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Henry M Stanley, African Explorer

That's SIR Henry M. Stanley to you

Stanley the Explorer

Stanley the Explorer

Henry Morton Stanley

Sir Henry Morton Stanley (28 January 1841 - 10 May 1904), was the Welsh journalist and intrepid, Victorian Age, African explorer famous for his search for and subsequent finding of, fellow explorer, Doctor David Livingstone. Their famous meeting was immortalized with the now legendary words "Dr. Livingstone, I presume?" One of the most oft repeated salutations in history. But did he really say this famous line? We'll find out below.

Stanley's fascinating safari into deepest Africa in search of Livingstone is only one of the many, thrilling adventures Stanley had throughout his life. He was, and still remains, an extremely controversial figure and debates still rage over a number of aspects of his life and his actions. Learn about the man, the myth and the legend here.

Order of the Bath

Ordder of the Bath

Ordder of the Bath

GCB

Formerly known as The Most Honourable Military Order of the Bath, the The Most Honourable Order of the Bath is a British order of chivalry founded in 1725 by King George I.

The Order's structure consists of:

The Sovereign (currently Queen Elizabeth II)
The Great Master (currently HRH The Prince of Wales)
And three Classes of members:
Knight Grand Cross (GCB) or Dame Grand Cross (GCB)
Knight Commander (KCB) or Dame Commander (DCB)
Companion (CB)

Stanley was a Knight Grand Cross (GCB)

African Explorer

Stanley African Explorer

Stanley African Explorer

Henry Was A Bastard

It says so right on his birth certificate.

Henry Stanley was actually born John Rowlands and his parents were unmarried. As was the fashion of the time, his birth certificate actually listed him as "John Rowlands, Bastard". The hard knocks didn't stop there. It appears that Henry didn't know his father at all and his young mother, Elisabeth Parry, who was only 19 at the time of his birth, soon abandoned baby Henry to the care of his grandfather. In keeping with his luck, Henry's grandfather passed away just a few short years later. Henry was shipped off to the Asaph Workhouse, a place that had an extremely nasty reputation.

Amazon Explorer

STanley Amazon Explorer

STanley Amazon Explorer

Call Me Henry

A new country, a new name and a new life.

When he turned seventeen, Henry (still known as John at this time), signed on as a cabin boy aboard an American freighter. When the ship docked in New Orleans, he quickly jumped ship and disappeared into the crowds of people, intent on making a new life for himself. He started by creating a new identity for himself and took the name Henry Stanley from a wealthy, local cotton merchant of whom he claimed to be the adopted son.

Under his new name, Stanley enlisted in the Confederate Army and fought at the battle of Shiloh. He was promptly captured and, ever the opportunist, switched sides to join the Union Army. He went on to serve in the Navy as a clerk on board the frigate Minnesota, but, you guessed it, he eventually deserted that too.

Controversy!

There is some controversy over the facts concerning Stanley's connection with this famous man, many believing that the two never even met!

Asian Explorer

Stanley Asian Explorer

Stanley Asian Explorer

Henry the Journalist

My Early Travels and Adventures in America and Asia.

It was about this time that Henry began his career as a journalist, touring the American Wild West, reporting on the frequent battles and skirmishes between the military and the American Indians.

He also managed to organize an expedition to Asia Minor and the famed Ottoman Empire in Turkey as a newspaper correspondent, covering Lord Napier's British military foray into Abyssinia. The expedition came to an abrupt end when Stanley was captured and imprisoned. He was eventually able to talk his way out of jail and even managed to secure some financial restitution for damages to his expedition's equipment!

After a brief stint working for Colonel Samuel Forster Tappan of the Indian Peace Commission, Stanley was retained by James Gordon Bennett, founder of the much lauded New York Herald. Bennett was impressed by Stanley's exploits and approved of his direct style of writing.

Read About Henry's Other Adventures

Darkest Africa

Darkest Africa

Darkest Africa

In Search of Livingstone

Into Darkest Africa

In October 1869 Bennett charged Stanley with the history making mission "Find Livingstone." The Scottish missionary and explorer, David Lingstone was reported to be somewhere near Lake Tanganyika in Africa but had not been heard from in some time. When Stanley asked how much he was to spend on this expedition, the famous reply was "Draw £1,000 now, and when you have gone through that, draw another £1,000, and when that is spent, draw another £1,000, and when you have finished that, draw another £1,000, and so on - BUT FIND LIVINGSTONE!"

Controversy

It is believed that Stanley had lobbied Bennett for several years to mount this expedition, assuming that it would bring him fame and fortune.

Suez Canal

Suez Canal

Suez Canal

Off to Adventure

Never one to miss a good story, Stanley stopped by Egypt to report on the opening of the Suez Canal before travelling through Palestine, Turkey and India to arrive on the east coast of Africa near Zanzibar. In March 1871, Henry Mortan Stanley, journalist, adventurer and explorer, mounted astride a thoroughbred stallion, began his 700 mile overland trek in search of Dr Livingstone. He was riding into history. A few days later, his horse died.

Traveling in Style

And then it all went wrong.

The expedition started off well enough with Stanley outfitting his expedition with the very best of everything. With an unlimited spending budget he bought so much equipment and so many supplies that it required no fewer than 200 porters to carry it all. Stanley himself cut a resplendent figure, dressed as he was in dazzling white and sitting atop a magnificent stallion. But the hardships of the undertaking soon made themselves evident.

Just a few short days into the journey, Stanley's thoroughbred horse was bitten by the nefarious African tsetse fly and died. This event heralded the coming nightmare that was travelling the dense, African jungles. Vital supplies were lost when many of his native bearers deserted him. Those that stayed were decimated by a host of exotic, tropical diseases.

In an almost unbelievable twist that could come right out of the pages of a pulp fiction era comic, Stanley's group was beset by marauding tribes of flesh-starved cannibals who showered them with deadly spears and poisoned arrows, all the while shouting "niama, niama" which means "meat, meat" in their native tongue. Apparently these savage tribesmen think human flesh makes a tasty dish when boiled and served with rice!

Controversy

To keep the expedition together, Stanley was forced to take stern measures that included brutalizing his bearers.

Finding Livingstone

Dr Livingstone, I presume?

Despite the extreme hardships and ever present perils of the trip, on 10 November 1871, in Ujiji near Lake Tanganyika in present-day Tanzania, Stanley found Livingstone and greeted him with the salutation "Doctor Livingstone, I presume?" The ailing Livingstone was remarkably delighted to greet him, answering "Yes! Yes, that's my name!" And offering Stanley a warm and hearty handshake.

Famous Explorer

Controversy

The famous phrase "Doctor Livingstone, I presume?" may be a fabrication. Stanley tore out the pages of his diary that relate to his first encounter with Livingstone.

Dr David Livingstone

Doctor David Livingstone

Doctor David Livingstone

Exploring Together

Exploring Africa with Dr Livingstone

In search of Livingstone, Stanley's expedition had travelled 700 miles in 236 days and battled many challenges but Stanley was far from finished with adventure. He joined Livingstone, who had been extensively exploring that region for of Africa for years, and together they established for certain that there was no connection between Lake Tanganyika and the River Nile.

Stanley later authored a book based on the experiences he had with his friend Livingstone, How I Found Livingstone; travels, adventures, and discoveries in Central Africa.

The Death of Livingstone

The passing of a legend.

In 1873, on the shores of Lake Bagweulu, Dr Livingstone, Missionary, explorer and adventurer, set out on his final safari into the unknown when he died.
The british government requested of the tribal chief that Livingstone's body be sent back to England for the proper ceremonies and eventual burial in Westminster Abbey.
The chief relented but cut out Livingstone's heart! He pinned a note to the body that read "You can have his body, but his heart belongs to Africa."

At Livingstone's funeral, Stanley acted as one of the pall-bearers.

Dark Continent

Into the Congo

A journey into Hell.

In 1874, financed by a partnership between the New York Herald and Britain's Daily Telegraph, Stanley started his second African expedition. This trek into central Africa was a living nightmare, a gruelling, savage, 7,000 mile long test of will power and determination that saw all of Stanley's European travelling companions perish.

Yet, despite it's great hardships, the expedition also yielded great rewards such as circumnavigating Victoria Nyanza, proving it to be the second-largest freshwater lake in the world, and the discovery of the Shimeeyu River.

Another of the missions Stanley was charged with on this adventure was to solve one of the last great mysteries of African exploration by mapping the course of the Congo River. In 1887, after 999 excruciating days, Stanley reached a Portuguese outpost at the mouth of the River Congo. Starting with 356 people, only 114 had survived of which Stanley was the only European. He wrote about his trials in his book Through the Dark Continent

Belgian Congo

Belgian Congo

Belgian Congo

Controversy

In later years, Stanley spent a lot of time and energy defending himself against charges that his African expeditions had been marked by callous violence and brutality towards the native population.

The Congo Free State

In 1876 the ambitious Belgian king Leopold II formed a private holding company which disguised as an international scientific and philanthropic association, which he called the International African Society. The king declared his intentions to introduce Western civilization and bring religion to that part of Africa. He 'forgot' to mention that he also wanted to claim the lands and exploit them. As he said privately to Stanley, "Prove that the Congo basin was rich enough to repay exploitation".

Stanley returned to the Congo, established trade stations, negotiated with tribal leaders, built roads, and obtained concessions, all of which ultimately lead to the founding of the Congo Free State in 1885. King Leopold%u2019s aggressive exploitation of the country's natural resources was dubbed "the rubber atrocities" by the international community of the time.

Joseph Conrad

Emin Pasha

Emin Pasha

Emin Pasha

Heart of Darkness

Stanley's legacy of death and destruction in the Congo region is widely considered to be the inspiration behind Joseph Conrad's gripping novel Heart of Darkness, detailing atrocities inflicted upon the natives.

Emin Pasha Relief Expedition

Men at their very worst.

Stanley's third and final great African adventure 1887-1889 was a shocking and disgusting example of men at their very worst. This expedition would tarnish Stanley's name and he would expend considerable effort to defend himself against the numerous accusation. The reason for the expedition was rescue Emin Pasha, the governor of Equatoria in the southern Sudan who was beset by hostile Mahdist forces.

The trail of death, horror and bloodshed left in the wake of this journey is hard to describe but included such atrocities as James Jameson, heir to the Irish whiskey empire, giving a young, native girl to a tribe of cannibals so he could document their...preparation ad consumption of her.

Stanley's Grave

Stanley's Grave

Stanley's Grave

Stanley's Death

By 1890 Stanley had finished his lecture tours of America and Australia and settled in England, was knighted in 1899 and died in London on 10th May 1904. He is buried at Pirbright, Surrey, England.

The life and adventures of this incredibly driven and complex explorer is a fascinating tale of discovery, hardship and the force of human will. While he wasn't perfect, he was intriguing and few characters in history can provide a more exciting and perilous saga.

He was a man of a different time, in dangerous circumstances, constantly beset by the threat of death, yet he always survived. Henry Morton Stanley was a true explorer and a real life action hero.

Livingstone

Dr Livingstone

Dr Livingstone

The Meeting Place

Below is something pretty cool that I just found. A Wisconsin man’s video of his journey to the monument where Henry Morton Stanley first greeted Doctor David Livingstone and saluted him with “Dr Livingstone, I presume?”

Where Stanley Found Livingstone

Did You Know?

Pith Helmet

This is purported to be the actual helmet of Henry Morton Stanley.

This is purported to be the actual helmet of Henry Morton Stanley.

About the Safari Helmet

There are various competing legends about the origin of the pith helmet, but historians generally agree the short-brimmed hats — also known as “safari helmets,” “sun helmets” or “topis” — were originally made from the dried pith of swamp plants in India. By the 1850s, they had become the standard-issue headgear for Europeans in Africa, parts of Southeast Asia and the Middle East. - This is a quote from a Washington Post article about Melania Trump's visit to Kenya.

© 2014 Dale Anderson

Comments

Robert Sacchi on October 18, 2020:

Apparently they have said they were going to address the problem a couple of months ago, It's disturbing they haven't done it.

Dale Anderson (author) from The High Seas on October 18, 2020:

Robert you are absolutely correct that writers love feedback. How else can we get better, improve and write articles that people will enjoy reading more.

Robert Sacchi on October 04, 2020:

Hopefully it's just a technical problem they're working on. I can't see why they would do such a thing. I was under the impression writers love feedback.

Dale Anderson (author) from The High Seas on October 04, 2020:

Robert I couldn't agree with you more about the comments. I don't even look at the niche sites that don't allow comments anymore and now post my new blogs on other sites. Shame because I like HP.

Robert Sacchi on October 04, 2020:

Definitely, a great way to increase the body of knowledge. I hope they allow comments in niche sites. Migrating articles to sites that don't allow comments seems to defeat the purpose of HP.

Dale Anderson (author) from The High Seas on October 04, 2020:

JC thanks for stopping by and commenting. Glad you liked the article. It's one of my own favorites too.

Dale Anderson (author) from The High Seas on October 04, 2020:

Robert it looks like we agree that open forums like this open venues for people of similar interests to find each other and discuss things that might not otherwise get much 'press' so to speak.

JC Scull from Gainesville, Florida on September 28, 2020:

Interesting article.

Robert Sacchi on September 27, 2020:

I figured many things get played down in the traditional press. That is another advantage of venues such as HubPages.

Dale Anderson (author) from The High Seas on September 26, 2020:

Mel thanks for your comments and I am glad that you liked this article. I think it is my favorite and can tell you that I definitely had the most fun writing this one. I can't seem to get enough exploration stories. So much better than anything fictional.

Dale Anderson (author) from The High Seas on September 26, 2020:

Robert, sadly I know from people that work over there that there are some very ugly things happening there. It is sad and it must be terrible for the victims.

Robert Sacchi on September 26, 2020:

Do you think the atrocities of indigenous peoples have been downplayed in recent years?

Mel Carriere from San Diego California on September 26, 2020:

I've done a lot of reading on the subject of African exploration, particularly in my 20s, when I was fascinated by the dark continent. Africa was an incredibly dangerous and cruel place. If Stanley committed a few atrocities, he couldn't come close to the barbarism that tribal leaders around him committed against their own people. You have to admire his will to succeed. Great article.

Robert Sacchi on September 20, 2020:

Good point. I guess there are does who like taking risks and those who are risk averse. It would seem these two groups would think the other as crazy.

Dale Anderson (author) from The High Seas on September 20, 2020:

Robert it bet it times, it really would have helped to be a little nutty if you were going to be an explorer back then.

Robert Sacchi on September 19, 2020:

What's that office poster: "You don't have to be crazy to work here but it helps."

Dale Anderson (author) from The High Seas on September 19, 2020:

Nell those are the questions that can keep you up at night aren't they.

Nell Rose from England on September 19, 2020:

They say geniuses are mad. Makes me believe it! Or maybe psychopathic?

Dale Anderson (author) from The High Seas on September 17, 2020:

Nell it's a shocking thing to read, isn't it?! I was flummoxed the first time I heard this account and it still effects me powerfully all these years later. Just astonishing that someone could be and act like that.

Nell Rose from England on September 17, 2020:

Wow, how fascinating! Giving people to the cannibals just to see how its done! what a nice guy, er not! but that was the time and many people saw things differently back then. Apart from that a very fascinating guy, interesting stuff!

Dale Anderson (author) from The High Seas on April 06, 2020:

Fran I am so glad that you enjoyed it, I had a great time researching that article!

fran rooks from Toledo, Ohio on April 06, 2020:

Wonderful article. Very informative, great pictures and, suggestions for further reading. Thank you.

Robert Sacchi on August 27, 2019:

Yes, it seems many people don't want to recognize there are different times and places. How can our actions be judged a century or two from now? Much of what we do is considered stupid or worse on the other side of the world.

Dale Anderson (author) from The High Seas on August 27, 2019:

Robert it's pretty hard to filter out the differences in opinions and norms when you are looking back at times like this. For example the author Jack London gets a lot of criticism for being a racist but, for me at least, I try to remember the times were different and just appreciate his work.

Robert Sacchi on August 26, 2019:

Henry Stanley did live an amazing and controversial life. It does seem many explorers also leave a trail of misery.

Dale Anderson (author) from The High Seas on April 18, 2019:

Peggy! Good to hear from you again. Just between us, this may be my favorite hub article in my library. I enjoyed researching it and sharing it. It was actually difficult to stop writing about Stanley because there is just so many interesting details about his life and the man.

Peggy Woods from Houston, Texas on April 14, 2019:

Those are some interesting sounding books! It seems that the stories about Henry M. Stanley are not all in agreement as to atrocities, and the like. Nonetheless, he lead what certainly could be called an interesting life!

Dale Anderson (author) from The High Seas on September 01, 2017:

Exciting times and interesting people back then. Very romantic stories but I sure bet it was pretty hard living that kind of life. Still, I never get tired of hearing about their adventures!

Mary Norton from Ontario, Canada on September 01, 2017:

Interesting...we just watched a documentary on him. We really can't judge the explorers from our present perspective. He did with his courage contributed to human knowledge and we do appreciate this.

Dale Anderson (author) from The High Seas on August 16, 2014:

Wait till you read my hub about william henry bully hayes!

aethelthryth from American Southwest on August 16, 2014:

I always wondered what the answer to that famous question was. Interesting life story; now I want to know more about him.