party (NP) leadership and the generals, brigadiers, colonels and foot in various arms of the security apparatus that the destruction served.

There were also the various informers and collaborators in business and civil society as well as within the various antiapartheid structures for whom the burning and shredding of files promised an end to fears of discovery. among the negotiators on both sides at the historic Codesa talks were individuals whose future careers depended on the records of the past being lost.

But given the delicate nature of the compromise being sought, legal form must, where possible, be followed. F.W. de Klerk, as head of government, instructed his office to secure a state legal opinion on the issue of destroying files deemed 'secret'. In so doing, the 'ancien regime' effectively erased the historical memory of Africans and the records which showed how this was done.

At this juncture, I think Winnie Mandela's summing up of our condition is most appropriate, whatever one may think or say things about her. That is not my interest, inasmuch I am enamored by her comments below:Winnie Mandela's View of How Africans were BetrayedCut Off the Head, then the Body Won't functionWinnie Mandela has not kept quite in regards to the ANC's vision which she says has 'become blurred and tinted throughout its nearly first two decades of rule'.

The relationship of Mandela with her had by then become strained. The rumor in South Africa was that Winnie could not abide or touch him during their two-year attempt to salvage their marriage after his release in 1990. It is postulated that Mandela was willing to forgive her of her past indiscretions or affairs while he was in prison, it had not worked.

What is often no talked about is the attitude of the "exiled" ANC cadre and leaders that had a hand in the distancing and alienating of Winnie, some even aver that the ANC were the ones who pushed the idea of Machell's wife, Graxa, into the life of Madiba. Be that as it may, the changing and making over of the ANC is not a new phenomena, so that, if it was made over as we see it today long before we are where are at now, because it was designed to suit Big Capital and the former bosses of Apartheid and their business partners in the country and overseas.

Nadira Naipul, of the Evening Standard, carried-out this interview Winnie Mandela wherein she accuses Mandela of betraying the African People of South Africa. This is what Winnie told Naipul: "I am not happy the way things had panned-out in South Africa. I kept the Movement(ANC) alive. You have been in the Township. You have seen how bleak it still is.

Well, it was here where we flung the first stone. It was here where we shed so much blood. Nothing could be achieved without the sacrifice without the sacrifice of the people, African people. The ANC was in exile. The entire leadership was on the run or in jail. And there was no one to remind and [comfort] these people, African people, of the horror of their daily reality; when something so abnormal as apartheid becomes a daily reality, it was our reality. And four generations had lived with it - as non-people."

Asked if she was afraid, Winnie replied: "Yes, I was afraid in the beginning, but then there is only so much they can do to you. After that it is only death. They can kill you, as you see, I am still here. I knew that the Apartheid enforcers had done everything in their power to break me.

They picked me up in the night and placed and me under house arrest in Brandfort, a border town in the Orange Free State Province of South Africa. I spent nine years in this remote outpost, meanwhile, I was recruiting young men for the Party, right under their noses.

The only worry or pain I had was of my daughters. I never really knew what was happening to them. I feel that they really suffered in all this. Not me or Mandela. The anguish was unbearable for me as a mother, not knowing how my children coped when they held me in long solitary confinement. Zenani, now 51 and Zindzi, 50, remain much in the background, having no wish to enter politics themselves. Mandela is no longer "accessible" to his daughters and they have to get through much red tape just to speak to their father.

This name Mandela is an albatross around the necks of my family. You all must realize that Mandela was not the only man who suffered. There are many others, hundreds who languished in prison and died. Many unsung and unknown heroes of the struggle, and there were others in leadership too, like poor Steve Biko, who died of the beatings, horribly all alone.

Mandela did go to prison and he went in there as a burning young revolutionary. But look what came out. Mandela let us down. He agreed to a bad deal for Africans. Economically we are still on the outside. The economy is very much 'White'. It has a few token Africans, but so many who gave their lives in the struggle have died unrewarded.I cannot forgive him for going to receive the Nobel 'Peace Prize i 1993] with his jailer [FW] de Klerk.

Hand in hand they went. Do you think de Klerk released him from the goodness of his heart. He had to. The times dictated it, the world had changed, and our struggle was not a flash in the pan, it was bloody to say the least and we had given rivers of bloods. I had kept it alive with every means at my disposal. Look at the Truth and Reconciliation (TRC) charade. He(Mandela) should not have never agreed to it. What good does "truth" do? How does it help anyone to know where and how their loved ones were killed or buried?

That Bishop Tutu who turned it all into a religious circus talked to me to apologize to Stompie's mother, and I did so. I am not alone. The people of Soweto are still with me. Look what they made him do. The great Mandela. He has no control or say anymore. They put a huge statue of him right in the middle of the most affluent "white " area of Johannesburg. Not here were we spilled our blood and where it all started. Mandela is now a corporate foundation.

He is wheeled out globally to collect money and he is content on doing that. The ANC have effectively sidelined him, but they keep him as a figurehead for the sake of appearance. It was an economic betrayal, and nothing had changed for Africans, except that Apartheid had officially gone You know, sometimes I think we had not thought it all out.

There was no planning from our side. How could we? We were badly educated and the leadership does not acknowledge that. Maybe we have to go back to the drawing board and see where it all went wrong. I am not sorry. I will never be sorry.. I would do everything I did again if I had to, everything! (Winnie Mandela)

Winnie encapsulates and echoes what all African feel and see and are disparaged and discouraged by the way thing have been going on so far in their country of birth.Enforced Brutal, Raw and Naked Force - Our RealityOn february 2, 1990, South African State President, F.W. de Klerk lifted a 30-year ban on the African National Congress (ANC).

In a speech to parliament in Cape Town, he declared: "The season of violence is over. The time for reconstruction and reconciliation has arrived." (Christopher Wren. 1990). In January 1990, he ordered a landmark investigation into an incident where the police shot 84 protesters in the back.

In June 1990, he lifted the national state of emergency except in Natal. South Arica seemed to be changing at last. Yet, in July and August 1990, seven months after the end of violence was announced, black townships around Johannesburg erupted in warfare. In one horrendous incident that occurred on September 13, 26 were killed and at least 100 injured in an attack on a commuter train between Johannesburg and Soweto.

Bodies were strewn along a five mile stretch of track. It was the third terrorist-style attack that week. By the end of 1990, more than 1,000 had died in the area. The conflict which raged in Natal for several years and which had spread north to the townships near Johannesburg pitied supporters of the ANC against the supporters of the Inkatha movement, which became a political party in 1990.

Adherents of these organizations were locked in a cycle of attack and retaliation that was labelled "black on black," "internecine," "factional." and "tribal." warfare (Africa Watch Report)On the basis of the many interviews with South Africans Africa Watch Report concluded that there is abundant evidence that the state was implicated in the past six years of so-called "Black on Black" violence.

The bias of the state security forces, who have either intervened or failed to intervene on a selective basis, has fueled the conflict. Despite the pressure for the reform from some elements in the state, the government failed to deal effectively with the violence.

According to SAIRR figures, 1,400 Africans were killed in Natal in 1989.(BB Broadcast, 1990) In 1990, in an area around Durban, more than 1,000 were killed. (The Citizen, 1990) In areas near Johannesburg, the death toll for the period from July 1990 to the year's end was over 1,000. These statistics, do not reveal the magnitude of the tragedy.

One must look beyond the numbers to the devastation of lives. As John Aitchison, from the Center for Adult Education at the university of Natal, has written: "Behind these statistics lie people, people who live and die, who have holes made in them by 137 knife thrusts, who are burnt to death, who are blasted by shotgun blasts, who go to lawyers and appear in court as witnesses and are then gunned down by the people they testified against,... people who are interviewed by journalists, then detained by policemen."

This is what Winnie was talking about, and this is the life and reality faced by the people under Apartheid, and now, it seems that "Post Colonial Mental Disorders" have set-in since the ANC-led government took power in South Africa.Poverty, lack of education and lack of employment opportunities(which persist to date), amongst the Black population helped to breed a culture of violence(which is still manifest within todays' African peoples existence as was under Apartheid, and still under ANC-led government - see Winnie's critique above).

According to the 1980 figures, Whites, who constituted 15.4 percent of the total population, received 64.9 percent of the total income earned in South Africa. Black South Africans, 73 percent of the population, earned only 24.9 percent of the total income for South Africa. Illiteracy rate for Africans was nearly 30 percent while for Whites, less than 3 percent.

State expenditure per pupil in 1983-84 was over 1,600 rand for White children,over 1,000 rand for Indian children, less than 600 rand for Colored children, and between 200 and 300 for African children(Francis Wilson and Mamphela Ramphele, 1989)

The ANC has managed to worsen this situation described above in 18-plus years of their rule.What's to be done? The African People of Mzantsi will have to answer this one, in the very near future...

South African Governmental Corruption laissez faire ("Literally Leave It Be" or "Let Go")

Parties in office, both on pre-dominant party systems or in more competitive contexts, may be more or less vulnerable to these kinds of degeneration, though. Obviously the degree to which political patronage is institutionalized is one important factor in encouraging or retarding the emergence of personal factionalism.

Factionalism cans also be the product of particular electoral systems, those that allow intra-party candidate preference voting for example(Mainwarring/Scully). Strong control of the party by its parliamentary and government leaders, as in India in 1950s, can turn the party into an organization completely preoccupied with the struggle for public positions, and this too can generate a high degree of intra party conflict( Chhibber) This can be observed too in South Africa, today).

The blurring of state party boundaries can be especially dangerous in a context in which the identity of party supporters is especially fixed along lines of social cleavage because the stakes in electoral competition become very high indeed as they do if the main parties perceive their role as that of a hegemonic movement with an epochal transformational mission.

Such groups are less likely to recognize the legitimacy of their opponents and to understand rules ad procedures as representing principles rather than mere instruments to facilitate their hold on power. Hegemonic parties are absolutist (rather than relativist or secular) in ideological orientation, their mission is to build a more advanced social order and "the party is the highest political value including state, nation, family or any other social group"(Leiserson).

Hegemonic parties often mobilize around powerful collective identities rather structured organization and affect a plebiscitarian leadership style that emphases direct linkages between governors and citizens in place of the conventions of representative democracy"Mainwarring/Scully)

The emphasis in this brief discussion in the characteristics of one party predominant democracy is prompted by the frequency of references to post 1994 South Africa politics as a dominant party system(Giliomee/Simkins) The ANC's penchant for hegemony has has tailored itself for such type of democracy that is absolutist.

"It is quite saddening to learn that our people continue to be self centered about wealth in this country," wrote Sipho. "Who wants to lead this country to prosperity for all? Was it the old man himself?

Because for now no one seems interested in leading poor people, because everyone who has power wants to lead their families and friends to richness and eventually pretend to be loving everyone while they know very well that they are interested in themselves and the riches that come with such office.

When will such criminality end? How? The community at large needs to open eyes and stand together in fighting such a scourge. We can start by not voting in everyone who smells corruption. We should not be taken away by their luxuries during election campaigns, because it is propaganda and not sincere election campaigns.

They know that that they are only canvassing to be in positions and forget about us after the elections because they will be pre-occupied with corruption instead of service delivery. It is better to stand on the fence than voting someone who will forget about you and remember their friends and hangers-on and families.

We need to to do away with Nepotism and Cronyism. South Africa, wake up and defend yourself from this Wolfpack and Vultures as well as Predators." Cosmas Desmond, an eloquent voice of the homeless and landless, having suffered arrest arrest and banning by the regime, and keeps on infuriating the presently ANC-led government, wisely states that:

"The ANC was in exile for so long, it was willing to accept power at any price. It is considered blasphemous to say so, but Mandela seemed never to spell out a vision for South Africa, not like a Nehru or a Cabral. There is no political philosophy: it's like candy floss, all sweet and fluffy and lovely with a spurious notion of 'reconciliation' between those with nothing and those with everything. The people who were the power behind behind Apartheid, the great corporations like Anglo American, are still here, undiminished."

The ANC-led government has been toying around with the idea of creating a media censorship law in order to curb excess reporting on the corrupt shenanigans perpetrated by the ANC and its cronies and minions through looting , murder and lies. The ANC has no compunction to listen to the will of its polity, voters and supporters.

Before F.W. de Klerk announced the unbanning of the of the ANC and Mandela's release on February 2 1990, he and the white establishment had reached a kind of gentlemen's agreement with the ANC, following secret meetings, that accommodated the fears of the old order and the demands of the international community.

Former President Mbeki, Mandela's successor and one of the transition negotiators said that the ANC had no choice at all but to accept a series of "historic compromises". He said that they could not disturb the surface, otherwise there would have been a bloodbath and great suffering across the land.

The British, the Americans and the World Bank made it clear that South Africa would be welcomed into the "global economy" on condition that the ANC's new government pursued orthodox, neo-liberal" policies that favored big business, foreign investors, deregulation, privatization and, at best, a "trickle down" to the majority who effectively were to be shut out of the economy(thus far, nothing has tricked-down to the poor and landless in South Africa).

They also had to promise that they will not encourage nor carry-out violence against the old political and economic order; and this was shown and demonstrated with the hapless and toothless TRC(Truth and Reconciliation Committee. In short, they promised to uphold the old order and let business go on as usual in South Africa. It is important for readers to Look for the DVD or Book called "The confessions of An Economic Hitman".

The ANC pledged to continue the economic policies of the past Apartheid regime and they have done so with gusto, up to today

.Now that the elections are hither, we are going to and in fact, are seeing the same game being played on the people: promises, pretense as if things are being 'fixed', more doling out of government hand-outs and fictitious actions as if something is being done.

People are losing their jobs and replaced with the same soldiers upholding these deceitful actions designed to handcuff the electorate into thinking that they are now getting their just deserts, and yet, it is still same-old same-old game.

It is up to the people to wrap their heads around such false and barren claims of better governance and the whole pack of lies as being lies, band also a repetition of the same thing that has been happening for the past 18 years: Nothing.

Notes From The Bulletin of the Peoples Right To know:

Uploading on Democracy -Freedom SpielScott Manwarring writes: "Political parties are important agencies in making democracies work. In most advanced democratic polities, they supply the main channels for rendering executives accountable and representing public concerns.

Studies of democratic consolidation have revived academic interest in the evolution of party systems in developing countries. Stable democracies depend on well-institutionalized party systems in which "rules and regularities in how parties compete, are widely observed".

Such systems depend upon the existence of organizations with firm social followings, ideological predictability, good connections with interest groups, and possessing their own corporate identity, independent of the personalities at their helm.

In a a fully developed party system, parties rather than independent individuals contest elections, the same parties compete in elections nation wide and win the majority of votes ) as opposed to regional groups receiving the greater share of votes), and these parties persist from one election to another."Strong democracies, then, benefit from strong parties.

What distinguishes strong parties from weak organizations? Strong parties attract committed and durable support.

The are well organized "when there is effective communication concerning party matters across different levels"(Pradeep Chhibber), and, if strength is to be equated with democratic criteria, when communication can occur between units at the same level of party organization.

One influential authority suggests that the key indications of party strength are when an organization can survive its charismatic founder, when it has organizational complexity and depth as well as links with functional associations (trade unions, student bodies, etc.), and when its activists identify with the party emotionally and morally rather than merely viewing the party as an instrument to achieve career advancement or other objectives.

A good sign of this latter quality is of the party can retain within its full time bureaucracy talented leaders when its officials are in government(Samuel Huntington). There is a dire need for theory that helps African South African stitch together their reality, today, with their past.

The theory in this instance is identifying and crystalizing the road markers that enhance the understanding of the present reality that Africans need to deal with and apply to their day-to-day realities and existence.Kay Lawson writes: "Competitive democracies require that more than one political organization shares many if not all of these characteristics.

In predominant party systems, that is, political environments in which a major party competes for office with much smaller ineffectual groups, once in power over time, the main party is likely to lose many of its attributes of strength. Successive overwhelming electoral victories reduce the importance of the party's activists and hence the influence of membership over leaders" (Kay Lawson).

It is important to note that the strength of the ANC is weakened by their poor rendering of services in the African communities. Bond and Mayekiso write: "The deterioration of municipal services and declining standards of infrastructure have become commonplace in post-Apartheid South Africa and housing has become a policy farce.

All of this is not because South Africa is under "Black rule," as many conservatives would have it, but on the contrary, because of a combination of factors reinforcing residual White power remain.

These factors are evident in the profoundly anti-redistributive, market-orientated policies on municipal services designed in the late 1994 by the World Bank and inexplicably adopted by the Reconstruction and Development Program (Or RDP) office in 1995 and Department of Constitutional Development (DCD) in 1996 once the RDP office was closed and local infrastructure became DCD's responsibility.

Once again, the ANC outsourced local market-orientated processes to the World Bank, among the many other conglomerates...Unpacking and deconstruction this cloak and dagger operation is one of the many tasks at hand for Africans of Mzantsi..

Black Fear and the Failure of African Analytical(ideological) Commitment:The Road Going forward Is Asked from Those Who have Travelled it Many Moons Before

...Most of us are working very hard to recoup our losses through the ages of serious and deep oppression. What I am talking about here, is that, whenever all of us who are fighting against a system we all grew up under(Apartheid), we do not forget its intentions and outcomes on Africans, but then, there are those Africans here on Facebook maybe from some other countries in Africa, who are quick to castigate, put down, or look down on the fight that is still ongoing amongst Africans of south Africa.

So that, whenever some of us use other people's or writer;s adages, we are assailed for it, incoherently, by the detractors of our struggle, and we are supposed to say nothing! My take is that I will assail anyone who downgrades or is a detractor of what is the struggle of the people of Mzantsi.On one occasion, in a a post I made on one of the Various Walls dealing with African concerns called "The School Of Afrikan Awareness", wherein I posted a historical article personally written by the Master teacher himself, Prof. John Hendrik Clarke(anyone can read up on this article here on Black Dignity, and can go and read the back-and-forth I had with a Samuel Sithole.

The Tile of Prof. Clarke's topic was "Columbus And The African Slave Trade".Samuel Sithole:An interesting thesis but man is a product of his thoughts. slaves can choose a comfort mind-set into slavery and regard it : "just a part of it". You dare win or loose.Skhokho!Yah! Samuel Sithole, the piece above in not merely a thesis, but an African historiographical fact..

In-as-much as you say that 'man is a product of his thoughts,' that 'slaves can choose a comfort mind-set into slavery and regard' it(?!)-Seriously, the last sentence makes no sense and is ahistorical. If you do not understand your history as an Africa, then you become irrelevant and reactionary.

Because, by now you should know that, Africans, having been educated into being servants by the Europeans, we know clearly that the intentions of the Europeans was that Africans never escape their condition of servitude. A higher education, as it is the case with most of us in Mzantsi, means that we will just be "edumacated" servants.

So, how can a conditioned slave have options which are not there for him to choose from or as you say "choose a comfort mind-set(which still is a rickety postulation), and of course, worse still, the last sentence in which you state ""You dare win or loose", is seriously flawed and vague and incredulous. Wilson says:

"People who are ahistorical, who have little knowledge of history, are people who are more gullible, more easily manipulated and people who can be more easily adapted to the capitalist machine than people who are historically knowledgeable". History can become a basis for self-criticism, a basis for self-understanding, and more importantly, the basis for the understanding of the motives and and the psychology of others.

"We must recognize that history is at the very center of life. ... In every discipline we study in the college, university/school we're going to run into European history: it is intimately intertwined with all disciplines. It is inextricably linked and wrapped into every situation, circumstance and events of life.

"If we are to prevent ourselves from being created by another people and to engage in the act of self-creation, then we must change the power relations. We need to talk sense and make sense of our contemporary reality, and articulate it succinctly to avoid being caught up in not being able to recognize the value and importance of our history even if it stares us in the face."

Finally, Wilson says that:

"We must be instructed by history and should transform history into concrete reality, into planning and development, into construction of power and the ability to ensure our survival as a people."

We must understand the tremendous value of the study of history for the re-gaining of power. If our education is not about gaining real power, we are being miseducated and misled and we will die "Educated( "Edumacated") and misled...You are really out of it and making no sense at all. I have said my piece, and Prof. Clarke wrote his..

Yours is just plain stupidity and senselessness and sheer nonsense. Bro, you have a problem, and you have nothing to contribute to this article nor to my response... So, reading is fundamental, and that's what you need, seriously READ!... Ignorance is our downfall, and you are exacerbating it here on the FB... Haai, wena, go back to school! Or at least write in your own language, because thus far your stupidity is too apparent and you really do not know what you are talking about nor make no sense in your last response-nor the one before.

Please, read Clarke above and respond to his article, not all the confusion your regurgitating here. Please stop, you don't make sense and please read more... This is pathetic! Suka!Samuel Sithole:Mature mind and personality doesn't act like a little rascal, if you know and sure that you are well-versed you don't boast but humbleness is part of my Afrikanness and up-bringing no matter how good I feel with in my little knowledge I remain humble. get me correct.

Self-praise has no recommendation, so does pride goes before a fall.Thanx a million a Afrikan history Guru.I don't just read History but analyze and criticize. history is not inert but written by man for a reason so in my right mind-set I approach it: with why, who when and the intention of the writer. AmenSkhokho!Yeah, right! ...

Then just below the the discourses above, Mr. Sithole went on to post the following:Mr. Sithole' Post, I think was directly posted for my posterity about his bio and whatever...I interact with Afrikans from all levels political leaders, professors and a common AFRIKAN in the street, you name it. Answers to Afrika's woes are in within so does a statement from one of my Afrikan intellects who said in kiSwahili: "~Nakk Pexe, Pexe la!".

You may quote from all Afrikan greats, Afrikan Historians in the understanding we are not aware of those quotes. Rethink my brother, Afrikans need ideal action to meeting today's challenges.

During enslavement of Afrikans, we not captured like wild game by slave-masters but it was just like in the status-quo when I raise and mobilize those Afrikans whom I share a language or nationality and kill my fellow Afrikans in what I name Afrikan-on-Afrikan systematical hostility. instead of accepting negative impacts of our multiple-ethnicity that we protect at our detrimental we play the blame-game and stick to a victim-mentality Most Afrikans know their past but it does not affect their action or how they relate to each other in their difference in languages.

I regard all the Bantu (the so-called black as Afrikan) regardless of their nationality, creed or political affiliation. Pliz,misintepreting my word, right.I did not answer this last post because I think I have made my point. I have never been in the habit of spilling my guts about myself on Facebook, neither will I ben now, I prefer to let history(the one I compose) and history from those who know how best to tell it, so that I learn and those I disseminate it (from the Master Teachers) be able to help others to learn..

But, what is amazing,too, about Sithole's last post, is how incoherent and senseless he is in his decrepit analysis. The reader can make their informed decision as to his convoluted diatribe. Rather than go on the total offensive against Sithole, who is just a good taget for such,

I will let Dr.Frances-Cress Welsing clarify a few thing for us, so that we can learn:

"It is known that extremely high level of fear and a profound sense of vulnerability of existence can lead the human-brain computer into ineffectual pattern of 'circular thought. In such cases, problems perceived are 'avoided' and 'never' solved.

This is in direct contrast to effective patterns of direct linear thought that move continuously forward in straight line progress,form problem perception and depth analysis to proposed conclusive modes of problem solutions. This hold for individuals as well as collectives.

The sense of powerlessness evolves out of fear and vulnerability and, with its imposed patterns of circular (as opposed to 'linear') thought, sets the stage for mental (behavioral) and emotional ) illness, which is seen at levels of increased incidence amongst oppressed populations."Circular Thought" means moving from problem to perception, 'away' from problem solution (down a diversionary path), and back again to problem perception.

This may then be followed by worrying obsessively complaining. There is never consistent motion towards problem 'solution" because to do so would challenge and alter the power dynamic of oppression.

Thus, high-level fear is set in motion. Circular thought describes the short-circuiting of logic networks in the brain-computer, an organ which has evolved by nature as a problem-solving instrument. "Linear Thought" suggests movement from problem perception progressively 'towards' problem solution, changing step-by-step whatever needs to be altered to achieve total problem solution - utilizing whatever means necessary to achieve this end.

This form of thought is consistent with the function and structure of the brain as a peoblem-solving organ in the human organism.Black(African) people throughout the world, live under the power of White supremacy system of total oppression and domination, implying the absence of any true power to determine ultimately what happens to their individual collective lives. this is the the major and only 'problem' facing Black(African) and all other non-white peoples throughout the world.

This is precisely why they are called and classified as 'Black' and 'non-white', to set them specifically in oppositional contrast to, and in conflict with, the genetic reality of 'white'. But because this is a frightening and painful reality upon which to focus Black(African) and other non-white attention, we as Blacks(Africans), [under all colonized countries], and particularly in the US, succumb to circular thought. Likewise, there is not only a failure to approach problem solution, but there is a stubborn even to look directly at 'the problem'.

Ultimately, there is a disturbance in problem perception. Therefore, Black(African) people in he US and Africa/Diaspora reject the conscious rejection of the global White supremacy system, its absolute necessity of non-white oppression and its very specific implications of a continuing powerlessness and potential destruction - as opposed to a natural death - for Blacks(Africans) and other designated non-whites."...

Thus, we are witnessing a collective Black(African floundering and an "ideological" vacuum and disorientation. All that remains is for Blacks(Africans) to escalate tragically tier activity of powerless arguing and squabbling amongst themselves and to compete with one another for White supremacy jobs and grant crumbs.

Or, Blacks(Africans) can pretend, as a diversionary thought strategy, that the Real" struggle exists between imagined Black(African) classes or between Black(African) and Females(Africans) Every energy and psychological effort is expanded, at both the individual and collective levels, to "black-out" and avoid focusing on the true problem or White/Black(African) confrontation -

White supremacy. All Blacks(Africans) realize, consciously and/or consciously an/or unconsciously, that to engage in such a realistic focus can mean certain death at the hand of white supremacists.If we do not have confidence in our ability to make independent Black(African) observations, Black(African analyses and Black(African) plans for Black(African) action, why should we talk about or seek Black(African) liberation?

One should seek independence from those upon whom one feel permanently dependent, for that would be an act of suicide. Furthermore,if we believe that we are intellectually inferior to White people, as our distrust of our capacity to observe and make correlations would strongly imply, we simply should say this out out loud for all the world to hear: "Blacks are genetically inferior in terms of the intellectual capacity as compared to their white counterparts."

Then we should content ourselves quietly and politely to be totally and permanently dependent upon the White collective for all that we 'need', 'do', 'think' and 'say'.If Black(African) behavioral, social and political scientists are supposed to be incapable of making accurate analyses of behavioral, social and political situations (local and world-wide) , then Black(African) physicians are also incapable of making accurate medical diagnoses, and all Black(African) patients should seek

White doctors. This would imply similarly that Black(African) lawyers are incapable of successfully handling legal cases, and all Black(African) law clients should seek White Lawyers. Likewise, allBlack(African) students should seek White lawyers. Likewise, all Black students should seek White teachers. furthermore, All Black(African) women seeking husbands should seek White husbands, and all black(African men seeking wives should seek White wives.

This activity would carry such reasoning to its logical though absurd conclusions. If we do not wish to imply all the above, let us get about the business of Black(African problem-solving, beginning with the problem of Black(african) oppression, beginning with the problem of Black oppression under White supremacy.

First and foremost, let it be the responsibility of every Black(African) person to know and understand how the dynamic of White supremacy domination is expressed in all areas o people activity: economics, education, entertainment, labor, law, politics, religion, sex, war, [languages, customs, traditions, cultures, practices, rites and the whole bit [-my two cents)] (Frances-Cress Welsing)

In fact, Black people seeking a scientific approach to the problems afflicting and facing African people, and Africans must begin acting and being Historians, scientists, observing their situation, recording their own data and following up with their own analysis of the their observations, experience and data. Their own analysis will then inform them of what it is that they, as Africans people, need to do to achieve their goal objectives.

I present below, the picture of our foremost historical and literary genius, Sol Plaatjie, for the respect and posterity he represent as to the article above.although I have not used his works to elaborate my point, which he does better than most of us. He is the best we are of ourselves the best we can be, if not better about and on behalf of ourselves.... (especially Mr.Sithole), would ever imagine nor reach... Backwards never, forward ever... Each one teach one; each one reach one...

Linguistic Gymnastics

While we were talking about language, I would like to add some notes and prefaced remarks on African Literature offered to us by Chiweizu:Decolonizing and Curtailing African Literature From Colonization and Imperialism"At this point in history, it is Arica's mission to intensify its decolonization and pursue it into libertion. How is this to be done?

How, in particular, shall Africa's literary culture be decolonized and liberated?The cultural task at hand is to end all foreign domination of African culture, to systematically destroy all encrustations of colonial slave mentality, to clear the bushes and the stake out new foundations for a liberated African modernity.

This is a process that must take place in all spheres of African life - in government, industry, family and social life, education, city planning, architecture, arts, entertainment, etc.Given the task in hand, and the necessity for rooting out imperialist rot and planting fresh seeds, this hub is unabashedly polemical and pedagogical. In Africa's present condition, Africa's prose literature is under attack from a dominant and malicious praise by the same school, and Africa's orature is under a blanket obloquy spread by the same school.

Let us pause and define some terms. Our conception of literature is perhaps a little broader than is conventionally allowed. In our view, literature must include all the genres of publicly communicated written matter of a society. Thus, in addition to prose fiction, poetry and drama, we consider essays, biographies, addresses and orations a vital part of literature.

Now, it should be borne in mind that poems, plays, stories, essays, speeches, etc., do exist in two modes-written and oral. Bearing this fact in mind, we find it useful to follow Pio Sirimu and Ngugi Wa Thiong'o's seminal example in using the term "orature" to denote poems, plays, stories, etc., in oral form, and in reserving the term "literature" for the same things in their written forms.

Because "obloquy" has been routinely heaped upon African orature by Eurocentric critics critics of African literature, we have, in discussing African literature, found it necessary to examine at some length the qualities of African orature.

Furthermore, African orature is important to this enterprise of decolonizing African literature, for the important reason that it is the incontestable reservoir of the values, sensibilities, aesthetics, and achievements of traditional African thought and imagination outside the plastic arts.

Thus, it must serve as the ultimate foundation, guidepost, and point of departure for a modern liberated African literature. It is the root from which modern Africa literature must draw sustenance.In examining the criticism of African writing we find that a significant number of African critics are Eurocentric in their orientation, whereas they ought to be Africcentric.

Such critics habitually view African literature through European eyes. If at al they are aware thatAfrican culture is under foreign domination, they seem to think that it ought to remain so-with minor adjustments;or they may perceive a need for a restorative cultural enterprise but fail to see its implications literary criticism.

Most of them would be ashamed to admit it, but the fact of the matter is that these african critics view African literature as an overseas department of European literatures, as a literature with no traditions of its own to build upon, no models of its own to imitate, no audience or constituency separate and apart from the European, and, above all, no norms of its own (none, at any rate, that would be applicable to contemporary writings) for the proper, the beautiful, or the well done.

As a result, these critics have followed their their European colleagues in charging African novels with various technical, thematic and ideological inadequacies-charges which might conceivably make sense if African novels were intended to be replicas or approximations of European ones, employing the same techniques and in approximately the same emphases, and urging the same values.

In addition, these critics have encouraged the manufacture of a stiff, pale, anemic, academic poetry, slavishly imitative of 20th-century European modernism, with its weak preciosity, ostentatious erudition, and dunghill piles of esoterica and obscure allusions, all totally cut off from the vital nourishment of our African traditions and home soil-a poetry in such sorry contrast to the vibrancy, gusto and absolute energy of the African oral poetry which is so firmly and deeply rooted in the African home soil

But African literature is an autonomous entity separate and apart from all other literatures. It has its own traditions, models and norms. Its constituency is separate and radically different from that of the Europeans or other literature. And its historical and cultural imperatives impose upon it concerns and constraints quite different, sometimes altogether antithetical to the European.

These facts hold true even for those portions of African literature which continue to be written in European languages. In our body of work we have examined the Eurocentric prejudices, showing them for what they are, that is, not the "universal" values which their adherents.

In addition, we have attempted to define the proper constituency for African literature, explored some of the traditions into which modern African writing should seek to insert itself, displayed some models from those traditions, and itemized some of the qualities and norms which we believe to be transferable from traditional African orature to contemporary African literature."African literary selections below are such as engage, probe, assess and reveal the African experience in all its rich diversity.

In their thematic range they represent a cross section of life in the pan-Affirican world, with the attitudes of members of that world to their lives and conditions, in magnificent variety.

The aim of these literary masterpieces is to present the community to itself, a community discussing its experiences with itself, commenting, for its own entertainment and enlightenment, upon the world in which it finds itself-the physical world, the social world, the esthetic world, the moral.political world, the private life-but all communicated as part of a dialogue 'within' the community, a dialogue of the community with its traditions, its present, and its future.

The task of decolonization cannot be carried out in a vacuum. It requires an atmosphere of active nationalist consciousness. It must be conducted within the guiding parameters set by those intellectuals who have upheld African Consciousness through the centuries.

It is by constantly keeping in touch with such African nationalist thinking that we all, and our writers and critics especially, can avoid being conned into pseudo-universalism. We must keep in touch with the intellectual tradition of African cultural nationalism lest we forget or be led astray from the central purpose of African intellectual life..

The Successful Revolutionary is a statesman; the unsuccessful one a criminal (Erich Fromm)

Gerrymandering of the Minds' Psyche"

What became of the Black People of Sumner?" the traveller asked the old man.

"For ancient records show that the people of Sumer were Black. What happened to them?" "Ah, the old man sighed.They lost their history, so they died." - A Sumer Legend"I am talking of millions of men who have been skillfully injected with fear, inferiority complexes, trepidation, servility, despair, abasement." - By Aime Cesaire

I have been meaning to write on this subject for a long time. In my past Hubs, I have tried to cover ground on the lives of Africans in Africa and South Africa and and what they have been going through for the past 400-plus years of oppression, subjugation, depression, repression and the intensely extreme violation of their humanity, history, languages, culture, customs, practices, rites land and existence. This is a very serious point I am about to discuss: i.e., how, when and why this was d

one and is still being done; also, what was life, culture and customs of Africans in the South of Sahara and southern Africa was like before and after the coming of the Europeans, later-on deep and further into this Hub. In the process I will give a serious version of Modern African culture, and an even more deeper historical delineation and concrete historical cultural breakdown, i.e., the customs, culture and practices of the Nguni/Bakone as narrated by themselves.

The topic I am embarking on may not be popular subject, [Maybe too long for the Internet], but I am going to try and unpack this historical phenomenon of a distorted and dysfunctional African society and picture[image] of African Culture and Customs that we read about today and how the remnants of this African culture we see today affects Africans in the lives and existence in the past and at presently:

that of being Oppressed, suppressed, depressed, repressed, enslaved, colonized and stripped off all their cultures, customs, tradition, languages, and have poverty and all types of diseases imposed on them, and how their cultural practices and traditional rites have been relegated to the inferior status of being regarded as irrelevant, closer to child babble/barbaric and need not be paid any attention to, whatsoever: i.e., a culture best forgotten for it has never been of any use to the Africans themselves, trumpet the naysayers.

As of the writing of this Hub, the level of subjugation, neglect, being ignored, imposed ignorance hunger a constant, and a bleak future and dreadful intolerable existence, has gone into over-drive-as it being in steroids!Also, I will look as to how the remnants of the present African culture can be looked at anew and thus Africans be able draw inspiration from its present presence and manifestation, also, how the past history[as taught by Apartheid] and cultural and customary and traditional historiography issues should be addressed in order to give a complete and realistic picture of the past and present of the history of Africans in South Africa.

The History of South Africa will be linked to the Civilization of Mapungubwe to begin turning the tide against the lies that impregnate Historical books and journals written by those who are not Africans, or with African 'collaborators" - that Africans of South Africa did not control their lives and neither inhabit nor own the land known as South Africa today: They are truly sojourners in their land of Birth.

There is this lie and myth that has been perpetuated that Africans migrated to South Africa from the North of Africa, and came at more or less the same time as the Dutch landed in the Cape: nothing could be further from the truth than this blatant ahistorical misinformation and distortions and lies which I plan to deconstruct in this Hub The voices of those Oppressed multitudes in South Africa has been silenced, treaded-upon, scorned, dismissed, ridiculed, mocked, derided attacked, labelled as inhospitable and backward hosts, foreigners, Dogs(Read the history of Van Riebeeck on this issue),

Called "Bantus", "Natives, "Kaffirs", "Plurals"; the locals were labelled as being lazy, inferior, stupid, slow, not-worthy-of-their -land-and-its-riches-as has been touted by the Apartheid rulers, and today can be observed from the new foreigners now living in South Africa and disrespecting the local Africans and hurling this type of abuse at them from every quarter.

That in the end we find the local Africans living in squalor, poverty, sicknesses and diseases of all kinds, ignorance, confusion and tension, uncertainty and in recent times, within an empty and hollow democracy- and being denied their humanity, democracy, culture customs, traditions, practices and ceremonies; this has led to today's Colonial Mental disorders that are now commonplace amongst the Africans of South Africa.

Meanwhile, their detractors have no full understanding and nor sufficient knowledge of all the issues at play in the lives of Africans in South Africa and in the southern regions of Africa below the Sahara. Africans have been as a people under Siege - Literally and Figuratively and Practically - daily and to date!

Suffering all these social malaise and dysfunctional social realities, and adding insult to injury, the Local African people of South Africa are the least respected communities in South Africa(as noted above) in their land of birth, and this is also visited upon them by their own elected ANC-led government: everyone[most foreigners and European and some African South Africans], in South Africa,

DISRESPECT the indigenous native Africans of South Africa, and this has become the way of life under the so-called rainbow government, too. The Africans of South Africa who have moved up the social ladder, have some contempt for their poor brethren who are running confused and have no one to lead them or help them.

If most of the tourists would begin to go into the townships, live with the people, and not see them through the past structures that were created and spun-off as as tourism, for white dominance and pleasure, that is, meet these Africans in western-style cities, hotels and bars and shopping centers, does not make these people know who the Africans of South Africa are.

One can read the internet as much as possible, or visit South Africa for a month or year, but so long as that is the case, tourists living in five star hotels , and head to the townships through guided tours and take some pictures, this does not necessarily make them authorities on the Africans of South Africa-especially the posts they make on the Net(Facebook for one and other Social Networking sites, blogs and so forth].

This onslaught is gathering momentum and the African people have already noted that this is one issue which the world will see heads rolling! I mean, at present there is this struggle for Africans of South Africa trying to make sense of all what is going, and the action once they figure out what is happening to them.

There comes a time, when African people believe in the affairs of men and nations, and it becomes necessary for them to engage in bolekaja ("Come down let's fight!" - a term applied in Western Nigeria to passenger lorries ("mammy wagon") from the outrageous behavior of their touts). . I would like to to make it clear, (without apologies to anyone!),

I am a bolekaja pundit, like those outraged 'touts for the passenger lorries", (South African Taxis!?), of African History, Culture and Customs, and that am administering a timely and healthy dose of much needed public ridicule to the reams of pompous nonsense which has been floating out of the stale, sterile, stifling caverns of academia and unequal and oppressive society such as the one in South Africa, which is smothering the sprouting vitality of democracy and freedom on Africa's Historical, political, economical and cultural landscape.

This the African people will have to do as a united people, i.e., to drag the stiflers of their lives down to earth for a corrective tussle. A little wrestle on the sands never killed a sturdy youth. I expect that this will help the sprouting democracy redirect and control their sprouting democracy and freedom into a modern and thriving society, culture and all its naturally acquired wares to their own benefit enhancement and upliftment. African people in this article will be drawn to the act that they need to cure themselves from 'colonial hangover' (setlamatlama).

The showing and writing about African culture, customs, traditions, languages and crafts will help and enable Aricans to begin to see their selves not as "tribes", but as nations which are one and the same, and are made up of various and diverse, but the same culture, customs, traditions and practices and languages,which are not different customary and culltural practices as has been heretofore trumpeted by their detractors:

This has been in such a way as to try to dismantle and debase the Nguni/Bakone People's cultural mosaic. Let controversy rage; may it stimulate creative discussion...! "Ha eye Tau!(Let the Lion Loose)

ANC And The Slum Clearance Policy 2010 - Is It Over Today - 2021?

Although this report is dated 2010, it helps give a sense and perspective as to why the poor are where they are, now two years post World Cup. I post the article in order to remind us of history of the past two years to date... The past helps us understand the present, so that wean formulate the future, better and informed...

Transcript from Democracy Now and the Interview carried-out by Amy Good, interviewing Mazwi Ndimande and Rev. Mavuso MbhekiseniJUAN GONZALEZ: We end today with a look at South Africa, which is poised to host the World Cup, the premier international football competition, next year.

While Durban completes the finishing touches on its new stadium, thousands of the city’s poor who live in sprawling informal settlements are threatened with eviction by the ruling African National Congress’s, or ANC’s, slum clearance policies. Late this Saturday night, an armed gang of some forty men attacked an informal settlement on [Durban’s] Kennedy Road killing at least two people and destroying thirty shacks. A thousand people have reportedly been driven out of the settlement.

Eyewitnesses say the attackers acted with the support of the local ANC structures. Members of the Durban Shack Dwellers Movement, which brings together tens of thousands of shack dwellers to demand their right to fair housing in the city, were holding a youth camp when they were attacked.

AMY GOODMAN: Well, last month we interviewed a young leader from the Shack Dwellers Movement, eighteen-year-old Mazwi Nzimande. He is president of the movement’s youth league. He has been displaced by this latest attack. He’s currently in hiding. We also spoke with Reverend Mavuso Mbhekiseni from the Rural Network in South Africa. They were in the US speaking out against the anti-poor policies in post-apartheid South Africa. I began by asking Mazwi to explain the Shack Dwellers Movement.

MAZWI NZIMANDE: The Shack Dwellers Movement is a movement that was made by the poor people, the people who were waiting for housing since 1994. It’s the movement that is made out of poor people only, because the poor people are feeling betrayed, so they decided to join hands together and approach the government and make the government to be aware.

They say there are still poor people in South Africa, because they feel that they are the forgotten citizens of the country. The only thing that is being remembered is to build stadiums for the 2010 World Cup. They don’t talk about the poor people anymore. They’re only talking about promoting the country, so the poor people decided to join hands together and approach the government and say, “Hey, we are still existing in the country, so we are still waiting for those houses.”

JUAN GONZALEZ: What is the [Slums] Act? When was it passed? And what has been the impact of it on the poor communities of South Africa? MAZWI NZIMANDE: The Slums Act was first a bill in 2006, when the Shack Dwellers Movement was invited at the provincial parliament in Pietermaritzburg, when it was still a bill, you know.

So we were invited to come and observe while they were introducing the Slums Act. And it has not been good for the shack dwellers, because the Slums Act says you should not resist eviction. If you resist evictions, you might be fined 20,000 rand or being sentenced at five years. So, most of us cannot afford that, because we want to be in our shacks, we want to be close in the city. I mean, that’s what we want. We want the government to provide houses where the people are, close to our working place, close to our schools, close to the hospital. Plus, we have a right to be close to the city.

AMY GOODMAN: Isn’t South Africa unusual in that it has housing as a human right written into the Constitution?

MAZWI NZIMANDE: It does, yes. But now, it seems like it’s working for certain individuals, not for the poor people, because you will be surprised and shocked when you go to South Africa and see thousands and thousands of informal settlements. And then we just don’t understand, because,

I mean, since 1994, these people are still on the waiting list. Each informal settlement has about 7,000 people. And in our movement in Durban only, we have fourteen settlements, and each of those have about 7,000, 5,000. And you will just find it so hard to understand why at this time of the year.

AMY GOODMAN: Mazwi mentioned the World Cup. It’s almost the only way we talk about South Africa today in the United States. But what exactly is happening to people as a result of the World Cup, which is watched by over a billion people and is going to be in South Africa for the first time?

REV. MAVUSO MBHEKISENI: Our government is concerned about developing spaces, not population development. So, as they develop spaces, they move away people. They say people should move away, so to pave way for the development, to help it. So, by building these stadia, they are moving people away from the cities and away from their original places, even in rural areas, because they want to build malls, big malls.

They want to build freeways, so that, to us, this World Cup is a mass eviction of poor people. So that’s what is happening in South Africa. We are not going to live and stay in the stadia. We are not going to sleep there. So they are destroying our houses or our homes. Because we can afford those homes, so they say — they call them slums, and so we are evicted. So we are saying this World Cup is accompanied by evictions and destruction of our own — and demolishing of our own homes.

JUAN GONZALEZ: And when you say they are moved out, does the government — where are they being moved to? Is the government providing them adequate housing where they’re being moved to?

REV. MAVUSO MBHEKISENI: Government is promising them that they are going to have houses about fifty kilometers away from the cities, only to find that there are no houses. You will be moved to transitional relocation camps, where they say you have to wait for some — it’s ten years before you get housing.

AMY GOODMAN: Give us a historical perspective. Reverend Mavuso, you were there before the first democratically elected government of Nelson Mandela. You were there under apartheid. Compare that to today. REV.

MAVUSO MBHEKISENI: There is now a widening gap between the rich and the poor. During apartheid, it was the whites and blacks. So, now that is the type of apartheid that we see now, that people are getting more richer, and people are getting more poor.

AMY GOODMAN: Did you ever get a chance to meet Nelson Mandela? You’re eighteen years old, but President Mandela is still alive.

MAZWI NZIMANDE: I mean, I didn’t get a chance to see the days of Nelson Mandela, but, I mean, I’m hearing things that he’s such a wonderful man, he’s such a good man. You know, he has that powerful voice.

But I don’t believe, because he is still alive, but there are informal — there are shack dwellers in South Africa, but he hasn’t said anything. There is that huge gap. Mandela is up there, and the people are down there, so it’s very hard to, like, get a chance to meet with Nelson Mandela.

Even the current president, I haven’t met him, you know, because those people are high up. The only time they come to the communities is when the elections are going to take place. And they come with bodyguards.

So, for me, it’s hard to understand why does a man that we must elect as a president come to our community, has bodyguard. That means he fear us, you know. So how can we access the man who comes with bodyguard in our communities? I don’t understand.

JUAN GONZALEZ: And if it’s true, as you say, that there’s been so many problems in terms of the widening gap in the country, why is the ANC leadership still receiving such huge support at the polls?

REV. MAVUSO MBHEKISENI: People were educated, through what we call domestication, that they should love one party, because that party gave them — will give them freedom. This is a majority party of — and it is a black government, so they say if we vote for another party, then it means it will not be democracy. They think democracy comes with the ANC. So they think ANC is democracy.

AMY GOODMAN: Rev. Mavuso of the Rural Network in South Africa and eighteen-year-old Mazwi Nzimande, president of the Shack Dwellers Movement’s youth league. We only have fifteen seconds, but he is now in hiding after a major attack on their shacks this weekend, Saturday night. Mazwi, what happened? Very quickly, who did this? Who attacked people, killed two and hurt the shacks?

MAZWI NZIMANDE: Thank you. Firstly, we were not there, but on Sunday during the day, we went back to Kennedy Road to check on how things were, how the conditions were. I mean, it became clear when we saw the ANC guys who were there, you know, enjoying themselves, having that gathering. Even the [inaudible] —-

AMY GOODMAN: We have five seconds. We have five seconds.MAZWI NZIMANDE: Even, I mean, so clear, it’s the ANC, because they have mentioned it, that they want the whole informal settlement to be known to the ANC [inaudible] -—

AMY GOODMAN: Mazwi Nzimande, we have to leave it there.World Cup Interview, to be scrutinized and be able to interrogate the present..

POOR AND DECREPIT AFRICAN LEADERSHIP AND MASS EMPOWERMENT: Erudite African Mass Potential Leadership

There is a pervasive sense of foreboding and impending doom among Africans who let themselves look reality "dead in the face". In the face of the tremendous deterioration of their quality of life - mounting unemployment, increasing poverty, crime, moral degradation; devastating miseducation and the even more devastating lack of education; overwhelming drug addiction and insensate violence, homicide, terror, prostitution, disease and corruption.

In the face of children having children, social incivility, a youth culture whose raucous music speaks of nihilism, rape, robbery and murder. The degradation and venal hatred of Black(African) women, of everything Black(African); in the face of unfulfilled longings for the satisfaction of basic needs in the midst of the "affluent" - the need for food, for physical safety and security, for belonging, love, acceptance, higher self-esteem. knowledge and understanding, freedom and autonomy,, achievement, creativity and self-realization.

in the face of all these unfulfilled dreams and wishes, the African community in ever-rising crescendos emits a heart-rendering cry for new leadership. Even the old leaders are calling for new leadership. The persistent call for leadership in the Black(African) community is a call for help, a call for a set of leading persons, organizations and ideas that can provide the community with a sense of unity, definition, direction, power, with a developmental plan and the wherewithal to realize its abundant human potential.

The most persistent complaints the community makes concerning it current leadership are that they have either been co-opted by the past apartheid White ruling regime; are outdated in terms of values, goals and techniques; are not truly and deeply committed to the welfare of the people; are self-centered, self serving, egocentric, 'corrupt"; out of touch with the current and future realities.

They are timid and cannot recognize the needs of the people or articulate those needs in ways which move the people toward their satisfaction; are intellectually inept and are not effectively educating the masses and inspiring them to realize the enormous power which lies dormant within themselves; are co-opted and put into strategic position by the ANC government, even if they had been rejected by the communities and the African voting polity. I won't debate or critically go into nor evaluate these complaints.

I believe that even if the contemporary Black(African) leadership accurately gauged and articulated the needs of African people and their communities, this would not necessarily empower the masses. The generation of social power requires appropriate 'organization', 'tactics' and 'strategies' - and a unifying vision or sense of mission. It requires a guiding set of ideas or an ideology whose attempted realization defines the social attitudes, relations and institutions which together can empower a people.

A people are empowered or disempowered by the misguiding ideologies of their leaders to whom they pledge allegiance. Though leaders recognize the needs of their followers an are at one with them in terms of their own needs, their choice of inappropriate social-political ideologies and goals may bring both themselves and their followers to despair.

This is the kind of poor, weak and tired leadership that the poor masses have to deal with.This then means that as we're evolving in our understanding of this decrepit situation, we need to shine a brighter light on the problems that have been listed above and find out why is it so. It is here in this article I turn to Sankara for a much more sober and focused laser-like analysis to our these problem and what he has to say about it that will make our lack of understanding of these issues much more clearer, and also, the poor people can mull on them and think them through much more clearly in a speech he gave on March 26, 1983....

Sankara runs the revolutionary rap thus:

"Who are these enemies of the people?They are to be found here at home and abroad. At this very moment the are trembling, but you must expose them. You must drive them back into their holes. The enemies of the people are here inside the country are all those who have illicitly taken advantage of their social position and their place in the bureaucracy to enrich themselves.

"By means of bribery,maneuvers, and forged documents they have become shareholders in different companies. They are now involved in financing business and obtaining approval for this or that enterprise - in the guise of helping Upper Volta. These are the enemies of the people. They must be exposed. This section of the bourgeoisie must be fought against, and we will fight against it.Who are the enemies of the people?

"They are the men in politics who travel through the countryside exclusively at election time. These politicians are convinced that only they can make our country work. These enemies of the people must be exposed and combated. We will combat them with you. The enemies of are likewise those who keep us in ignorance. Under the over of spiritual guidance and tradition, they exploit the people instead of serving their real spiritual needs and their real social interests. they must be fought against and we will fight them.

"The enemies of the people are also beyond our borders. Their base is among unpatriotic people here in our midst at every level of our society - civilian and military men, men and women, old and young, in town and country alike. These enemies from abroad - neocolonialism - are among us.

"From its base base among these stateless men, those who have rejected their homeland,who have, in fact rejected their own people(the people Of Upper Volta (Mzantsi?), this enemy abroad is organizing a series of attacks. First will come the none-violent and the the violent stage.

"At this stage we are living through the non-violent stage [in the case of present-day South Africa, violence has become the norm]. This is the enemy abroad - imperialism, neo-colonialism - is attempting to sow confusion in the minds of the Voltaic people. According to their newspapers,radios,and television, Upper Volta is all fire and blood.You see, imperialism is wrong.

"But Imperialism is a bad student. Even though its been defeated,though it's been sent out of the classroom, it come back again. It's a bad student. Imperialism never draws lessons from its failures. Its down in South Africa cutting African throats - just because Africans there are thinking about freedom, as you are todayImperialism is everywhere, making us think like it, submit to it, and go along with its maneuvers by spreading it culture (cultural Imperialism), far and wide with the he;p of misinformation.

"We must bar the road to this imperialism. As I said,it will proceed to a violent stage. It is imperialism that landed troops in certain countries we know. Imperialism armed those who are killing our brothers in South Africa. Imperialism again is the assassin of the Lumumbas, Cabrals, Kwame Nkumahs, Machels..." Need I say more. All I can add at this point is that practical application is needed, after writing such a pieces about ideas of "Leadership' and What its made of and is doing at present, will be added on."

The readers can make up their own mind about they have read here- the fact this remans an ongoing research project from which we will be posting ideas that are practical and helpful for Africans of South africa. The piece above give and intelligent view of the mass mind in a simple form, the second part are the ideas of Sankara reinforcing the call for action, practice and tactics.

The next post will put all these in a digestible context for all to use. We need to talk about these issue of leadership so as to sharpen our Critique and Anti-Critique of it... Is strange how power, society and leadership are still an on going conversation in the African communities on the Continent and in the Diaspora, and Sankara,

in 1983, captured its essence and was evolving ideas how to really deal with it. What we can do as South africans with this material is to make sure we read it, and pass it on to as many people as people. An updated and educated masses is the most feared weapon by imperialism.

The task of Africans in South Africa today is to see to it that they educate and inform the masses- This is the leader we should be looking forward and toward in the future tactics, strategies and social engineering using, implanting and embedding new formations, attitudes and ways of doing for the poor like has never been done before.. I will be adding to this topic at length in the near future....

We are a Very Backward And Poor Caricature of Cultures/Education Foreign and Unbeknowned to Ourselves: The Poor Peoples Conscintizacao(Critical Consciousness)

Critiques of Self And Anti-Critique Of Self Critique Of Us Today

Today as of the writing of this piece, I have had a three year mental block, whereby whatever I wanted to write had receded to the recess and darkened caqverns of my mind, one couldd not even jot down a word nor thought of elaborating on an ideas that I could validate as mind, true. or legit.

I have so far been marinated back into my own indigenous milieu for the past three years and some months, and during this time, I did try to write a few articles(unpublished) thus far, but still on the back-burner, and now this piece I am onto, three years or more to the dayte when I stopped writing.

I have always had concerned myself writing about my people of Azania(Mzantsi, if you like) and what ails of frustrates, make them happy or sad, progress or retrogress and the like. The past three years I have been intimately intertwined with the Africans of Mzatnsi, who are now partly mixed with Africans from North of Mzantsi(formerly known as South Africa).

I came, suckd in, drank of the dam of Soweto and the whole country, seen and witnessed, was shocked and amazed by the state of our people, both opulent and dastardly poor-drugged and alcoholic; ignorant; Americanized or ruralize in the South African Context; educated and indoctrinated in western ways up to those made ignorant of their own cultures, customs and traditions.

We are lost to ourselves and our own people, to the extent we cannot even retrieve of recover as quickly as we would like. We think that thinking Europenese or American is the edification of our Nation(which is still has to be formed), and yet we are just a lost cause. We talk too much and know very little. We are even in the process of watching ourselves breakdown and become dust right infront of our our eyes and lies/lives.

We have a government in South Africa(Mzaantsi) that is so corrupt that it is running itself and its own people to the ground and to oblivion. No Kidding!!

The armies of the poor are even more poorer than they were two decades ago from the writing of this letter. Food prices are too high. Housing is abominable; Hospitals and clinics are burning down; schools are closing, in the poor communities, burnt and into incomprehensible ruins for the students and teachers; no jobs; unemployment off the charts; service delivery in poor communities abominable and despicable.

Alcoholism the main staple social reality(many people remain inebriated daily); drugs abuse rampant; various diseases rule uncontrollable; breaking of the poors' families constant; divorces very high, and marriage at an all-time low; sports, except for soccer, all but dead in the poor African peoples