The aim of psychoanalysis is to study conscious aspect, unconscious aspect and preconscious aspects. It also takes out the emotion which are being repressed and experiences of life of a person. The aim of study is to show that how H.G Wells in his short story tells that how the Diamond Maker is being repressed by his feelings and emotions and due to that he is unable to balance his ego between id and superego. This research also study that how diamond maker is unable to balance between id and super ego and how his id provokes him to blindly follow his goals which makes him suffer a lot. By examining the short story “The Diamond Maker” through qualitative study the findings of the research is that Diamond Maker is unable to balance between id and superego and ignores his ego due to this he wasted his whole life. The diamond maker follows his dream blindly to make the diamonds and in struggle of making diamond he misses the major events and enjoyments of his life. Id, ego, superego plays important role in his mind but he chooses id and due to that at the end he don’t even have something to eat.
Psychoanalysis, Conscious, Unconscious, Preconscious, Dream, Id, Ego, Superego
1. Introduction (Background of study)
Literature is an art of written work. Literature can be written many forms such as novel, drama, prose, or it can be in the form of short story. Psychoanalysis was found by Sigmund Freud in (1856-1939). He was an Austrian and the neurologist who introduces psychoanalysis and gave the concept of id, ego, and superego. In 1930 Sigmund Freud wrote a book named as the introduction of psychoanalysis that book tells about the human psyche and state of mind of human which was revolution for the psychiatrists he says that human mind is completely being control by the unconscious of their mind.
Freud says that human mind is completely in control of three sections the decision we make every day is based on three things id, the ego, and the superego. He says that id is the most selfish one it only sees immediate satisfaction and want that his desire will be full filled immediately. Then comes ego, ego works according to the reality it is opposite of the id and he called ego mediator which balance the id and ego. Freud then talks about superego he says that super ego works according to cultural rules. Many researchers worked on this concept that it can be balanced or not. Psychology is all about the study of mind it is to study the behavior of human being. In this research paper analyze the character of “Diamond maker” by“H.G.Wells” by the theory given by the Sigmund Freud in which he tells about how to control id, ego, and superego
Purpose of study
The purpose of this research paper is to examine the character of Diamond Maker and his downfall because of blindly following his dream and ignoring the ego and super ego and only listening to his id which cause many problems to diamond maker. Diamond Maker is the character that just runs behind his dreams of making diamond and to become rich and he loses all the luxuries and pleasure of his life just to achieve the goal of his life he cannot balance between ego and superego and due to that he suffers a lot. He is repressed by his feelings and emotions and his id forces him to focus on his goals and he only listen to his id and totally ignores the ego and superego which lead him toward destruction.
Q: 1 How does id affect the life of a diamond maker?
Q: 2 Is it necessary to balance your ego between id and superego?
Significance of the research
This research paper studies the diamond maker deeply to see the character of diamond maker through Freud concept of id, ego, and superego. This research is helpful in a way that everyone should balance their id between ego and superego it is very important to balance the id otherwise one can face serious problem in his life. It also gives the moral lesson that if a person cannot balance his id between ego and superego how can he suffer.
Methodology and organization of study
The data which is been collected for this research has been taken from the short story “Diamond Maker”. Some lines related to diamond maker has been taken from the text of diamond maker by H.G Wells to analyze the character. There are two kinds of data secondary data and primary data. This research took the secondary data from the different research papers, books and articles. The primary data is taken from the text of the short story “Diamond Maker”. There are two kinds of approaches intrinsic and extrinsic approach. The intrinsic approach is used to analyze the character and themes of the story and the extrinsic approach is used as Freud theory of psychoanalysis in which he talks about ego, id and superego. This research is taken through qualitative design.
In 1930 Sigmund Freud wrote a book named as the introduction of psychoanalysis that book tells about the human psyche and state of mind of human which was revolution for the psychiatrists he says that human mind is completely being control by the unconscious of their mind. Freud says that human mind is completely in control of three sections the decision we make every day is based on three things id, the ego, and the superego. He says that id is the most selfish one it only sees immediate satisfaction and want that his desire will be full filled immediately. Then comes ego, ego works according to the reality it is opposite of the id and he called ego mediator which balance the id and ego. Freud then talks about superego he says that super ego works according to cultural rules. Many researchers worked on this concept that it can be balanced or not.
The Id (Primitive impulses)
“The most primitive part of the human mind, the id is the source of our bodily needs, wants, desires, and impulses. Freud believed that the id acts according to the “pleasure principle” – the psychic force that motivates the tendency to seek immediate gratification of any impulse. The id is the only component of personality that is present from birth, and for good reason. Infants depend on others to provide them with food, to change their diaper, and to avoid pain or discomfort. The id is the part of the mind that compels a baby to cry when he or she is in need of something, ensuring a healthy and happy upbringing. The id, according to Freud, is the most selfish part of our mind. It is only concerned with the immediate satisfaction of whatever want or need the body is experiencing at the moment. Freud stated that the id “knows no judgments of value: no good and evil, no morality” – only the fulfillment of immediate desires. Infants, for example, do not consider the needs of their parents when they cry. The id simply demands what it wants, without regard for the reality of the situation, ethics, or the convenience of others.” (Freud's Theory of the Id, Ego, and Superego By CommonLit Staff 2015)
“The second part of the human subconscious is what Freud called the ego: the rational part of our mind. Freud said that “The ego represents what may be called reason and common sense, in contrast to the id, which contains the passions.” The ego acts according to the reality principle; i.e. it seeks to please the id’s drive in realistic ways that will benefit in the long term rather than bring grief. Freud considered it a mediator “between id and reality.” It is concerned with our interactions and relationships with others, understanding that other people are also driven by their own ids, and that indulging in our selfish impulses can sometimes be problematic. With the ego in place, a thirsty child can now not only identify water as the satisfaction of his urge, but can form a plan to obtain water, perhaps by finding a drinking fountain. Another example of the ego’s function would be the choice to resist the urge to grab other people’s belongings, and instead to purchase those items.” (Freud's Theory of the Id, Ego, and Superego By CommonLit Staff 2015)
“The superego is the moral part of us, reflecting the internalization of cultural rules, mainly taught by parents applying their guidance and influence. For example, the superego would tell a child not to hit another child because that would be morally wrong. According to Freud, “The Super-ego can be thought of as a type of conscience that punishes misbehavior with feelings of guilt,” working in contradiction to the id. The superego strives to act in a socially appropriate manner, whereas the id just wants instant self-gratification. It controls our sense of right and wrong, and helps us fit into society by getting us to act in socially acceptable ways.” (Freud's Theory of the Id, Ego, and Superego By CommonLit Staff 2015)
There are many theories apply on this story but the Theory of Psychoanalysis is not been applied yet. A lot of work has been done on psychoanalysis theory here are some works of different researchers.
William Siegfried says in order to understand why a human behave in a certain way according to Siegfried it is very important to see the structure of human psyche and its formation in the human mind. According to William Siegfried Freud analyze the human psyche in three schools id, ego, and superego. He says that id is present in human at the time of birth and it is totally the unconscious part of human psyche he says that id work according to pleasure. He further discusses the ego he say that Id gives rise and goes toward ego and he further divided ego in three elements of conscious. Consciousness and awareness, unconsciousness and he further divided the unconsciousness and say there is preconscious and other is which is being repressed and not be able to be conscious. He further tells about third part of psyche superego. Superego is the perfection. He conclude the research paper that with the help of this paper we are able to understand the nature of human being that why he behave like this. (William Siegfried, 2014)
“It is also by analyzing these aspects and their functions that we are able to interpret why human beings behave the way they do on both an individual and cultural level. These interpretations allow us to derive a better understanding of each other’s behavior and also allow us to engage in self-reflection, to better understand our own behavior” (William Siegfried, 2014)
Cittoor Girija Navaneedhan in his paper discusses that how hypnosis affects on the three important factor s id, ego, and superego he tried to balance the three factors through the self hypnosis. He says that the individual should know the self hypnosis in order to balance between the three important factors id, ego, and superego. He through his paper tells that is the self hypnosis is effective to balance the three factors. The result of the study shows if the self hypnosis training is good then it lesser the inner conflict between id, ego, and superego. (Navaneedhan, 2012)
Dan J. Segrist did a class activity to study the concept of Freud given about the psyche of human mind and specially talk about ego, id, and superego. He collected data from two semesters and provided the scene to the seniors students and juniors students and asks that if they were id then what they will say in these situations. He tells the Freud concept in detail and divided them and associates them with three components. At the result of this the students learned about the importance of id, ego, and superego and also get to know about how the conscious mind and unconscious mind played an important role in the life of individual.( Dan J. Segrist,2009)
Stefan Birgir Stefansson did a research on the psyche of some cartoon character and analyzes the three characters of the television series. His main aim was to see the three characters through Freud theory he also discussed other concepts. He divided this study in three chapters and talks about the controlling of the id, second chapter deals with the anxiety, repression etc, in the third chapter he talks about the superego of the character. He observes that one character has controlling super ego and other have controlling ego. (Lipner & Muran, 2017)
Saul Mcleod in his paper says that id is the instincts, ego is the reality, and superego is the morality. He says that id changes from person to person not with time he says that id immediately respond to our instincts id is the selfish one he wants that his wish be fulfilled immediately. Then he talks about ego he say ego is the mediator he works according to reasons and logic he says that ego don’t think of what’s good or bad like id it also seek the pleasure. Then he talks about superego he says that superego develops in a child from 3 to 5 the function of super ego is to control the id. He divided superego in two systems the conscience and the ideal self.(Mcleod, 2007)
David B. Stevenson in his proposal says that id does not go easily it increases with the time it ask to achieve something as soon as possible he say as id form a picture to satisfy himself and do everything to achieve something but ego acts a go between and it engaged the people to make a plan for work and to do something. Ego gives temporary satisfaction to the person he divided the superego in two parts conscience and ego ideal. Conscience tells about the right thing and wrong thing and the other one talks about the path of life which talks about the perfect goals. (Stevenson, D. B. (n.d.). Freud ’ s Division of the Mind.)
Pinherio a researcher wrote a research paper and he challenged the concept of Jung and Freud concept of psychoanalysis and say that a human being mind is much better than this theory. He says that it cannot be measure by the three simple concepts id, ego and super ego it is something beyond this He collected some judgmental and non judgmental thoughts and also took some shared and non shared thoughts and due to that he proved that human psyche is much better than the concept of Freud and Jung. (Pinheiro, 2015)
Another research is taken on social issues that whether the smokers of the society are able to balance their id and ego or what is the problem between them. The aim was to study the neurological system of a person that weather the smokers have some control on their id, ego, and super ego. It was seen that smokers are unable to balance between the ego and super ego their id and ego. The researcher then defines the id, ego and superego according to Freud concept. (“A Triple Dissociation of Neural Systems,” n.d.)
In this research paper some work of others researchers has been is used and all the work done on this theory shows that everyone has its own definition of id, ego and superego some say that the mind work on these three simple techniques some don’t agree through this study it has been showed that how id effects the human psyche. To show that how these three techniques effect the human mind the story The Diamond Maker by H.G Wells has been taken through which we show that how the diamond maker is unable to balance between his id and super ego which leads him toward the destruction.
This research paper is about the short story of H.G Wells Diamond Maker. The main thing in this research is to study the character of diamond maker in this story.
H.G Wells introduction
“He was born in England in 1866, H.G. Wells's parents were shopkeepers in Kent, England. His first novel, The Time Machine was an instant success and Wells produced a series of science fiction novels which pioneered our ideas of the future. His later work focused on satire and social criticism. Wells laid out his socialist views of human history in his Outline of History. He died in 1946. In addition to his fiction, Wells wrote many essays, articles and nonfiction books. He served as a book reviewer for the Saturday Review for several years, during which time he promoted the careers of James Joyce and Joseph Conrad. In 1901, Wells published a non-fiction book called Anticipations. This collection of predictions has proved to be remarkably accurate. Wells forecasted the rise of major cities and suburbs, economic globalization, and aspects of future military conflicts. Remarkably, considering his support for women and women's rights, Wells did not predict the rise of women in the workplace” “(https://www.biography.com/people/hg-wells-39224)
““The Diamond Maker" is a short story by H. G. Wells, first published in 1894 in the Pall Mall Budget. It was included in The Stolen Bacillus and Other Incidents, the first collection of short stories by Wells, first published in 1895. It was known since experiments of Antoine Lavoisier that diamond was a form of carbon. Wells's story appeared a few years after the claims of James Ballantyne Hannay in 1879 and Ferdinand Frederic Henri Moissan in 1893, that they had made artificial diamonds. Moissan heated charcoal (a form of carbon) and iron in a furnace until the iron melted; then rapidly cooled, the iron would generate high pressure and transform the charcoal into diamonds. Others tried to repeat this experiment in later years, and very small diamonds were created; commercially successful production of synthetic diamonds was not achieved until the 1950s”.
3.2 The Diamond Maker summary
The diamond maker is written by H.G Wells. In The Diamond Maker by H.G. Wells there are a lot of themes which is cove red in this short story the first theme is
The story is narrated by first person whose personality is not disclosed yet the reader when read the story he/she realizes that the story the writer is telling us may explore the theme of dedication. The diamond maker was so busy in making the diamond that he spent his fifteen years of life just to make the perfect diamonds. For fifteen years he just focuses on making diamond and forgets everything which in the result leads him towards the poverty but he still never give up and start making diamonds again. After a lot of tries he finally get succeeded in making a perfect diamond but a tragedy happens his neighbors thought that there is some illegal activity happening in this house and they told diamond maker that they called the cops. The Diamond maker after listening this takes his diamonds and runaway from the house. He then go to sell his diamond because he don’t even have money to eat but the narrator first don’t believe him but after listening hi story he believes and gave her his business card but that men never come again an narrator thinks that may be he died.
This research paper deals with the diamond maker was so busy in making the diamond that he spent his fifteen years of life just to make the perfect diamonds. For fifteen years he just focuses on making diamond and forgets everything which in the result leads him towards the poverty but he still never give up and start making diamonds again. While reading the story one can clearly see the desperation towards the aim of his life that he only wants to succeed at any cost. The desperation to achieve the aim can be seen when he say that
"I began to work at the conditions of diamond making when I was seventeen, and now I am thirty-two” (The Diamond Maker by H.G Wells )
And the second statement of diamond maker in which he shows his desperation towards his dream is
“At first I had a little laboratory, but as my resources began to run out I had to conduct my experiments in a wretched unfurnished room in Kentish Town, where I slept at last on a straw mattress on the floor among all my apparatus. The money simply flowed away. I grudged myself everything except scientific appliances” (The Diamond Maker by H.G Wells)
To complete his dream of making diamond he work day and night here the id plays an important role his id is getting into his nerves and when his id say that go and fulfill your dream he just listen his id and start working on his dream and forget everything in his life he even sell his things to make the diamond he work day and night just to make some diamonds and forget everything he didn’t meet any people he even didn’t enjoy the other pleasure of life he just listen his id and he want that his dream get fulfilled as soon as possible. His ego and super ego forces him not to run behind his goals like this but he only listen his id and he couldn’t balances between id and super ego. When he gets successful in making diamond he want to see the result but at the time he wanted to sell his diamond no one believe him even the narrator doesn’t believe Diamond Maker. When he wants to sell his diamond maker but narrator suspects her and he say
“You think I am a thief” ” (The Diamond Maker by H.G Wells)
He spends his half of life in making Diamonds and misses some major events happiness of his life and at the end no one believes his story. He is not going to have another life he just focus on his id his id forces him to think that after making diamonds his life is going to be changed and he is going to be rich and what he lost will come back once he make the diamond but his ego and superego doesn’t work at that time and he completely focus on making the diamond. His id causes major problems in his life because the reality is very change because nothing happen like the diamond maker think will happen. He got so much busy in making diamond that he sell his everything to make the diamond and he even don’t have anything proper to wear that’s why when the narrator first saw the diamond maker he couldn’t believe that he can be diamond maker.
Here when narrator shows suspecting attitude and not took the diamond from the diamond maker the writer of the story wants to say that’s sometime you just spend your whole life doing something and even if you reach the goal of your life you receive no award. He made so much sacrifice he sleep on the floor on the straw bed for so many nights and still got no reward. He was living an unhealthy life he was so much obsessed with the diamond that he just focuses on making diamond he was living in fear that someone else would know about what the diamond maker is doing or may be other will know the secrete of making diamond and will steal the diamond. He sacrificed everything his happiness just to get rich his id forces him to think that when he will get rich he is going to have everything back but reality was opposite of it. He chooses to run behind his aim blindly and not to focus on the happiness of life. His id his unconscious mind made him think that when he will get the way of diamond making secrete he will become rich.
The diamond maker can achieve his goal by balancing between id and super ego and of listening to ego if he doesn’t focus in his id and even try to balance his id and super ego he can make the diamonds and enjoy his life at the same time but he just put aside the ego and super ego and just focuses on ego. This show how one need to balance the id between ego and super ego. By doing all this he is living pathetic life.
At the end the theme of regret can be seen but that regret is of narrator of not having the diamond from the diamond maker. At the end the narrator say that if the diamond maker is still alive he is living a pathetic life even though he has his diamonds with him but they are worthless because people are judging him through his appearances and police is after him. He just spends his whole life in making diamond to get rich but at the end what he got is nothing everyone suspects him and no one believes him what he is saying. He was so much in to his aim that he was left alone his neighbors suspected him he spend his whole life in finding the secret of diamond but at the end he have nothing. He missed the joys, happiness and others pleasure of life. He thought that after getting rich he will be in peace but at the end he have nothing to eat and don’t have clothes to wear police was behind the diamond maker he was running from cops he was living in fear he has nothing to think or have any beautiful memory to think of and get happy.
By examining the short story “The Diamond Maker” by “H.G Wells” through the psychoanalysis theory of Freud concept it can be clearly seen that how id effects on someone’s mind it is very important to balance the ego between id and super ego. The diamond maker was so much busy in making diamond that he missed out some major events in his life he couldn’t balance between id and super ego which result him in great loss, loss of money, loss of happiness, loss of trust every one suspected him by not buying the diamond even his neighbors suspected him that he is doing something illegal. If the diamond maker balanced his id between ego and superego and couldn’t listen his id fully he still can work for his dream and achieve them he can fix his time for work and can enjoy his life but he was unable to balance between id and superego by fully listening to his id he destroyed his life. So the research paper shows that it is necessary to balance your ego between id and super ego.
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- Navaneedhan, C. G. (2012). Balance of Internal Drive, Ego and Super Ego through Self-Hypnosis. Journal of Behavioral and Brain Science, 02(02), 221–224. ht Pinheiro, M. R. (2015). A New Model for the Human Psyche A New Model for the Human Psyche, (December).
- Segrist, D. J. (2009). What’s Going on in Your Professor’s Head? Demonstrating the Id, Ego, and Superego. Teaching of Psychology, 36(1), 51–54. https://doi.org/10.1080/00986280802529285
- Stevenson, D. B. (n.d.). Freud ’ s Division of the Mind.
- William Siegfried. (2014). the Formation and Structure of the. : : Undergraduate Philosophy Journal, 62(2), 1–3. https://doi.org/10.1002/pssa.2210090107
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