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Rheumatic Heart Disease Levels of Prevention

As an independent writer, she worked as an editor in a number of Alexandria websites, and her novel Rathways of Gods won the Prize

rheumatic heart disease:


Rheumatic heart disease is a preventable but serious public health problem in low - and middle-income countries and in marginalized communities in high-income countries. The disease results in damage to the heart valves as a result of one or several episodes of acute rheumatic fever, an autoimmune inflammatory reaction to a throat infection caused by A.A. streptococcus (streptococcal pharyngitis). The disease usually occurs in childhood and can lead to death or lifelong disability. Effective and early intervention can prevent premature death from this disease.

The damage caused by the disease?


Worldwide, the disease affects 33 million people. In 2015, it was estimated that rheumatic heart disease caused 305,000 deaths and 11.5 million disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) lost. Of these deaths, 60% were premature (before 70 years of age), and the majority of people with rheumatic heart disease die at less than 40 years of age, causing significant social, economic and developmental challenges for the youth and adults. In the Eastern Mediterranean region, rheumatic heart disease is still present in some countries such as Egypt, Sudan and Yemen.


Additionally, rheumatic heart disease disproportionately affects girls and women who are at twice the risk of contracting the disease compared to men, with females accounting for two-thirds of patients admitted to selected hospitals in 12 countries in the African Region, India and Yemen. When rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease are endemic, rheumatic heart disease is the main heart disease affecting pregnant women, causing severe maternal disease and perinatal mortality.


Signs and symptoms of rheumatic fever — caused by inflammation in the heart, joints, skin or central nervous system, include:


Fever Joint pain and tenderness — located most often in the knees, ankles, elbows and wrists Pain in one joint that travels to another
Red, hot, or swollen joints A small, painless bump under the skin Chest pain Heart murmur.


Rheumatic fever can cause permanent heart damage (rheumatic heart disease). Typically, this occurs 10 to 20 years after the onset of the disease, but severe cases of rheumatic fever may damage the heart valves while your child still has symptoms. Problems with the valve are common between the two left heart chambers (the mitral valve), but other valves may be injured.


What are some of the contributing factors to rheumatic heart disease and its consequences?


Social, economic and environmental factors such as poor housing, undernutrition, overcrowding and poverty are well known for the incidence and magnitude of rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease. Countries with high rates of rheumatic heart disease carry a significant economic cost. The most devastating damage is inflicted on children and young people in their most productive years.


Rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease lead to increased truancy, incomplete schooling and loss of pay.


Prevention, control and elimination of rheumatic heart disease:


Increasingly, countries recognize the importance of preventing, controlling and eliminating or eradicating rheumatic heart disease as an important development issue. Secondary prevention of rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease is one of the policy options for countries in the WHO Global Action Plan for the Prevention and Control of NCDs 2013-2020. In addition, the targets of Sustainable Development Goal 3 (ensuring healthy lifestyles and well-being for all at all ages)


include reducing premature deaths from noncommunicable diseases by one third, ending preventable deaths of newborns and children under 5 years of age, reducing mortality and reducing global maternal mortality to below 70,100 000 live births by 2030, and the majority of deaths from rheumatic heart disease are premature and will contribute to achieving global goals.


Complications:


Inflammation caused by rheumatic fever can last from several weeks to several months. In some cases, inflammation can cause long-term complications.
Rheumatic fever can cause permanent heart damage (rheumatic heart disease).

Typically, this occurs 10 to 20 years after the onset of the disease, but severe cases of rheumatic fever may damage the heart valves while your child still has symptoms. Problems with the valve are common between the two left heart chambers (the mitral valve), but other valves may be injured.


There are three levels of prevention of rheumatic heart disease:


reduction of risk factors for rheumatic fever (primary prevention); Primary prevention of rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease; Secondary prevention (preventive treatment) of rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease.
Prevention The only way to prevent rheumatic fever is to treat strep throat or scarlet fever quickly with a full course of antibiotics.

rheumatic-heart-disease-levels-of-prevention

Typically, this occurs 10 to 20 years after the onset of the disease, but severe cases of rheumatic fever may damage the heart valves while your child still has symptoms. Problems with the valve are common between the two left heart chambers (the mitral valve), but other valves may be injured.


rheumatic-heart-disease-levels-of-prevention
rheumatic-heart-disease-levels-of-prevention

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